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WaterandFoodSecurityinAsia Water and Food Security in Asia AddressingaGrowingChallenge

ThierryFacon SeniorWaterManagementOfficer FAORegionalOffice g forAsiaandthePacific

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Theobjectiveofthispresentation The objective of this presentation


We all know that water and food security in Weallknowthat waterandfoodsecurityin Asiaisagrowingchallengeandweknowwhy Ourpetition:workingonwaterandfood securityhasbecomeinoperative Adeliberatemultisectoralapproachis needed d d Thepolicybriefthatwillbepresentedlater today:towardsarenewedframeworkfor today: towards a renewed framework for actiononeconomic,foodandwatersecurity
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Theessenceofthechallenge: managingtransitions
From unsustainable growth development patterns Fromunsustainablegrowthdevelopmentpatterns togreengrowth From planned to marketdriven economies Fromplannedtomarket driveneconomies Fromwaterabundancetowaterscarcity Fromdevelopmentofsupplytodemand From development of supply to demand management From informal to formal water economies Frominformaltoformalwatereconomies Ruraltourbanpopulationshifts Fromsubsistencetocommercialfarming From subsistence to commercial farming
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Tomakeourcase To make our case


The water investment framework of Thewaterinvestmentframeworkof KedahandMuda riverbasinsinMalaysia The#1policydocumentand3redlinesof People sRepublicofChina Peoples Republic of China

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Case Study on Sustainable Water Resource Use in Sungai Kedah and Sungai Muda River Basin DevelopedbyDIDMalaysia,MalaysiaWater p y y , y Partnershipwithlocalandnational stakeholderswiththesupportofFAO ThisillustrateswhereSoutheastAsian countriesaspiretobe/willsoonbe countries aspire to be/will soon be

CaseStudy

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The Kedah and Muda River Basins KedahRiverBasin Wholly in Kedah State WhollyinKedahState Nearly3000sq.km. 100kmlength 30% f MADA G 30%ofMADAGranaryin i thisbasin Muda River Basin RiverBasin KedahandPenangStates 4,200sq.km. 200 k l 200kmlength h MADAGranarynotinthis basinbutpartofIADA Pulau Pinang
CaseStudy
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The Kedah and Muda River Basins are part of an intensive Northern Region Water Resources Network Water Resources Development necessary to support development The Regional Climate has distinct dry season Involves primarily 3 States (Perlis, Kedah, Penang) Supports 2 Granaries pp MADA & IADA Penang

CaseStudy

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Water Management & Allocation


Agricultureenjoyed comfortablewaterresources comfortable water resources supplyfor50years No competition N W t S NowWaterSupplySectoris l S t i competingstrongly Presenttrendsarenot sustainable WaterManagementfor Kedah Muda Basinsis KedahMuda Basins is becomingmorecomplex:
a) StifferInterSectorcompetition b) Thewatersystemisinterconnected& ) y integralforbasinsbeyondboundarie of bothbasins&involvesinterstate issues

LessonsLearnt

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Draft Investment Framework Results According to Priority


National Objectives : No.* NationalObjectives 1 Achieving High Income Status 2 Food Security 3 Sustainable Water Resources M S t i bl W t R Management t 4 Green Mission Agriculture Sector Objectives: A i lt S t Obj ti No. AgricultureSectorObjectives 1 "Agriculture is Business" Agriculture Business 2 Minimum 70% Rice SelfSufficiency Level 3 Sustainable Agriculture Water Demand Management g g
4 Green Technology in Agriculture
SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCE USE IN SG KEDAH & SG MUDA 28/08/2012

*Inorderofpriority

Draft Framework Results Sorted According to Priority


Regional Objectives
Regional(Kedah&Muda Basins) Regional (Kedah & Muda Basins) Objectives 1 MADA

Basin/Local Strategies
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Granary to Sustain Minimum 40% contribution to National Production 2 IADA P. Pinang Granary to Sustain g y 5% contribution to National Production 3 S t i Q lit & Q Sustain Quality Quantity of tit f Water Resource *Inorderofpriority 4 Estate Management for Paddy g y
5 Towards 10ton/ha yield

Strategy CompetitionforWater(Equity) IncreaseProduction IncreaseWaterEfficiency CommercialisingPaddyFarming Restructuring MitigateFloodLossand Damage EnvironmentalManagement WaterQuality ClimateChangeAdaptation Climate Change Adaptation

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SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCE USE IN SG KEDAH & SG MUDA

Lessonslearnedaccordingtoour Malaysianpartners Malaysian partners


Farmersrespondforeconomicreasons;notlackofwater. I Intersectorcompetitionisafastemergingissue.TheWater ii i f i i Th W SupplySectorisnowinastrongerpositionthanagriculture. Agriculturesstrengthisitshisroical controlofwaterresources andthewaterdistributionnetworksbutthiscanbetakenaway. Supportinglegalandpolicyinstruments:
IrrigationAct restricts/controlsconversionofirrigationlands. Irrigation Act restricts/controls conversion of irrigation lands. GranaryPolicy FederalGovernmentcommitmenttoinvestinirrigation. RiceSelfSufficiencyLevelPolicy toproduceatleast70%ofriceneeds. TheAgingFarmersExitPlan recentlyrestructuredfortheMADAGranaryto acceleratecommercialfarmingtoincreaseyields(10tons/ha)andbetter resources(water)management. TheNationalWaterResourcesPolicy recentlyintroducedtoensureequity andsustainability.
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Waternolongerthepivotalpointforschedulingfarmactivities. Nowmachineryservicesprovidersdominatesthetimingforfarm operationsandthusirrigationsystemsoperation. operations and thus irrigation systems operation GreenTechnology:Towardsimprovedgravitysystemoperationsto reducepumping. F Fromsinglepurpose(irrigation)designandusetowardsbemulti i l (i i ti ) d i d t d b lti functionaluse. Otheragriculturesectors(e.g.aquaculture)wantin.
Thinkofwhatisreallyhappeningtodevelopwisestrategies.

Inthe1980slargescaleabandonmentofthesmallirrigation schemesduetoeconomicdiversificationledtofruitlessinvestments h d t i di ifi ti l d t f itl i t t inirrigation.Thiscouldhavebeenforeseen. Farmerschangedtodirectseedingattheirowninitiativeandthis requiredcertainmanagementadjustmentsindesignsand i d t i t dj t t i d i d operations. TheGranaryPolicywastheresultofanindepthstudyofthe irrigationschemesthatwerechallengedbytheeconomicchange. h h h ll db h h
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Key lessons
Policy issues (conflicts and incompatibilities) have direct Policyissues(conflictsandincompatibilities)havedirect implicationsthespreadanddepthofallactionplans: SelfSufficiencyLevels,TheGranaries,Irrigation y , , g Act,WaterResourcesSustainabilityareFederal Level Statesnowwanttheirownvisionandstrategiesfor futureeconomicdevelopment Population and non agriculture development pressures Populationandnonagriculturedevelopmentpressures ontheGranariesandwaterresourcesquestionsthe sustainabilityofpresentpolicy sustainability of present policy
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Key questions to address in future work


Policy Sustainability and Conflicts PolicySustainabilityandConflicts Attaininghighincomeforpaddyproduction TechnologyandInnovationsparticularlywith gy p y respecttointersectorandwithinsectorwater demandmanagement Allocationrulesincludingunderwaterstress conditions Strategies to introduce and implement water Strategiestointroduceandimplementwater chargesintheagriculturesector

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The#1policydocumentand3red linesofPeople sRepublicofChina lines of Peoples Republic of China


Sincetheinitiationofreformandopeningup,China p g p, hasmadeconsiderableachievements: respondedtowaterrelatednaturaldisasters, Developed its water infrastructure Developeditswaterinfrastructure UNMDGonwaterandsanitation6yearsaheadof time. supportedahigheconomicgrowthrateofnearly 10%perannumwithalowwaterusegrowthof 1%perannumonaverage 1% per annum on average increasedgrainoutputbynearly78%withthe sameamountofwater
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Achievementsinwaterandfoodsecurity
Adoptedstrategic,policy,institutionalandtechnicalmeasures Shareofirrigationwaterusedeclinedfrom81%to65%. Nationalirrigationareaincreasedby5.4millionha, Foodproductioncapacityincreasedby20milliontons 200millionpeoplegainedfoodsecurity. 200 illi l i df d it 1995 2005:averageunitirrigationwaterusereducedfrom 7,935to6,450m3/haandirrigationwateruseefficiency improvedby10%. 1980 2004,whilenationaltotalwaterdiversionincreasedby 25%,irrigationwateruseremainedat340360billion 25% irrigation water use remained at 340 360 billion Tomaintainnationalfoodsecurityby2020:increasenational foodproductionby200milliontons increaseirrigationareaby6.67millionha nationwideWaterSavingIrrigationdevelopment
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In2006MWRdevelopeddifferentWSI scenariosbasedon: scenarios based on:


newwaterresourcesallocatedtodomesticand industrialusers agriculturesectorhavingtomaintainfoodsecurity withcurrentwaterallocation

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Futureoutlook furtherindustrialization,urbanizationclimatechange g increasinglyacuteproblemsofflood,logging,draught, watershortage,waterpollutionandsoilerosion 2011: #1 policy document 2011:#1policydocument Followedbycentralconferenceonwaterconservancy 2012:policydocumentonimplementingthemoststringent waterresourcesmanagementsystemwithcontrolindicators ih l i di oftheThreeRedLines

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WhatChinahasdone
China reviewed broad social economic and Chinareviewedbroadsocial,economicand environmentalobjectivesthroughawaterlensand understandingofwateravailabilityanduseincluding: understanding of water availability and use including: Thisguidedbulkwaterallocation,sectoral policies, productivitytargets,andpolicyinstrumentsand investmentsinallproductivesectorsincludingirrigation Policyandotherinterventionsinwaterandagriculture determinedby: d t i db
Overalleconomic,foodandwatersecurityframework key policy decisions on tradeoffs between economic keypolicydecisionsontrade offsbetweeneconomic waterproductivityandotherconcerns,ruralpoverty reduction,nationalfoodsecurity,etc.
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Conclusion
Fromwaterandfoodsecuritytoeconomic,foodandwater security y Amultisectoral approachisrequiredtomakecoherent, feasibleandeffectivedecisionsinALLASPECTSofagricultural watermanagement water management Butagriculturalwatermanagementshouldhaveaveryhigh priority:agriculturehasthepowertodestroytheothersectors Thecriticalmultisectoral nexusrelatedtomanaging h ii l li l l d i transitions:
Bridgingtheincomegapforfarmers: Achievingahigh incomeormiddle incomestatus Achieving a highincome or middleincome status forriceandothergrain/stapleproducers
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