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1

III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007

DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS

(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1−eT s

(a) a zero-order hold is, G0 (s) = s

[8]

Ts

2

1−e

(b) a first-order hold is, G1 (s) = T s+1

T s

[8]

Where T is the sampling period. Illustrate the signals clearly.

2. Obtain a state space representation of the following transfer function

Y (z)

U (z)

= (z+1)52 (z+2)

using the partial fraction expansion method. Also, obtain the initial values of the

state variables in terms of y(0),y(1) and y(2) and also draw the block diagram for

the system. [16]

3.

For the system defined

by

x1 (k + 1) 0 1 x1 (k) 0

= + u(k)

x2 (k + 1) −0.16 −1 x 2 (k) 1

x1 (k)

y(k) = 1 0

x2 (k)

assume that the following outputs are observed as y(0)=1 and y(1)=2 and the

control signals given are u(0)=2,u(1)=-1, determine the initial state X(0) and also

X(1) and X(2). [16]

4. Show that the transfer function U(s) / E(s) of the PID controller shown below.

U (s) T1 + T2 1 T1 T2 · s

= Ko 1+ +

E(s) T1 (T1 + T2 ) T1 + T2

Assume the gain k is very large compared with unity, or k >>1as shown in the

figure 4 [16]

Figure 4

(b) Prove Ackermann’s formula for the determination of the state feedback gain

matrix K. [8+8]

1 of 2

Code No: RR322204 Set No. 1

6. (a) State and explain the minimum - time problems. Describe its performance

index. [6]

(b) Let f (X) = -x1 x2 and let g(X) =x21 + x22 − 1. What are the potential candi-

dates

forminima

of f subject

to the constraint g=0?. Show that the points

1 1 1 1

√ , √

2 2

and − √2 , - √2 actually provide the minima. [10]

(b) Explain the formulation of Variational Calculus using Himiltonian method.

[8+8]

8. (a) Derive the transfer matrix relation from state space representation.

[6]

(b) The state space triple (A, B, C) of a system is given by

0 1 0 0 0

1 1 0

A= 2 3 0 ; B = 1 0 ; C =

0 0 1

1 1 1 0 1

Calculate the input and output decoupling zeros, if any. Is the matrix A

cyclic? Find out the transfer matrix T(s). [10]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: RR322204 Set No. 2

III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007

DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS

(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

0 0 ≤ k ≤ 3 and k ≥ 9

1. Convolve the two signals given by f (k) =

2 4≤k≤8

0 0 ≤ k ≤ 1 and k ≥ 6

f (k) =

2 3≤k≤6

2. Find the state variable models for the following system represented by the difference

equation

(b) y(k+2)+3y(k+1)+2y(k)=5r(k+1)+3r(k) [8]

x1 (k + 1) −1 1 x1 (k) 0

= + u(k)

x2 (k + 1) 0 −1 x2 (k) 1

x1 (k)

y(k) = −1 1

x2 (k)

[16]

4. What are PID controllers? Compare its performance with PI controllers and PD

controllers. Explain digital PID controller in detail. [16]

5. A discrete time

regulator system has the plant equation

2 −1 4

X(k + 1) = X(k) + u(k)

−1

1 3

y(k) = 1 1 X(k) + 7u(k)

Design a state feedback control algorithm with u(k) = -KX(k) which places the

closed loop characteristic roots at ±j0.5. [16]

6. (a) What are the major theoretical approaches for design of optimal control. Ex-

plain one of the approaches in detail.

(b) Find the qextremalfor the functional

Rt1 •

1+x2

j(x) = x

dt x(0) + 0; x(t1 ) = t1 − 5 [8+8]

0

1 of 2

Code No: RR322204 Set No. 2

(b) Explain the formulation of Variational Calculus using Himiltonian method.

[8+8]

8. (a) Explain the input decoupling zeros and output decoupling zeros. [6]

(b) Obtain minimal differential operator realization of T(s) given below. Further,

convert the D.O. form to the state space form.

s+1 s+2

s2 s2 +1

T (s) =

2 2s+3

s s2 +1

[10]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: RR322204 Set No. 3

III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007

DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS

(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

t−0.14

1. The signal f (t) = 5 sin(20πt) + 2Π 0.16

1 if |x| ≤ 12

where Π(x) is the unit pulse signal defined by Π(x) =

0 otherwise

is sampled at 25 samples per second. Determine the Z-transform of f(kT) for

0 ≤ k ≤ 8. [16]

2. Explain the procedure for discretization of continuous time state space equations.

[16]

•

X = AX + Bu

W here,

1 1 0

A = B =

−4 −3 2

Investigate its controllability and transform the given equation into the controllable

canonical form. [16]

4. Show that the transfer function U(s) / E(s) of the PID controller shown below.

U (s) T1 + T2 1 T1 T2 · s

= Ko 1+ +

E(s) T1 (T1 + T2 ) T1 + T2

Assume the gain k is very large compared with unity, or k >>1as shown in the

figure 4 [16]

Figure 4

5. Explain the steps involved in the pole placement design by state feedback for multi

input system. [16]

6. (a) State and explain the minimum - time problems. Describe its performance

index. [6]

1 of 2

Code No: RR322204 Set No. 3

(b) Let f (X) = -x1 x2 and let g(X) =x21 + x22 − 1. What are the potential candi-

dates

forminima

of f subject

to the constraint g=0?. Show that the points

√1 , √1 1 1

and − 2 , - 2 actually provide the minima.

√ √ [10]

2 2

(b) Explain the formulation of Variational Calculus using Himiltonian method.

[8+8]

8. (a) Explain the input decoupling zeros and output decoupling zeros. [6]

(b) Obtain minimal differential operator realization of T(s) given below. Further,

convert the D.O. form to the state space form.

s+1 s+2

s2 s2 +1

T (s) =

2 2s+3

s s2 +1

[10]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: RR322204 Set No. 4

III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007

DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS

(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

i. f1 (t) = a1 (1 − e−at ) where ‘a’ is a constant [4]

ii. f2 (t) = 9k 2k−1 − 2k + 3 k≥0 [4]

(b) Show that

(h!)z

z k (k − 1) ..... (k − h + 1) ak−h = (z−a)h+1

. [8]

u1 (k)

x1 (k + 1) 2 −5 x1 (k) 1 −2 0

= 1 + u2 (k)

x2 (k + 1) /2 −1 x2 (k) 0 1 3

u3 (k)

u1 (k)

y1 (k) 2 0 x1 (k) 0 4 0 u2 (k)

= +

y2 (k) 1 −1 x2 (k) 0 0 −2

u3 (k)

Convert the state variable model into a transfer function model. [16]

3. State and explain the conditions for stability, instability and critical stability in

terms of weighting sequence g(kT) of a linear time invariant discrete time control

system. [16]

4. (a) Give the advantage of using w transformation for the design of discrete data

systems.

(b) What can you say about root sensitivity of a system with dead beat response?

[8+8]

•

0 1 0

5. For the state equation X = AX , A = 3 0 2

−12 −7 −6

Find the initial condition vector X(0) which will excite only the mode corresponding

to the eigen value with the most negative real part. [16]

6. (a) State and explain the minimum - time problems. Describe its performance

index. [6]

(b) Let f (X) = -x1 x2 and let g(X) =x21 + x22 − 1. What are the potential candi-

dates forminima

of f subject

to the constraint g=0?. Show that the points

1 1 1 1

√ , √

2 2

and − √2 , - √2 actually provide the minima. [10]

1 of 2

Code No: RR322204 Set No. 4

7. (a) Derive the fundamental necessary condition of variational calculus.

(b) Given ẋ = −x + u ; x(0) = x0 , x(2) =x1 Find u* that minimizes

R2

J = (x2 + u2 )dt .

0

[8+8]

8. (a) With step by step procedure explain the controllable realization algorithm.

(b) Obtain observable state space realization for the following transfer matrix

T(s). Is it minimal?

(s−2)(s+1) 1

s(s−1)2 (s−1)2

T (s) = − 1s 0 [8+8]

2 1

s(s−1) s−1

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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