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II B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, November 2007

THERMODYNAMICS AND FLUID MECHANICS

( Common to Mechatronics and Production Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. Define a new temperature scale, say 0 M. At ice and steam point the temperatures

are 800 M and 3000 M respectively. Correlate this with centigrade scale. The 0 N

reading on this scale is a certain number of degrees on a corresponding absolute

temperature scale. Find this absolute temperature at 0 N. [16]

process so that the pressure of oxygen is increased two times that of the initial

value. The initial temperature is 200 C. Calculate [16]

(b) the change in internal energy,

(c) the change in enthalpy and

(d) the heat transfer.

Take R = 0.259 kj / kg K and Cv = 0.652 kj / kg K for oxygen.

3. (a) Explain the need for heat engines and refrigerators considering the limitations

of the first law of thermodynamics. [8]

(b) Two kg of air at 500kPa, 800 C expands adiabatically in a closed system

until its volume is doubled and its temperature becomes equal to that of the

surroundings which is at 100kPa, 50 C. For this process, determine [8]

i. the maximum work, and

ii. the change in availability.

4. (a) Show that available energy decreases during heat transfer through finite tem-

perature difference. [8]

(b) A mass of 6.98 kg of air is in a vessel at 200 kPa and 270 C . Heat is transferred

to the air from a reservoir at 7270 C until the temperature of the air rises to

3270 C. The environment is at 100kPa, 170 C . Determine [8]

i. The initial and final availability of air and

ii. the maximum useful work associated with the process.

Assume for air Cp= 1.005 kJ/kg.K and R = 0.287kJ/kg.K.

5. An engine working on an Otto cycle has an air standard efficiency of 50% and

rejects 544 kJ/kg of air. The pressure and temperature of air at beginning of the

compression are 0.1 Mpa and 600 C respectively. Compute [16]

1 of 2

Code No: RR211401 Set No. 1

(b) work done per kg of air,

(c) the pressure and temperature at the end of the compression,

(d) maximum pressure in the cycle and

(e) mean effective pressure.

6. (a) Why should a mercury column in a thin glass tube be depressed while a water

column be lifted up ? [8]

(b) The barometric pressure at sea level is 760 mm of mercury while on a mountain

top it is found to be 735 mm. If the specific weight of air is 11.8 N/ m3 calculate

the height of the mountain. [8]

7. (a) Define path line ? How do compare the same with stream line? [8]

(b) If φ = 3xy, find the velocity components at (1,3) and (3,3). Determine the

discharge between stream lines passing through these points. [8]

8. (a) How will you find the drag on a flat plate due to laminar and turbulent bound-

ary layers. [8]

(b) A smooth flat plate of length 5m and width 2m is moving with a velocity of 4

m/sec in stationary air of density as 1.25 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity 1.5×

10−5 m2 /sec. Determine thickness of boundary layer at the trailing edge of

the smooth plate. Find the total drag on one side of the plate assuming that

the boundary layer is turbulent from the very beginning . [8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: RR211401 Set No. 2

II B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, November 2007

THERMODYNAMICS AND FLUID MECHANICS

( Common to Mechatronics and Production Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. Define a new temperature scale, say 0 M. At ice and steam point the temperatures

are 800 M and 3000 M respectively. Correlate this with centigrade scale. The 0 N

reading on this scale is a certain number of degrees on a corresponding absolute

temperature scale. Find this absolute temperature at 0 N. [16]

R

2. (a) Show that the work done in steady flow process is given by - vdp. [8]

(b) Explain clearly why PMM is not possible [8]

3. (a) Prove: perpetual motion machine of the second kind is impossible. [8]

0

(b) Three cubic metres of air at a pressure of 1bar and a temperature of 20 C

is compressed reversible and adiabatically to 4.5 bar. The same mass is then

expanded isothermally to the original volume. Calculate the final pressure of

the air, work done and the total entropy change. For air Cp= 1.005 kJ/kg.K

and R = 0.287J/kg.K [8]

(b) Define chemical potential and express the same in terms of partial molal

Helmholtz function. [10]

5. (a) Prove that, the optimum compression ratio for maximum work by an Otto

cycle depends only on the ratio of maximum and minimum cycle temperatures.

[8]

(b) The compression ratio of a spark ignition engine is 8 to 1, the indicated engine

efficiency is 80%, and the mechanical efficiency is 76% when 20% excess air is

used. Determine the brake thermal efficiency. [8]

6. (a) Define viscosity. Derive the equation for the viscosity. [8]

(b) The space between two parallel plates kept 3mm apart is filled with an oil of

dynamic viscosity 0.2 N- Sec / m2 . What is the shear stress on the lower

fixed plate if the upper one is moved with a velocity of 1.5 m /sec? [8]

7. (a) Will the stream line, path line and streak line coincide ? If so when will they

coincide? [8]

(b) What is the irrotational velocity field associated with the velocity potential

function φ= 3x2 -3 x + 3y2 + 16t2 + 12zt. Does the flow field satisfy the

continuity equation? [8]

1 of 2

Code No: RR211401 Set No. 2

8. (a) Define displacement thickness. Derive an expression for the displacement

thickness. [8]

(b) A thin plate is moving in still atmospheric air at a velocity of 4m/sec. The

length of the plate is 0.5m and width is 0.4m. calculate the thickness of the

boundary layer at the end of the plate and drag force on one side of the plate.

Take density of air as 1.25 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity of 0.15 stokes. [8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: RR211401 Set No. 3

II B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, November 2007

THERMODYNAMICS AND FLUID MECHANICS

( Common to Mechatronics and Production Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Explain the terms state, path, process and cyclic process. [4x2=8]

(b) Discuss the macroscopic and microscopic point of view of thermodynamics.

[8]

4 bar. The same gas is expanded isothermally to the original volume. Finally, the

gas pressure is restored to the original volume by a constant volume heat rejection

process. Determine [16]

(b) the heat added during the isothermal process

(c) the heat rejected during constant volume process and

(d) change in internal energy during each process.

Assume R = 4.206 kj / kg K & Cp = 14.25 kj / kg K.

3. (a) What is absolute temperature scale? Develop this scale from Carnot theorem

[3+5]

(b) A reversible engine during a cycle of operation interacts with three thermal

reservoirs maintained at 200K,300K and 400K. It receives 5 MJ of heat from

the reservoir at 400K and produces a net positive work of 840 kJ. Find the

amount and direction of heat interaction with other reservoirs. [8]

4. (a) Deduce an expression for the non-flow availability for a system. [8]

(b) A 2-kg piece of iron is heated from room temperature of 250 C to 4000 C by a

heat source at 6000 C. What is the irreversibility in the process? Assume for

iron Cp =0.450kJ/kgK. [8]

5. Obtain an expression for the specific workdone by an engine working on Otto cycle

interms of the maximum temperature and minimum temperature of the cycle and

compression ratio. Hence show that the compression ratio for maximum specific

work output is given by r = (Tmin /Tmax )1/2(γ - 1) . [16]

6. (a) Hydrostatic pressure of a fluid always acts normal to the surface with which

it is in contact. Why? [8]

(b) If the pressure at a point below the sea is 200 KN /m2 , what is the pressure

30m below this point? [8]

1 of 2

Code No: RR211401 Set No. 3

7. (a) When do you say the flow is rotational or irrotational ? Give suitable exam-

ples? [8]

(b) A stream function is given by ψ= x3 - y3 . Show that the flow can not be a

potential flow. [8]

8. (a) Define laminar boundary layer, turbulent boundary layer, laminar sub-layer

and boundary layer thickness. [8]

(b) A 1.8m wide, 5m long plate moves through stationary air of density 1.22 ×

10−3 gm/cc and viscosity 1.8 ×10−4 poise at a velocity of 1.75 m/sec parallel

to its length. Determine the drag force on one side of the plate assuming [8]

i. laminar flow condition

ii. turbulent flow condition.

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: RR211401 Set No. 4

II B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, November 2007

THERMODYNAMICS AND FLUID MECHANICS

( Common to Mechatronics and Production Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

(b) What do you mean by property? Distinguish between intensive and extensive

Properties. [4+6]

and 200 C and delivers at 6 bar. Calculate the work done, heat transfer and change

in internal energy per kg of air compressed if the compression follows: [16]

(a) isothermal

(b) reversible adiabatic

The changes in potential and kinetic energies may be neglected.

(b) A cylinder-piston contains water at 200 kpa, 2000 C with a volume of 20 litres.

The Piston is moved slowly, compressing the water to a Pressure of 800 kPa.

The loading on the Piston is such that PV = C. Assume the room temper-

ature as 200 C and show that this process does not violate the second law of

thermodynamics. [8]

4. (a) Derive expression for the Gibbs Function of a mixture of inert ideal gases. [8]

(b) Show that on a Mollier diagram (h-s diagram) the slope of a constant pressure

line increases with temperature in the superheat region. [8]

5. (a) What is meant by air standard cycles? State the assumptions involved for air

standard cycles. [8]

(b) A compression ignition engine has an output of 3100kW when it uses 682kg

of fuel per hour. The higher heating value of the fuel is 44,100kJ/kg. The

indicated efficiency is 40.2%. Determine the brake thermal efficiency and the

frictional loss in the engine. [8]

6. (a) Define fluid surface tension property . What are its examples? [6]

(b) The velocity distribution in a viscous flow over a plate is given by u = 4y - y2

where u is velocity at distance y from the plate. If the coefficient of dynamic

viscosity is 1.5 Pa.sec, determine the shear stress at y=0 and at y=2. [10]

7. (a) What are the uses and properties of stream tubes ? [6]

(b) Calculate the unknown velocity components in the following so that the equa-

tion of continuity is satisfied .

1 of 2

Code No: RR211401 Set No. 4

i. u = A( x2 + y2 ) , v = ?

ii. u = ? , v = Axy [10]

8. (a) Differentiate between pressure drag and shear drag What are the factors that

influence the total drag on a body. [8]

(b) A kite 60cm × 60cm weighing 2.943N assumes an angle of 100 to the horizontal.

The string attached to the kite makes an angle of 450 to the horizontal. If the

pull on the string is 29.43N when the wind is flowing at a speed of 40km/hr.

Find the coefficient of drag and lift. Density of air is given as 1.25 kg/m3 . [8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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