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October 2011

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

Phone: 740-397-0311 gphillippi@arielcorp.com www.arielcorp.com

This short course will provide the attendee an opportunity to learn the very basic and fundamental concepts governing compression with a reciprocating compressor. This will include discussions of pressure versus time (or crank angle) and pressure versus volume diagrams, volumetric efficiency, capacity, horsepower and compression efficiency. In addition, the effects of changing conditions, gas analysis, temperature, and gas pulsation will be discussed. Many of these topics are presented through the explanation of the underlying thermodynamic theory.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

October 2011

Course Outline

Pressure - time diagram animation Pressure - volume diagram Capacity

Fixed clearance Volumetric efficiency ACFM, ACF, SCF, MMSCFD

www.arielcorp.com

The short course will cover the basic thermodynamic theory supporting a reciprocating compressor. Mechanical design details will not be covered. An understanding of the basic thermodynamics is vital and forms a good foundation for a deeper understanding of the mechanical aspects.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

October 2011

Course Outline

Horsepower

Adiabatic Valve loss Resistance factor Valve equivalent area Deactivated end IHP, BHP, friction Compression efficiency

www.arielcorp.com

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

October 2011

Course Outline

Varying conditions

Pressure Speed

Adiabatic exponent (k-value) Compressibility factor (Z)

www.arielcorp.com

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

October 2011

Course Outline

Temperature

Adiabatic discharge temperature Actual discharge temperature Suction temperature preheat

Multi-stage compression

What Why How Capacity balance

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Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

October 2011

Course Outline

Rod load

Tension Compression Gas + inertia Non-reversing

Pulsation

www.arielcorp.com

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

October 2011

www.arielcorp.com

The P-T diagram (pressure versus time diagram) is a plot of the pressure inside the compression chamber (inside the bore) versus time or crank angle time and crank angle being directly related. IDC is inner dead center. ODC is outer dead center. PD is discharge pressure (typically said to be the pressure that exists at the cylinder flange). PS is suction pressure - at the cylinder flange.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

October 2011

Pressure

Ps

ODC

CO MR ES

IDC

CO MR ES SIO N

Pd

IO NS PA EX N

SI ON

Crank Angle

Suction

IO NS PA EX

ODC

Head End

Crank End

www.arielcorp.com

Discharge

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

October 2011

Pressure-Volume Diagram

PD

Pressure

PS

VMIN

Volume

VMAX

www.arielcorp.com

The P-V diagram (pressure-volume diagram) is a plot of the pressure inside the compression chamber (inside the bore) versus the volume of gas inside the chamber. A complete circuit around the diagram represents one revolution of the crankshaft. This is an ideal diagram in that it does not show any valve pressure drop and therefore no valve loss horsepower (which will be explained later in the course). PD is discharge pressure (typically said to be the pressure that exists at the cylinder flange). PS is suction pressure - at the cylinder flange.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

October 2011

Compression

PD

C

Pressure

om

pr

es si

on

PS

Volume

www.arielcorp.com

This depicts the compression event. It starts at the point where the suction valve closes. When the suction valve closes, gas is trapped inside the compression chamber at suction pressure and suction temperature. As the piston moves towards the other end of the compression chamber, the volume is decreasing, the pressure increasing and the temperature increasing. Compression stops when the discharge valve opens. The shape of the curve of the compression event is determined by the adiabatic exponent (k-value or n-value). This is a thermodynamic property of the gas and will be discussed later in the course.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

10

October 2011

Discharge

PD

Discharge valve opens

Discharge

Discharge valve closes

Pressure

PS

Volume

www.arielcorp.com

When the discharge valve opens, compression stops, and gas at discharge pressure and discharge temperature is pushed out of the compression chamber through the discharge valve, into the discharge gas passage and out into the discharge piping. The discharge event continues until the piston reaches the end of the stroke, where the discharge valve closes and the next event, expansion, begins. The compression and discharge events together represent onehalf of one revolution of the crankshaft and one stroke length.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

11

October 2011

Expansion

PD

nsion Expa

Pressure

PS

Volume

www.arielcorp.com

When the discharge valve closes at the end of the discharge event, there is still some gas left in the compression chamber. This volume of gas is referred to as the fixed clearance volume and is usually expressed as a percentage:

% Fixed Clearance = in3 fixed clearance in3 piston displaceme nt 100%

As the piston moves away from the head, the volume inside the compression chamber increases with all of the valves (suction and discharge) closed. The gas in the fixed clearance volume expands, decreasing in pressure and temperature, until the pressure inside the compression chamber reaches suction pressure, where the suction valve opens and the expansion event ceases.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

12

October 2011

Suction

PD

Pressure

PS

Suction valve opens

www.arielcorp.com

Suction

Volume

At the end of the expansion event, the suction valve opens opening the compression chamber to the suction gas passage and suction piping system. As the piston moves, the volume in the compression chamber is increasing and the compression chamber fills with gas at suction pressure and suction temperature. The suction event ceases when the piston reaches the other end of the stroke, the suction valves closes and the piston turns around and goes the other direction. The end of the suction event marks the end of one complete cycle. One complete cycle requires one complete revolution of the crankshaft and two stroke lengths.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

13

October 2011

Four Events

Discharge valve closes

PD

Discharge

C om

nsion Expa

Pressure

pr

es si

on

PS

Suction valve opens

www.arielcorp.com

Suction

Volume

All four events representing the compression cycle are shown on this chart - Compression, Discharge, Expansion, and Suction.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

14

October 2011

Fixed Clearance

Head End Clearance

www.arielcorp.com

There are many pockets of volume in the compression chamber that combine to form the fixed clearance volume: around the piston between the piston and the bore, between the piston and the head, around the head between the head and bore, between the end of the valve and the head, and in the valve itself. The fixed clearance volume is the gas that needs to expand from discharge to suction pressure inside the cylinder.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

15

October 2011

Fixed Clearance

Crank End Clearance

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Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

16

October 2011

Fixed Clearance

www.arielcorp.com

This shows the fixed clearance volume that is between the valve and the bore and inside the valve. It can then be imagined that the fixed clearance volume changes with the diameter and thickness of the valve.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

17

October 2011

Fixed Clearance

in3 Clearance % Fixed Clearance = 3 100% in Displaceme nt

www.arielcorp.com

Fixed clearance is typically expressed as a percent the ratio of the fixed clearance volume to the piston displacement in volume units.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

18

October 2011

Volumetric Efficiency

PD

Pressure

Inlet volume

PS

Volume

Displacement

www.arielcorp.com

The inlet volume is the amount of gas brought into the compression chamber during the suction event. The amount of gas brought into the compression chamber out of the suction piping system IS the capacity! The displacement represents the volume displaced during one complete stroke length of the piston. The piston displacement of the head end and crank end of a double-acting cylinder are different due to the existence of the piston rod in the crank end.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

19

October 2011

Volumetric Efficiency

VE = Inlet volume Displaceme nt

www.arielcorp.com

Volumetric efficiency (VE) is the ratio of inlet volume to displacement, usually expressed as a percent. It should be noted that VE has nothing to do with when the suction valve opens. It has everything to do with how much of the compression chamber fills with gas at suction pressure and suction temperature.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

20

October 2011

Volumetric Efficiency

Volumetric efficiency (V.E.) is the percentage of

stroke that can (or will) fill with suction gas and is the cylinder ends capacity. V.E. is NOT suction valve open time. A higher number for V.E. does not mean it is better. The influence of V.E. on compression (energy) efficiency is through the relationship of V.E. to average piston velocity (avg velocity of gas thru valves)

www.arielcorp.com

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

21

October 2011

www.arielcorp.com

Here, X represents how much the volumetric efficiency is distorted by pulsation. This shows that valve open time and volumetric are not always necessarily the same thing.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

22

October 2011

Volumetric Efficiency

Z VE S = 100 %CL s Z d Where:

VES %CL ZS ZD PD PS K = = = = = = =

P d P s

Volumetric efficiency, % Fixed clearance, % Compressibility factor @ PS & TS Compressibility factor @ PD & TD Discharge pressure, psia Suction pressure, psia Adiabatic exponent, k-value

1 K 1

www.arielcorp.com

This is the equation for volumetric efficiency. Note the influence of the thermodynamic gas properties K and Z. The higher the K-value the higher the volumetric efficiency, everything else equal. The influence of Z is not so straight forward because it is actually a ratio of Z and the ratio for most typical applications is around 1.0 (meaning ZS = ZD). Also, note the influence of clearance. The higher the %CL (percent fixed clearance) the lower the volumetric efficiency.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

23

October 2011

Volumetric Efficiency

Z VE = 100 R - %CL s S C Z d Where:

VES %CL ZS ZD PD PS K = = = = = = =

P d P s

1 K 1

Volumetric efficiency, % Fixed clearance, % Compressibility factor @ PS & TS Compressibility factor @ PD & TD Discharge pressure, psia Suction pressure, psia Adiabatic exponent, k-value

www.arielcorp.com

This is the equation for volumetric efficiency. Note the influence of the thermodynamic gas properties K and Z. The higher the K-value the higher the volumetric efficiency, everything else equal. The influence of Z is not so straight forward because it is actually a ratio of Z and the ratio for most typical applications is around 1.0 (meaning ZS = ZD). Also, note the influence of clearance. The higher the %CL (percent fixed clearance) the lower the volumetric efficiency.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

24

October 2011

Pd

Pressure

Ps

Volume

www.arielcorp.com

This a pressure-volume diagram showing low volumetric efficiency. The concern with low volumetric efficiency is the time required for the discharge valve to open and close properly. With low VE the discharge valve will close late causing the seal element to slam against the seat with excessive closing impact velocity. The seal element will then fail.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

25

October 2011

90

Change in Capacity, %

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

Compression Ratio

www.arielcorp.com

This chart shows the effect of fixed clearance on volumetric efficiency. Specifically, the chart shows the effect of adding 10% clearance to four different base fixed clearances over a range of compression ratio. The chart also shows the effect of compression ratio on volumetric efficiency.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

26

October 2011

ACFM

ACFM = (PD ) (VE S )

Where: ACFM = Actual cubic feet per minute PD = Piston displacement, cubic feet per minute VES = Volumetric efficiency, decimal

www.arielcorp.com

This is the equation used to calculate ACFM or actual cubic feet per minute of volume flow, knowing volumetric efficiency.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

27

October 2011

When capacity is provided in volume terms the

density must be specified or known. ACF = actual cubic feet

Density is PS and TS

Density is PSTD and TSTD Typically PSTD = 14.7 psia & TSTD = 60 F

www.arielcorp.com

This shows how much volume one pound (mass) of gas occupies at two different pressures (14.7 psia and 500 psia) at the same temperature (60 deg F) SCF (standard cubic foot) is volume measured at a standard pressure and temperature of 14.6 psia and 60 deg F (typically). The standard pressure and temperature in the United States is usually 14.7 psia and 60 degrees F. The MMS (Minerals Management Service in the United States Department of the Interior) in the past has used 15.025 psia as the standard pressure for natural gas measurement. Believe the rules have been changed to 14.696 psia. 15.025 psia works out to 10 ounces per square inch above the average barometric pressure of 14.4 psia. ACF (actual cubic foot) is volume measured at the actual pressure and temperature conditions.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

28

October 2011

MMSCFD

MMSCFD =

Where: MMSCFD ACFM PS ZSTD TS ZS = = = = = =

Million standard cubic feet per day Actual cubic feet per minute Suction pressure, psia Compressibility factor @ standard conditions Suction temperature, R Compressibility factor @ suction conditions

www.arielcorp.com

This equation converts ACFM (actual cubic feet per minute) to MMSCFD (million standard cubic feet per day).

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

29

October 2011

MMSCFD to LB per HR

LB 14.7LB 144IN2 1.0MMSCF 1,000,000S CF (.6 29)LB DAY LBMOL O R 1 = 2 2 HR IN FT DAY MMSCF LBMOL 24HR 1545.33FT - LB 520 O R LB = 1909.8 HR

www.arielcorp.com

This equation converts million standard cubic feet per day capacity (MMSCFD) into pounds-mass per hour (LBm/HR).

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

30

October 2011

PV = mRT, V = mRT PV ,m = P RT

Where: P = Pressure, psia V = Volume, cubic feet m = Mass, pounds mass R = Universal gas constant, 1545.3/MW (FT-LB)/(LBmol-R) T = Temperature, R (F + 459.6)

www.arielcorp.com

This is the ideal gas law. This is the simplest gas equation of state in that it relates pressure, mass and volume.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

31

October 2011

PV = ZmRT, V = PV ZmRT ,m = ZRT P

Where: P = Pressure, psia V = Volume, cubic feet Z = Compressibility factor @ P & T m = Mass, pounds mass R = Universal gas constant, 1545.3/MW (FT-LB)/(LBmol-R) T = Temperature, R (F + 459.6)

www.arielcorp.com

This is the real gas law. It is a slightly more complicated form of the ideal gas law as it adds the compressibility factor parameter. Good to remember this relationship. Knowing pressure temperature and compressibility factor and either volume or mass, the unknown of volume or mass can be calculated.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

32

October 2011

Horsepower Breakdown

Friction Valve Loss Adiabatic

www.arielcorp.com

This pie chart shows how total horsepower might breakdown for an average (say moderate to high compression ratio) application. In this type of application adiabatic horsepower is the majority of the horsepower.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

33

October 2011

Adiabatic Horsepower

Pd

W = PdV

Adiabatic Horsepower

Pressure

Ps

Volume

www.arielcorp.com

This a real life pressure-volume diagram with the adiabatic horsepower region highlighted. Remember the following from thermodynamics classes?

Work = PdV

This means that the area enclosed by the P-V diagram is directly related to work or horsepower.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

34

October 2011

Adiabatic Horsepower

(144 )(K )(PS )(PD )(VE S )(Z S + Z D ) PD AHP = PS (33000 )(K 1)(2 Z S )

Where: AHP = K = PS = PD = VES = ZS = ZD = PD = Adiabatic horsepower Adiabatic exponent (k-value) Suction pressure, psia Piston displacement, cfm Volumetric efficiency, suction, decimal Compressibility factor, suction Compressibility factor, discharge Discharge pressure, psia

(K 1)

K

www.arielcorp.com

This is an equation for adiabatic horsepower. Note the influence of the gas thermodynamic data, K and Zs. Remember that the product of piston displacement and volumetric efficiency (PDxVE) is capacity.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

35

October 2011

AHP = MM

Where: AHP/MM K TS Z PS PD

= = = = = = Adiabatic horsepower per MMSCFD Adiabatic exponent (k-value) Suction temperature, R Compressibility factor Suction pressure, psia Discharge pressure, psia

(K 1)

K

www.arielcorp.com

This is an equation for adiabatic horsepower per million standard cubic feet per day (MMSCFD or MM). Note the data required: pressures, suction temperature and gas thermodynamic data (K and Zs).

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

36

October 2011

Pd

Discharge valve loss horsepower

Pressure

Ps

Suction valve loss horsepower

www.arielcorp.com

Volume

This P-V diagram highlights suction and discharge valve loss horsepower (VLHP). VLHP is created by the pressure drop encountered as gas flows through the valve(s).

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

37

October 2011

3 (S RPM )3 7.045 (28.97 )(SG ) P VE R A s s p bore VLHP = 2 10 19 Z T (N ) A vlv pkt s s

( )( ) ( )( )

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Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

38

October 2011

VLHP P (A BORE )(VE )(S RPM )

Where: VLHP P ABORE S VE RPM = = = = = = Valve loss horsepower Pressure drop Cylinder main bore cross-sectional area Stroke Volumetric efficiency, suction, fraction Speed, revolutions per minute

www.arielcorp.com

This is a relationship between pressure drop, bore area, volumetric efficiency, stroke, and speed. Stroke multiplied by speed is known as piston speed. Piston speed is the average linear speed at which the piston moves through one revolution of the crankshaft (two stroke lengths). Piston speed is:

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

39

October 2011

P V 2

Where: P = Pressure drop = Density V = Velocity

www.arielcorp.com

This is the general relationship for any calculation of pressure drop. Pressure drop is related to density times velocity squared.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

40

October 2011

Gas Density

P (SG ) Z (T )

www.arielcorp.com

This is an equation for density. This is derived by rearranging the ideal gas law:

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

41

October 2011

Gas Velocity

(A BORE )(S RPM ) (D BORE )2 (S RPM ) V (N)(A VLV PKT ) (N)(D VLV PKT )2

Where: V ABORE S RPM N AVLV PKT DBORE DVLV PKT = = = = = = = = Average gas velocity through the valve pocket Cylinder main bore cross-sectional area Stroke Speed, revolutions per minute Number of S or D valve pockets feeding end Valve pocket area Cylinder main bore diameter Valve pocket diameter

www.arielcorp.com

This is an equation for the relationship of the velocity of the gas through the valve pocket area. Note the ratio of the area of the piston to the area of the valve (this is not valve flow area, this is the area of the full valve diameter).

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

42

October 2011

Valve Cap Valve Cage Valve Body

Front Head

Liner

www.arielcorp.com

This is a drawing of a typical valve pocket in a compressor cylinder. The section is taken parallel to the piston rod.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

43

October 2011

www.arielcorp.com

This slide defines valve pocket diameter for a typical valve pocket.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

44

October 2011

P

Where: P P SG RPM S ABORE Z T RP N AVLV PKT

www.arielcorp.com

2

= = = = = = = = = = =

Pressure drop Pressure Gas specific gravity Speed, rev per minute Stroke Cylinder main bore area Compressibility factor Temperature Valve resistance factor Number of S or D valve pockets feeding end Valve pocket area

Combining the density and velocity relationships into the pressure drop equation yields this relationship. Note the following: 1. Pressure drop is directly related to the ratio of the diameter of the piston to the fourth power (area squared), and inversely related to the diameter of the valve to the fourth power (valve pocket area squared). 2. Pressure drop is directly related to stroke squared and speed squared, or piston speed squared.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

45

October 2011

Ratio of measured pressure drop across the suction or discharge side of a cylinder to the pressure drop that would be predicted in flowing the same quantity of the same gas at identical upstream pressure and temperature conditions through a round hole having a discharge coefficient equal to one and an area equal to the valve pocket opening. Typical resistance factors range from 50 (poppet valve) to 200 (low lift plate valve).

Ref: Hartwick, Efficiency Characteristics of Reciprocating Compressors, December 1968, ASME technical paper 68WA/DGP-3.

www.arielcorp.com

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

46

October 2011

RP = Compressor Valve P Orifice P

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Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

47

October 2011

Orifice area required to generate the same pressure drop as that through a compressor valve when flowing the same quantity of the same gas at the same conditions.

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Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

48

October 2011

VEA = A PKT RP

Where: VEA = Valve equivalent area RP = Valve resistance factor APKT = Valve pocket area

www.arielcorp.com

This equation shows the relationship between valve equivalent area and resistance factor. So, knowing one allows the other to be calculated.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

49

October 2011

VLHP

Where: VLHP = P = SG = RP = ABORE = S = RPM = VE = Z = T = N = AVLV PKT =

www.arielcorp.com

3 3

Valve loss horsepower Pressure Gas specific gravity Valve resistance factor Cylinder main bore area Stroke Speed, revolutions per minute Volumetric efficiency, decimal Compressibility factor Temperature Number of S or D valve pockets feeding end Valve pocket area

This is the equation for VLHP with substitutions for pressure drop. Note the following: 1. The relationship of the piston diameter (or area) and valve diameter (or area) to VLHP. 2. The relationship of stroke and speed to VLHP. Another way to look at this relationship is to say that stroke times speed is piston speed and that VLHP is directly related to piston speed cubed.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

50

October 2011

% Valve Pkt Area of Bore Area 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 Cylinder Diameter

www.arielcorp.com

This is a plot of valve pocket area as a percentage of cylinder bore area. Note that as the cylinder gets larger the amount of valve pocket area decreases significantly. Large cylinders are never as efficient as small ones.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

51

October 2011

D 2 Bore Area = 4

Circumference = D

www.arielcorp.com

This simple drawing explains why as cylinders get larger they get less efficient. The space available to fit valves in the cylinder (the circumference) grows by diameter to the first power, but the gas flow through the valves grows by diameter squared.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

52

October 2011

(9.59 )P(SG )(R Pin + R Pout )3 (A BORE )3 (S RPM )3 DHP = 2 10 15 (Z )(T )(N )(A VLV PKT )

Where: DHP P SG RPin RPout ABORE S RPM Z T N AVLV PKT = = = = = = = = = = = = Deactivated end horsepower Pressure, psia Gas specific gravity Valve resistance factor, in-stroke Valve resistance factor, out-stroke Cylinder main bore cross-sectional area, sq. in. Stroke, in. Speed, revolutions per minute Compressibility factor Temperature Number of valve pockets feeding deactivated end Valve pocket area, sq. in.

Ref: Hartwick, Power Requirements and Associated Effects of Reciprocating Compressor Ends Deactivated by Internal Bypassing, December 1974 , ASME Technical Paper 75-DGP-9 www.arielcorp.com

This is the equation for deactivated end horsepower (parasitic horsepower). Note the following: 1. DHP is directly related to pressure and specific gravity. 2. Pressure is most typically suction pressure. 3. DHP has the effect of creating heat and raising the temperature.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

53

October 2011

www.arielcorp.com

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

54

October 2011

3 2 1

www.arielcorp.com

This is an infrared photo of three compressor cylinders on one side of a six throw compressor. Each cylinder is unloaded differently. Cylinder #1 is not unloaded. Cylinder #2 has a head end fixed clearance pocket open. Cylinder #3 has the head end deactivated using finger type suction valve unloaders.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

55

October 2011

Indicated Horsepower

Adiabatic HP + Suction Valve Loss HP + Discharge Valve Loss HP Indicated HP

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This is the definition of indicated horsepower. It is the sum of the horsepower developed directly from the pressure-volume diagram.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

56

October 2011

Brake Horsepower

Indicated HP + Friction HP Brake HP

www.arielcorp.com

This is the definition of brake horsepower. Brake horsepower is the horsepower required at the face of the crosshead in the case of an integral-engine compressor, or at the driver coupling connection in the case of a separable compressor (provided the friction HP component includes allowance for the friction losses inside the crankcase).

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

57

October 2011

Brake Horsepower

BHP = IHP M.E.

Where: BHP = Brake horsepower IHP = Indicated horsepower M.E. = Mechanical efficiency Typically 92% to 97%

www.arielcorp.com

This is another way to express brake horsepower, or BHP. The numbers used for mechanical efficiency vary with the OEM.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

58

October 2011

Brake Horsepower

BHP = IHP + FFHP M.E.

Where: BHP = Brake horsepower IHP = Indicated horsepower M.E. = Mechanical efficiency, associated with the cylinders only, typically 0.95 FFHP = Frame friction HP, constant number to account for friction in the frame

www.arielcorp.com

This is yet another way to express brake horsepower (BHP). The friction component has been divided into separate cylinder and frame (or crankcase) components. The mechanical efficiency factor is intended to cover the friction in the cylinders. The frame friction factor is typically a constant number used to account for the friction in the frame or crankcase. OEMs may vary FFHP with speed or speed squared. This is an approach most typically associated with separable compressors.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

59

October 2011

Compression Efficiency

EFF = AHP AHP M.E. = BHP (AHP + SVLHP + DVLHP)

Compression efficiency Adiabatic horsepower Brake horsepower Mechanical efficiency Suction valve loss horsepower Discharge valve loss horsepower

www.arielcorp.com

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

60

October 2011

Compression Efficiency

High RC

www.arielcorp.com

This compares compression efficiency between high and low compression ratio P-V diagrams. Which is more efficient? Why?

Greg Phillippi

Lo RC

Ariel Corporation

61

October 2011

Compression Efficiency

Compression Efficiency, %

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0

Std

Compression ratio

Standard design 12.5 inch bore, 1100 fpm

www.arielcorp.com

This is a very typical plot of compression efficiency versus compression ratio. Note how compression efficiency drops off with decreasing compression ratio.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

62

October 2011

Compression Efficiency

Compression Efficiency, %

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0

Low Rc

Compression ratio

Low ratio design 12.5 inch bore, 1100 fpm

www.arielcorp.com

This is a very typical plot of compression efficiency versus compression ratio for a cylinder designed for low compression ratio applications.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

63

October 2011

Compression Efficiency

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0

Large

Compression Efficiency, %

Compression ratio

Standard design 26.5 inch bore, 1100 fpm

www.arielcorp.com

This is a very typical plot of compression efficiency versus compression ratio for a large (26.5 inches) bore cylinder.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

64

October 2011

Compression Efficiency

Compression Efficiency, %

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0

Large Std Low Rc

Compression ratio

www.arielcorp.com

This chart plots all three of the previous slides on one chart. Note the differences.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

65

October 2011

Compression Efficiency

Compression Efficiency, %

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0

Std H2 Std Nat Gas

Compression ratio

www.arielcorp.com

This is a plot of compression efficiency versus compression ratio for a cylinder compressing natural gas and another hydrogen. Shows the effect of gas composition on efficiency. If the gas is very light (very low mole weight - like hydrogen) - forget about efficiency!

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

66

October 2011

70 60 50

BHP/MM

40 30 20 10 0 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0

Std Low Rc Large

Compression ratio

www.arielcorp.com

This plot shows how BHP per MMSCFD changes with compression ratio for three different cylinder designs - standard, low ratio and large. Notice how the numeric difference stays approximately the same over the complete range of compression ratio. Also notice how the large cylinder has the highest BHP/MM and the low ratio the lowest.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

67

October 2011

% Increase in BHP per MM

60 40 20 0 -20 -40 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0

Low Rc Large Std

Compression ratio

www.arielcorp.com

This plot shows the percentage difference in BHP per MMSCFD using the standard cylinder design as the base. Notice that on a percentage basis the large cylinder is significantly worse and the low ratio better.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

68

October 2011

www.arielcorp.com

This shows the effect on the P-V diagram of increasing discharge pressure with everything else remaining constant. Note that volumetric efficiency decreases and discharge VLHP decreases.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

69

October 2011

www.arielcorp.com

This shows the effect of decreasing the discharge pressure. Note that volumetric efficiency increases.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

70

October 2011

www.arielcorp.com

This shows the effect of increasing suction pressure with discharge pressure remaining constant.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

71

October 2011

CAPACITY INCREASE

www.arielcorp.com

This shows the effect of increasing suction pressure with discharge pressure remaining constant. Capacity increases! Always!

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

72

October 2011

Pd is constant

Power

Suction Pressure

www.arielcorp.com

This plot shows how compressor horsepower varies as suction pressure varies with a constant discharge pressure.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

73

October 2011

Pd is constant

PD is fixed.

Capacity

Suction Pressure

www.arielcorp.com

This plot shows how compressor horsepower varies as suction pressure varies with a constant discharge pressure.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

74

October 2011

Pd is constant

Power per Capacity

Suction Pressure

www.arielcorp.com

This plot shows how compressor horsepower per MMSCFD varies as suction pressure varies with a constant discharge pressure.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

75

October 2011

Effect of Speed

Pressure drop varies with RPM2 70% Speed 49% P

www.arielcorp.com

This depicts the effect of a speed change on the P-V diagram. Note that the width of the diagram does not change - in other words the basic shape of the diagram does not change. The only change is in the valve pressure drop or the valve loss horsepower. Remember that the pressure drop changes with the square of the speed.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

76

October 2011

K-value

www.arielcorp.com

This is a temperature-entropy diagram for carbon dioxide. Entropy is a thermodynamic term used to measure the unavailability of energy. Entropy increases as a system loses heat but remains constant when there is no gain or loss of heat. The compression and expansion segments of the P-V diagram are modeled assuming that they are adiabatic (or isentropic or entropy is a constant).

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

77

October 2011

Temperature-Entropy Diagram

TD PD = TS PS

Temperature

K -1 K

TD

TS

Entropy

www.arielcorp.com

K-value is the adiabatic exponent and defines an adiabatic (or constant entropy) path from one state point to another. For a recip compressor this is from suction pressure and temperature to discharge pressure. Note that k-value is a path function and not a point function - in other words k-value cannot be determined at a point or at a specific pressure and temperature. K-value defines a path. The equations calculates adiabatic discharge temperature and essentially defines k-value. Adiabatic or isentropic (constant entropy) means that no heat is exchanged (goes into or out of the process) during the process - here the process being the compression of a gas from P1 and T1 to P2.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

78

October 2011

K-value

TD PD = TS PS or K=

K -1 K

1 log TD T S 1 log PD P S

www.arielcorp.com

K-value is determined from the adiabatic temperature pressure relationship as shown. Knowing the pressures and temperatures allow the calculation of K.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

79

October 2011

K= CP MW C P , or CV MW C P 1.986

= = = = K-value Mole weight Specific heat at constant pressure Specific heat at constant volume

Where: K MW CP CP

www.arielcorp.com

If it is assumed that the compressed gas is an ideal gas this expression can be used to calculate the adiabatic exponent. For many gases at low pressures this will suffice and be accurate. For other gases, carbon dioxide and propane being two examples, using this expression may result in errors in K-value and therefore errors in the calculation of capacity and horsepower.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

80

October 2011

Effect of K-value

K = 1.4 Air, nitrogen or hydrogen

K = 1.12 Propane

www.arielcorp.com

These two different P-V diagrams depict the effect of k-value. The greater the k-value, the fatter the P-V diagram.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

81

October 2011

Compressibility (Z)

PV = MRT for ideal gas PV = ZMRT for real gas

Where: P = Pressure V = Volume M = Mass R = Universal gas constant T = Temperature Z = Compressibility factor

www.arielcorp.com

PV = MRT is the perfect gas law. PV = ZMRT uses Z, or compressibility factor, to correct the perfect gas law for real gases. This defines compressibility factor.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

82

October 2011

Effect of ZS

ZS = 0.8

ZS = 1.0

www.arielcorp.com

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

83

October 2011

Effect of ZD

ZD = 1.0

ZD = 0.8

www.arielcorp.com

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

84

October 2011

P TD- Adiabatic = TS D P S

Where: TD-Adiabatic TS PD PS K = = = = =

K 1 K

Adiabatic discharge temperature, deg R Suction temperature, deg R Discharge pressure, psia Suction pressure, psia K-value, adiabatic exponent

www.arielcorp.com

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

85

October 2011

TD-Actual=

(TD-Adiabatic TS ) + T

Efficiency

Where: TD-Actual = Actual discharge temperature TS = Suction temperature Efficiency = Compression efficiency

www.arielcorp.com

This shows that the inefficiency of the compression process adds to the discharge temperature - in other words all of the energy that goes into the compression process goes into the compressed gas stream. Of course, there is heat removed by the cooling water jackets and heat is rejected to the surrounding environment, so the actual discharge temperature will most likely be somewhere between adiabatic and the actual given by the above.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

86

October 2011

Mixing effect during the suction event Heat transfer in the suction gas passage

www.arielcorp.com

There can be an effect during the compression process where the suction gas temperature is pre-heated. In other words the temperature of the gas at the instant the compression event begins is greater than that measured in the suction pulsation bottle or even than that measured in the suction gas passage. It is the temperature (and pressure) of the gas when compression starts that determines the capacity and has an effect on horsepower.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

87

October 2011

Multi-stage: What?

Cylinders piped in series to reduce the

compression ratio across each cylinder

Stage 1

Stage 2

www.arielcorp.com

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

88

October 2011

Multi-stage: What?

An intercooler is installed between stages

to cool the gas prior to compressing it in the next stage:

Stage 1

Stage 2

www.arielcorp.com

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

89

October 2011

Multi-stage: Why?

Assume PS = 50 psia, PD = 500 psia, TS =

60 F, one stage of compression

Compression ratio = 10 Adiabatic TD = 425 F, too high!!

www.arielcorp.com

A gas discharge temperature of 425 deg F is much too high for the sealing materials that are commonly used in todays reciprocating compressors. A typical discharge temperature limit is about 300 deg F.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

90

October 2011

Multi-stage: Why?

Assume PS = 50 psia, PD = 500 psia, TS =

60 F, two stages of compression

Compression ratio per stage = 3.16 Adiabatic TD = 218 F

www.arielcorp.com

Breaking the compression ratio across two stages significantly reduces the discharge temperature.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

91

October 2011

Capacity Balance

4.5 4.0

Capacity, MMSCFD

11 1ST Stage, 6.25 2ND Stage Ps=55, Pd=650

0% 38% 75%

0%

38% 75%

180

200

220

240

260

www.arielcorp.com

The next couple of charts show how the pressure between compression stages is determined.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

92

October 2011

Capacity Balance

4.5 4.0

Capacity, MMSCFD

11 1ST Stage, 6.25 2ND Stage Q=3.6 Tdis CRL 1st 254 2nd 258 Ps=55, Pd=650

0% 38% 75%

15,600 16,200

0%

38% 75%

180

199

200

220

240

260

www.arielcorp.com

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

93

October 2011

Capacity Balance

4.5 4.0

Capacity, MMSCFD

11 1ST Stage, 6.25 2ND Stage Q=2.4 Tdis CRL 1st 232 2nd 279 Ps=55, Pd=650

0% 38% 75%

12,700 16,900

170

0%

38% 75%

180

200

220

240

260

www.arielcorp.com

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

94

October 2011

Capacity Balance

4.5 4.0

Capacity, MMSCFD

11 1ST Stage, 6.25 2ND Stage Q=2.4 Tdis CRL 1st 262 2nd 248 Ps=55, Pd=650

0% 38% 75%

16,900 15,900

0%

38% 75%

180

200

212

220

240

260

www.arielcorp.com

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

95

October 2011

Rod Load

Reciprocating compressor frames are

limited in operating range by rod load

Rod load is a force that generates a stress in many parts of the compressor frame assembly

the compressor piston

www.arielcorp.com

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

96

October 2011

PD PS PD

www.arielcorp.com

A tension rod load is created when discharge pressure is acting on the crank end of the piston and suction pressure on the head end.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

97

October 2011

TRL = (PD PS ) AHE (PD ) AROD

Where: TRL = PD = PS = AHE = AROD = Tension rod load, lbf Discharge pressure, psig Suction pressure, psig Area, head end, in2 Area, rod, in2

www.arielcorp.com

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

98

October 2011

PS PD PS

www.arielcorp.com

A compression rod load is created when suction pressure is acting on the crank end of the piston and discharge pressure on the head end.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

99

October 2011

CRL = (PD PS ) AHE + (PS ) AROD

Where: CRL PD PS AHE AROD = = = = = Compression rod load, lbf Discharge pressure, psig Suction pressure, psig Area, head end, in2 Area, rod, in2

www.arielcorp.com

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

100

October 2011

Inertia rod load is a force developed from the

acceleration and deceleration of a mass, typically the crosshead + crosshead nut + piston/rod assembly

www.arielcorp.com

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

101

October 2011

Gas Rod Load

www.arielcorp.com

This is a plot of three different rod loads of a typical double-acting compressor cylinder. The three are: 1. Gas rod load the load generated from just the gas pressure acting on the piston. 2. Inertia rod load the load generated by inertia (F = ma). Note that inertia is maximum at the ends of the stroke (180 and 360) where acceleration is maximum. 3. Gas + inertia rod load a summation of gas rod load and inertia rod load.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

102

October 2011

Crosshead Guide Piston Rod Crosshead Pin

www.arielcorp.com

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

103

October 2011

Crosshead Assembly

Crosshead Pin Crosshead Bushing Crosshead Balance Nut Connecting Rod

www.arielcorp.com

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

104

October 2011

No Reversal!

www.arielcorp.com

This chart shows a non-reversing rod load. Note how the gas + inertia rod load never moves into tension it remains in compression during the full 360 degrees of crankshaft rotation.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

105

October 2011

www.arielcorp.com

This is a photo of a crosshead that failed due to non-reversing rod load. Typically the crosshead heats up relative to the slide bore which causes the running clearance to disappear and the crosshead to stick and fail.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

106

October 2011

www.arielcorp.com

This photo shows a crosshead pin with the crosshead and connecting rod bushings stuck to it.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

107

October 2011

Pulsation

www.arielcorp.com

Pulsation is a multi-day short course all unto itself! Here we will just touch on how pulsation might affect the P-V diagram and therefore the compression process. The slide shows a P-V diagram distorted by pulsation.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

108

October 2011

Average flange pressure during valve open time RC for capacity

Volumetric Efficiency

www.arielcorp.com

Pulsation is a multi-day short course all unto itself! Here we will just touch on how pulsation might affect the P-V diagram and therefore the compression process. The slide shows a P-V diagram distorted by pulsation.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

109

October 2011

Effect of P on V.E.

25 Change in V.E., % 20 15 10 5 0 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Compression Ratio

K = 1.3 ZS = ZD = 1.0 Clearance = 40%

www.arielcorp.com

30% V.E.

3%

P

P

2%

1% P

3.0

3.5

4.0

This graph shows how much pulsation can affect volumetric efficiency. Pulsation is represented by percentages of pressure drop.

Greg Phillippi

Ariel Corporation

110

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