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EUROPEAN UNION

Light-duty vehicles

Regulated Engines and Vehicles Currently the following categories of new engines and/or vehicles are subject to emission standards in the EU: Cars and Light Trucks Heavy-Duty Truck and Bus Engines Nonroad (Off-Road) Diesel Engines Motorcycles [Directive 2002/51/EC] Small Utility Engines [Directive 2002/88/EC] Emissions of carbon dioxide from passenger cars, although not regulated, are controlled through voluntary agreements with the automotive industry. Vehicle Categories For the purpose of emission standards and other vehicle regulations, vehicles are classified into categories, as listed in Table 1. Further details, such as the types of bodywork and codifications pertinent to the particular vehicle categories, can be found in the Commission Directive 2001/116/EC (amending Directive 70/156/EEC).

Table 1 Definition of Vehicle Categories


Category M M1 M2 Description Motor vehicles with at least four wheels designed and constructed for the carriage of passengers. Vehicles designed and constructed for the carriage of passengers and comprising no more than eight seats in addition to the drivers seat Vehicles designed and constructed for the carriage of passengers, comprising more than eight seats in addition to the drivers seat, and having a maximum mass (technically permissible maximum laden mass) not exceeding 5 tons Vehicles designed and constructed for the carriage of passengers, comprising more than eight seats in addition to the drivers seat, and having a maximum mass exceeding 5 tons Motor vehicles with at least four wheels designed and constructed for the carriage of goods. Vehicles designed and constructed for the carriage of goods and having a maximum mass not exceeding 3.5 tons Vehicles designed and constructed for the carriage of goods and having a maximum mass exceeding 3.5 tons but not exceeding 12 tons Vehicles designed and constructed for the carriage of goods and having a maximum mass exceeding 12 tons Trailers (including semi-trailers) Off-Road Vehicles

M3 N N1 N2 N3 O G*

* - Symbol G shall be combined with either symbol M or N. For example, a vehicle of category N1 which is suited for off-road use shall be
designated as N1G.

Light commercial vehicles Category N1 are further divided into three weight classes as shown in Table 2. This classification is based on the Reference Mass, defined as the mass of the vehicle in running order less the uniform mass of the driver of 75 kg, and increased by a uniform mass of 100 kg.

Table 2 Vehicles Category N1Weight Classes


Class I II III Reference Mass, RW Euro 1-2 RW 1250 kg 1250 kg < RW 1700 kg 1700 kg < RW Euro 3+ RW 1305 kg 1305 kg < RW 1760 kg 1760 kg < RW

Cars and Light Trucks European Union emission regulations for new light duty vehicles (cars and light commercial vehicles) are specified in the Directive 70/220/EEC. This basis Directive was amended a number of times, some of the most important amendments including: Euro 1 standards (also known as EC 93): Directives 91/441/EEC (passenger cars only) or 93/59/EEC (passenger cars and light trucks) Euro 2 standards (EC 96): Directives 94/12/EC or 96/69/EC Euro 3/4 standards (2000/2005): Directive 98/69/EC, further amendments in 2002/80/EC Euro 5/6 standards (2009/2014): Euro 5/6 political legislation [Regulation 715/2007] of 20 June 2007; the implementing part of the regulation (which will cover test procedures, deterioration factors and, if agreed by Member States, revised PM requirements) is to be finalized by 2 July 2008

Fuels. The 2000/2005 standards were accompanied by an introduction of more stringent fuel regulations that require minimum diesel cetane number of 51 (year 2000), maximum diesel sulfur content of 350 ppm in 2000 and 50 ppm in 2005, and maximum petrol (gasoline) sulfur content of 150 ppm in 2000 and 50 ppm in 2005. Sulfur-free diesel and gasoline fuels ( 10 ppm S) must be available from 2005, and become mandatory from 2009. Mandatory environmental fuel specifications are introduced by EU Directives. The following are the most important steps in the evolution of EU diesel fuel specifications: Effective 1994.10, a maximum sulfur limit of 0.2% (wt.) was introduced for all gas oils, including diesel fuel. The minimum cetane number was 49. 1996.10: A maximum sulfur limit of 0.05% (wt.) = 500 ppm for diesel fuel. 2000.01: A maximum sulfur limit of 350 ppm and cetane number of 51 for diesel fuel. 2005.01: A maximum sulfur limit of 50 ppm for diesel fuel. Sulfur-free 10 ppm sulfur diesel fuel must be available for highway vehicles. 2009.01: A maximum sulfur limit of 10 ppm (sulfur-free) for diesel fuel for highway and nonroad vehicles.

Emission Testing. Emissions are tested over the NEDC (ECE 15 + EUDC) chassis dynamometer procedure. Effective year 2000 (Euro 3), that test procedure was modified to eliminate the 40 s engine warm-up period before the beginning of emission sampling. This modified cold start test is referred to as the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) or as the MVEG-B test. All emissions are expressed in g/km. The draft Euro 5/6 implementing legislation adopts a new PM mass emission measurement method (similar to the US 2007 procedure) developed by the UN/ECE Particulate Measurement Programme (PMP) and adjusts the PM mass emission limit to account for differences in results using the old and the new method.

The legislation also introduces a particle number emission limit at the Euro 5/6 stage (PMP method), in addition to the mass-based limits. At the time of adoption of the Euro 5/6 regulation, its mass-based PM emission limits could only be met by closed particulate filters. Number-based PM limits would prevent the possibility that in the future open filters are developed that meet the PM mass limit but enable a high number of ultra fine particles to pass.

Emission standards for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles (vehicle categories M1 and N1, respectively) are summarized in the following tables. Since the Euro 2 stage, EU regulations introduce different emission limits for diesel and gasoline vehicles. Diesels have more stringent CO standards but are allowed higher NOx. Gasoline vehicles are exempted from PM standards through the Euro 4 stage. Euro 5/6 regulations introduce PM mass emission standards, numerically equal to those for diesels, for gasoline cars with DI engines. All dates listed in the tables refer to new type approvals. The EC Directives also specify a second dateone year later (unless indicated otherwise) which applies to first registration (entry into service) of existing, previously type-approved vehicle models.

Table 1 EU Emission Standards for Passenger Cars (Category M1*), g/km Tier Diesel Euro 1 Euro 2, IDI Euro 2, DI Euro 3 Euro 4 Euro 5 Euro 6 Petrol (Gasoline) Euro 1 Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 4 Euro 5 Euro 6 1992.07 1996.01 2000.01 2005.01 2009.09 2014.09
b

Date 1992.07 1996.01 1996.01 2000.01 2005.01 2009.09 2014.09


b a

CO 2.72 (3.16) 1.0 1.0 0.64 0.50 0.50 0.50 2.72 (3.16) 2.2 2.30 1.0 1.0 1.0

HC 0.20 0.10 0.10 0.10


c c

HC+NOx 0.97 (1.13) 0.7 0.9 0.56 0.30 0.23 0.17 0.97 (1.13) 0.5 -

NOx 0.50 0.25 0.18 0.08 0.15 0.08 0.06 0.06

PM 0.14 (0.18) 0.08 0.10 0.05 0.025 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005
d,e d,e e e

* At the Euro 1..4 stages, passenger vehicles > 2,500 kg were type approved as Category N1 vehicles Values in brackets are conformity of production (COP) limits a - until 1999.09.30 (after that date DI engines must meet the IDI limits); b - 2011.01 for all models; c - and NMHC = 0.068 g/km d - applicable only to vehicles using DI engines; e - proposed to be changed to 0.003 g/km using the PMP measurement procedure

Table 2 EU Emission Standards for Light Commercial Vehicles, g/km


Category Diesel N1, Class I 1305 kg Euro 1 Euro 2, IDI Euro 2, DI Euro 3 Euro 4 Euro 5 Euro 6 N1, Class II 1305-1760 kg Euro 1 Euro 2, IDI Euro 2, DI Euro 3 Euro 4 Euro 5 Euro 6 1994.10 1998.01 1998.01 2000.01 2005.01 2009.09 2014.09 1994.10 1998.01 1998.01 2001.01 2006.01 2010.09 2015.09
c a b a

Tier

Date

CO 2.72 1.0 1.0 0.64 0.50 0.50 0.50 5.17 1.25 1.25 0.80 0.63 0.63 0.63

HC -

HC+NOx 0.97 0.70 0.90 0.56 0.30 0.23 0.17 1.40 1.0 1.30 0.72 0.39 0.295 0.195

NOx 0.50 0.25 0.18 0.08 0.65 0.33 0.235 0.105

PM 0.14 0.08 0.10 0.05 0.025 0.005 0.005 0.19 0.12 0.14 0.07 0.04 0.005 0.005
e e e e

Table 2 EU Emission Standards for Light Commercial Vehicles, g/km


Category N1, Class III >1760 kg Tier Euro 1 Euro 2, IDI Euro 2, DI Euro 3 Euro 4 Euro 5 Euro 6 Petrol (Gasoline) N1, Class I 1305 kg Euro 1 Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 4 Euro 5 Euro 6 1994.10 1998.01 2000.01 2005.01 2009.09 2014.09
b

Date 1994.10 1998.01 1998.01 2001.01 2006.01 2010.09 2015.09


c a

CO 6.90 1.5 1.5 0.95 0.74 0.74 0.74 2.72 2.2 2.3 1.0 1.0 1.0

HC 0.20 0.1 0.10 0.10


f f

HC+NOx 1.70 1.20 1.60 0.86 0.46 0.350 0.215 0.97 0.50 -

NOx 0.78 0.39 0.280 0.125 0.15 0.08 0.06 0.06

PM 0.25 0.17 0.20 0.10 0.06 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005


d,e d,e e e

Table 2 EU Emission Standards for Light Commercial Vehicles, g/km


Category N1, Class II 1305-1760 kg Tier Euro 1 Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 4 Euro 5 Euro 6 N1, Class III >1760 kg Euro 1 Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 4 Euro 5 Euro 6 Date 1994.10 1998.01 2001.01 2006.01 2010.09 2015.09 1994.10 1998.01 2001.01 2006.01 2010.09 2015.09
c c

CO 5.17 4.0 4.17 1.81 1.81 1.81 6.90 5.0 5.22 2.27 2.27 2.27

HC 0.25 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.29 0.16 0.16 0.16


h h g g

HC+NOx 1.40 0.65 1.70 0.80 -

NOx 0.18 0.10 0.075 0.075 0.21 0.11 0.082 0.082

PM 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005


d,e d,e d,e d,e

For Euro 1/2 the Category N1 reference mass classes were Class I 1250 kg, Class II 1250-1700 kg, Class III > 1700 kg. a - until 1999.09.30 (after that date DI engines must meet the IDI limits); b - 2011.01 for all models c - 2012.01 for all models; d - applicable only to vehicles using DI engines e - proposed to be changed to 0.003 g/km using the PMP measurement procedure

Particle Number Emissions. Under the draft implementing legislation, a particle number emission limit of 5 1011 km-1 (PMP method, NEDC test) becomes effective at the Euro 5/6 stage for all categories of diesel vehicles (M, N1, N2). The particle number limit must be met in addition to the PM mass emission limits listed in the above tables. The particle number emission limit is not applicable to gasoline vehicles.

Durability. Useful vehicle life for the purpose of emission regulations is: Euro 3 stage80,000 km or 5 years (whichever occurs first); in lieu of an actual deterioration run, manufacturers may use the following deterioration factors: 1.2 for CO, HC, NOx (gasoline) or 1.1 for CO, NOx, HC+NOx and 1.2 for PM (diesel). Euro 4 stage100,000 km or 5 years, whichever occurs first. Euro 5/6 stagein-service conformity: 100,000 km or 5 years; durability testing of pollution control devices for type approval: 160,000 km or 5 years (whichever occurs first). Other Provisions. The regulations include several additional provisions, such as: EU Member States may introduce tax incentives for early introduction of vehicles that comply with future emission standards. Requirement for low temperature emission test (-7C) for gasoline vehicles effective 2002 [Directive 2001/100/EC]. The limits for cars are 15 g/km for CO and 1.8 g/km for HC, measured over the urban part of the test only. Onboard diagnostic (OBD) requirements for emission systems.

OBD Requirements Starting from the Euro 3 stage, vehicles must be equipped with an onboard diagnostic system for emission control. Driver must be notified in case of a malfunction or deterioration of the emission system that would cause emissions to exceed mandatory thresholds, as listed in Table 3 (Euro 4 limits are proposed). The thresholds are based on the NEDC (cold start ECE+EUDC) test. To distinguish from the US OBD, the European limits are also referred to as the EOBD (European OBD). A number of OBD issues were clarified in the Directive 1999/102/EC. Dates of OBD application to gas fueled (LPG or NG) vehicles are given in Directive 2001/1/EC.

Table 3 European OBD Threshold Limits, g/km

Category Diesel M1 N1

Class

Tier EU 3 EU 4

Date 2003 2005 2005 2005 2006 2006 2006 2006

CO 3.20 3.20 3.20 3.20 4.00 4.00 4.80 4.80

HC 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.50 0.50 0.60 0.60

NOx 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.60 1.60 1.90 1.90

PM 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.23 0.23 0.28 0.28

I II III

EU 3 EU 4 EU 3 EU 4 EU 3 EU 4

Category Petrol (Gasoline) M1 N1

Class

Tier EU 3 EU 4

Date 2000 2005 2000 2005 2001 2005 2001 2005

CO 3.20 1.90 3.20 1.90 5.80 3.44 7.30 4.35

HC 0.40 0.30 0.40 0.30 0.50 0.38 0.60 0.47

NOx 0.60 0.53 0.60 0.53 0.70 0.62 0.80 0.70

PM -

I II III

EU 3 EU 4 EU 3 EU 4 EU 3 EU 4

Note: Passenger cars category M1 > 2,500 kg or with more than 6 seats meet OBD requirements for Category N1.

Cars: Greenhouse Gas Emissions To control greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector, the European Commission has signed voluntary agreements with the automotive industry to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). Three agreements were signed in 1998-99, with the following associations: ACEAEuropean Automobile Manufacturers Association (Association des Constructeurs Europeans dAutomobiles): BMW, DaimlerChrysler, Fiat, Ford, GM, Porsche, PSA Peugeot Citroen, Renault, VW Group. JAMAJapanese Automobile Manufacturers Association: Daihatsu, Honda, Isuzu, Mazda, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Subaru, Suzuki, Toyota. KAMAKorean Automobile Manufacturers Association: Daewoo, Hyundai, Kia, Ssangyong. Cars sold by the above companies represent about 90% of the total EU vehicle sales.

The agreements define fleet-average CO2 emission targets from new cars sold in the European Union, to be reached collectively by the members of each association. Carbon dioxide is the only gas covered by the agreements, other climate change emissions are currently not controlled. The European Commission intends to extend the voluntary agreements (currently binding through 2008) to adopt more ambitious emission targets. The future agreements would likely also include such instruments as tax incentives or green driving initiatives. In case the voluntary emission targets are not met, the Commission may consider the introduction of mandatory CO2 emission limits.

ACEA Agreement The ACEA Agreement, signed in March 1998, includes the following major provisions: CO2 emission target of 140 g/km to be reached by 2008 (this target represents a 25% reduction from the 1995 level of 186 g/km) Possibility to extend the agreement to 120 g CO2/km by 2012 Intermediate target range of 165-170 g CO2/km by 2003 Individual ACEA members to introduce models of 120 g CO2/km or less by 2000 The limits apply to the collective ACEA members fleet of new passenger cars (Category M1) produced or imported into the European Union. CO2 emissions are measured over the NEDC test.

Japanese and Korean manufacturers (JAMA and KAMA) have signed similar commitments to that of ACEA, with the following differences: JAMA and KAMA target of 140 g CO2/km is delayed by one year, to 2009 JAMA has a wider 2003 intermediate target range of 165-175 g CO2/km KAMA intermediate target of 165-170 g CO2/km is delayed by one year, to 2004 The emission targets are to be met through technological advancements leading to increased fuel economy. The Commission estimated that the compliant fleet of passenger cars in 2008/09 would consume on average about 5.8 l gasoline/100 km or 5.25 l diesel/100 km. The CO2 agreements have been an important factor driving the increased dieselization of the passenger car market in the EU.

Progress Monitoring Progress toward the CO2 emission targets is monitored jointly by the European Commission and by ACEA. Annual progress reports are published by the Commission. ACEA progress through 2003 is illustrated and compared with the targets in Figure 1

Figure 1. CO2 Reduction Under ACEA Agreement

CO2 emission figures for 2003 are listed in Table 1. While ACEA and JAMA have met their interim targets, KAMA stayed behind its commitment. Table 1Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Interim Targets (2003), g/km
CO2 in 2003 Total ACEA JAMA KAMA EU-15 163 172 179 164 Gasoline 171 170 171 171 Diesel 154 177 201 157 Reduction since 1995 11.9% 12.2% 9.1% 11.8% 2002 1.2% 1.1% 2.2% 1.2% 165-170 (2003) 165-175 (2003) 165-170 (2004) Interim target

All three associations are facing challenges to reach the 140 g/km target by 2008/09the average annual reduction rates in the remaining years would have to be 2.8% for ACEA, 3.1% for JAMA and 3.6% for KAMA.

Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck and Bus Engines

The emission standards apply to all motor vehicles with a technically permissible maximum laden mass over 3,500 kg, equipped with compression ignition engines or positive ignition natural gas (NG) or LPG engines. The regulations were originally introduced by the Directive 88/77/EEC, followed by a number of amendments. In 2005, the regulations were recast and consolidated by the Directive 05/55/EC. Beginning with the Euro VI stage, the legislation will be simplified, as directiveswhich need to be transposed into all of the national legislationswill be replaced by regulations which are directly applicable.

The following are some of the most important rulemaking steps in the heavy-duty engine regulations: Euro I standards were introduced in 1992, followed by the introduction of Euro II regulations in 1996. These standards applied to both truck engines and urban buses, the urban bus standards, however, were voluntary. In 1999, the EU adopted Directive 1999/96/EC, which introduced Euro III standards (2000), as well as Euro IV/V standards (2005/2008). This rule also set voluntary, stricter emission limits for extra low emission vehicles, known as enhanced environmentally friendly vehicles or EEVs. In 2001, the European Commission adopted Directive 2001/27/EC which prohibits the use of emission defeat devices and irrational emission control strategies, which would be reducing the efficiency of emission control systems when vehicles operate under normal driving conditions to levels below those determined during the emission testing procedure.

Directive 2005/55/EC adopted by the EU Parliament in 2005 introduced durability and OBD requirements, as well as re-stated the emission limits for Euro IV and Euro V which were originally published in 1999/96/EC. In a splitlevel regulatory approach, the technical requirements pertaining to durability and OBDincluding provisions for emission systems that use consumable reagentshave been described by the Commission in Directive 2005/78/EC. In December 2007, the Commission published a proposal for Euro VI emission standards [COM(2007) 851]. The new emission limits, comparable in stringency to the US 2010 standards, would become effective from 2013/2014. The proposal represents the political part of the regulation. In the split-level approach, the technical details will be developed by the Commission at a later date.

Emission Standards The following table contains a summary of the emission standards and their implementation dates. Dates in the tables refer to new type approvals; the dates for all type approvals are in most cases one year later (EU type approvals are valid longer than one year). Since the Euro III standard (2000), the earlier steady-state engine test ECE R-49 has been replaced by two cycles: the European Stationary Cycle (ESC) and the European Transient Cycle (ETC). Smoke opacity is measured on the European Load Response (ELR) test. The following testing requirements apply: Compression ignition (diesel) engines: Euro III: Conventional diesel engines: ESC/ELR test Diesel engines with advanced aftertreatment (NOx aftertreatment or DPFs) and EEVs: ESC/ELR + ETC Euro IV and later: ESC/ELR + ETC Positive ignition gas (natural gas, LPG) engines, Euro III and later: ETC cycle

Table 1 EU Emission Standards for HD Diesel Engines, g/kWh (smoke in m-1)


Tier Euro I Euro II Euro III Date 1992, < 85 kW 1992, > 85 kW 1996.10 1998.10 1999.10, EEVs only 2000.10 Euro IV Euro V Euro VI 2005.10 2008.10 2013.01 ESC & ELR ESC & ELR Test ECE R-49 CO 4.5 4.5 4.0 4.0 1.5 2.1 1.5 1.5 1.5 HC 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 0.25 0.66 0.46 0.46 0.13 NOx 8.0 8.0 7.0 7.0 2.0 5.0 3.5 2.0 0.4 PM 0.612 0.36 0.25 0.15 0.02 0.10 a 0.13 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.15 0.8 0.5 0.5 Smoke

Proposal (2008.12.16) 3 a - for engines of less than 0.75 dm swept volume per cylinder and a rated power speed of more -1 than 3000 min

Emission standards for diesel engines that are tested on the ETC test cycle, as well as for heavy-duty gas engines, are summarized in Table 2. Table 2 Emission Standards for Diesel and Gas Engines, ETC Test, g/kWh
Tier Euro III Date 1999.10, EEVs only 2000.10 Euro IV Euro V Euro VI 2005.10 2008.10 2013.01 Test ETC CO 3.0 NMHC 0.40 CH4
a

NOx 2.0

PM

0.65

0.02

ETC

5.45 4.0 4.0 4.0

0.78 0.55 0.55 0.16


d

1.6 1.1 1.1 0.5

5.0 3.5 2.0 0.4

0.16 c 0.21 0.03 0.03 0.01

Proposal (2008.12.16) a - for gas engines only (Euro III-V: NG only; Euro VI: NG + LPG) b - not applicable for gas fueled engines at the Euro III-IV stages 3 -1 c - for engines with swept volume per cylinder < 0.75 dm and rated power speed > 3000 min d - THC for diesel engines

Euro VI Proposal. Additional provisions of the Euro VI proposal include: An ammonia (NH3) concentration limit of 10 ppm applies to diesel (ESC + ETC) and gas (ETC) engines. A particle number limit, in addition to the mass limit, is to be introduced no later than 1 April 2010. The number limit would prevent the possibility that the Euro VI PM mass limit is met using technologies (such as open filters) that would enable a high number of ultra fine particles to pass. The world-harmonized test cyclesWHSC and WHTCwill be used for Euro VI testing. WHSC/WHTC based limit values will be introduced once correlation factors with the current ESC/ETC tests are established, but no later than 1 April 2010. A maximum limit for the NO2 component of NOx emissions may be defined at a later time.

Emission Durability. Effective October 2005 for new type approvals and October 2006 for all type approvals, manufacturers should demonstrate that engines comply with the emission limit values for useful life periods which depend on the vehicle category, as shown in the following table. Table 3 Emission Durability Periods
Vehicle Category N1 and M2 Period* Euro IV-V 100 000 km / 5 years 200 000 km / 6 years N2 N3 16 ton M3 Class I, Class II, Class A, and Class B 7.5 ton N3 > 16 ton M3 Class III, and Class B > 7.5 ton 500 000 km / 7 years Euro VI 160 000 km / 5 years 300 000 km / 6 years

700 000 km / 7 years

Mass designations (in metric tons) are maximum technically permissible mass * km or year period, whichever is the sooner

Early Introduction of Clean Engines. EU Member States are allowed to use tax incentives in order to speed up the marketing of vehicles meeting new standards ahead of the regulatory deadlines. Such incentives have to comply with the following conditions: they apply to all new vehicles offered for sale on the market of a Member State which comply in advance with the mandatory limit values set out by the Directive, they cease when the new limit values come into effect for each type of vehicle they do not exceed the additional cost of the technical solutions introduced to ensure compliance with the limit values. Early introduction of cleaner engines can be also stimulated by such financial instruments as preferential road toll rates. In Germany, road toll discounts were introduced in 2005 which stimulated early launch of Euro V trucks. Under the Euro VI proposal, incentives can also be given for scrapping existing vehicles or retrofitting them with emission controls.

Nonroad Diesel Engines

The first European legislation to regulate emissions from nonroad (off-road) mobile equipment was promulgated on December 16, 1997 [Directive 97/68/EC]. The regulations for nonroad diesels were introduced in two stages: Stage I implemented in 1999 and Stage II implemented from 2001 to 2004, depending on the engine power output. The equipment covered by the standard included industrial drilling rigs, compressors, construction wheel loaders, bulldozers, nonroad trucks, highway excavators, forklift trucks, road maintenance equipment, snow plows, ground support equipment in airports, aerial lifts and mobile cranes. Agricultural and forestry tractors had the same emission standards but different implementation dates [Directive 2000/25/EC]. Engines used in ships, railway locomotives, aircraft, and generating sets were not covered by the Stage I/II standards.

On December 9, 2002, the European Parliament adopted Directive 2002/88/EC, amending the nonroad Directive 97/68/EC by adding emission standards for small, gasoline fueled utility engines below 19 kW. The Directive also extended the applicability of Stage II standards on constant speed engines. The utility engine emission standards are to a large degree aligned with the US emission standards for small utility engines. Stage III/IV emission standards for nonroad engines were adopted by the European Parliament on 21 April 2004 [Directive 2004/26/EC], and for agricultural and forestry tractors on 21 February 2005 [Directive 2005/13/EC]. Stage III standards are phased-in from 2006 to 2013, Stage IV enter into force in 2014.

The Stage III/IV standards, in addition to the engine categories regulated at Stage I/II, also cover railroad locomotive engines and marine engines used for inland waterway vessels. Stage III/IV legislation applies only to new vehicles and equipment; replacement engines to be used in machinery already in use (except for railcar, locomotive and inland waterway vessel propulsion engines) should comply with the limit values that the engine to be replaced had to meet when originally placed on the market.

EU nonroad emission standards usually specify two sets of implementation dates: Type approval dates, after which all newly type approved models must meet the standard, and Market placement (or first registration) dates, after which all new engines placed on the market must meet the standard. The dates listed in the following tables are the market placement dates. In most cases, new type approval dates are one year before the respective market placement dates. Regulatory authorities in the EU, USA, and Japan have been under pressure from engine and equipment manufacturers to harmonize worldwide emission standards, in order to streamline engine development and emission type approval/certification for different markets. Stage I/II limits were in part harmonized with US regulations. Stage III/IV limits are harmonized with the US Tier 3/4 standards.

Stage I/II Standards Stage I and Stage II emissions shall not exceed the amount shown in Table 1. The Stage I emissions are engine-out limits and shall be achieved before any exhaust aftertreatment device.
Table 1 EU Stage I/II Emission Standards for Nonroad Diesel Engines
Cat. Stage I A B C Stage II E F G D 130 P 560 75 P < 130 37 P < 75 18 P < 37 2002.01 2003.01 2004.01 2001.01 3.5 5.0 5.0 5.5 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.5 6.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.8 130 P 560 75 P < 130 37 P < 75 1999.01 1999.01 1999.04 5.0 5.0 6.5 1.3 1.3 1.3 9.2 9.2 9.2 0.54 0.70 0.85 Net Power kW Date* CO g/kWh HC NOx PM

* Stage II also applies to constant speed engines effective 2007.01

A sell-off period of up to two years is allowed for engines produced prior to the respective market placement date. Since the sell-off periodbetween zero and two yearsis determined by each Member State, the exact timeframe of the regulations may be different in different countries. Emissions are measured on the ISO 8178 C1 8-mode cycle and expressed in g/kWh. Stage I/II engines are tested using fuel of 0.1-0.2% (wt.) sulfur content.

Stage III/IV Standards Stage III standardswhich are further divided into two sub-stages: Stage III A and Stage III Band Stage IV standards for nonroad diesel engines are listed in Table 2, Table 3, and Table 4, respectively. These limit values apply to all nonroad diesel engines of indicated power range for use in applications other than propulsion of locomotives, railcars and inland waterway vessels. The implementation dates in the following tables (Table 2 through Table 7) refer to the market placement dates. For all engine categories, a sell-off period of two years is allowed for engines produced prior to the respective market placement date. The dates for new type approvals are, with some exceptions, one year ahead of the respective market placement date.

Table 2 Stage III A Standards for Nonroad Engines

Cat. H I J K

Net Power kW 130 P 560 75 P < 130 37 P < 75 19 P < 37

Date 2006.01 2007.01 2008.01 2007.01

CO g/kWh 3.5 5.0 5.0 5.5

NOx+HC 4.0 4.0 4.7 7.5

PM 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6

dates for constant speed engines are: 2011.01 for categories H, I and K; 2012.01 for category J.

Table 3 Stage III B Standards for Nonroad Engines Cat. L M N P NOx+HC Net Power kW 130 P 560 75 P < 130 56 P < 75 37 P < 56 2011.01 2012.01 2012.01 2013.01 Date CO g/kWh 3.5 5.0 5.0 5.0 0.19 0.19 0.19 4.7 2.0 3.3 3.3 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.025 HC NOx PM

Table 4 Stage IV Standards for Nonroad Engines Cat. Q R Net Power kW 130 P 5 60 56 P < 130 2014.01 2014.10 Date CO g/kWh 3.5 5.0 0.19 0.19 0.4 0.4 0.025 0.025 HC NOx PM

Stage III B standards introduce PM limit of 0.025 g/kWh, representing about 90% emission reduction relative to Stage II. To meet this limit value, it is anticipated that engines will have to be equipped with particulate filters. Stage IV also introduces a very stringent NOx limit of 0.4 g/kWh, which is expected to require NOx aftertreatment.

To represent emissions during real conditions, a new transient test procedurethe Non-Road Transient Cycle (NRTC)was developed in cooperation with the US EPA. The NRTC is run twicewith a cold and a hot start. The final emission results are weighted averages of 10% for the cold start and 90% for the hot start run. The new test will be used in parallel with the prior steady-state schedule, ISO 8178 C1, referred to as the Non-Road Steady Cycle (NRSC). The NRTC (transient) shall be used for measurement of particulate emissions for Stage III B and IV for all engines but constant speed engines. By the choice of the manufacturer, NRTC can be used also for Stage III A and for gaseous pollutants in Stage III B and IV. The NRSC (steady-state) shall be used for stages I, II and III A and for constant speed engines, as well as for Stage III B and IV for gaseous pollutants.

Inland Water Vessels. Unlike the Stage I/II legislation, the Stage III A standards also cover engines used in inland waterway vessels, Table 5. Engines are divided into categories based on the displacement (swept volume) per cylinder and net power output. The engine categories and the standards are harmonized with the US standards for marine engines. There are no Stage III B or Stage IV standards for waterway vessels.

Table 5 Stage III A Standards for Inland Waterway Vessels


Cat. V1:1 V1:2 V1:3 V1:4 V2:1 V2:2 V2:3 V2:4 V2:5 Displacement (D) dm per cylinder D 0.9, P > 37 kW 0.9 < D 1.2 1.2 < D 2.5 2.5 < D 5 5 < D 15 15 < D 20, P 3300 kW 15 < D 20, P > 3300 kW 20 < D 25 25 < D 30 2009.01 2007.01
3

Date

CO g/kWh 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0

NOx+HC 7.5 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.8 8.7 9.8 9.8 11.0

PM 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.20 0.27 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50

Rail Traction Engines. Stage III A and III B standards have been adopted for engines above 130 kW used for the propulsion of railroad locomotives (categories R, RL, RH) and railcars (RC), Table 6 and Table 7. Table 6 Stage III A Standards for Rail Traction Engines
Cat. RC A RL A RH A Net Power kW 130 < P 130 P 560 P > 560 2006.01 2007.01 2009.01 Date CO g/kWh 3.5 3.5 3.5 0.5* 4.0 4.0 6.0* 0.2 0.2 0.2 HC HC+NOx NOx PM

* HC = 0.4 g/kWh and NOx = 7.4 g/kWh for engines of P > 2000 kW and D > 5 liters/cylinder

Table 7

Stage III B Standards for Rail Traction Engines


Cat. Net Powe r kW RC B RB 130 < P 130 < P 2012.01 2012.01 Date CO g/kWh 3.5 3.5 0.19 4.0 2.0 0.025 0.025 HC HC+NOx NOx PM

USA
Light-duty vehicles

Cars and Light-Duty TrucksTier 1 Two sets of standards have been defined for light-duty vehicles in the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990: Tier 1 standards, which were published as a final rule on June 5, 1991 and phased-in progressively between 1994 and 1997. Tier 2 standards, which were adopted on December 21, 1999, with a phase-in implementation schedule from 2004 to 2009. Tier 1 standards applied to all new light-duty vehicles (LDV), such as passenger cars, light-duty trucks, sport utility vehicles (SUV), minivans and pick-up trucks. The LDV category included all vehicles of less than 8500 lb gross vehicle weight rating, or GVWR (i.e., vehicle weight plus rated cargo capacity). LDVs were further divided into the following subcategories: passenger cars light light-duty trucks (LLDT), below 6000 lbs GVWR heavy light-duty trucks (HLDT), above 6000 lbs GVWR

FTP Emission Standards Table 1 EPA Tier 1 Emission Standards for Passenger Cars and Light-Duty Trucks, FTP 75, g/mi

Category

50,000 miles/5 years THC NMHC CO NOx diesel 1.0 1.0 NOx PM gasolin e 0.4 0.4 0.7 0.7 1.1 0.08 0.08 0.08 -

Passenger cars LLDT, LVW <3,750 lbs LLDT, LVW >3,750 lbs HLDT, ALVW <5,750 lbs HLDT, ALVW > 5,750 lbs

0.41 0.32 0.39

0.25 0.25 0.32 -

3.4 3.4 4.4 4.4 5.0

Category

100,000 miles/10 years THC NMH C 0.31 0.31 0.40 0.46 0.56 CO

NOx NOx diesel gasoline 1.25 1.25 0.97 0.98 1.53 0.6 0.6 0.97 0.98 1.53

PM

Passenger cars LLDT, LVW <3,750 lbs LLDT, LVW >3,750 lbs HLDT, ALVW <5,750 lbs HLDT, ALVW > 5,750 lbs

0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80

4.2 4.2 5.5 6.4 7.3

0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.12

SFTP Emission Standards

In addition to the FTP 75 test, a Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP) was phased-in between 2000 and 2004. The SFTP includes additional test cycles to measure emissions during aggressive highway driving (US06), and also to measure urban driving emissions while the vehicles air conditioning system is operating (SC03). The Tier 1 SFTP standards, which applied to NMHC+NOx and CO emissions, are summarized in Table 2. The NMHC+NOx standards are weighted, while CO standards are standalone for US06 and SC03 with an option for weighted standard. Weighting for NMHC+NOx and optional weighting for CO is SFTP = 0.35 FTP + 0.28 US06 + 0.37 SC03. Intermediate life (50,000 mi) standards are shown in parentheses.

Table 2 EPA Tier 1 SFTP Standards


Category* NMHC+NOx, g/mi CO, g/mi Weighted Passenger cars & LLDT, LVW <3,750 lbs LLDT, LVW >3,750 lbs HLDT, ALVW <5,750 lbs HLDT, ALVW >5,750 lbs 0.91/2.07 (0.65/1.48) 1.37 (1.02) 1.44 (1.02) 2.09 (1.49) US06 11.1 (9.0) 14.6 (11.6) 16.9 (11.6) 19.3 (13.2) SC03 3.7 (3.0) 4.9 (3.9) 5.6 (3.9) 6.4 (4.4) Weight ed 4.2 (3.4) 5.5 (4.4) 6.4 (4.4) 7.3 (5.0)

* See note to Table 1 for abbreviations The more relaxed value is for diesel fueled vehicles

National LEV Program

December 16, 1997, EPA finalized the regulations for the National Low Emission Vehicle (NLEV) program [63 FR 926, 7 Jan 1998]. The NLEV was a voluntary program that came into effect through an agreement by the northeastern states and the auto manufacturers. It provided more stringent emission standards for the transitional period before the introduction of Tier 2 regulations. Starting in the northeastern states in model year 1999 and nationally in model year 2001, new cars and light light-duty trucks had to meet tailpipe standards that were more stringent than EPA could legally mandate prior to model year 2004. However, after the NLEV program was agreed upon, these standards were enforceable in the same manner as any other federal new motor vehicle program.

The National LEV program harmonized the federal and California motor vehicle standards and provided emission reductions that were basically equivalent to the California Low Emission Vehicle program. The program was phased-in through schedules that required car manufacturers to certify a percentage of their vehicle fleets to increasingly cleaner standards (TLEV, LEV, ULEV). The National LEV program extended only to lighter vehicles and did not include the Heavy LDT (HLDT, GVWR>6,000 lbs) vehicle category.

Cars and Light-Duty TrucksTier 2

The Tier 2 regulation introduced more stringent numerical emission limits relative to the previous Tier 1 requirements, and a number of additional changes that made the standards more stringent for larger vehicles. Under the Tier 2 regulation, the same emission standards apply to all vehicle weight categories, i.e., cars, minivans, light-duty trucks, and SUVs have the same emission limit. In Tier 2, the applicability of light-duty emission standards has been extended to cover some of the heavier vehicle categories. The Tier 1 standards applied to vehicles up to 8500 lbs GVWR.

The Tier 2 standards apply to all vehicles that were covered by Tier 1 and, additionally, to medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPV). The MDPV is a new class of vehicles that are rated between 8,500 and 10,000 lbs GVWR and are used for personal transportation. This category includes primarily larger SUVs and passenger vans. Table 1 outlines and defines the vehicle categories used in the EPA Tier 2 standards. Engines in commercial vehicles above 8500 lbs GVWR, such as cargo vans or light trucks, continue to certify to heavy-duty engine emission standards.

Table 1 Vehicle Categories Used in EPA Tier 2 Standards


Vehicle Category Light-Duty Vehicle Light-Duty Truck Abbreviation LDV LDT Requirements max. 8500 lb GVWR max. 8500 lb GVWR, max. 6000 lb curb weight and 2 max. 45 ft frontal area max. 6000 lb GVWR max. 3750 lb LVW min. 3750 lb LVW
1

Light light-duty truck

LLDT Light-duty truck 1 Light-duty truck 2 LDT1 LDT2 HLDT Light-duty truck 3 Light-duty truck 4 LDT3 LDT4 MDPV

Heavy light-duty truck

min. 6000 lb GVWR max. 5750 lb ALVW min. 5750 lb ALVW


2

Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle

max. 10000 lb GVWR

1 - LVW (loaded vehicle weight) = curb weight + 300 lb 2 - ALVW (adjusted loaded vehicle weight) = average of GVWR and curb weight 3 - Manufacturers may alternatively certify engines for diesel fueled MDPVs through the heavy-duty diesel engine regulations

The same emission limits apply to all vehicles regardless of the fuel they use. That is, vehicles fueled by gasoline, diesel, or alternative fuels all must meet the same standards. Since light-duty emission standards are expressed in grams of pollutants per mile, vehicles with large engines (such light trucks or SUVs) have to use more advanced emission control technologies than vehicles with smaller engines in order to meet the standards. The EPA Tier 2 program uses a three-tiered compliance strategy. Preproduction evaluation is used to certify vehicles prior to sale. A production evaluation is used on the assembly line for early evaluation of production vehicles. Finally in-use evaluation is used to verify properly maintained vehicles after several years of use. The Tier 2 regulation brought new requirements for fuel quality. Cleaner fuels are required by advanced emission aftertreatment devices (e.g., catalysts and particulate filters) that are needed to meet the regulations.

Sulfur Levels in GasolineThe program requires that most refiners and importers meet a corporate average gasoline sulfur standard of 120 ppm and a cap of 300 ppm beginning in 2004. Since 2006, the average standard has been reduced to 30 ppm with an 80 ppm sulfur cap. Temporary, less stringent standards applied to some small refiners through 2007. In addition, temporary, less stringent standards applied to a limited geographic area in the western USA for the 2004-2006 period. Diesel Fuel QualityDiesel fuel of maximum sulfur level of 15 ppm (known as the ultra low sulfur diesel, ULSD) was made available for highway use beginning in June 2006. The reduction of sulfur content in diesel fuel was legislated by the EPA as a part of the 2007-2010 emission regulation for heavy-duty engines.

The emission standards for all pollutants (certification bins) when tested on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) are shown in Table 2. Where intermediate useful life exhaust emission standards are applicable, such standards are applicable for five years or 50,000 miles, whichever occurs first. The vehicle full useful life period for LDVs and light LDTs has been extended to 120,000 miles or ten years whichever occurs first. For heavy LDTs and MDPVs, it is 11 years or 120,000 miles whichever occurs first. Manufacturers may elect to optionally certify to the Tier 2 exhaust emission standards for 150,000 miles to gain NOx credits or to opt out of intermediate life standards. In such cases, useful life is 15 years or 150,000 miles, whichever occurs first. For interim non-Tier 2 LDV/LLDTs, the useful life is 10 years or 100,000 miles, whichever occurs first.

Table 2 Tier 2 Emission Standards, FTP 75, g/mi


Bin# Intermediate life (5 years / 50,000 mi) NMOG* Temporary Bins 11 MDPV 10 9
a,b,d,f c

Full useful life HCHO NMOG* CO NOx PM HCHO

CO

NO x

P M

0.280 0.125 (0.160) 0.075 (0.140) 3.4 (4.4) 3.4 0.4 0.2 0.015 (0.018) 0.015 0.156 (0.230) 0.090 (0.180)

7.3 4.2 (6.4) 4.2

0.9 0.6 0.3

0.12 0.08 0.06

0.032 0.018 (0.027) 0.018

a,b,e,f

Permanent Bins 8
b

0.100 (0.125) 0.075 0.075 0.075 -

3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 -

0.14 0.11 0.08 0.05 -

0.015 0.015 0.015 0.015 -

0.125 (0.156) 0.090 0.090 0.090 0.070 0.055 0.010 0.000

4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 2.1 2.1 2.1 0.0

0.20 0.15 0.10 0.07 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.00

0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00

0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.011 0.011 0.004 0.000

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

for diesel fueled vehicle, NMOG (non-methane organic gases) means NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbons) average manufacturer fleet NOx standard is 0.07 g/mi for Tier 2 vehicles a - Bin deleted at end of 2006 model year (2008 for HLDTs) b - The higher temporary NMOG, CO and HCHO values apply only to HLDTs and MDPVs and expire after 2008 c - An additional temporary bin restricted to MDPVs, expires after model year 2008 d - Optional temporary NMOG standard of 0.195 g/mi (50,000) and 0.280 g/mi (full useful life) applies for qualifying LDT4s and MDPVs only e - Optional temporary NMOG standard of 0.100 g/mi (50,000) and 0.130 g/mi (full useful life) applies for qualifying LDT2s only f - 50,000 mile standard optional for diesels certified to bins 9 or 10

Tier 2 Emission Standards Phase-In

The Tier 2 standards are phased-in between 2004 and 2009, as shown in Table 3. For new passenger cars (LDVs) and LLDTs, Tier 2 standards phase-in begins in 2004, with full implementation in the 2007 model year. For HLDTs and MDPVs, the Tier 2 standards are phased in beginning in 2008, with full compliance in 2009. Up through and including model year 2008, manufacturers must calculate separate fleet average NOx emissions for the portion of their fleet of LDV/LLDT and HLDT/MDPV Tier 2 vehicles being phased-in. Both must comply with the 0.07 g/mile standard (equivalent to bin 5) for the required phase-in percentage for that year. During the phase-in period, vehicles not used to meet the Tier 2 FTP phase-in requirements must still comply with the full useful life and intermediate useful life FTP exhaust emission standards for one of the available bins listed in Table 2 (i.e., at least bin 10 for LDV/LDTs and bin 11 for MDPVs).

During the phase-in period, vehicles not used to meet the Tier 2 FTP phase-in requirements must still comply with the full useful life and intermediate useful life FTP exhaust emission standards for one of the available bins listed in Table 2 (i.e., at least bin 10 for LDV/LDTs and bin 11 for MDPVs). During the period 2004-2007, all passenger cars (LDVs) and LLDTs not certified to the primary Tier 2 standards (i.e., the 0.07 g/mile fleet average NOx) must meet an interim average standard of 0.30 g/mi NOx, equivalent to bin 9 and the NLEV standards for LDVs. During the period 2004-2008, HLDTs and MDPVs not certified to the final Tier 2 must meet an interim average standard of 0.20 g/mi NOx (equivalent to bin 8) following the schedule in Table 2. Those vehicles not covered by the phase-in requirements are still subject to the emission standards listed in Table 1 (i.e., bin 10, 0.6 g/mi NOx, for HLDTs and bin 11, 0.9 g/mi NOx, for MDPVs). Through model year 2007, a manufacturer may opt to certify diesel engines for MDPVs through the heavy-duty diesel engine requirements instead of the entire vehicle through the light-duty regulations. These vehicles cannot be used for compliance with phase-in requirements for interim non-Tier 2 MDPVs.

Table 3 Phase-In Percentages for Tier 2 Requirements


Model year 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 and subsequent LDV/LLDT a Tier 2 25 50 75 100 100 100 50 100 HLDT/MDPV Tier 2
b c

Interim Non-Tier 2 25 50 75 100 100

a - Percentage of LDV/LLDTs that must meet Tier 2 requirements b - Percentage of HLDT/MDPVs that must meet Tier 2 requirements c - Percentage of non-Tier 2 HLDT/MDPVs that must meet interim non-Tier 2 fleet average NOx requirements

Supplemental Exhaust Emission Standards

In addition to meeting the FTP cycle requirements of Table 2, certification of a vehicles requires that it also meet supplemental exhaust emission standards (US06 and SC03 driving cycles). These must be met by LDV and LDTs but not MDPVs, alternative fueled LDV/LDTs, or flexible fueled LDV/LDTs when operated on a fuel other than gasoline or diesel. With some exceptions, manufacturers must comply with 4000 mile and full useful life SFTP (supplemental federal test procedure) standards. The 4000 mile SFTP standards for NMHC+NOx and CO are outlined in Table 4 and are based on vehicle weight classification only.

Table 4 4000 mile SFTP standards for Tier 2 LDVs and LDTs, g/mi US06 NMHC+NOx LDV/LDT1 LDT2 LDT3 LDT4 0.14 0.25 0.4 0.6 CO 8.0 10.5 10.5 11.8 SC03 NMHC+NOx 0.20 0.27 0.31 0.44 CO 2.7 3.5 3.5 4.0

Full useful life Tier 2 SFTP standards for NMHC+NOx, PM and CO are based on both vehicle weight classification and the certification bin applicable to that vehicle. They are equal to the Tier 1 SFTP standards minus 35% of the difference between the Tier 1 and Tier 2 FTP standards: SFTP Standard = Tier 1 SFTP - [0.35 (Tier 1 FTP - Tier 2 FTP)] For example, an LDT4 certified to bin 10 would have the Tier 2 SFTP standards as shown in Table 5.

Table 5 Example SFTP Standards (LDT4, Bin 10), g/mi

Tier 1 a SFTP NMHC+NOx PM CO 2.09 0.12 7.3


d

Tier 1 FTP 0.56+1.53=2.09 0.12 7.3


b

Tier 2 FTP 0.230+0.6=0.830 0.08 6.4


c

Tier 2 SFTP 1.65 0.11 7.0

a - Available from 40 CFR 86.1811-04 b - Sum of NOx and NMHC standards c - Sum of NOx and NMOG standards d - Tier 1 FTP standard

Full useful life SFTP compliance is determined by weighting the emission test results as follows: 0.35(FTP) + 0.28(US06) + 0.37(SC03) and comparing the result with the calculated SFTP standard. With the exception of HLDTs and bin 10 LDV/LLDTs, interim non-Tier 2 vehicles must meet Tier 2 SFTP requirements. Interim non-Tier 2 HLDTs need only meet 2002 SFTP requirements and interim non-Tier 2 bin 10 LDV/LLDTs can meet Tier 1 SFTP requirements. SFTP standards for PM are not applicable to interim non-Tier 2 LDV/Ts. Gasoline fueled LDV/Ts and MDPVs must also meet cold temperature limitsmeasured on the FTP cycle at 20F (-7C)for CO and certification short test limits for raw CO and HC concentrations that do not apply to diesels. The maximum projected NOx emissions measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET) must not be greater than 1.33 times the applicable FTP NOx standard. This standard is not applicable to MDPVs.

The Tier 2 regulation also contains special in-use standards for: NOx and NMOG emissions that apply to apply to bin 5, 4, 3 and 2 LDV/LLDTs produced up through the 2008 model year and HLDT/MDPVs produced up through the 2010 model year, NOx and PM emissions for diesel vehicles certified to bin 10, High altitude NOx emissions for 2007-2009 model year diesel vehicles certified to bins 7 and 8. Table 5 summarizes the different vehicle categories and their testing requirements.

Table 6 Vehicle Categories And Applicable Tests

Category LDV LDT LLDT LDT1 LDT2 HLDT LDT3 LDT4 MDPV

FTP yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes
1

SC03 yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no

US06 yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no

Cold FTP gasoline only gasoline only gasoline only gasoline only gasoline only gasoline only gasoline only gasoline only gasoline only
2

Certification Short Test gasoline only gasoline only gasoline only gasoline only gasoline only gasoline only gasoline only gasoline only gasoline only
2

In-Use yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes

Hwy NOx Std yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no

1 - Manufacturers may alternatively certify engines for diesel fueled MDPVs through the heavy-duty diesel engine regulations 2 - Does not apply to interim Tier 2 vehicles

For Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 vehicles beginning with the 2004 model year, manufacturers must ensure that the complete exhaust system has been designed to facilitate leak-free (i.e. leakage is controlled so as not to lead to the emissions exceeding the limits) assembly, installation and operation for the full useful life of the vehicle. This covers all components from the engine block manifold gasket surface to a point sufficiently past the last catalyst and oxygen sensor in the system to assure that leaks beyond that point will not permit air to reach the oxygen sensor or catalyst under normal operating conditions. No crankcase emissions are allowed to be discharged into the ambient atmosphere from any 2001 and later model year vehicles certified to these standards.

Cars and Light-Duty TrucksCalifornia

California emission standards have been traditionally more stringent than the EPA requirements, but their evolution and structure is similar to that of the federal legislation: Tier 1/LEV California emission standards extended through the year 2003. LEV II California regulations became effective in 2004. A number of other states have adopted emission standards equivalent to the California LEV II legislation, including New York, Massachusetts, Maine and Vermont (adoption of California standards has been also considered by Connecticut, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Oregon, and Washington).

Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) Standards These California emission standards, which applied through model year 2003, were expressed using the following emission categories: Tier 1 Transitional Low Emission Vehicles (TLEV) Low Emission Vehicles (LEV) Ultra Low Emission Vehicles (ULEV) Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicles (SULEV) Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEV) Car manufacturers were required to produce a percentage of vehicles certified to increasingly more stringent emission categories, according to schedules based on vehicle fleet emission averages for each manufacturer. After 2003, Tier 1 and TLEV standards were eliminated as available emission categories. The same standards for gaseous pollutants applied to diesel- and gasolinefueled vehicles. PM standards applied to diesel vehicles only. Emissions were measured over the FTP 75 test and are expressed in g/mile. The additional SFTP procedures were phased-in in California between 2001 and 2005.

Table 1 California Emission Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles, FTP 75, g/mi
Category Passenger cars Tier 1 TLEV LEV ULEV Tier 1 TLEV LEV ULEV Tier 1 TLEV LEV ULEV 0.25 0.125 0.075 0.040 0.25 0.125 0.075 0.040 0.32 0.160 0.100 0.050 3.4 3.4 3.4 1.7 3.4 3.4 3.4 1.7 4.4 4.4 4.4 2.2 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.7 0.7 0.4 0.4 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.015 0.015 0.008 0.015 0.015 0.008 0.018 0.018 0.009 0.31 0.156 0.090 0.055 0.31 0.156 0.090 0.055 0.40 0.200 0.130 0.070 4.2 4.2 4.2 2.1 4.2 4.2 4.2 2.1 5.5 5.5 5.5 2.8 0.6 0.6 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.6 0.3 0.3 0.97 0.9 0.5 0.5 0.08 0.08 0.04 0.08 0.08 0.04 0.10 0.10 0.05 0.018 0.018 0.011 0.018 0.018 0.011 0.023 0.023 0.013 50,000 miles/5 years NMOG
a

100,000 miles/10 years NOx PM HCHO NMOG


a

CO

CO

NOx

PM

HCHO

LDT1, LVW <3,750 lbs

LDT2, LVW >3,750 lbs

a - NMHC for all Tier 1 standards Abbreviations: LVW - loaded vehicle weight (curb weight + 300 lbs) LDT - light-duty truck; NMOG - non-methane organic gases ; HCHO - formaldehyde

Table 2California Emission Standards for Medium-Duty Vehicles, FTP 75, g/mi
Category 50,000 miles/5 years NMOG MDV1, 0-3750 lbs Tier 1 LEV ULEV 0.25 0.125 0.075 3.4 3.4 1.7 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.015 0.008 0.36 0.180 0.107 5.0 5.0 2.5 0.55 0.6 0.3 0.08 0.08 0.04 0.022 0.012
a

120,000 miles/11 years NOx P M HCHO NMOG


a

CO

CO

NOx

PM

HCHO

MDV2, 3751-5750 lbs Tier 1 LEV ULEV 0.32 0.160 0.100 4.4 4.4 4.4 2.2 5.0 5.0 5.0 2.5 0.7 0.4 0.4 0.2 1.1 0.6 0.6 0.3 0.022 0.011 0.006 0.018 0.009 0.004 0.46 0.230 0.143 0.072 0.56 0.280 0.167 0.084 6.4 6.4 6.4 3.2 7.3 7.3 7.3 3.7 0.98 0.6 0.6 0.3 1.53 0.9 0.9 0.45 0.10 0.10 0.05 0.05 0.12 0.12 0.06 0.06 0.027 0.013 0.006 0.032 0.016 0.008

SULEV 0.050 MDV3, 5751-8500 lbs Tier 1 LEV ULEV SULEV 0.39 0.195 0.117 0.059

MDV4, 8501-10,000 lbs Tier 1 LEV ULEV SULEV 0.46 0.230 0.138 0.069 5.5 5.5 5.5 2.8 1.3 0.7 0.7 0.35 0.028 0.028 0.014 0.007 0.66 0.330 0.197 0.100 8.1 8.1 8.1 4.1 1.81 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.12 0.12 0.06 0.06 0.040 0.021 0.010

MDV5, 10,001-14,000 lbs Tier 1 LEV ULEV SULEV 0.60 0.300 0.180 0.090 7.0 7.0 7.0 3.5 2.0 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.036 0.018 0.009 0.86 0.430 0.257 0.130 10.3 10.3 10.3 5.2 2.77 1.5 1.5 0.7 0.12 0.12 0.06 0.06 0.052 0.026 0.013

a - NMHC for all Tier 1 standards Abbreviations: MDV - medium-duty vehicle (the maximum GVWR from 8,500 to 14,000 lbs). The MDV category is divided into five classes, MDV1 .. MDV5, based on vehicle test weight. The definition of test weight in California is identical to the Federal ALVW. NMOG - non-methane organic gases HCHO - formaldehyde

Low Emission Vehicle II (LEV II) Standards

On November 5, 1998 the California ARB adopted the LEV II emission standards which extend from the year 2004 until 2010. Under the LEV II regulation, the light-duty truck and medium-duty vehicle categories of below 8500 lbs gross weight are reclassified and have to meet passenger car requirements, as shown in Table 3. As a result, most pick-up trucks and sport utility vehicles (old MDV4 and MDV5) are required to meet the passenger car emission standards. The reclassification was phased-in by the year 2007. Under the LEV II standard, NOx and PM standards for all emission categories are significantly tightened. The same standards apply to both gasoline and diesel vehicles (under revisions adopted on November 15, 2001 gasoline vehicles are no longer exempted from the PM standard).

Light-duty LEVs and ULEVs certify to a 0.05 g/mi NOx standard, phasedin starting with the 2004 model year. A full useful life PM standard of 0.010 g/mi is introduced for light-duty diesel vehicles and trucks less than 8500 lbs GVWR certifying to LEV, ULEV, and SULEV standards. The TLEV emission category has been eliminated. It is, therefore, believed that the LEV II emission standards can only be met by vehicles fitted with advanced emission control technologies, such as particulate filters and NOx reduction catalysts.

Table 3 California LEV II Emission Standards, Passenger Cars and LDVs < 8500 lbs, g/mi Category 50,000 miles/5 years NMO G LEV ULEV SULEV 0.075 0.040 CO 3.4 1.7 NOx 0.05 0.05 PM HCHO 0.015 0.008 120,000 miles/11 years NMOG 0.090 0.055 0.010 CO 4.2 2.1 1.0 NOx 0.07 0.07 0.02 PM 0.01 0.01 0.01 HCHO 0.018 0.011 0.004

Table 4 California LEV II Emission Standards, Medium Duty Vehicles, Durability 120,000 miles, g/mi Weight (GVWR), lbs. 8,500 - 10,000 Category LEV ULEV SULEV 10,001 - 14,000 LEV ULEV SULEV NMOG 0.195 0.143 0.100 0.230 0.167 0.117 CO 6.4 6.4 3.2 7.3 7.3 3.7 NOx 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.2 PM 0.12 0.06 0.06 0.12 0.06 0.06 HCHO 0.032 0.016 0.008 0.040 0.021 0.010

Heavy-Duty Truck and Bus Engines

The current federal definition of a compression-ignition (diesel) engine is based on the engine cycle, rather than the ignition mechanism, with the presence of a throttle as an indicator to distinguish between diesel-cycle and otto-cycle operation. Regulating power by controlling the fuel supply in lieu of a throttle corresponds with lean combustion and the diesel-cycle operation (this allows the possibility that a natural gas-fueled engine equipped with a sparkplug is considered a compression-ignition engine). Heavy-duty vehicles are defined as vehicles of GVWR (gross vehicle weight rating) of above 8,500 lbs in the federal jurisdiction and above 14,000 lbs in California (model year 1995 and later). Diesel engines used in heavy-duty vehicles are further divided into service classes by GVWR, as follows. Light heavy-duty diesel engines: 8,500 < LHDDE < 19,500 (14,000 < LHDDE < 19,500 in California, 1995+) Medium heavy-duty diesel engines: 19,500 MHDDE 33,000 Heavy heavy-duty diesel engines (including urban bus): HHDDE > 33,000

Model Year 1987-2003


Table 1 EPA Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines, g/bhphr Year 1988 1990 1991 1994 1998 Urban Bus Engines 1991 1993 1994 1996 1998 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 15.5 15.5 15.5 15.5 15.5 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.0 0.25 0.10 0.07 0.05* 0.05* HC 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 CO 15.5 15.5 15.5 15.5 15.5 NOx 10.7 6.0 5.0 5.0 4.0 PM 0.60 0.60 0.25 0.10 0.10

Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Engines

* - in-use PM standard 0.07

Table 2 California Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines, g/bhphr Year 1987 1991 1994 1991 1994 1996 NMHC 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 THC 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 CO 15.5 15.5 15.5 15.5 15.5 15.5 NOx 6.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.0 PM 0.60 0.25 0.10 0.10 0.07 0.05

Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Engines

Urban Bus Engines

Model year 1988-2003 US federal (EPA) and 1987-2003 California (ARB) emission standards for heavy-duty diesel truck and bus engines are summarized in the following tables. Applicable to the 1994 and following year standards, sulfur content in the certification fuel has been reduced to 500 ppm wt.

Useful Life and Warranty Periods

Compliance with emission standards has to be demonstrated over the useful life of the engine, which was adopted as follows (federal & California): LHDDE8 years/110,000 miles (whichever occurs first) MHDDE8 years/185,000 miles HHDDE8 years/290,000 miles Federal useful life requirements were later increased to 10 years, with no change to the above mileage numbers, for the urban bus PM standard (1994+) and for the NOx standard (1998+). The emission warranty period is 5 years/100,000 miles (5 years/100,000 miles/3,000 hours in California), but no less than the basic mechanical warranty for the engine family.

Clean Fuel Fleet Program

Table 3 Clean Fuel Fleet Program for Heavy-Duty SI and CI Engines, g/bhphr Category* LEV (Federal Fuel) LEV (California Fuel) ILEV ULEV ZLEV 14.4 7.2 0 CO NMHC+NOx 3.8 3.5 2.5 2.5 0 0.05 0 0.050 0.025 0 PM HCHO

* LEV - low emission vehicle; ILEV - inherently low emission vehicle; ULEV - ultra low emission vehicle; ZEV - zero emission vehicle

Model Year 2004 and Later In October 1997, EPA adopted new emission standards for model year 2004 and later heavy-duty diesel truck and bus engines. These standards reflects the provisions of the Statement of Principles (SOP) signed in 1995 by the EPA, California ARB, and the manufacturers of heavy-duty diesel engines. The goal was to reduce NOx emissions from highway heavy-duty engines to levels approximately 2.0 g/bhphr beginning in 2004. Manufacturers have the flexibility to certify their engines to one of the two options shown in Table 4.

Table 4 EPA Emission Standards for MY 2004 and Later HD Diesel Engines, g/bhphr Option 1 2 NMHC + NOx 2.4 2.5 NMHC n/a 0.5

All emission standards other than NMHC and NOx applying to 1998 and later model year heavy duty engines (Table 1) will continue at their 1998 levels. EPA established revised useful engine lives, with significantly extended requirements for the heavy heavy-duty diesel engine service class, as follows: LHDDE110,000 miles/10 years MHDDE185,000 miles/10 years HHDDE435,000 miles/10 years/22,000 hours The emission warranty remains at 5 years/100,000 miles. With the exception of turbocharged and supercharged diesel fueled engines, discharge of crankcase emissions is not allowed for any new 2004 or later model year engines. The federal 2004 standards for highway trucks are harmonized with California standards, with the intent that manufacturers can use a single engine or machine design for both markets. However, California certifications for model years 2005-2007 additionally require SET testing, and NTE limits of 1.25 FTP standards. California also adopted more stringent standards for MY 2004-2006 engines for public urban bus fleets.

Model Year 2007 and Later

On December 21, 2000 the EPA signed emission standards for model year 2007 and later heavy-duty highway engines (the California ARB adopted virtually identical 2007 heavy-duty engine standards in October 2001). The rule includes two components: (1) emission standards, and (2) diesel fuel regulations. The first component of the regulation introduces new, very stringent emission standards, as follows: PM0.01 g/bhp-hr NOx0.20 g/bhp-hr NMHC0.14 g/bhp-hr

The PM emission standard will take full effect in the 2007 heavy-duty engine model year. The NOx and NMHC standards will be phased in for diesel engines between 2007 and 2010. The phase-in would be on a percent-of-sales basis: 50% from 2007 to 2009 and 100% in 2010 (gasoline engines are subject to these standards based on a phase-in requiring 50% compliance in 2008 and 100% compliance in 2009). Very few engines meeting the 0.20 g/bhp-hr NOx requirement will actually appear before 2010. In 2007, most manufacturers opted instead to meet a Family Emission Limit (FEL) around 1.2-1.5 g/bhp-hr NOx for most of their engines with a few manufacturers still certifying some of their engines as high as 2.5 g/bhp-hr NOx+NMHC.

In addition to transient FTP testing, emission certification requirements also include: SET test, with limits equal to the FTP standards, and NTE testing with limits of 1.5 FTP standards for engines meeting a NOx FEL of 1.5 g/bhp-hr or less and 1.25 FTP standards. for engines with a NOx FEL higher than 1.5 g/bhp-hr. Effective for the 2007 model year, the regulation maintains the earlier crankcase emission control exception for turbocharged heavy-duty diesel fueled engines but requires that if they are emitted to the atmosphere, they be added to the exhaust emissions during all testing. In this case, the deterioration of crankcase emissions must also be accounted for in exhaust deterioration factors.

Refiners can also take advantage of a temporary compliance option that will allow them to continue producing 500 ppm fuel in 20% of the volume of diesel fuel they produce until December 31, 2009. In addition, refiners can participate in an averaging, banking and trading program with other refiners in their geographic area. Ultra low sulfur diesel fuel has been introduced as a technology enabler to pave the way for advanced, sulfur-intolerant exhaust emission control technologies, such as catalytic diesel particulate filters and NOx catalysts, which will be necessary to meet the 2007 emission standards.

On-Board Diagnostics On-board diagnostic (OBD) systems provide self-diagnostic functionality incorporated into the engine control system, in order to alert the vehicle driver/operator about potential problems that can affect the emission performance of the vehicle. OBD requirements were first introduced for lightduty vehicles in California in 1991. Today, OBD requirements apply to lightduty vehicles and heavy-duty engines, both in California and under the federal EPA requirements. The most detailed requirements for OBD systems are provided by the California regulations. Because systems developed for use in California can generally be used for compliance with EPA requirements with only minor differences, it is expected that OBD systems for vehicles and engines sold outside of California will be similar. California light-duty and heavy-duty regulations define a number of general requirements for the malfunction indicator light (MIL), trouble codes, monitoring, thresholds and standardized communications common to all OBD systems.

Table 1 Monitoring Requirements of California OBD Systems

System/Component
Fuel system

Parameter Requiring Monitoring


Fuel system pressure control Injection quantity Injection timing Feedback control

Misfire

Detect continuous misfire Determine % of misfiring cycles per 1000 engine cycles (2013 and later engines)

EGR

Low flow High flow Slow response EGR cooler operation Feedback control

Boost pressure

Underboost Overboost VGT slow response Charge air under cooling Feedback control

NMHC catalyst

Conversion efficiency Provide DPF heating Provide SCR feedgas (e.g., NO2) Provide post DPF NMHC clean-up Provide ammonia clean-up Catalyst aging

SCR NOx catalyst

Conversion efficiency SCR reductant: delivery performance, tank level, quality, and injection feedback control Catalyst aging

NOx adsorber

NOx adsorber capability Desorption function fuel delivery Feedback control

DPF

Performance Frequent regeneration NMHC conversion Incomplete regeneration Missing substrate Active regeneration fuel delivery Feedback control

Exhaust gas sensors

For air-fuel ratio and NOx sensors: performance, circuit faults, feedback, and monitoring capability Other exhaust gas sensors Sensor heater function Sensor heater circuit faults

VVT

Target error Slow response

Cooling system

Thermostat ECT sensor circuit faults ECT sensor circuit out-of-range ECT sensor circuit rationality faults

CCV Comprehensive component monitoring Other emission control system monitoring

System integrity

Beginning with the 1994 model year, the EPA has required OBD systems on light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and light-duty trucks (LDTs). Since 2005, OBD systems became mandatory for heavy-duty vehicles and engines up to 14,000 lbs GVWR. In December 2008, EPA finalized OBD regulations for 2010 and later heavy-duty engines used in highway vehicles over 14,000 lbs GVWR and made changes to the OBD requirements for heavy-duty applications up to 14,000 lbs GVWR to align them with requirements for applications over 14,000 lbs GVWR.

Fuel Economy/Greenhouse Gases Cars: Fuel Economy

The 1975 Energy Policy Conservation Act added Title V, Improving Automotive Efficiency, to the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act and established Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for passenger cars and light duty trucks (LDT). The Act, passed in response to the 1973-74 oil crisis, had a near term goal to double new car fuel economy by model year (MY) 1985. However, since that time the standards remained almost unchanged. Under the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act, CAFE standards should be significantly tightened by 2020.

The CAFE regulation requires each car manufacturer to meet a standard for the sales-weighted fuel economy for the entire fleet of vehicles sold in the USA in each model year. Fuel economyexpressed in miles per gallon (mpg)is defined as the average mileage traveled by an automobile per gallon of gasoline or equivalent amount of other fuel. CAFE standards are administered by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), an agency within the US Department of Transportation (DOT). NHTSA is responsible for establishing and amending the CAFE standards; promulgating regulations concerning CAFE procedures, definitions and reports; enforcing fuel economy standards and regulations; and all other aspects of CAFE. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for calculating the average fuel economy for each manufacturer.

CAFE Standards

The CAFE fuel economy standards since the beginning of the program are listed in Table 1. Two sets of standards have been established: those for passenger cars and for light trucks. The latter category includes vehicles of gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) from 6,000 to 8,500 lbs, such as pickup trucks, minivans, or SUVs. In the initial years, separate standards existed for 2-wheel and 4-wheel drive LDTs, which were later replaced by one combined standard. For passenger cars, a manufacturers domestic and import fleets must meet the applicable CAFE standard separately.

Table 1 CAFE Fuel Economy Standards, mpg


Year 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 2010 Cars 18.0 19.0 20.0 22.0 24.0 26.0 27.0 27.5 26.0 26.0 26.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 17.5 19.0 20.0 19.5 20.0 20.5 20.5 20.0 20.2 20.2 20.4 20.5 23.5 17.2 16.0 16.7 18.0 19.5 20.3 19.7 20.5 21.0 21.5 20.5 20.7 15.8 14.0 15.0 16.0 17.5 18.5 18.9 19.5 19.5 19.0 19.0 19.1 Light Trucks Combined 2WD 4WD

Year 1995 1996 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Cars 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5

Light Trucks Combined 20.6 20.7 21.0 21.6 22.2 22.5 23.1 23.5 2WD 4WD

Reformed CAFE. Effective 2011, a reformed CAFE program has been adopted for light trucks. During a transition period 2008-2010, manufacturers have the choice of complying either with the unreformed CAFE standards shown in Table 1, or with the reformed CAFE rules. Under reformed CAFE, each manufacturers required level of CAFE is based on target levels set according to vehicle size. The targets are assigned according to a vehicles footprintthe product of the average track width (the distance between the centerline of the tires) and wheelbase (the distance between the centers of the axles). Each vehicle footprint value is assigned a target specific to that footprint value. Compliance is determined by comparing a manufacturers fleet average fuel economy in a model year with a required fuel economy level calculated using the manufacturers actual production levels and the category targets.

The target values are determined from the following continuous mathematical equation, based on the vehicle footprint and four parameters (a ... d) which are adopted for each model year, Table 2. T = [1/a + (1/b - 1/a) e(x-c)/d/(1 + e(x-c)/d)]-1 where: T - fuel economy target, mpg a - maximum fuel economy target, mpg b - minimum fuel economy target, mpg c - footprint value at which the fuel economy target is midway between a and b, ft2 d - parameter defining the rate at which the value of targets decline from the largest to smallest values, ft2 e = 2.718 x - footprint of the vehicle model, ft2

Table 2 Parameter Values for Determination of CAFE Targets

Parameter a b c d

Year 2008 28.56 19.99 49.30 5.58 2009 30.07 20.87 48.00 5.81 2010 29.96 21.20 48.49 5.50 2011 30.42 21.79 47.74 4.65

The resulting CAFE target curve is an elongated S-shape, with fuel economy targets decreasing from a to b as the footprint increases. An example target function is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Example CAFE Light Truck Target Function

The reformed CAFE regulation also applies to medium duty passenger vehicles (MDPVs) of GVWR up to 10,000 lbs as part of the MY 2011 regulated light truck fleet. Thus, the regulation captures nearly all larger size pick-up trucks and SUVs which were excluded from the unreformed CAFE fleet. The DOT estimated that the average light truck target required of manufacturers under the reformed CAFE rule in MY 2011 will be 24.0 mpg. Future Standards The Energy Independence and Security Act signed into law on December 19th, 2007 mandates a 40% increase in fuel economy by 2020. Tougher fuel economy standards should be set starting with MY 2011, until the standards achieve a combined average fuel economy of 35 mpg for MY 2020. The future CAFE standards will apply to the total fleet of passenger and nonpassenger vehicles manufactured for sale in the United States, up to a GVWR of 10,000 lbs.

CAFE Testing CAFE fuel economy testing is done over the same laboratory test that is used to measure exhaust emissions (FTP-75). CAFE certification is typically done based on fuel economy data provided by the manufacturers. In some cases, the EPA performs the testing in its laboratory in Ann Arbor, MI. The CAFE fuel economy figures can be significantly different from the vehicle fuel economy data published by the EPA/DOE in the Fuel Economy Guide report and on new vehicle labels. There are three sets of fuel economy figures: EPAs unadjusted dynamometer values, EPAs adjusted on-road values, and NHTSAs CAFE values. The unadjusted EPA values are calculated based on CO2 emissions measured over the dynamometer test, using a carbon balance equation. The EPA on-road fuel economy values provided to consumers on new vehicle labels, in the EPA/DOE Fuel Economy Guide, and in EPAs Green Vehicle Guide are adjusted downward by 15%, to make the data more representative of the real world driving conditions.

The CAFE valuesused to determine manufacturers compliance with the average fuel economy standardsare significantly higher than the EPA on-road values. The CAFE data reported by the DOT is not adjusted by the 15% factor used by the EPA. Furthermore, the following caveats apply to the CAFE values: The unreformed CAFE standards (before MY 2011) did not apply to vehicles above 8,500 lbs GVWR. Many pickup trucks and some of the largest SUVs which belong to this category were excluded from CAFE data. Credits are provided for alternative fuel vehicles. The CAFE fuel economy of an alternative fueled vehicle is calculated by dividing its real fuel economy by a factor of 0.15. For instance, a 15 mpg natural gas vehicle will be rated as a 100 mpg gasoline vehicle. For bi-fuel vehicles, this calculation is applied to the expected percentage of alternative fuel use. Manufacturers who exceed the standards earn CAFE credits, which can be applied to any three consecutive model years immediately prior or subsequent to the model year in which the credit was earned.

CAFE fuel economy figures achieved since 2000 are also listed in Table 3 (in mpg and in the metric units of liters per 100 km).

Table 3 Achieved CAFE Fuel Economy Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Cars mpg 28.5 28.8 29.0 29.4 29.3 8.25 8.17 8.11 8.00 8.03 Light Trucks l/100 km mpg 21.3 20.9 21.4 21.6 21.5 11.04 11.25 10.99 10.89 10.94 Total Fleet l/100 km 9.48 9.60 9.52 9.41 9.52 24.8 24.5 24.7 25.0 24.7

l/100 km mpg

Occupational Health Regulations

Exposure Limits for Gases

Occupational health and safety regulations are set in the U.S. at the federal level by two agencies within the Department of Labor: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is responsible for general occupational environments Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) is responsible for mining The exposure limits for selected gaseous pollutants found in diesel exhaust are listed in Table 1. Limits set by OSHA are known as Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL). Both OSHA PELs and MSHA TLVs are legally enforceable limits. Limits shown in the column OSHA 88 were adopted as a final rule in 1988, but were later remanded by court and have no legal significance. The TLVs by ACGIH are industrial hygiene recommendations. All limits are 8 hour time weighted averages (TWA), unless marked as ceiling values.

Table 1. Exposure Limits for Gaseous Pollutants (ppmv, TWA, 8 hr)

Substance CAS# CO CO2 NO NO2 HCHO SO2 630-08-0 124-38-9

OSHA PEL OSHA 88* MSHA TLV ACGIH TLV 50 5000 35 5000 25 1 2
d

50 5000 25 5 5 /2
a b

25 5000 25 3 (C) 0.3 A2 2

10102-43-9 25 10102-44-0 (C) 5 50-00-0 7446-09-5 0.75 5

* - not legal limits (PELs adopted in 1988 were later remanded by court) a - for metal/nonmetal mines b - for coal mines d - 15-minute short term exposure limit (STEL) (C) - Ceiling value A2 - Suspected human carcinogen

JAPAN
On-Road Vehicles and Engines

Passenger Cars

Emission standards for new diesel powered cars are listed in Table 1. The test method is the 10-15 mode cycle (which superseded the older 10-mode cycle effective 1991.11 for domestic cars and 1993.04 for imports). The 2005 regulation introduced a new JC08 mode cycle which will be fully phased-in by 2011. Vehicles are tested using 50 ppm S fuel for the 2005 standards.

Table 1 Japanese Emission Standards for Diesel Passenger Cars, g/km


Vehicle Weight < 1250 kg* Date 1986 1990 1994 1997 2002 2005 2009 > 1250 kg* 1986 1992 1994 1998 2002 2005 2009
a b e a b

Test 10-15 mode

CO mean (max) 2.1 (2.7) 2.1 (2.7) 2.1 (2.7) 2.1 (2.7) 0.63

HC mean (max) 0.40 (0.62) 0.40 (0.62) 0.40 (0.62) 0.40 (0.62) 0.12 0.024 0.024
d d

NOx mean (max) 0.70 (0.98) 0.50 (0.72) 0.50 (0.72) 0.40 (0.55) 0.28 0.14 0.08 0.90 (1.26) 0.60 (0.84) 0.60 (0.84) 0.40 (0.55) 0.30
d d

PM mean (max)

0.20 (0.34) 0.08 (0.14) 0.052 0.013 0.005

JC08

0.63 0.63 2.1 (2.7) 2.1 (2.7) 2.1 (2.7) 2.1 (2.7) 0.63

10-15 mode

0.40 (0.62) 0.40 (0.62) 0.40 (0.62) 0.40 (0.62) 0.12 0.024 0.024

0.20 (0.34) 0.08 (0.14) 0.056 0.014 0.005

JC08

0.63 0.63

0.15 0.08

* - equivalent inertia weight (EIW); vehicle weight of 1265 kg


a - 2002.10 for domestic cars, 2004.09 for imports b - full implementation by the end of 2005 c - full phase-in by 2011

Commercial Vehicles

Emission standards for new diesel fueled commercial vehicles are summarized in Table 2 for light vehicles (chassis dynamometer test) and in Table 3 for heavy vehicles (engine dynamometer test). Light-duty trucks and buses are tested on the 10-15 mode cycle, which will be fully replaced by the JC08 mode test by 2011. The test procedure for heavy-duty engines is the JE05 mode cycle (hot start version). Before 2005, heavy-duty engines were tested over the 13-mode cycle and the 6mode cycle. Vehicles and engines are tested using 50 ppm S fuel for the 2005 standards.

Table 2 Diesel Emission Standards for Light Commercial Vehicles GVW 3500 kg ( 2500 kg before 2005)
Vehicle Weight* 1700 kg Date 1988 1993 1997 2002 2005 > 1700 kg
b

Test 10-15 mode

Unit 0.63

CO mean (max) 2.1 (2.7) 2.1 (2.7) 2.1 (2.7) 0.63

HC mean (max) 0.40 (0.62) 0.40 (0.62) 0.40 (0.62) 0.12 0.024
d d

NOx mean (max) 0.90 (1.26) 0.60 (0.84) 0.40 (0.55) 0.28 0.14 0.005 DI: 380 (500) IDI: 260 (350) 1.30 (1.82) 0.70 (0.97) 0.49
d

PM mean (max) 0.20 (0.34) 0.08 (0.14) 0.052 0.013

JC08

0.63 0.024 ppm 0.63 790 (980) 2.1 (2.7) 2.1 (2.7) 0.63

2009 1988 1993 1997 2003 2005


b e a

0.08 510 (670) 0.40 (0.62) 0.40 (0.62) 0.12 0.024

6 mode 10-15 mode

0.25 (0.43) 0.09 (0.18) 0.06 0.015

JC08

0.63 0.024
d

0.25 0.007

2009

0.15

* - gross vehicle weight (GVW) a - 1997: manual transmission vehicles; 1998: automatic transmission vehicles b - full implementation by the end of 2005 c - full phase-in by 2011 d - non-methane hydrocarbons

Table 3 Diesel Emission Standards for Heavy Commercial Vehicles GVW > 3500 kg (> 2500 kg before 2005)
Date 1988/89 1994 1997 2003 2009 2005
a

Test 6 mode 13 mode

Unit ppm 2.22

CO mean (max) 790 (980) 7.40 (9.20) 7.40 (9.20) 2.22

HC mean (max) 510 (670) 2.90 (3.80) 2.90 (3.80) 0.87 0.17
d d

NOx mean (max) DI: 400 (520) IDI: 260 (350) DI: 6.00 (7.80) IDI: 5.00 (6.80) 4.50 (5.80) 3.38 2.0 0.01

PM mean (max)

0.70 (0.96) 0.25 (0.49) 0.18 0.027

b c

JE05

2.22 0.17

0.7

a - 1997: GVW 3500 kg; 1998: 3500 < GVW 12000 kg; 1999: GVW > 12000 kg b - 2003: GVW 12000 kg; 2004: GVW > 12000 kg c - full implementation by the end of 2005 d - non-methane hydrocarbons

Off-Road Engines

After the reorganization of Japanese government in 2001, off-road engine emission standards became the responsibility of MOE and MLIT. The former MOT/MOC emission regulations were replaced by three groups of emission standards, applicable to the following categories of equipment: Special Motor Vehiclesself-propelled nonroad vehicles and machinery that are registered for operation on public roads (fitted with license plates). Nonroad Motor Vehiclesself-propelled and non-registered nonroad vehicles and machinery. Portable And Transportable Equipment: Recognition Systemrecognition of low emission engines for designation of low emission construction machinery.

Special/Nonroad Motor Vehicles

These standards apply to nonroad vehicles rated between 19-560 kW with (Special Motor Vehicles) or without (Nonroad Motor Vehicles) licence plates. The emission limits for the two vehicle categories are the same, but they are introduced by separate regulatory acts. On June 28, 2005, the MOE promulgated a new set of standards for Special Vehicles, superseding former MOT standards. On March 28, 2006, the same standards were promulgated for Nonroad Vehicles, superseding former MOC standards. The standards are summarized in Table 1 for compression ignition engines, and in Table 2 for spark ignited engines. Emissions are measured according to JIS B 8001-1 (Japanese version of ISO 8178) 8mode test for diesel, 7-mode test for SI. Smoke is measured according to JCMAS T-004.

Table 1 Emission Standards for Diesel Special/Nonroad Vehicles, g/kWh Power (P) kW 19 P < 37 37 P < 56 56 P < 75 75 P < 130 130 P < 560 CO 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 3.5 HC 1.0 0.7 0.7 0.4 0.4 NOx 6.0 4.0 4.0 3.6 3.6 PM 0.4 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.17 Smoke % 40 35 30 25 25 Date New Models 2007.10 2008.10 2008.10 2007.10 2006.10 All Models 2008.09 2009.09 2010.09 2008.09 2008.09

g/kWh

Applies to continuously produced nonroad vehicles (but not special vehicles) and imported special/nonroad vehicles.

Table 2 Emission Standards for Spark Ignited Special/Nonroad Vehicles, g/kWh Power (P) 7-mode CO kW 19 P < 560 g/kWh 20.0 0.60 0.60 HC NOx Idle CO % 1 HC ppm 500 Date New Models 2007.10 All Models 2008.09

Applies to continuously produced nonroad vehicles (but not special vehicles) and imported special/nonroad vehicles.

These standards, although similar in stringency to the US Tier 3 (20062008) and the EU Stage III A (2005-2007), are not harmonized with US and EU regulations. The standards do not require the use of exhaust aftertreatment devices, such as diesel particulate filters. The MOEs Central Environmental Council indicated it will consider adopting aftertreatment-forcing standards with implementation dates around 2010.

Portable/Transportable Equipment (Recognition System)

Under the recognition system regulations that became effective on March 17, 2006, manufacturers may apply for their engines to be recognized as a low emission engine for use in designated low emission construction machinery. The recognition system applies to portable and transportable (i.e., non-self-propelled) equipment, which is not emission regulated under the Special/Nonroad Motor Vehicle regulations. The emission standards are listed in Table 3. Emissions are measured over the JIS B 8001-1 (ISO 8178) 8-mode test. For generator application, the rated speed is for 60 Hz and the intermediate speed is for 50 Hz.

Table 3 Emission LimitsRecognition System, g/kWh Power (P) kW 8 P < 19 19 P < 37 37 P < 56 56 P < 75 75 P < 130 130 P < 560 * NOx + HC CO g/kWh 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 3.5 7.5* 1.0 0.7 0.7 0.4 0.4 6.0 4.0 4.0 3.6 3.6 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.17 HC NOx PM Smoke % 40 40 35 30 25 25

Off-Road Engines (MOT/MOC)

Emission regulations for new off-road engines and vehicles used to be under the jurisdiction of the former Ministry of Transport (MOT) and Ministry of Construction (MOC), which were amalgamated into Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (MLIT) during the reorganization of Japanese government in 2001. This summary covers the historical MOT/MOC standards, which have been replaced by more recent MLIT/MOE emission regulations for off-road engines. The MOT standards applied to Special Motor Vehicles (off-road vehicles registered for operation on public roads) rated between 19-560 kW. Example equipment included agricultural tractors, forklifts, or wheel loaders. The MOC standards applied to a variety of construction machinery including backhoe loaders, tractor-type loaders, concrete sprayers, drill jumbos, dump trucks, truck mixers, generators, air compressors and wheel cranes.

Special Motor Vehicle Standards (MOT) The MOT standards became effective starting in October 2003 (Table 1). Emissions were measured on the ISO 8178-4 C1 cycle. Smoke was measured according to JCMAS T-004.
Table 1 Emission Standards for Special Motor Vehicles (MOT), g/kWh Power kW 19-37 37-75 75-130 130-560 CO g/kWh 5.0 5.0 5.0 3.5 1.5 1.3 1.0 1.0 8.0 7.0 6.0 6.0 0.8 0.4 0.3 0.2 HC NOx PM Smoke % 40% 2003.10 Date

Construction Machinery Standards (MOC)


Table 2 Emission Standards for Diesel Construction Equipment (MOC), g/kWh
Power kW Stage 1 7.5-15 15-30 30-260 Stage 2 8-19 19-37 37-75 75-130 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 1.50 1.50 1.30 1.0 9.0 8.0 7.0 6.0 0.80 0.80 0.40 0.30 2003.10 5.7 5.7 5.0 2.40 1.90 1.30 12.4 10.5 9.2 1996.4.1 b 1997.4.1 c 1998.4.1
a

CO g/kWh

HC

NOx

PM

Date

a - applies to tunnel construction (1997.4.1 for 7.5-15 kW) b - general construction, 3 key machines (backhoes, tractor type loaders, bulldozers) c - general construction, other machines

The Construction Machinery (MOC) emission standards are shown in Table 2. The MOC Stage 2 standards were aligned with MOT standards (Table 1). Emissions are measured on the 8-mode C1 ISO 8178 cycle.

Automotive NOx and PM Law In 1992, to cope with NOx pollution problems from existing vehicle fleets in highly populated metropolitan areas, the Ministry of the Environment adopted the Law Concerning Special Measures to Reduce the Total Amount of Nitrogen Oxides Emitted from Motor Vehicles in Specified Areas, called in short The Motor Vehicle NOx Law. The regulation designated a total of 196 communities in the Tokyo, Saitama, Kanagawa, Osaka and Hyogo Prefectures as areas with significant air pollution due to nitrogen oxides emitted from motor vehicles. Under the Law, several measures had to be taken to control NOx from in-use vehicles, including enforcing emission standards for specified vehicle categories. The regulation was amended in June 2001 to tighten the existing NOx requirements and to add PM control provisions. The amended rule is called the Law Concerning Special Measures to Reduce the Total Amount of Nitrogen Oxides and Particulate Matter Emitted from Motor Vehicles in Specified Areas, or in short the Automotive NOx and PM Law. The amended regulation became effective starting in October 2002.

Emission Standards

The NOx and PM Law introduces emission standards for specified categories of in-use highway vehicles including commercial goods (cargo) vehicles such as trucks and vans, buses, and special purpose motor vehicles, irrespective of the fuel type. The regulation also applies to diesel powered passenger cars (but not to gasoline cars). In-use vehicles in the specified categories must meet 1997/98 emission standards for the respective new vehicle type (in the case of heavy duty engines NOx = 4.5 g/kWh, PM = 0.25 g/kWh). In other words, the 1997/98 new vehicle standards are retroactively applied to older vehicles already on the road. Vehicle owners have two methods to comply: Replace old vehicles with newer, cleaner models Retrofit old vehicles with approved NOx and PM control devices

Vehicles have a grace period, between 9 and 12 years from the initial registration, to comply. The grace period depends on the vehicle type, as follows: Light commercial vehicles (GVW 2500 kg): 8 years Heavy commercial vehicles (GVW > 2500 kg): 9 years Micro buses (11-29 seats): 10 years Large buses ( 30 seats): 12 years Special vehicles (based on a cargo truck or bus): 10 years Diesel passenger cars: 9 years Furthermore, the regulation allows to postpone its requirements by an additional 0.5-2.5 years, depending on the age of the vehicle. This delay was introduced in part to harmonize the NOx and PM Law with the Tokyo diesel retrofit program. The NOx and PM Law is enforced in connection with Japanese vehicle inspection program, where non-complying vehicles cannot undergo the inspection in the designated areas. This, in turn, may trigger an injunction on the vehicle operation under the Road Transport Vehicle Law.

Tokyo Retrofit Program

In December 2000, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government (TMG) adopted a new Ordinance on Environmental Preservation, which includes an array of regulatory measures to control air, water, soil, as well as noise pollution. An important part of the Ordinance is the Countermeasure Against Vehicle Pollution program, which includes the following components: Diesel emission control regulation (retrofit program) Certain categories of in-use diesel vehicles have to be retrofitted with emission control systems to reduce PM emissions. Vehicles failing this requirement are to be banned from travel in the TMG area. Vehicle environmental management plan Businesses which own over 30 vehicles must produce an environmental management plan, outlining the steps to reduce pollution, and report on the implementation progress. Use of low emission vehicles

Diesel Emission Regulations Particulate matter emissions from in-use diesel vehicles must be reduced by retrofitting with emission control devices. The retrofit requirements apply to buses, trucks, and special category vehicles based on buses and trucks, such as campers, garbage collection trucks, and refrigerator/freezer vehicles. Passenger cars are not subject to retrofit requirements. The PM emission reduction requirements depend on the vehicle emission level at the time of its manufacture (i.e., emission certification level). Older vehicles have higher PM reduction requirements. Newer vehicles, which meet more stringent new engine emission standards, have more relaxed PM emission reduction requirements. The retrofit program has a two-tier structure: the Tier 1 requirements become effective in October 2003. Somewhat more stringent Tier 2 PM emission reduction requirements come to power in 2005. These emission reduction requirementsalong with their Category designationsare listed in the following table.

Table 1 Diesel PM Reduction Requirements and Categories


Vehicle Description Meets 1989/1990 standards, or Fails to meet 1989/1990 standards Meets 1993/1994 standards Meets 1997/1998/1999 standards OEM-fitted with PM aftertreatment Tier 1 (2003.10) PM Reduction > 60% > 30% N/A Meet PM standards Category 1 2 Tier 2 (2005) PM Reduction > 70% > 40% > 30% Category 3 4 5

Meet PM standards