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# Code No: RR322204 Set No.

1
III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007
DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
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## 1. Show that the transfer function for

1−eT s
(a) a zero-order hold is, G0 (s) = s

 Ts
2
1−e
(b) a first-order hold is, G1 (s) = T s+1
T s

Where T is the sampling period. Illustrate the signals clearly.
2. Obtain a state space representation of the following transfer function
Y (z)
U (z)
= (z+1)52 (z+2)
using the partial fraction expansion method. Also, obtain the initial values of the
state variables in terms of y(0),y(1) and y(2) and also draw the block diagram for
the system. 
3. 
For the system defined
 by     
x1 (k + 1) 0 1 x1 (k) 0
= + u(k)
x2 (k + 1)  −0.16 −1 x 2 (k) 1
  x1 (k)
y(k) = 1 0
x2 (k)
assume that the following outputs are observed as y(0)=1 and y(1)=2 and the
control signals given are u(0)=2,u(1)=-1, determine the initial state X(0) and also
X(1) and X(2). 
4. Show that the transfer function U(s) / E(s) of the PID controller shown below.
  
U (s) T1 + T2 1 T1 T2 · s
= Ko 1+ +
E(s) T1 (T1 + T2 ) T1 + T2
Assume the gain k is very large compared with unity, or k >>1as shown in the
figure 4 

Figure 4

## 5. (a) Enumerate the design steps for pole placement.

(b) Prove Ackermann’s formula for the determination of the state feedback gain
matrix K. [8+8]

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Code No: RR322204 Set No. 1
6. (a) State and explain the minimum - time problems. Describe its performance
index. 
(b) Let f (X) = -x1 x2 and let g(X) =x21 + x22 − 1. What are the potential candi-
dates
 forminima
 of f subject
 to the constraint g=0?. Show that the points
1 1 1 1
√ , √
2 2
and − √2 , - √2 actually provide the minima. 

## 7. (a) Explain the concepts of variational calculus.

(b) Explain the formulation of Variational Calculus using Himiltonian method.
[8+8]

8. (a) Derive the transfer matrix relation from state space representation.

(b) The state space triple (A, B, C) of a system is given by
   
0 1 0 0 0  
1 1 0
A= 2 3 0 ; B =  1 0 ; C =
0 0 1
1 1 1 0 1

Calculate the input and output decoupling zeros, if any. Is the matrix A
cyclic? Find out the transfer matrix T(s). 

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Code No: RR322204 Set No. 2
III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007
DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

0 0 ≤ k ≤ 3 and k ≥ 9
1. Convolve the two signals given by f (k) =
2 4≤k≤8

0 0 ≤ k ≤ 1 and k ≥ 6
f (k) =
2 3≤k≤6

## Illustrate the steps involved in the convolution 

2. Find the state variable models for the following system represented by the difference
equation

## (a) y(k+3)+5y(k+2)+7y(k+1)+3y(k)=0 

(b) y(k+2)+3y(k+1)+2y(k)=5r(k+1)+3r(k) 

## 3. Investigate the controllability and observability of the following system

       
x1 (k + 1) −1 1 x1 (k) 0
= + u(k)
x2 (k + 1) 0 −1 x2 (k) 1
 
  x1 (k)
y(k) = −1 1
x2 (k)


4. What are PID controllers? Compare its performance with PI controllers and PD
controllers. Explain digital PID controller in detail. 

5. A discrete time
 regulator system has  the plant equation
2 −1 4
X(k + 1) = X(k) + u(k)
 −1
 1 3
y(k) = 1 1 X(k) + 7u(k)
Design a state feedback control algorithm with u(k) = -KX(k) which places the
closed loop characteristic roots at ±j0.5. 

6. (a) What are the major theoretical approaches for design of optimal control. Ex-
plain one of the approaches in detail.
(b) Find the qextremalfor the functional
Rt1 •
1+x2
j(x) = x
dt x(0) + 0; x(t1 ) = t1 − 5 [8+8]
0

## 7. (a) Explain the concepts of variational calculus.

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Code No: RR322204 Set No. 2
(b) Explain the formulation of Variational Calculus using Himiltonian method.
[8+8]

8. (a) Explain the input decoupling zeros and output decoupling zeros. 
(b) Obtain minimal differential operator realization of T(s) given below. Further,
convert the D.O. form to the state space form.
 s+1 s+2 
s2 s2 +1
T (s) =  
2 2s+3
s s2 +1


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Code No: RR322204 Set No. 3
III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007
DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

t−0.14

1. The signal f (t) = 5 sin(20πt) + 2Π 0.16
1 if |x| ≤ 12

where Π(x) is the unit pulse signal defined by Π(x) =
0 otherwise
is sampled at 25 samples per second. Determine the Z-transform of f(kT) for
0 ≤ k ≤ 8. 

2. Explain the procedure for discretization of continuous time state space equations.


## 3. Consider the state equation

X = AX + Bu
W here,
   
1 1 0
A = B =
−4 −3 2

Investigate its controllability and transform the given equation into the controllable
canonical form. 

4. Show that the transfer function U(s) / E(s) of the PID controller shown below.
  
U (s) T1 + T2 1 T1 T2 · s
= Ko 1+ +
E(s) T1 (T1 + T2 ) T1 + T2
Assume the gain k is very large compared with unity, or k >>1as shown in the
figure 4 

Figure 4

5. Explain the steps involved in the pole placement design by state feedback for multi
input system. 

6. (a) State and explain the minimum - time problems. Describe its performance
index. 

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Code No: RR322204 Set No. 3
(b) Let f (X) = -x1 x2 and let g(X) =x21 + x22 − 1. What are the potential candi-
dates
 forminima
 of f subject
 to the constraint g=0?. Show that the points
√1 , √1 1 1
and − 2 , - 2 actually provide the minima.
√ √ 
2 2

## 7. (a) Explain the concepts of variational calculus.

(b) Explain the formulation of Variational Calculus using Himiltonian method.
[8+8]

8. (a) Explain the input decoupling zeros and output decoupling zeros. 
(b) Obtain minimal differential operator realization of T(s) given below. Further,
convert the D.O. form to the state space form.
 s+1 s+2 
s2 s2 +1
T (s) =  
2 2s+3
s s2 +1


⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR322204 Set No. 4
III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007
DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

## 1. (a) Obtain the Z-transform of

i. f1 (t) = a1 (1 − e−at ) where ‘a’ is a constant 

ii. f2 (t) = 9k 2k−1 − 2k + 3 k≥0 
(b) Show that
(h!)z
 
z k (k − 1) ..... (k − h + 1) ak−h = (z−a)h+1
. 

## 2. A second order multivariable system is described by the following equation

 
        u1 (k)
x1 (k + 1) 2 −5 x1 (k) 1 −2 0 
= 1 + u2 (k) 
x2 (k + 1) /2 −1 x2 (k) 0 1 3
u3 (k)
 
        u1 (k)
y1 (k) 2 0 x1 (k) 0 4 0  u2 (k) 
= +
y2 (k) 1 −1 x2 (k) 0 0 −2
u3 (k)
Convert the state variable model into a transfer function model. 

3. State and explain the conditions for stability, instability and critical stability in
terms of weighting sequence g(kT) of a linear time invariant discrete time control
system. 

4. (a) Give the advantage of using w transformation for the design of discrete data
systems.
(b) What can you say about root sensitivity of a system with dead beat response?
[8+8]
 

0 1 0
5. For the state equation X = AX , A =  3 0 2 
−12 −7 −6
Find the initial condition vector X(0) which will excite only the mode corresponding
to the eigen value with the most negative real part. 

6. (a) State and explain the minimum - time problems. Describe its performance
index. 
(b) Let f (X) = -x1 x2 and let g(X) =x21 + x22 − 1. What are the potential candi-
dates forminima
  of f subject
 to the constraint g=0?. Show that the points
1 1 1 1
√ , √
2 2
and − √2 , - √2 actually provide the minima. 

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Code No: RR322204 Set No. 4
7. (a) Derive the fundamental necessary condition of variational calculus.
(b) Given ẋ = −x + u ; x(0) = x0 , x(2) =x1 Find u* that minimizes
R2
J = (x2 + u2 )dt .
0
[8+8]

8. (a) With step by step procedure explain the controllable realization algorithm.
(b) Obtain observable state space realization for the following transfer matrix
T(s). Is it minimal?
 
(s−2)(s+1) 1
s(s−1)2 (s−1)2
 
 
T (s) =  − 1s 0 [8+8]
 

 
 
2 1
s(s−1) s−1

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