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Cogeneration & Fuel Cells Water and Wastewater

Tom Mossinger, P.E. Carollo Engineers

October 2007

August 2007

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

U.S. Department of Energy - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy


Federal Energy Management Program, Director Beth Shearer

Typical headlines that we have been seeing in the news lately are: "Hurricane Isabel Batters the East Coast; Federal Government Shut Down"

"Massive Blackout Shuts Down New York City"

"Natural Gas Prices Expected to Remain High"

"Bills to Rise as Mercury Drops"

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"Electrical Grid Vulnerable to Hackers, Viruses"

NEARLY a century ago, Henry Ford declared a customer could have a car in any color as l l long as it was bl k N black. Now, carmakers around the world are trying to convince consumers that their lineups co e green. o come in g ee From BMW to Honda, from o da, o Chrysler to Volkswagen, the industry is rushing to make vehicles that use less gasoline or dont rely on it at all.

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Sustainable Planet

Green Way G W of Living Renewable Energy

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

From Conservation to Population, a New Look at Planet Earth

New Options Needed

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Why is renewable energy so important?


1.

2.

3.

4.

Water & wastewater services account for 3050% of municipal energy use. Equivalent to 3-4% of the nations total energy use. 19% of electricity usage in California associated with moving water 25 to 30% of the cost for water and wastewater systems operations is for power.
As primary consumers of electricity, water & wastewater organizations have the opportunity to dramatically affect overall energy consumption. ti

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Traditional Digester Gas Power Generation Technology

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Cogeneration Technologies
1. 1 2. 3.

Reciprocating Engines (>250 kW) Micro Turbines (30 to 250 kW) Gas Turbines ( 3 000 kW) G T bi (>3,000

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Reciprocating Engines
1.

2.

3.

4.

Proven technology for using digester gas di t Strict (and getting stricter) air permit regulations Regulations moving towards oxidation catalysts, SCR and CEMS Installation now requires extensive fuel conditioning to remove contaminants no longer optional

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Internal Combustion Engines


1.

Electrical Output Efficiency = 30-35% Advantages


a.

2.

Proven technology for over gy 40 years

3.

Disadvantages
a. b. b c. d.

Dedicated building for sound and weather Complex Equipment Frequent Operator Attention Higher Emissions g
800-kW Caterpillar Landfill & Digester Gas Fueled Cogeneration System, Sunnyvale, CA WWTP

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Micro Turbines
1. 2. 2

3.

4.

Easy to permit (low emissions) Only two manufacturers with DG manufacturer s experience (limited) Lower efficiency than engines; approximately 25% Requires >50 psi fuel pressure

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Gas Turbines
1. 2. 2 3. 4. 5. 6. 6

Strict air permit regulations Limited manufacturers with experience on DG manufacturer s Effective fuel conditioning is required Competitive only for larger installations; greater than 3MW Efficiency typically 25-35% Requires >200 psi fuel pressure

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Fuel Cell Power Generation

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Fuel Cells
1.

Highest efficiency available for power generation equipment ti i t


a. Electrical Efficiency 47% b. b Constant over 60 100% load 60-100%

2.

Exempt from air permit requirements*

* Exempt has unfortunately, not been the absolute truth. Permitting agencies have required permits; although eq i ed pe mits altho gh requirements are minor.

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Fuel Cells Advantages Ad t


a. Low emissions b. b Highest efficiency c. Minimal operator

1.

time for O&M d. Significant Grant funding available

1-MW Fuel Cell Energy Fuel Cell Riverside, CA WWTP ,

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Environmental Benefits
1.

2. 2

Nearly double the reduction in plant carbon footprint over other cogeneration technologies Approximately 1/3 the overall WWTP emissions of criteria pollutants
a. NOx, CO, VOC, PM b. Order of magnitude reduction compared to

other generation equipment

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Fuel Cells Other Drivers


1.

Qualifies for simplified interconnection


a. C lif California R l 21 C i Rule Compliant li t

2.

California SGIP grant money currently available through 2012


a. Up to $7,875,000 total for 3MW plant!

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Summary of Motivations For Implementing Fuel Cell Technology:


1.

2.

3.

4.

Environmental stewardship (reduction of Carbon Footprint by up to 50%) Power system reliability and redundancy; y y y; steady and constant source of power Hedge against rising electricity rates and g g g y future energy crises No combustion thus negligible emission of NOx, CO, SOx, or particulate matter

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Fuel Cell Air Emission Permits

1. Emissions

Recip Engines in lb/ lb/MWh h NOX = 0.02 <==> NOX = 3.4 SOX = 0.001 PM10 = 0.01 CO = 0.05 <==> CO = 6.8 VOC = 0.02

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Suggested Maintenance Intervals

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Digester Gas Fueled Fuel Cells


Operating Installations
1.

Santa Barbara, CA 2. 2 LA County San District CA San. District, 3. City of Tulare, CA * 4. DSRSD, CA 5. City of Riverside, CA 6. EMWD, CA (Moreno Valley) * 7. TID/City of Turlock, CA *

Under Construction
EMWD, CA (Perris Valley) * 2. Cit of Rialto, CA City f Ri lt
1.

Projects Under Consideration


TID/Hilmar Cheese Co, CA * 2. MID/City of Modesto, CA * 3. City of Davis, CA * 4. U i Union S it ti Sanitation Di t i t CA * District, 5. Palm Springs, CA * 6. MRWPCA, CA * 7. 7 City of Visalia CA * Visalia, 8. City of Livermore, CA *
1.
Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

EMWD, CA (Temecula) * 2. City of Yuma, AZ * 3. Cit of Salem, OR * City Salem


1.

* CE involved in Design/Implementation

Fuel Cell Technology

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Fuel Cell Types


Type PEM Alkaline Phosphoric Acid Molten Carbonate Electrolyte Polymer Membrane Potassium Hydroxide Phosphoric Acid Potassium/ Lithium Carbonate Stabilized Zirconium Dioxide Ceramic Stabilized Zirconium Dioxide Ceramic Operating Temp. F 180 200 400 Single-Cycle Electrical Efficiency % 30-35 <40 35-40 Expected Capacity Range 5 kW to 250 kW 3 to 5 kW 50 kW to 200 kW By-Product Heat Use Warm Water Warm Water Hot Water Hot Water or High Pressure Steam Hot Water or High Pressure Steam Hot Water or High g Pressure Steam

1200

45-57

300 kW to 2.4 MW

Solid Oxide (Tubular)

1800

45-50 45 50

100 kW t 2 MW to

Solid Oxide (Planar)

1200-1600 1200 1600

45-60 45 60

3 kW to 10 kW

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Basic Fuel Cell System Components


1. 2. 3.

4. 5.

Fuel source (digester g & natural g ) ( g gas gas). Fuel treatment/conditioning to remove contaminants. Fuel cell stack (electrolyte sandwiched between an anode and cathode) creates DC power power. DC to AC Inverter converts DC power to AC for use within facility. y Heat recovery system to utilize waste heat (anaerobic digestion).

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

What is a Fuel Cell?


1.

Electrochemical Device Similar to a Battery


a. Except Fuel Cells Use an External Supply of Reactants

2. 3.

Hydrogen Fuel (Methane) and Oxygen (Air) In Electricity and Water (Exhaust) Out y ( )

O2

H2O

Fuel Cell
H2 Electricity

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Technology Fuel Cell Energy


Hydrocarbon Fuel e.g. Digester Gas/Natural Gas Water Vapor
Internal Reforming CH4 + 2H2O 4H2 + CO2 Anode H 2 + CO= 3 H2O + CO2 + 2e
-

1.

General Features
a. Uses commonly available

materials t i l b. No noble metal catalyst c. High temperature byproduct heat


2.

Internal Reforming
a. H2 generated internally b. b High efficiency c. Simple system d. Negligible NOx and CO

Catalyst Electrolyte

CATALYST CATHODE

1/2O2 + CO2 + 2e

CO3

3. 3

Atmospheric Pressure Operation


a. Allows unattended

Air
Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

p operation b. Highly reliable

Incentives/Credits/Grants Available For California Cogeneration Projects

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Grants, Funding California


1.

Business Energy Investment Credit (ITC)


a. Federal tax credit now available as a grant

also b. Fuel cells/solar/small wind: 30% of eligible costs; up to $3000/kW c. All others: 10% of eligible costs; microturbines limited to $200/kW maximum
2.

Self Generation Incentive Program


a. $4,500/kW to $1,125/kW (based on size) for $ , / $ , / ( )

fuel cell projects b. Up to $7,875,000 per project for 3.0 MW system


Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Grants, Funding California


1.

(cont)

California Solar Initiative


a.

Performance-based incentive rate:


Currently $0.15 - $0 22/kWh produced for 5 years - Private $0 15 $0.22/kWh Currently $0.26 - $0.32/kWh produced for 5 years Municipal

b. b
2.

Approx $3 000 000 total incentive for 1 MW system $3,000,000 Energy Efficiency Financing Program; Up to $3 million; 3 9 % fixed APR; up to 15 year term ll 3.95% f d Energy Efficiency Financing; >$1 million; approx. 4% APR; negotiable terms up to 12 years

California Energy Commission


a.

3.

California G$S$ Smart Program


a.

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Eastern Municipal Water District Moreno Valley RWRF Fuel Cell Installation

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Eastern Municipal Water District Fuel Cell P j t S C ll Project Summary


1.

2.

Three 250 kW FCE 300MA units currently; ultimately five units 300 kW Digester gas treatment system
a. H2S, siloxanes, water, VOC, etc.

3. 4. 5.

Electrical interface with utility Hot water heat recovery Hybrid Design-Build/Design-Bid-Build Negotiated Construction

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

EMWD Moreno Valley, California


Regional Water Reclamation Facility Fuel Cell 1. Installation Contract:
a. b. b c.
2. 3. 4. 4 5. 6.

Three 250 kW Fuel Cells ultimate facility size 1.5 MW Fuel treatment system Balance of plant, including electrical, heat recovery, site work, pads, etc

Total Construction Cost = $7.95 million $7 95 State of California SGIP grant = $3.375 million Total Net Construction Cost = $4 575 million $4,575 Carbon Footprint reduced by >50% annually 90% Reduction of RWRFs criteria pollutants p

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

EMWD Moreno Valley RWRF 750 kW Fuel Cell Project

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

EMWD Moreno Valley RWRF 750 kW Fuel Cell Project

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

EMWD Moreno Valley RWRF 750 kW Fuel Cell Project

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

EMWD Moreno Valley RWRF AFT Fuel Conditioning System

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

EMWD Moreno Valley RWRF 750 kW Fuel Cell Project

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Plant Operating Costs


Prior to Fuel Cells: 1. Average power demand: g p 1,482 kW , 2. Average power cost: $0.115/kWhr Average 2008 Monthly Power Cost: $105,000 Anticipated with Fuel Cells Operating: 1. U it operating: Units ti 3 units at 250 kW each it t h 2. Power used by auxiliaries: 20 kW 3. 3 Net power from fuel cells: 730 kW (initially) Average Monthly Power Savings: $52,500

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Actual Operating Data


1. 1 Startup

mid-January mid January 2009 2. Total energy produced 3/1 thru 3/27
a. 464,231 kW-hrs a 464 231 kW hrs b. @ average electrical cost of $0.115/kW-hr

Total Power Savings = > $53,000


3. Availability: 4. First

100 percent since startup

scheduled shut down is Sept 2010

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Turlock Irrigation District City of Turlock RWQCF Fuel Cell Installation

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

TID/City of Turlock Fuel Cell Project S P j t Summary


Single 1,200 Si l 1 200 kW FCE 1500B unit it 2. Digester gas treatment system
1.

a. H2S, siloxanes, water, VOC, etc.

Electrical interface with the Citys RWQCF 4. Hot water heat recovery hot water to the Citys RWQCF (1.8 MMBtu/hr) 5. Traditional Design-Bid-Build; pre-purchased fuel cell and gas treatment equipment 6. Project built to help meet TIDs mandated Renewable Portfolio Standard requirements of 20% of power from renewable sources
3.
Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Turlock Irrigation District, Turlock, California


Regional Water Quality Control Facility Fuel Cell 1. 1.2 MW Fuel Cell: $3.7 million 2. Fuel treatment system:$1.3 million 3. B l Balance of plant, i l di f l t including electrical, h t l t i l heat recovery, site work, pads, etc = $2.7 million 4. Total Construction Cost = $7.6 million 5. State of California SGIP grant = $4.95 million 6. Total Net Construction Cost = $2.7 million 7. Carbon Footprint reduced by 5200 tons annually 8. 90% Reduction of RWQCFs criteria pollutants 9. 47% Electrical Efficiency => TIDs 250 MW plant
Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

TID/City of Turlock RWQCF 1,200 kW Fuel Cell Project

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

TID/City of Turlock RWQCF 1,200 kW Fuel Cell Project

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

TID/City of Turlock RWQCF ESC Fuel Conditioning System

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Actual Operating Data


1. 1 Project

startup mid-February 2009 2. Total energy produced 3/1 thru 3/27


a. 524,314 a 524 314 kW-hrs b. @ average electrical cost of $0.065/kW-hr

ota o e Sa gs $3 ,000 Total Power Savings = > $34,000


3. Availability:

98+ percent during startup

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Tulare Fuel Cell Installation

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Project Implementation Methods

1. 2. 3.

Design/build Conventional Design Bid Build Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) by third party Design Bid Build Own Operate (DBOO)

Design/build method was selected by City of Tulare

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Comparison of Design/Build Proposals P l


kW Rating Proposed Equipment Fuel Cell Energy DFC 300MA Fuel Cells Deutz 616 V16 Lean Burner IC Engine GE Jenbacher Model JGC316 IC Engine Ingersol-Rand 250ST Microturbines Ingersol-Rand 250ST Microturbines Fuel Cell Energy DFC 300MA Fuel Cells Turnkey Cost Grant Net Construction Cost Five-Year Engine g Maintenance (1) Five-Year Gas Cleaning g Maintenance (1) Emission Offsets (4) Five-Year Cost Generated Energy Value

750

5,182,545

(3,375,000)

1,807,545

1,092,848

500,500

3,400,893

727,299

750

2,567,749

(750,000)

1,817,749

537,650

765,000

71,943

3,192,342

727,299

848

4,147,000

(848,000)

3,299,000

458,114

500,500

71,943

4,329,557

776,648

750

4,493,000

(975,000)

3,518,000

412,020

500,500

12,000

4,442,520

595,308

750

5,043,768

(975,000)

4,068,768

408,924

500,500

12,000

4,990,192

595,308

750

7,794,757

(3,375,000)

4,419,757

978,000

500,500

5,898,257

727,299

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Tulare Fuel Cell Project Summary

1.

Three 250/300 kW FCE 300MA units


a. Provision for future installation of 4th unit

2.

Digester gas treatment system


a. H2S, siloxanes, water, VOC, etc.

3. 4. 5.

Electrical interface with utility Hot water heat recovery Alliance Chico Energy did design/build

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Lessons Learned

1.

Design/build Get your attorney involved earlier Include a load bank in the design Conventional D i C ti l Design Bid B ild Build approach would have been better

2. 3.

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Other Thoughts & g Summary

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Economics and Politics


1.

2.

3.

4. 4

Primary barrier to implementation of Fuel Cells is C ll i perception of hi h capital cost ti f high it l t State and federal incentive/rebate programs are c itical p og ams a e critical Majority of installations occur where the best rebate programs are implemented (California, New Jersey) System payback is highly dependent on the price of commercial electricity

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Summary
1.

Fuel cells are the cleanest, most efficient cogeneration technology for digester gas Financially, fuel cell technology competes well with engines and turbines based on the grant money available in California You wont have to worry about future changes in emissions regulations

2. 2

3.

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Summary
1. 2. 3. 4. 4

(continued)

Permitting is very easy Utility coordination for interconnection is simple and quick Very lo ope ato Ve low operator attention fo for maintenance So, So why not Fuel Cells or Solar for your facility? GO GREEN!

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Other Green Technologies

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Cells


1.

2. 3. 4.

Fixed roof mounted solar panels that do not t t track the sun k th Single Axis Tracking Dual Axis Tracking g Concentrated vs. traditional

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Solar Power Site Conditions


1.

Footprint
a. Mi i Minimum 4 acres for f

1 MW facility, tracking b. Minimum 5 acres for 1 MW floating panel facility


2.

Sizing
a. Dependent on panel

efficiency 12 - 40% ffi i b. Dependent on orientation and tracking


Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Floating solar array in Oakville, CA

U.S. Solar Resources Map


Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Solar Power - Procurement


1.

System Procurement
a. a Owner Purchase Owner buys panel and pays for all maintenance Full ownership of RECs b. Power Purchase Agreement ( g (PPA) ) Third party owns and operates the PV system and sells power to City at agreed upon rate t Savings from 30% federal tax credit passed on to owner with lower rates o o e t o e ates RECs negotiable

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Wind Power - Turbines


1.

Small & Medium Wind


a. Small: <100 kW each b. Medium: 100 1,000 kW each c. Architectural Wind Turbine Utilizes bu d g ae ody a Ut es building aerodynamics cs d. Typically perform well in

low/moderate wind speeds

2.

Large Wind (1 MW - 2.5MW ea)


a. a Primarily used for utility wind

farms

3.

Future sizes expected up to 5 0 MW 5.0

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Wind Power - Site Conditions


Wind turbine operation is dependent on site p specific wind characteristics 2. 2 Wind study needs to be performed to determine availability and speed of wind onsite
1.

a. Stockton is on the

edge of a low to moderate wind zone

3.

Wind Resource Map


a. http://www.energy.ca. a http://www energy ca

gov/maps/wind.html

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Wind Power - Economics


1.

Payback Period
a. Dependent on wind resource

quality, siting, quality siting permitting costs, energy costs, and turbine performance.

2. 2

State Incentive Programs


a. CEC Renewable Buy Down

Program

$2,500/kW for first 7.5 kW and $1,500/kW for increments >7.5 kW up to 30 kW

b. Self-Generation Incentive

Program (SGIP)

$1,500/kW for wind turbines >30 kW

Wind F Wi d Farm Palm Springs, CA P l S i

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Low Head Hydropower

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Low Head Hydropower

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Existing Digesters and Digester Gas Production Enhancement

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Excess Available Digester Capacity


1.

Plant currently has 5 digesters a t cu e t y as d geste s


a. 3 older at 1.75 million gallons each b. 2 newer at 3 million gallons each c. Newer units are typically utilized

2.

Plant was designed for high solids loadings


a. 48 mgd with 630 mg/L BOD

3. 4.

Current flows/loading are much lower / g


a. 32 mgd with 300 mg/L BOD

Potential for significant digester gas generation enhancement h

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

How to Utilize Excess Digester Capacity C it


1. FOG OG

Addition dd t o
a. b. c. c d.

a. Pinellas County, FL b. Fresno c. Watsonville, CA d. Waco, TX


2. 2 Food

Ventura Riverside EMWD EBMUD

Waste Addition

a. Waco, TX b. EBMUD c. IEUA d. Truckee Meadows WRF, NV


3. Al Algae
Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

FOG, Watsonville, CA

FOG
1. 2.

Fats, Oils, Grease Restaurant trap grease R


a. Set up community requirement to trap and

remove grease b. Typically hauled to landfill

Haulers pay to dispose, plus haul time

3.

Receive trap grease loads directly to WWTP


a. Haulers will pay to dispose at WWTP;

typically cheaper to them than hauling to landfill

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Food Waste
1.

High BOD wastes fed to either dedicated or combined digesters


a. Typical products:

Salad dressing wastes Dairy wastes Packing plant wastes Canning wastes

b. Industry benefits and thus participates if

convenient

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Food Waste System, TMWRF, NV

Characterization of High Strength Wastes is Critical for the Estimation of Performance


Grease Traps Residual Fats Flotated Fats Commercial Kitchens Restaurant Waste Food Discards Cafeteria Waste Food Waste Soup Processing Corn Silage Grass Silage Raw Sludge Brewer's Grain B ' G i Green Waste Sugar Beet Silage Vinasse Beets Fooder Beet Whey Poultry Swine Manure Cattle Manure

Raw WWTP Solids

Methane Yield, cf/lbs


Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Co-Digestion of High Strength Wastes Reduces GHG and Landfill Usage

1 ton 23 tons GHG

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Co-Digestion of High Strength Wastes Reduces GHG and Landfill Usage

1 ton 1 ton 23 tons GHG 0.8 tons of GHG

1 MW of Electricity
Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Co-Digestion of High Strength Wastes Reduces GHG and Landfill Usage

1 ton 1 ton 23 tons GHG 0.8 tons of GHG

1 MW of Electricity
Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Algae
1. 2.

Plant has 450 acres of ponds Plant currently h Pl l harvests and disposes of d di f Algae (returns to ponds) thus infrastructure is partially in place
a. Harvesting and pumping equipment b. DAFT s b DAFTs

3.

Algae research is going into producing biodiesel, but an easier, more cost , , effective use is to digest the existing algae to create additional digester gas

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Methane from Algae


1.

2.

3.

Single phase digestion has led to digester upsets and decline in methane production Two-phase digestion promising. Acid phase lyses algae cells open open, methane phase digests the contents Promising technology from Europe for cell lysing may benefit algae digestion

Acid Phase Digester, TMWRF, NV

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt

Carbon Credits
1.

2.

3.

Potential to generate carbon capture credits Algae extracts carbon from the air turning CO2 into O2 Additional CO2 can be introduced into ponds from fuel cell exhaust; resulting in CO2 capture credit if fuel was NG and increasing algae growth rate

Fuel Cell and Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Water and Wastewater.ppt