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MIS STRATEGY

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

PLANNING

EBTERPRISE OBJECTIVE

ENTERPRISE STRATEGIES

APPRAISAL

DETERMINE THE ORG. COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES

DETERMINE PRESENT AND POTENTIAL OPPORTUNITIES

CHOICE

CONSIDER THE STRATEGIC OPTIONS

CHOOSE THE STRATEGY

IMPLEMENTATION

DEVELOP MEDIUM AND SHORT RANGE PLANS

DEVELOP THE ORG. STRUCTURE AND CLIMATE

CONTROL
PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

EVALUATION OF STRATEGIES AND FEED BACK

3/21/2012

Vision ..
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The vision is the starting point of strategic framework. Where you want to be in future.

That makes a difference in society. They have a vision that

how society could be or should be in future


This vision is not they can achieve on their own. It is

something that guides in their work and which they believe, can be achieved if enough organizations share the vision and works towards it.
PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Example of vision..
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We strive to contribute to a society where every citizen has equal access to quality health care and is able to live in an environment which supports quality health for all.

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Mission:
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Purpose of existence of your organization.

The mission contains statements how you are going

to achieve the vision statement.


A mission statement have four components: What the organization or project is? What the organization or project aims to do or achieve? Who the work is aimed at( the target group), How it does it work(what methods it uses)
PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

A mission statement is a statement of the organizations reason for being, its purpose what it wants to accomplish in the larger environment. (Kotler p.49).

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Goal.
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Goals are general directions, that are not specific

enough to be measured.
Think of the word "go." It has no end.
A good example is the signature line of the Star Trek television series: Go where no one in has gone before." You can't measure it, and you probably will never know if the goals were accomplished, because once humans have gone somewhere, we've been there, and there are still other places to go since the universe is infinite and has no end.

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Objectives..
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Objectives, on the other hand, are specific and

measurable.
Think of the word "object." You can touch it, it's

there, it's actual, it's finite.


A crystal-clear objective would read something like

this: "Our objective is to deliver X results by Y date at a cost of Z dollars." .


PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Think of the goals as the treasure at the top of a stairway, and the objectives as the stairs.

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Establishing Objectives for Systems Development


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Systems development objectives should be

supportive of, and aligned with, organizational goals. There are four kinds of objectives that should be considered:

Performance objectives. Cost objectives. Control objectives. Complexity objectives.

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Role of system analyst:


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Due to the various responsibilities that a system analyst requires to handle, he has to be multifaceted person with skills required at various stages of the life cycle. Technical know-how of the information system

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

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Business knowledge Interpersonal skills As the analyst might have to develop any kind of a business system, he should be familiar with the general functioning of all kind of businesses. Such skills are required at various stages of development process for interacting with the users and extracting the requirements out of them.

Problem solving skills A system analyst should have enough problem solving skills for defining the alternate solutions to the system and also for the problems occurring at the various stages of the development process.

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

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Review of present system: Capabilities and shortcomings.

Specifications of system requirements..(system planning)


Survey of system userstheir information

needs.requirement analysis and specifications Alternative system concept Identify and investigate the problem and opportunities Feasibility studyrough estimates and cost, risk and ROI analysis.

In short researching, planning and recommending software and system choices


PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

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PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

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ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS

ANALYSIS OF PRESENT SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Organizational analysis
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No design can be made , no improvements can be

made unless we are unknown to organizational environment and related activities. The need of information must be identified.

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Analysis of present system


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System decomposition concept: The process of

dividing the large systems into smaller systems is called decomposition. It helps in understanding the existing the present system. It helps to go through the organizational objectives. It helps to know that whether the system is totally feasible or not and what improvements are required

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Functional requirement analysis.


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Information system design requirements, processes,

hardware and software configuration must be restructured.

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Assessing information needs:


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Step 1. Identify future issues

Step 2. Develop a taxonomy Step 3. Rate the importance of information

requirements Step 4. Prepare a data collection / analysis plan

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Step 1. Identify future issues


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A number of mechanisms can be used for anticipating strategic issues.

Techniques like the Delphi, Nominal Group technique have been used to capture the opinions of groups of experts on the likelihood that issues will occur.
Identify weaknesses in existing system operation,
literature reviews, and observing the environment, penal research,

focus group research, survey, can also be helpful.

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Step 2. Develop a taxonomy


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In this step, the analysis team works with the panel

to identify categories of information. The panel lists for each issue what information will substantially useful and assist in decision making. The analysis team then categorizes these information items. For example, cost of operations maybe important in several different upcoming issues.

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Step 3. Rate the importance of information requirements


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No information system can collect and analyze data

to address every possible information requirement. Even if one could guarantee that the format in which the data were collected was appropriate to a particular strategic issue, the cost would be prohibitive. It is imperative to establish priorities on what information is to be collected and analyzed.

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Impact on business
Probability of occurrence
High Medium
High priority issues

Low
Low priority issues

High Medium

Critical issues

High priority issues

High priority issues

Low priority issues

low

To be watched issues
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Low priority issues

Low priority issues


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PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

Issues

Weight age

Rating

Total Weight age score

Comments

Opportunities

Threats

Weight age(0 to 1) Factor impact Business response

Rating(5=outs tanding1=po or)


The total weighted score indicates how well the business is responding to current and expected factors in its external PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM) environment. 24 3/21/2012

Systems Development
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PLANNING LIFECYCLE

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Systems Development Model


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Traditional: SDLC

Alternatives Prototyping CASE-based Time-boxing Rapid Application Development

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Systems Lifecycle
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Investigation

Design
Building Testing

Installation Maintenance
Enhancement Retirement

All of these activities comprise system development and form a lifecycle

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Traditional Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC)


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Often called Waterfall Model


Investigation Design

Construction

Testing

Implement and Control


PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Definition phase..
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Analysis of existing information system and business activities Problems related to current operations and IS are identified.

A good solution is drawn in a detailed requirement statement Feasibility study: applicability and cost benefit analysis
PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Construction phase
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On the basis of requirement analysis, the designer

designs the system first logically and then physically through IT tools and methods. When physical design is made feasible then computer software is developed and evaluated
System design (logically flow diagram)

Coding and physically development

System testing

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Implementation phase
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When business managers and IS professional are

satisfied with system, they install it.


Implementation

Cutover

phase-in

It can be installed in a complete .


PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

It can be installed in parallel with operation of old system


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Prototype approach.
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Is a type of evolutionary development process


Input and output screens developed for users to test as part of requirements definition First-of-a-series a completely operational prototype used as a pilot

Selected features only some essential features included in prototype, more added later

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Development of a Prototype
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IS objectives Modified prototype Is the user satisfied

Identification of information requirements


Define system objective

Modify the prototype specifications

NO

YES

Develop and test prototype

Documents

Quick design

Prototype building

STOP

Engineer the product


3/21/2012

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

Prototyping approach.
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Identification basic system requirements Developing initial prototype Users role(suggestions and desired changes) Revise and enhance prototype

Logical design and testing

Evaluation of prototype system

Construction phase Implementation phase

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Rapid Application Development


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Goal is to produce a system in less than a year


Trendy term for many of these alternative methods

used is some combination:


CASE JAD Prototyping Time Boxing

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Time Box Approach


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Identify objectives Create project team Set time period (say for 6 weeks)

Team cycles through all phases of lifecycle very quickly.


Fast development tools very useful

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

CASE Tools..
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Computer Aided Software Engineering Toolsets to speed software development and improve quality Upper CASE Focus on investigation, analysis and logical design

Lower CASE Design, code generation and testing


Integrated CASE include both

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Types of CASE tools.


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PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Rapid Application Development (RAD)


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Hybrid methodology aspects of SDLC and prototyping

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

Figure 10.12 Four-Step RAD Cycle

3/21/2012

Rapid Application Development (RAD)


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Joint application design (JAD) a technique in which a team of users and IS specialists engage in an intense and structured process in order to minimize the total time required for gathering information from multiple participants

Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) any software tool used to automate one or more steps of a software development methodology

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Rapid Application Development (RAD)


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PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

Figure 10.14 RAD Advantages and Disadvantages

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End User Development


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Easy-to-use tools encourage end-user development

So does IT department resource constraints


Advantages Good knowledge of business needs Control of resources and priorities Disadvantages Lack of technical expertise Lack of planning

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

IT Organization vs. End-User Development


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Source of tension
IT: Users produce poor systems and leave us with maintenance

How should IT respond to this? Ignore Outlaw and drive underground Offer assistance and consultation
PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

User Acceptance
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User acceptance document - a formal agreement signed by the user that a phase of the installation or the complete system is approved.

This is a legal document that usually removes or reduces the IS vendor from liability or responsibility for problems that occur after it is signed.
PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

THE MAKE-OR-BUY DECISION 45


Decision should be made jointly by business managers and IS professionals Advantages of purchasing:
Cost savings Faster speed of implementation Seldom exactly fits a companys needs Often forces trade-offs

Disadvantages of purchasing:

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

PURCHASING METHODOLOGY
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RFP= Request for Proposal

The Purchasing Process


PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

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Initiating the Purchasing Process


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PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

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Establish Criteria for Selection


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PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

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Develop and Distribute the RFP


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Request for proposal (RFP) a formal document sent to potential vendors inviting them to submit a proposal describing their software package and how it would meet the companys needs

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Evaluate Vendor Responses to RFP and Choose Package


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Evaluation steps:

Review vendors responses from RFPs Request demonstrations of leading packages Request references from users of software packages in other companies Assess how well package capabilities satisfy companys needs Understand extent of any additional development efforts or costs to tailor software Make decision
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PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

Evaluate Vendor Responses to RFP and Choose Package


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Matching Company Needs with Capabilities of the Package


PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Construction Phase
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If no software package modifications required:


Skip system design and building steps Move directly to system testing Develop any necessary process changes Consider contracting with vendor or a third party for changes versus modifying in-house Determine if changes are required to other existing company systems
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If software package is modified:


PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

Project Team for Purchasing Packages


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Business managers and users IS professionals Project manager usually a business manager Software vendor personnel Sometimes includes a third-party implementation partner Purchasing specialists

PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012

Purchasing Advantages and Disadvantages


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PROF.M. K. AGRAWAL(FMS-IIRM)

3/21/2012