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Code No: RR211401 Set No.

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II B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, November 2007
THERMODYNAMICS AND FLUID MECHANICS
( Common to Mechatronics and Production Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
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1. Define a new temperature scale, say 0 M. At ice and steam point the temperatures
are 800 M and 3000 M respectively. Correlate this with centigrade scale. The 0 N
reading on this scale is a certain number of degrees on a corresponding absolute
temperature scale. Find this absolute temperature at 0 N. 

2. In a vessel 10 kg of oxygen is heated in a reversible, non flow, constant volume

process so that the pressure of oxygen is increased two times that of the initial
value. The initial temperature is 200 C. Calculate 

(a) the final temperature,

(b) the change in internal energy,
(c) the change in enthalpy and
(d) the heat transfer.
Take R = 0.259 kj / kg K and Cv = 0.652 kj / kg K for oxygen.

3. (a) Explain the need for heat engines and refrigerators considering the limitations
of the first law of thermodynamics. 
(b) Two kg of air at 500kPa, 800 C expands adiabatically in a closed system
until its volume is doubled and its temperature becomes equal to that of the
surroundings which is at 100kPa, 50 C. For this process, determine 
i. the maximum work, and
ii. the change in availability.

4. (a) Show that available energy decreases during heat transfer through finite tem-
perature difference. 
(b) A mass of 6.98 kg of air is in a vessel at 200 kPa and 270 C . Heat is transferred
to the air from a reservoir at 7270 C until the temperature of the air rises to
3270 C. The environment is at 100kPa, 170 C . Determine 
i. The initial and final availability of air and
ii. the maximum useful work associated with the process.
Assume for air Cp= 1.005 kJ/kg.K and R = 0.287kJ/kg.K.

5. An engine working on an Otto cycle has an air standard efficiency of 50% and
rejects 544 kJ/kg of air. The pressure and temperature of air at beginning of the
compression are 0.1 Mpa and 600 C respectively. Compute 

(a) the compression ratio of the engine,

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Code No: RR211401 Set No. 1
(b) work done per kg of air,
(c) the pressure and temperature at the end of the compression,
(d) maximum pressure in the cycle and
(e) mean effective pressure.

6. (a) Why should a mercury column in a thin glass tube be depressed while a water
column be lifted up ? 
(b) The barometric pressure at sea level is 760 mm of mercury while on a mountain
top it is found to be 735 mm. If the specific weight of air is 11.8 N/ m3 calculate
the height of the mountain. 

7. (a) Define path line ? How do compare the same with stream line? 
(b) If φ = 3xy, find the velocity components at (1,3) and (3,3). Determine the
discharge between stream lines passing through these points. 

8. (a) How will you find the drag on a flat plate due to laminar and turbulent bound-
ary layers. 
(b) A smooth flat plate of length 5m and width 2m is moving with a velocity of 4
m/sec in stationary air of density as 1.25 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity 1.5×
10−5 m2 /sec. Determine thickness of boundary layer at the trailing edge of
the smooth plate. Find the total drag on one side of the plate assuming that
the boundary layer is turbulent from the very beginning . 

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Code No: RR211401 Set No. 2
II B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, November 2007
THERMODYNAMICS AND FLUID MECHANICS
( Common to Mechatronics and Production Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. Define a new temperature scale, say 0 M. At ice and steam point the temperatures
are 800 M and 3000 M respectively. Correlate this with centigrade scale. The 0 N
reading on this scale is a certain number of degrees on a corresponding absolute
temperature scale. Find this absolute temperature at 0 N. 
R
2. (a) Show that the work done in steady flow process is given by - vdp. 
(b) Explain clearly why PMM is not possible 

3. (a) Prove: perpetual motion machine of the second kind is impossible. 
0
(b) Three cubic metres of air at a pressure of 1bar and a temperature of 20 C
is compressed reversible and adiabatically to 4.5 bar. The same mass is then
expanded isothermally to the original volume. Calculate the final pressure of
the air, work done and the total entropy change. For air Cp= 1.005 kJ/kg.K
and R = 0.287J/kg.K 

4. (a) Explain : partial molal properties 

(b) Define chemical potential and express the same in terms of partial molal
Helmholtz function. 

5. (a) Prove that, the optimum compression ratio for maximum work by an Otto
cycle depends only on the ratio of maximum and minimum cycle temperatures.

(b) The compression ratio of a spark ignition engine is 8 to 1, the indicated engine
efficiency is 80%, and the mechanical efficiency is 76% when 20% excess air is
used. Determine the brake thermal efficiency. 

6. (a) Define viscosity. Derive the equation for the viscosity. 
(b) The space between two parallel plates kept 3mm apart is filled with an oil of
dynamic viscosity 0.2 N- Sec / m2 . What is the shear stress on the lower
fixed plate if the upper one is moved with a velocity of 1.5 m /sec? 

7. (a) Will the stream line, path line and streak line coincide ? If so when will they
coincide? 
(b) What is the irrotational velocity field associated with the velocity potential
function φ= 3x2 -3 x + 3y2 + 16t2 + 12zt. Does the flow field satisfy the
continuity equation? 

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Code No: RR211401 Set No. 2
8. (a) Define displacement thickness. Derive an expression for the displacement
thickness. 
(b) A thin plate is moving in still atmospheric air at a velocity of 4m/sec. The
length of the plate is 0.5m and width is 0.4m. calculate the thickness of the
boundary layer at the end of the plate and drag force on one side of the plate.
Take density of air as 1.25 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity of 0.15 stokes. 

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Code No: RR211401 Set No. 3
II B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, November 2007
THERMODYNAMICS AND FLUID MECHANICS
( Common to Mechatronics and Production Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Explain the terms state, path, process and cyclic process. [4x2=8]
(b) Discuss the macroscopic and microscopic point of view of thermodynamics.


2. 2 m3 of hydrogen at a pressure of 1 bar and 200 C is compressed isentropically to

4 bar. The same gas is expanded isothermally to the original volume. Finally, the
gas pressure is restored to the original volume by a constant volume heat rejection
process. Determine 

(a) pressure, volume and temperature at each end of operation

(b) the heat added during the isothermal process
(c) the heat rejected during constant volume process and
(d) change in internal energy during each process.
Assume R = 4.206 kj / kg K & Cp = 14.25 kj / kg K.

3. (a) What is absolute temperature scale? Develop this scale from Carnot theorem
[3+5]
(b) A reversible engine during a cycle of operation interacts with three thermal
reservoirs maintained at 200K,300K and 400K. It receives 5 MJ of heat from
the reservoir at 400K and produces a net positive work of 840 kJ. Find the
amount and direction of heat interaction with other reservoirs. 

4. (a) Deduce an expression for the non-flow availability for a system. 
(b) A 2-kg piece of iron is heated from room temperature of 250 C to 4000 C by a
heat source at 6000 C. What is the irreversibility in the process? Assume for
iron Cp =0.450kJ/kgK. 

5. Obtain an expression for the specific workdone by an engine working on Otto cycle
interms of the maximum temperature and minimum temperature of the cycle and
compression ratio. Hence show that the compression ratio for maximum specific
work output is given by r = (Tmin /Tmax )1/2(γ - 1) . 

6. (a) Hydrostatic pressure of a fluid always acts normal to the surface with which
it is in contact. Why? 
(b) If the pressure at a point below the sea is 200 KN /m2 , what is the pressure
30m below this point? 

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Code No: RR211401 Set No. 3
7. (a) When do you say the flow is rotational or irrotational ? Give suitable exam-
ples? 
(b) A stream function is given by ψ= x3 - y3 . Show that the flow can not be a
potential flow. 

8. (a) Define laminar boundary layer, turbulent boundary layer, laminar sub-layer
and boundary layer thickness. 
(b) A 1.8m wide, 5m long plate moves through stationary air of density 1.22 ×
10−3 gm/cc and viscosity 1.8 ×10−4 poise at a velocity of 1.75 m/sec parallel
to its length. Determine the drag force on one side of the plate assuming 
i. laminar flow condition
ii. turbulent flow condition.

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Code No: RR211401 Set No. 4
II B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, November 2007
THERMODYNAMICS AND FLUID MECHANICS
( Common to Mechatronics and Production Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Discuss the concept of continuum in thermodynamics. 

(b) What do you mean by property? Distinguish between intensive and extensive
Properties. [4+6]

2. A reciprocating air compressor installed in a fertilizer factory takes in air at 1 bar

and 200 C and delivers at 6 bar. Calculate the work done, heat transfer and change
in internal energy per kg of air compressed if the compression follows: 

(a) isothermal
The changes in potential and kinetic energies may be neglected.

3. (a) State and prove Carnot’s theorems. [3+5]

(b) A cylinder-piston contains water at 200 kpa, 2000 C with a volume of 20 litres.
The Piston is moved slowly, compressing the water to a Pressure of 800 kPa.
The loading on the Piston is such that PV = C. Assume the room temper-
ature as 200 C and show that this process does not violate the second law of
thermodynamics. 

4. (a) Derive expression for the Gibbs Function of a mixture of inert ideal gases. 
(b) Show that on a Mollier diagram (h-s diagram) the slope of a constant pressure
line increases with temperature in the superheat region. 

5. (a) What is meant by air standard cycles? State the assumptions involved for air
standard cycles. 
(b) A compression ignition engine has an output of 3100kW when it uses 682kg
of fuel per hour. The higher heating value of the fuel is 44,100kJ/kg. The
indicated efficiency is 40.2%. Determine the brake thermal efficiency and the
frictional loss in the engine. 

6. (a) Define fluid surface tension property . What are its examples? 
(b) The velocity distribution in a viscous flow over a plate is given by u = 4y - y2
where u is velocity at distance y from the plate. If the coefficient of dynamic
viscosity is 1.5 Pa.sec, determine the shear stress at y=0 and at y=2. 

7. (a) What are the uses and properties of stream tubes ? 
(b) Calculate the unknown velocity components in the following so that the equa-
tion of continuity is satisfied .

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Code No: RR211401 Set No. 4
i. u = A( x2 + y2 ) , v = ?
ii. u = ? , v = Axy 

8. (a) Differentiate between pressure drag and shear drag What are the factors that
influence the total drag on a body. 
(b) A kite 60cm × 60cm weighing 2.943N assumes an angle of 100 to the horizontal.
The string attached to the kite makes an angle of 450 to the horizontal. If the
pull on the string is 29.43N when the wind is flowing at a speed of 40km/hr.
Find the coefficient of drag and lift. Density of air is given as 1.25 kg/m3 . 

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