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Embedded Systems Projects, IEEE 2012 Abstracts

BUS-STOP CONTROL STRATEGIES BASED ON FUZZY RULES FOR THE OPERATION OF A PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM
In the daily operation of a bus system, the movement of vehicles is affected by uncertain conditions as the day progresses, such as traffic congestion, unexpected delays, randomness in passenger demand, irregular vehicle dispatching times, and incidents. In a real-time setting, researchers have devoted significant effort to developing flexible control strategies, depending on the specific features of public transport systems. In this paper, we propose a control scheme for the operation of a bus system running along a linear corridor, based on expert rules and fuzzy logic. The parameters of the fuzzy controllers were tuned through a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. That is, the control strate-gies aim at keeping regular headways between consecutive buses, with the objective of reducing the total waiting time of passengers. The proposed control systems rely on measures of the position of each bus, which are easy to obtain and implement by means of emerging automatic vehicle location devices through Global Positioning System (GPS) technology. The utilized strategies are holding, stop-skipping, and the integration of both.

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Embedded Systems Projects, IEEE 2012 Abstracts


After tuning the controller parameters, we conducted several simulation tests, obtaining promising results in terms of savings in waiting times with the implementation of the proposed rules, noting that the best performance occurred when fuzzy rules are included. The methodology has great impact, and it is easy to implement due to its simplicity

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Smarter way to do your Projects Abstract of the Project Proposed System Advantages Architecture Diagram Block Diagram

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Embedded Systems Projects, IEEE 2012 Abstracts

Explanation of Block Diagram

Components usage Details

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P rojects in Em bedded System * Em s bedded Microcontrollers, VLSI * DSP * Matlab * Power Electronics * Java * .NET * Android * NS2

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EMBEDDED HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS Microcontroller, Atmel 89c51 / 52 Embedded Active components Embedded Passive components Electromechanical components Electrical components

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Embedded Systems Projects, IEEE 2012 Abstracts

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
Assembly Language Embedded C KEIL Compiler

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
If PC is used, for Independent Kits, this will not applicable

System RAM Hard Disk Monitor Mouse Keyboard

: Pentium Dual Core Processor + Board : 1 GB : 80 GB : 17 Color Monitor : Logitech Mouse : Multimedia Keyboard

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS Operating System Front End Database : : : Windows XP Visual Basic / Java Access

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P rojects in Em bedded System * Em s bedded Microcontrollers, VLSI * DSP * Matlab * Power Electronics * Java * .NET * Android * NS2

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ABOUT EMBEDDED SYSTEMS

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Embedded Systems Projects, IEEE 2012 Abstracts


An embedded system is a computer system designed for specific control functions within a larger system, often with real-time computing constraints. It is embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts. By contrast, a general-purpose computer, such as a personal computer (PC), is designed to be flexible and to meet a wide range of end-user needs. Embedded systems control many devices in common use today Embedded systems contain processing cores that are typically either microcontrollers or digital signal processors. The key characteristic, however, is being dedicated to handle a particular task. Since the embedded system is dedicated to specific tasks, design engineers can optimize it to reduce the size and cost of the product and increase the reliability and performance. Embedded systems are designed to do some specific task, rather than be a general-purpose computer for multiple tasks. Some also have real-time performance constraints that must be met, for reasons such as safety and usability Embedded systems are not always standalone devices. Many embedded systems consist of small, computerized parts within a larger device that serves a more general purpose. The program instructions written for embedded systems are referred to as firmware, and are stored in read-only memory or Flash memory chips. They run with limited computer hardware resources: little memory, small or non-existent keyboard or screen.

PERIPHERALS
Embedded Systems talk with the outside world via peripherals, such as:
Serial Communication Interfaces (SCI): RS-232, RS-422, RS-485 etc. Synchronous Serial Communication Interface: I2C, SPI, SSC and ESSI (Enhanced Synchronous Serial Interface) Universal Serial Bus (USB) Multi Media Cards (SD Cards, Compact Flash etc.) Networks: Ethernet, LonWorks, etc. Fieldbuses: CAN-Bus, LIN-Bus, PROFIBUS, etc. Timers: PLL(s), Capture/Compare and Time Processing Units Discrete IO: aka General Purpose Input/Output (GPIO) Analog to Digital/Digital to Analog (ADC/DAC) Debugging: JTAG, ISP, ICSP, BDM Port, BITP, and DP9 ports.

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MICROCONTROLLERS

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Embedded Systems Projects, IEEE 2012 Abstracts


A microcontroller (sometimes abbreviated C, uC or MCU) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals. Program memory in the form of NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on chip, as well as a typically small amount of RAM. Microcontrollers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications. Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices, such as automobile engine control systems, implantable medical devices, remote controls, office machines, appliances, power tools, toys and other embedded systems. By reducing the size and cost compared to a design that uses a separate microprocessor, memory, and input/output devices, microcontrollers make it economical to digitally control even more devices and processes

ATMEL 89C51 MICROCONTROLLERS


The Atmel AT89 series is an Intel-8051-compatible family of 8 bit microcontrollers (Cs) manufactured by the Atmel Corporation. Based on the Intel 8051 core, the AT89 series remains very popular as general purpose microcontrollers, due to their industry standard instruction set, and low unit cost. This allows a great amount of legacy code to be reused without modification in new applications The AT89C51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4Kbytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The device is manufactured using Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS-51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful microcomputer, which provides a highly-flexible and costeffective applications solution to many embedded control

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