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Embedded Systems Projects, IEEE 2012 Abstracts ACCURATE PEDESTRIAN INDOOR NAVIGATION BY TIGHTLY COUPLING FOOT-MOUNTED IMU AND RFID MEASUREMENTS
Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on We present a new method to accurately locate persons indoors by fusing inertial navigation system (INS) techniques with active RFID technology. A foot-mounted inertial measuring units (IMUs)-based position estimation method, is aided by the received signal strengths (RSSs) obtained from several active RFID tags placed at known locations in a building. In contrast to other authors that integrate IMUs and RSS with a loose Kalman filter (KF)-based coupling (by using the residuals of inertialand RSS-calculated positions), we present a tight KF-based INS/RFID integration, using the residuals between the INS-predicted reader-totag ranges and the ranges derived from a generic RSS path-loss model. Our approach also includes other drift reduction methods such as zero velocity updates (ZUPTs) at foot stance detections, zero angular-rate updates (ZARUs) when the user is motionless, and heading corrections using magnetometers. A complementary extended Kalman filter (EKF), throughout its 15-element error state vector, compensates the position, velocity and attitude errors of the INS solution, as well as IMU biases.

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Embedded Systems Projects, IEEE 2012 Abstracts


This methodology is valid for any kind of motion (forward, lateral or backward walk, at different speeds), and does not require an offline calibration for the user gait. The integrated INS+RFID methodology eliminates the typical drift of IMU-alone solutions (approximately 1% of the total traveled distance), resulting in typical positioning errors along the walking path (no matter its length) of approximately 1.5 m.

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Smarter way to do your Projects Abstract of the Project Proposed System Advantages Architecture Diagram Block Diagram

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Embedded Systems Projects, IEEE 2012 Abstracts

Explanation of Block Diagram

Components usage Details

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EMBEDDED HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS Microcontroller, Atmel 89c51 / 52 Embedded Active components Embedded Passive components Electromechanical components Electrical components

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Embedded Systems Projects, IEEE 2012 Abstracts

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
Assembly Language Embedded C KEIL Compiler

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
If PC is used, for Independent Kits, this will not applicable

System RAM Hard Disk Monitor Mouse Keyboard

: Pentium Dual Core Processor + Board : 1 GB : 80 GB : 17 Color Monitor : Logitech Mouse : Multimedia Keyboard

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS Operating System Front End Database : : : Windows XP Visual Basic / Java Access

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ABOUT EMBEDDED SYSTEMS

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Embedded Systems Projects, IEEE 2012 Abstracts


An embedded system is a computer system designed for specific control functions within a larger system, often with real-time computing constraints. It is embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts. By contrast, a general-purpose computer, such as a personal computer (PC), is designed to be flexible and to meet a wide range of end-user needs. Embedded systems control many devices in common use today Embedded systems contain processing cores that are typically either microcontrollers or digital signal processors. The key characteristic, however, is being dedicated to handle a particular task. Since the embedded system is dedicated to specific tasks, design engineers can optimize it to reduce the size and cost of the product and increase the reliability and performance. Embedded systems are designed to do some specific task, rather than be a general-purpose computer for multiple tasks. Some also have real-time performance constraints that must be met, for reasons such as safety and usability Embedded systems are not always standalone devices. Many embedded systems consist of small, computerized parts within a larger device that serves a more general purpose. The program instructions written for embedded systems are referred to as firmware, and are stored in read-only memory or Flash memory chips. They run with limited computer hardware resources: little memory, small or non-existent keyboard or screen.

PERIPHERALS
Embedded Systems talk with the outside world via peripherals, such as:
Serial Communication Interfaces (SCI): RS-232, RS-422, RS-485 etc. Synchronous Serial Communication Interface: I2C, SPI, SSC and ESSI (Enhanced Synchronous Serial Interface) Universal Serial Bus (USB) Multi Media Cards (SD Cards, Compact Flash etc.) Networks: Ethernet, LonWorks, etc. Fieldbuses: CAN-Bus, LIN-Bus, PROFIBUS, etc. Timers: PLL(s), Capture/Compare and Time Processing Units Discrete IO: aka General Purpose Input/Output (GPIO) Analog to Digital/Digital to Analog (ADC/DAC) Debugging: JTAG, ISP, ICSP, BDM Port, BITP, and DP9 ports.

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MICROCONTROLLERS

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Embedded Systems Projects, IEEE 2012 Abstracts


A microcontroller (sometimes abbreviated C, uC or MCU) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals. Program memory in the form of NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on chip, as well as a typically small amount of RAM. Microcontrollers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications. Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices, such as automobile engine control systems, implantable medical devices, remote controls, office machines, appliances, power tools, toys and other embedded systems. By reducing the size and cost compared to a design that uses a separate microprocessor, memory, and input/output devices, microcontrollers make it economical to digitally control even more devices and processes

ATMEL 89C51 MICROCONTROLLERS


The Atmel AT89 series is an Intel-8051-compatible family of 8 bit microcontrollers (Cs) manufactured by the Atmel Corporation. Based on the Intel 8051 core, the AT89 series remains very popular as general purpose microcontrollers, due to their industry standard instruction set, and low unit cost. This allows a great amount of legacy code to be reused without modification in new applications The AT89C51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4Kbytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The device is manufactured using Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS-51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful microcomputer, which provides a highly-flexible and costeffective applications solution to many embedded control

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