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# Code No: RR322204 Set No.

1
III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007
DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
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## 1. Show that the transfer function for

1−eT s
(a) a zero-order hold is, G0 (s) = s
[8]
 Ts
2
1−e
(b) a first-order hold is, G1 (s) = T s+1
T s
[8]
Where T is the sampling period. Illustrate the signals clearly.
2. Obtain a state space representation of the following transfer function
Y (z)
U (z)
= (z+1)52 (z+2)
using the partial fraction expansion method. Also, obtain the initial values of the
state variables in terms of y(0),y(1) and y(2) and also draw the block diagram for
the system. [16]
3. 
For the system defined
 by     
x1 (k + 1) 0 1 x1 (k) 0
= + u(k)
x2 (k + 1)  −0.16 −1 x 2 (k) 1
  x1 (k)
y(k) = 1 0
x2 (k)
assume that the following outputs are observed as y(0)=1 and y(1)=2 and the
control signals given are u(0)=2,u(1)=-1, determine the initial state X(0) and also
X(1) and X(2). [16]
4. Show that the transfer function U(s) / E(s) of the PID controller shown below.
  
U (s) T1 + T2 1 T1 T2 · s
= Ko 1+ +
E(s) T1 (T1 + T2 ) T1 + T2
Assume the gain k is very large compared with unity, or k >>1as shown in the
figure 4 [16]

Figure 4

## 5. (a) Enumerate the design steps for pole placement.

(b) Prove Ackermann’s formula for the determination of the state feedback gain
matrix K. [8+8]

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Code No: RR322204 Set No. 1
6. (a) State and explain the minimum - time problems. Describe its performance
index. [6]
(b) Let f (X) = -x1 x2 and let g(X) =x21 + x22 − 1. What are the potential candi-
dates
 forminima
 of f subject
 to the constraint g=0?. Show that the points
1 1 1 1
√ , √
2 2
and − √2 , - √2 actually provide the minima. [10]

## 7. (a) Explain the concepts of variational calculus.

(b) Explain the formulation of Variational Calculus using Himiltonian method.
[8+8]

8. (a) Derive the transfer matrix relation from state space representation.
[6]
(b) The state space triple (A, B, C) of a system is given by
   
0 1 0 0 0  
1 1 0
A= 2 3 0 ; B =  1 0 ; C =
0 0 1
1 1 1 0 1

Calculate the input and output decoupling zeros, if any. Is the matrix A
cyclic? Find out the transfer matrix T(s). [10]

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Code No: RR322204 Set No. 2
III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007
DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

0 0 ≤ k ≤ 3 and k ≥ 9
1. Convolve the two signals given by f (k) =
2 4≤k≤8

0 0 ≤ k ≤ 1 and k ≥ 6
f (k) =
2 3≤k≤6

## Illustrate the steps involved in the convolution [16]

2. Find the state variable models for the following system represented by the difference
equation

## (a) y(k+3)+5y(k+2)+7y(k+1)+3y(k)=0 [8]

(b) y(k+2)+3y(k+1)+2y(k)=5r(k+1)+3r(k) [8]

## 3. Investigate the controllability and observability of the following system

       
x1 (k + 1) −1 1 x1 (k) 0
= + u(k)
x2 (k + 1) 0 −1 x2 (k) 1
 
  x1 (k)
y(k) = −1 1
x2 (k)
[16]

4. What are PID controllers? Compare its performance with PI controllers and PD
controllers. Explain digital PID controller in detail. [16]

5. A discrete time
 regulator system has  the plant equation
2 −1 4
X(k + 1) = X(k) + u(k)
 −1
 1 3
y(k) = 1 1 X(k) + 7u(k)
Design a state feedback control algorithm with u(k) = -KX(k) which places the
closed loop characteristic roots at ±j0.5. [16]

6. (a) What are the major theoretical approaches for design of optimal control. Ex-
plain one of the approaches in detail.
(b) Find the qextremalfor the functional
Rt1 •
1+x2
j(x) = x
dt x(0) + 0; x(t1 ) = t1 − 5 [8+8]
0

## 7. (a) Explain the concepts of variational calculus.

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Code No: RR322204 Set No. 2
(b) Explain the formulation of Variational Calculus using Himiltonian method.
[8+8]

8. (a) Explain the input decoupling zeros and output decoupling zeros. [6]
(b) Obtain minimal differential operator realization of T(s) given below. Further,
convert the D.O. form to the state space form.
 s+1 s+2 
s2 s2 +1
T (s) =  
2 2s+3
s s2 +1
[10]

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Code No: RR322204 Set No. 3
III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007
DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

t−0.14

1. The signal f (t) = 5 sin(20πt) + 2Π 0.16
1 if |x| ≤ 12

where Π(x) is the unit pulse signal defined by Π(x) =
0 otherwise
is sampled at 25 samples per second. Determine the Z-transform of f(kT) for
0 ≤ k ≤ 8. [16]

2. Explain the procedure for discretization of continuous time state space equations.
[16]

## 3. Consider the state equation

X = AX + Bu
W here,
   
1 1 0
A = B =
−4 −3 2

Investigate its controllability and transform the given equation into the controllable
canonical form. [16]

4. Show that the transfer function U(s) / E(s) of the PID controller shown below.
  
U (s) T1 + T2 1 T1 T2 · s
= Ko 1+ +
E(s) T1 (T1 + T2 ) T1 + T2
Assume the gain k is very large compared with unity, or k >>1as shown in the
figure 4 [16]

Figure 4

5. Explain the steps involved in the pole placement design by state feedback for multi
input system. [16]

6. (a) State and explain the minimum - time problems. Describe its performance
index. [6]

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Code No: RR322204 Set No. 3
(b) Let f (X) = -x1 x2 and let g(X) =x21 + x22 − 1. What are the potential candi-
dates
 forminima
 of f subject
 to the constraint g=0?. Show that the points
√1 , √1 1 1
and − 2 , - 2 actually provide the minima.
√ √ [10]
2 2

## 7. (a) Explain the concepts of variational calculus.

(b) Explain the formulation of Variational Calculus using Himiltonian method.
[8+8]

8. (a) Explain the input decoupling zeros and output decoupling zeros. [6]
(b) Obtain minimal differential operator realization of T(s) given below. Further,
convert the D.O. form to the state space form.
 s+1 s+2 
s2 s2 +1
T (s) =  
2 2s+3
s s2 +1
[10]

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Code No: RR322204 Set No. 4
III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007
DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

## 1. (a) Obtain the Z-transform of

i. f1 (t) = a1 (1 − e−at ) where ‘a’ is a constant [4]

ii. f2 (t) = 9k 2k−1 − 2k + 3 k≥0 [4]
(b) Show that
(h!)z
 
z k (k − 1) ..... (k − h + 1) ak−h = (z−a)h+1
. [8]

## 2. A second order multivariable system is described by the following equation

 
        u1 (k)
x1 (k + 1) 2 −5 x1 (k) 1 −2 0 
= 1 + u2 (k) 
x2 (k + 1) /2 −1 x2 (k) 0 1 3
u3 (k)
 
        u1 (k)
y1 (k) 2 0 x1 (k) 0 4 0  u2 (k) 
= +
y2 (k) 1 −1 x2 (k) 0 0 −2
u3 (k)
Convert the state variable model into a transfer function model. [16]

3. State and explain the conditions for stability, instability and critical stability in
terms of weighting sequence g(kT) of a linear time invariant discrete time control
system. [16]

4. (a) Give the advantage of using w transformation for the design of discrete data
systems.
(b) What can you say about root sensitivity of a system with dead beat response?
[8+8]
 

0 1 0
5. For the state equation X = AX , A =  3 0 2 
−12 −7 −6
Find the initial condition vector X(0) which will excite only the mode corresponding
to the eigen value with the most negative real part. [16]

6. (a) State and explain the minimum - time problems. Describe its performance
index. [6]
(b) Let f (X) = -x1 x2 and let g(X) =x21 + x22 − 1. What are the potential candi-
dates forminima
  of f subject
 to the constraint g=0?. Show that the points
1 1 1 1
√ , √
2 2
and − √2 , - √2 actually provide the minima. [10]

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Code No: RR322204 Set No. 4
7. (a) Derive the fundamental necessary condition of variational calculus.
(b) Given ẋ = −x + u ; x(0) = x0 , x(2) =x1 Find u* that minimizes
R2
J = (x2 + u2 )dt .
0
[8+8]

8. (a) With step by step procedure explain the controllable realization algorithm.
(b) Obtain observable state space realization for the following transfer matrix
T(s). Is it minimal?
 
(s−2)(s+1) 1
s(s−1)2 (s−1)2
 
 
T (s) =  − 1s 0 [8+8]
 

 
 
2 1
s(s−1) s−1

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