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NationalEnergyfromWastePolicy

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National ProposedStrategicFramework EnergyfromWastePolicy 20102030

October,2010

NationalEnergyfromWastePolicy

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NationalEnergyfromWastePolicy MinistryofEnergyandMining October2010

NationalEnergyfromWastePolicy

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TableofContents
ListofAcronyms Acknowledgements MessagefromtheMinisterofEnergyandMining ExecutiveSummary Section1OverviewandContext Introduction Background RationaleforEnergyfromWastePolicy TheEnergySectorinJamaica TheWasteSectorinJamaica DefiningtheScopefortheUseofWasteintheEnergySectorinJamaica LinkagesbetweenEnergyfromWastePolicyandNationalEnergy Framework LinkagesbetweenEnergyfromWastePolicyandNationalSolidWaste ManagementPolicy SWOTAnalysisoftheEnergyfromWasteSector KeyIssuesintheEnergyfromWasteSector Section2DefiningthePolicyFramework StrategicFramework GoalsoftheEnergyfromWastePolicy Goal1 Goal2 Goal3 Goal4 Section3Implementation,MonitoringandEvaluationFramework PolicyImplementation InstitutionalFramework ImplementationFramework MonitoringandEvaluationFramework ProposedIndicators Appendices I Glossary IIEconomicViabilityAnalysisofWastetoEnergyatRivertonCity IIIExamplesofInternationalEFWInitiatives IV MembersofEnergyfromWastePolicyWorkingGroup

i ii iii iv 1 2 5 11 13 16 22 28 30 32 34 41 41 41 42 45 48 50 53 53 53 55 57 57 58 59 62 66 65

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ListofAcronyms

3Rs CDM CO2 EFW EIA EMD GHG HAZMAT IPP LGD MJ MOA MOH MSW MTW MW NEPA NLA NGO NIMBY NOX NSWMA NWC OPM OUR PCJ PWG REP SRC SWOT UNFCCC WTE

Reduce,Reuse,Recycle CleanDevelopmentMechanism Carbondioxide EnergyfromWaste EnvironmentalImpactAssessment EnvironmentalManagementDivision(OPM) GreenhouseGas Hazardousmaterial IndependentPowerProducer LocalGovernmentDepartment(OPM) Megajoule MinistryofAgriculture MinistryofHealth MunicipalSolidWaste MinistryofTransportandWorks Megawatt NationalEnvironmentandPlanningAgency NationalLandAgency NongovernmentalOrganization NotInMyBackYard NitrogenOxide NationalSolidWasteManagementAuthority NationalWaterCommission OfficeofthePrimeMinister OfficeofUtilitiesRegulation PetroleumCorporationofJamaica PolicyWorkingGroup RuralElectrificationProgramme ScientificResearchCouncil Strengths,Weaknesses,Opportunities,Threats UNFrameworkConventiononClimateChange WastetoEnergy

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Acknowledgements
TheMinistryofEnergyandMiningwishestothankthemembersoftheEnergyfromWaste PolicyWorkingGroupforprovidingtechnicalsupportandguidancetothedevelopmentofthis policy.Unliketheothersubpolicies,thenatureofthispolicyrequiredsignificantinputfrom thoseagencieswithresponsibilityforwastemanagement,whoareoutsideoftheMinistryof EnergyandMining,andtothisend,wethankallthoseagenciesfortheirinputs. TheNationalEnergyPolicy20092030providedtheoverarchingframeworkforthe developmentoftheEnergyfromWastepolicy.Ofnote,wealsowishtothankthemembersof theEnergyandMineralsDevelopmentThematicWorkingGroupoftheVision2030Jamaica NationalDevelopmentPlanMonitoringandEvaluationProcessaswellasthevariousMinistries andAgenciesthatassistedtheprocessbyprovidingpertinentdataandengaginginthe consultativeprocessthatissoimportantinnationalpolicydevelopment. WealsowishtothankotherInternationalDevelopmentPartnerswhoarecurrentlyproviding extensivesupportinthedevelopmentofJamaicasenergysectorandinparticularoureffortsat achievingenergysecurity,diversificationofthecountrysenergymixandreducingthecostof energytoJamaicans.WeespeciallythanktheUnitedNationsDevelopmentProgramme(UNDP) forthesupporttheyhaveprovidedtheMinistrytofacilitatethedevelopmentoffivesub policiesundertheNationalEnergyPolicy20092030.

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MessagefromtheMinisterofEnergyand Mining
When the National Energy Policy was promulgated in 2009, I indicated that the very next step was the development of six sub policiestoguidethefurtherdevelopmentofJamaicasenergysector in which the emphasis will be placed on the development of renewableenergy,generationofenergyfromwaste,useofbiofuels, theabilityofJamaicatotradecarboncreditsininternationalcarbon markets, increasing energy conservation and efficiency, and improving the delivery of electricity. This National Energyfrom WastePolicy,asoneofthesixsubpolicies,providestheframework for the generation of electricity and fuel from wastes that come fromourcitiesandtowns,ruralareas,farmsandindustries. Jamaica is joining many countries in developing an energyfromwaste sector that produces clean energy from indigenous materials. We will take advantage of the best practices used worldwide and ensure that all the necessary safeguards are put in place to protect our environment,ourcitizenshealthandourcommunities.Thisisanexcitingendeavourthatwill facilitate the development of new economic opportunities, help Jamaicans to use less petroleum,easetheoilbillburdenonthecountry,resultinlowergreenhousegasemissions, reducetheamountoflandusedfordisposalsitesandleadtoimprovedwastemanagement. This policy creates the opportunity for the Ministry of Energy and Mining to work in close partnershipwiththeDepartmentofLocalGovernmentintheOfficeofthePrimeMinisterand theNationalSolidWasteManagementAuthorityandotherministriesandagenciestomutually achieve our goals of reducing the countrys dependence on imported oil and minimizing the amountofwastethatisnowsenttolandfills. With this policy we are, in effect, treating waste as a resource and turning our waste managementproblemsintoanenergygenerationsolution.Creatingsomethingvaluablefrom whatisconsidereduselessisapositivelessonthatcango beyondthespheresofenergyand wasteandonethatJamaicanscanlearnandapplytomanyotheraspectsofourlives.
JamesRobertson,M.P.

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ExecutiveSummary
ThisdocumentpresentsJamaicasNationalEnergyfromWastePolicywhichisdesignedto ensurethat:

Jamaicaistheregionalleaderinprovidingaffordableandcleanenergyfrom wastecontributingtoasustainablefuture
ThecreationofthispolicywasaspecificresponsetotheNationalEnergyPolicy20092030 whichcallsforthedevelopmentofspecificaspectsoftheenergysectasitrelatestotheenergy sectorespeciallyinareasrelatedtorenewables,diversificationoffuels,developmentof biofuelsandenergyfromwaste.Thispolicy,asasubpolicyoftheNationalEnergyPolicy, supportstheimplementationoftheNationalEnergyPolicy20092030andwillcontributeto theachievementof: Amodern,efficient,diversifiedandenvironmentallysustainable energysectorprovidingaffordableandaccessibleenergysupplieswith longtermenergysecurityandsupportedbyinformedpublicbehaviour onenergyissuesandanappropriatepolicy,regulatoryand institutionalframework
(VisionoftheNationalEnergyPolicy20092030)

Thispolicyalsowilldirectlysupporttheimplementationoftwootherenergysubpolicies:the NationalRenewableEnergyPolicy20102030andtheNationalBiofuelsPolicy20102030.

OverviewandContext
Jamaicaishighlydependentonimportedpetroleumtomeetitsenergyneeds.Thecountry importsapproximately91%ofitsenergy,withtheremainderderivedfromrenewablesources. Thespirallingcostofworldoilprices,coupledwithanincreasingdemandforfuellocallyand thepaucityoffinancialresourcestocoveraneverincreasingoilbill,necessitatethatJamaica urgentlyexploresvariousoptionsintheenergysector. Jamaica,throughitsNationalEnergyPolicy20092030andVision2030JamaicaNational DevelopmentPlan,hassettargetsforrenewableenergy(20%by2030)andthepercentage

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diversificationofenergysupply(70%by2030).TheNationalEnergyfromWastePolicywill contributetotheachievementofthesetargets. Jamaicaisrelativelyadvancedinthedevelopmentofrenewable energy,surpassinganumberofCaribbeancountries.Currently,9% ofthecountrysenergysupplymixcomesfromrenewablesources suchaswind,minihydro,solarandbiomass(mainlyfuelwood, ethanolfromsugarcaneusedinE10,andbagasseusedinco generationfacilities).Thefigureaboveshowsthecontributionof differentsourcestotherenewableenergytotal.Bagassewaste fromthesugarcaneindustryalreadyconstitutesover30%ofthe countrysrenewableenergysources.Jamaicahasthepotentialto expandthiscontributionandtofurtherdevelopenergyfromwasteinitiativesbasedonother typesofwasteusingavarietyoftechnologies,includingincinerationofmunicipalsolidwaste; captureoflandfillgas,productionofbiodiesel,productionofbiogasusinganimalwastes,and usingwastewatersludge.Thispolicyprovidestheframeworkforthefurtherexploration, developmentandexpansionoftheseoptions. Keyinstitutionsinboththeenergyandwastemanagementsectorswilltakeleadingrolesinthe implementationofthispolicy.Collaborationwithothersectorssuchasenvironmental management,agriculture,health,andfinancealsowillbenecessary.

PolicyFramework
ThepolicyframeworkisunderpinnedbyaStrategicFrameworkwhichsetsoutthegoals, strategiesandactionsnecessarytofacilitatetheimplementationofthepolicy;andthe InstitutionalFrameworkdescribestherolesandresponsibilitiesofthevariousstakeholdersin theenergyfromwastesector. TheStrategicFrameworkunderpinningthispolicypresentsfour(4)goalswhichwillcontribute toachievingthevision:Jamaicaistheregionalleaderinprovidingaffordableandclean energyfromwastecontributingtoasustainablefuture.

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Thefourgoalsare:

Goal1: Goal2:

Jamaicacreateseconomicinfrastructureandplanningconductionsconducing tothedevelopmentoftheenergyfromwastesector Jamaicabuildsitsenergyfromwastesectoronthemostappropriate technologiesthatareenvironmentallyfriendly,producingacleanreliable renewablesourceofenergy Jamaicacreatespartnershipsbetweentheenergysectorandthewaste managementandagriculturesectorstofacilitatethecontinuousstreamsof wasteintotheenergyfromwaste Jamaicahasawelldefinedgovernance,institutional,legalandregulatory frameworkforthegenerationofenergyfromwaste

Goal3:

Goal4:

TheStrategicFrameworkpresentsthedesiredoutcomesrelatedtoachievingthosegoals, discusseskeyissuesandincludestheshorttomediumtermaswellaslongtermstrategic directionsforthegovernment,privatesectorandindustry.TheFrameworkhasbeendesigned tobeflexibleandadaptabletomeetnewchallengesandopportunitiesastheyarise.

MonitoringandEvaluation
Acontinuousprogrammeofmonitoringandevaluation,involvingrelevantstakeholdersfrom publicandprivatesectors,willbeimplementedandthiswillbealignedtotheMonitoringand EvaluationFrameworkthatispartofVision2030JamaicaaswellastheWholeofGovernment BusinessPlanningProcess.Theministryresponsibleforenergyincollaborationwiththe ministriesresponsibleforenvironmentandwastemanagementwilluseseveralindicatorsto assesstheeffectivenessoftheNationalEnergyfromWastePolicyinachievingtheoutcomes, whichwillformthebasisforreviewingthepolicyandrecommendinganychangestothepolicy framework.

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Section1 OverviewandContext

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Introduction
ThisdocumentpresentsJamaicasNationalEnergy fromWastePolicy20102030.Thispolicyisoneofsix (6)subpoliciesundertheNationalEnergyPolicy2009 2030whichareintendedtosupporttheachievementof thegoalsoftheNationalEnergyPolicy.TheNational EnergyPolicyseekstoprovideAmodern,efficient, diversifiedandenvironmentallysustainable energysectorprovidingaffordableandaccessible energysupplieswithlongtermenergysecurityand supportedbyinformedpublicbehaviouronenergy issuesandanappropriatepolicy,regulatoryand institutionalframeworkby2030.TheNationalEnergy Policycallsforthedevelopmentoftheenergysector, withspecificemphasisonrenewables,newand alternativefuels,biofuelsandenergyfromwaste.

SubPoliciesunder JamaicasNationalEnergy Policy20092030


Renewable Energy Policy Energy-from-Waste Policy Biofuels Policy Carbon Emissions and Trading Policy Energy Conservation and Efficiency Policy Electricity Policy

TheNationalEnergyfromWastePolicyisbeingdevelopedtoensurethatJamaicaisthe

regionalleaderinprovidingaffordableandcleanenergyfromwaste contributingtoasustainablefuture.
Energyfromwasteisaneffectivemethodofwastemanagementandwastevolumereduction withtheaddedbenefitofgeneratingcleanenergy.Wasteprocessingisalreadyasignificant sourceofrenewableenergyinmanycountriesaroundtheworld.Potentialexistsforthe developmentofrenewableenergysourceswhichcanbeexploitedfrommunicipalsolidwaste (MSW)aswellasfromwastesgeneratedfromagribusinessandwastewatertreatment. Energyfromwastecanmakeasignificantcontributiontoachievingrenewableenergytargets, ensuringsecurityofenergysupplyaswellastreatingwastethatcannototherwiseentera wasteminimizationorrecycling/compostingprogramme.Certainenergyfromwaste opportunitiesarealreadybeingpursuedinJamaica;thisPolicywillbringcoherencetothe existingsituationandwilladdressotheropportunitiesforapplicationofEFWtechnologies. ThisEnergyfromWastePolicywillguidetheoperationsandprocessesassociatedwith generatingenergyfromwasteinJamaica.ThePolicyestablishesastrategicframeworkgoals,

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desiredoutcomesandamixofshorttomediumtermaswellaslongtermstrategiesto supportthedevelopmentofanenergyfromwastesector.Implementationofthestrategies withintheframeworkwillresultinthefollowingoutcomes: Economicviability Securityofenergysupply Productionofcleanenergy Diversificationoftheenergysupplymix Developmentofrenewableenergysources Bestpracticesinwastemanagement Environmentalsustainability Protectionofhumanhealth Promotionofnewandemergingwastemanagementtechnologiesthatareclean,less pollutingandcontributetoecoefficiencyinindustry ThedevelopmentofthispolicywasguidedbyaPolicyWorkingGroupcomprising representativesofkeygovernmentministriesandagencies(seeAppendixIVforthemembers oftheworkinggroup).ThePolicyalsobenefittedfromtheinputofkeystakeholdersinthe wastemanagementandenvironmentalmanagementsectors.Thispolicyworkinggroupispart oftheEnergyandMineralsDevelopmentThematicWorkingGroupunderthemonitoringand evaluationframeworkofVision2030Jamaica.Thedevelopmentprocessincludedtheinputsof variousstakeholdersinthepublicandprivatesectorsaswellasfromnongovernmentaland civilsocietyorganizations.

StructureofthePolicy
TheEnergyfromWastePolicyconsistsoftheExecutiveSummary,followedbythesections describedbelow. Section1OverviewandContextprovidestheintroductionto,andrationalefor,thepolicy andidentifiesthelinkagesbetweenthispolicyandtheNationalEnergyPolicy20092030, Vision2030JamaicaNationalDevelopmentPlanandothercomponentsofthenationalenergy frameworkaswellastheNationalSolidWasteManagementPolicy.Thissectionalsopresents thecurrentlegislativeframeworkforenergyfromwasteinJamaicaandglobalissuesand trendsinenergyfromwaste. Section2DefiningthePolicyFrameworkpresentsthevisionforanenergyfromwastesector inJamaicaandthestrategicframework(goals,outcomesandstrategies)forthispolicy.

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Section3Implementation,MonitoringandEvaluationFrameworkdescribesthe implementation,monitoringandevaluationframeworkforthispolicy.Section3alsoincludes theinstitutionalframeworkforenergyfromwasteinJamaica. AppendixIisaglossaryoftermsusedinthispolicydocument. AppendixIIpresentsanEconomicViabilityAnalysisofWastetoEnergyatRivertonCityfroma studyconductedin19956. AppendixIIIdescribessomeinternationalEFWinitiativesfromwhichJamaicacanlearn. AppendixIVliststhemembersofthePolicyWorkingGroupwhodevelopedthispolicy.

Energy-from-waste can make a significant contribution to achieving renewable energy targets, ensuring security of energy supply as well as treating waste that cannot otherwise enter a waste minimization and recycling programme.

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Background
Jamaicacurrentlyhasnoknownlocalpetroleumbasedenergyresourcesandthereforerelies heavilyonimportedpetroleum.Thecountryimports91%ofitsenergy,withtheremainder derivedfromrenewablesources.Thespirallingcostofworldoilprices,coupledwithan increaseddemandforfuellocallyandthepaucityoffinancialresourcestocoveranever increasingoilbill,necessitatethatJamaicaurgentlyexploresvariousoptionsintheenergy sector. Consequently,toaddresstheseissues,in2009,Jamaicapromulgateditsfirstlongtermnational energypolicyNationalEnergyPolicy20092030.ThisPolicyisalignedtothecountrys NationalDevelopmentPlanVision2030Jamaicaandcallsforthereductionofenergycoststo thecitizensofJamaica,tobeachievedprimarilythroughthediversificationofenergysupplies, increasingrenewableintheenergymix,energyconservationandefficiency,modernizationof theenergyinfrastructureandanupdatedregulatoryframeworkandtheoveralldevelopment oftheenergysector. Jamaica,throughitsnationalenergypolicyandVision2030Jamaicahassettargetsfor renewableenergyandthepercentagediversificationofenergysupply.Thesetargetsare presentedinthetablebelow.
Indicator Percentageofrenewablesin energymix Percentagediversificationof energysupply 2009 9% 9% 2012 11% 11% 2015 12.5% 33% 2030 20% 70%

Thesetargets,thereforecallforJamaicatoinvestigatevariousoptionsforadvancingthe developmentoftheenergysector.Energyfromwaste,expansionofrenewables,andincreased useofbiofuelsbecomeimportantconsiderationsfortheachievementofthesetargetsand goalsassetoutintheNationalEnergyPolicy.Energyfromwastepoliciesarebeingdeveloped bycountriesworldwideasameansofbalancingtheirenergypolicies,increasingrenewables whileatthesametimemanagingthegrowingvolumesofwastethatarebeinggeneratedasa resultofcurrentconsumptionandproductionpatterns.

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Energyfromwastepresentsanaffordablewayofmanagingmunicipalsolidwastethatcannot berecycledorusedinacompostingprogrammebutcanbeusedtogenerateenergy,thereby contributingtoenergysecurityandareductioninthecountrysenergybill. Thesharpincreaseinthevolumeanddiversityofwastematerialsgeneratedbyhumanactivity andtheirpotentiallydeleteriouseffectsonpublichealthandtheenvironment,haveledto heightenedawarenessabouttheurgentneedtoadopt ResidualWaste scientificmethodsforsafedisposalofwastesandforthe conversionofwastestoproductiveusessuchasenergy Residualwasteissolidwaste generation.ThisnationalEnergyfromWastepolicy thatremainsaftertheinstitution doesnotadvocateforthegenerationofmorewastes ofprogrammesforwaste butplacesemphasisontheutilizationofwastethat minimization,recyclingand cannotbeabsorbedthroughtheinstitutionofwaste composting minimization,recyclingorcompostingprogrammes.In otherwords,thisPolicywillfocusondisposalofresidual wasteinasafeandenvironmentallyfriendlymannerthroughitsconversionintoenergy.Inso doing,thePolicywillbeconsistentwitheffortsbytheNationalSolidWasteManagement Authority(NSWMA)andlocalgovernmentauthoritiestoestablishandmanageanappropriate andintegratedwastemanagementframework. Withinthiscontext,thedevelopmentofanenergyfromwastepolicybecomesaviable considerationforthedevelopmentoftheenergysectorandthemanagementofwastes. Withrespecttowaste,currentlythecountrygeneratesanestimated1.5kg/perperson/perday ofsolidwaste1,apercapitaamountequivalenttothatwhichisgeneratedinsomedeveloped counties,suchastheUnitedKingdom.MostwastegeneratedinJamaicaisdisposedofin manageddumpsitesandtheavailabilityoflandtodealwithincreasingvolumesofwastewill becomeanincreasinglyimportantissuetoaddress.Forexample,itisestimatedbytheNSWMA thatthecountryslargestdisposalsite(Riverton)willreachitsmaximumcapacityby20142. Also,thecountrysdisposalsitesarebecomingincreasinglymoredifficultandexpensiveto manage.ACharacterizationofWasteStudyundertakenbyNSWMAin2006reportedthat69 percentofthesolidwastegeneratedinJamaicaisorganic,representingagoodsourceofinput intoanenergyfromwastesector.However,whilemostofthefocuswithinwaste managementisonmunicipalsolidwaste,Jamaicasagriculturesectoristhelargestsourceof wastessuchasbagasseandanimalwastesoutsideoftheminingsector.

EstimatedfromWasteCharacterisationStudyattheRivertonLandfill,NationalSolidWasteManagement Authority,2006,asreportedinManagementofHazardous&SolidWastesInJamaica,SustainableDevelopment andRegionalPlanningDivision,PlanningInstituteofJamaica,November2007 2 ManagementofHazardous&SolidWastesInJamaica,SustainableDevelopmentandRegionalPlanning Division,PlanningInstituteofJamaica,November2007


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Atpresent,Jamaicaspowersystemhasanelectricitygenerating capacityof818MW.Basedonthecountrysprojectionof economicgrowth,itisestimatedthatapproximately400MWof newgeneratingcapacitywillberequiredoverthenextten(10) yearsintheelectricitysector. Thegrowingamountofmunicipalsolidwasteandotherwastes coupledwiththeincreasingdemandforelectricitypresentwinwin opportunitiestoengageinenergyfromwasteinitiativeseven afterrecyclingoptionshavebeenutilized. Basedontherelationshipbetweenenergyandwaste,thisPolicy willpresentachangeinthewaythatwasteismanagedandenergy isproducedinJamaica.ItwillpresentaStrategicFrameworkthat willprovideaplatformfortheenergyandwastemanagement sectorstoworktogethertoreducetheamountofwastegenerated whilecreatinganenablingenvironmentforsignificantinvestment inenergyrecoveryfromresidualwaste.

EnergyfromWastevs. WastetoEnergy
ThetermEnergyfromWasteis usedtoencompassallmethodsof generatingenergyandfuelsfrom anykindofwastematerials insteadofthenarrowerconcept ofWastetoEnergy.Thesetwo termsaredefinedbelow.

WastetoEnergy(WTE)
Thetwoprovenmeansfor disposalofmunicipalsolidwaste (MSW)areburyingitinlandfills orcombustingitathigh temperatures.Thisincineration withenergyrecoveryprocessis calledwastetoenergy(WTE).It convertstheenergyfrom combustionofMSWtoelectricity.

UnderstandingGenerationofEnergyfromWaste
Wasteswhichcanbeusedtoproduceenergyareclassifiedbythe InternationalEnergyAgencyasfollows: Municipalsolidwaste(MSW)consistsofbiodegradable andcombustibleproductscollectedfromhouseholds, industryandtheservicesector. Biomassconsistsofplantmatteruseddirectlyasfuel, includingagriculturalwaste(e.g.bagasse),animalwastes, humanwasteandwastewater. Thecombustionofmunicipalsolidwastetogenerateelectricityis themostcommonmethodofconvertingwastetoenergy.The MSWisincineratedinspeciallydesignedchambersathigh temperatures,therebyreducingittoonetenthofitsoriginal volume.Atthesametime,theheatgeneratedbycombustionis transferredtosteamthatcanflowthroughaturbinetogenerate electricity.

EnergyfromWaste (EFW)
Energyfromwasteencompasses alltechnologiesandsystemsthat produceenergyfromwaste productsandincludeswasteto energy.Otherwasteprocessing methodsare: energyfromlandfillgas extraction coincinerationofsolid recoveredfuelasafuelin bothcementkilnsand powerplants dedicatedbiomassenergy plantsincineratingwaste wood

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Landfillsanddumpsitesusedforthedisposalofmunicipalsolidwasteproducegaswhich consistsofapproximately50%methane.Thiscanbecapturedasasourceofenergy. Biomasscanbeusedtocreatefueldirectlyorcombustedtogenerateelectricity.Forexample, bagassehashighcogenerationpotential.Manureandotheranimalbiosolidscanbeusedto createdieselfuels.Biodieselisadieselreplacementfuelthatismanufacturedfromvegetable oils,recycledcookinggreasesoroils,oranimalfats. Sludgethewasteproducedbyplantsthattreatwastewatercanbeconsideredasafuel. Whenoperating,awastewatertreatmentplantgenerateswastethathasbeenseparatedfrom thewaterduringthesedimentationprocessaswellasotherwasteproducedduringthe biologicaltreatmentprocess.Whencombined,bothkindsofwasteformsludgethathastobe treatedandremoved.Ratherthansimplydisposingofthissludge,itcanbeusedtogenerate energy.Inotherwords,thereisthepotentialtotransformthesewagetreatmentprocessfrom asimplecleanuptoonethatrecoverssignificantquantitiesofenergy.

BenefitsofImplementinganEnergyfromWastePolicy
Generationofcleanelectricpower Inthepastthereweremanyconcernsoftheenvironmentalimpactofwastetoenergy incinerationplants.Today,moderntechnologieshaveproventobesafe.Todaysenergyfrom wastefacilitiesproducecleanrenewableenergythroughthecombustionofmunicipalsolid wasteinspeciallydesignedpowerplantsthatdiffersignificantlyfromtheoldfashioned municipalincinerators.Modernpollutioncontrolsystemsensureacleanerburningpower plant. Environmentallysafesolidwastemanagementanddisposal Modernwastetoenergytechnologyhasproventobesafe,environmentallyfriendly,and economical.Burningtrasheffectivelydestroyswastestreambacteria,pathogens,andother harmfulelements.Thewastetoenergyprocessalsoreducestheincomingvolumeofwasteby about90percent,therebyreducingtheneedforlandspacetocreatenewdumpsites.Also, wastetoenergyallowsforeasydisposalofsewagesludge,asWTEfacilitiescanburnsewage sludgefromwastewatertreatmentplantsasfuel,thusprovidingapracticalmeansofsludge disposal.

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Reducedgreenhousegas(GHG)emissions WTEplantsconservefossilfuelsby Combustingmunicipalsolidwaste(MSW) generatingelectricity.OnetonofMSW combustedreducesoilusebyonebarrel ratherthandepositingitinadumpsiteresults inareductioningreenhousegasemissions. IthasbeenestimatedthatonetonofMSW Landfillgascontainsabout50percent combustedratherthanlandfilledreduces methane,whichis21timesmorepotentasa greenhousegasemissionsby1.2tonsof greenhousegasthancarbondioxide.3 carbondioxide. ComparativestudiesofWTEandlandfilling haveshownthatforeachtonneofMSW WTEplantsdonothavetheaqueous emissionsthatmaybeexperiencedin combustedratherthanlandfilled,theoverall landfills. carbondioxidereductioncanbeashighas1.3 tonnesofCO2pertonneofMSWwhenboth WTEplantsreducethespacerequiredfor theavoidedlandfillemissionsandtheavoided landfillingbyabout90%. useoffossilfuelaretakenintoaccount. Reductionintheoverallwastequantitiesrequiringfinaldisposal Bydivertingwastefromlandfills,existinglandfillswilllastlonger,therebyreducingtherateat whichnewlandisneededforthispurpose.Asasmallislandwithhighcoastaldensitiesof people,settlementsandindustries,Jamaicacannotaffordtousepreciouslandtostoresolid waste. Increasedindependenceandlessrelianceonimportedpetroleum Municipalsolidwaste(MSW)isanindigenous,renewablesourceofenergyand,depending uponthemoistureandenergycontentofthewastematerials,isagoodfuelsource.The thermaltreatmentofMSWresultsinthegenerationof500600kWhofelectricitypertonneof MSWcombusted.ByusingWTEinitiativestomeetapercentageofJamaicasenergyneeds,the demandforimportedpetroleumisreduced. Improvedbalanceofpayments Foreveryonemilliontonnesofrefuseprocessed,theneedtouseabout1.67millionbarrelsof oiltogeneratethesameamountofelectricityisoffset.Thisleadstosavingsoncountriesfuel bills,resultinginanimprovedbalanceofpayments. Sustainableeconomicgrowthanddevelopment EFWfacilitiesandtheEFWsystemwillincludethecreationofjobsforJamaicans.

H.Taylor,Jan.1990:MunicipalWastetoEnergyFacilitiesReduceGreenhouseGasEmissions,Proceedsofthe 4thAnnualSymposiumonMunicipalSolidWasteDisposalandEnergyProduction.
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GlobalTrendsinEnergyfromWaste
Withtherapidincreaseinenergyandresourceconsumptionstemmingfrom theadvancementoffreetrade,globalizationandeconomicactivitiesfrom emergingeconomieslikeBrazil,IndiaandChina,theworldisfacingadouble crisisoverdependenceonfossilfuelswiththeinherentvulnerabilitiesto priceshocks,andenvironmentalconcernssuchasairpollutionandclimate change.Mostcountriesrealizethatitisessentialtoreducetheirenergy dependencybyproducingandwidelydistributingnewandrenewableenergysourcesthatcan replacefossilfuelssuchasoilandcoal.Thisalsoservestoreducetheemissionsofclimate changeinducinggreenhousegasesandotherpollutants. Worldwide,about130milliontonnesofmunicipalsolidwastearecombustedannuallyinover 600wastetoenergy(WTE/EFW)facilitiesthatproduceelectricityandsteamfordistrictheating andrecoveredmetalsforrecycling.Since1995,thevolumeofMSWhandledbytheglobalWTE industryincreasedbymorethan16milliontonnes.Currently,thereareWTE/EFWfacilitiesin 35nations,includinglargecountriessuchasChinaandsmallonessuchasBermuda. Countriesorregionswhichhavesuccessfulenergyfromwastesectorshaveensuredthat energyfromwastegoalsareincorporatedintoboththeirenergypoliciesandtheirwaste managementpolicies.Forexample,in2000,theEuropeanUnionannouncedaGreenPaper designedtosecureenergyresources,andestablishedaroadmapwithtoachieverenewable energytargets.Moreover,itdefinedwoodandorganicwastessuchasfoodwaste,livestock manualandsewagesludgeasbiomass,andhasactivelypursuedbiomassenergytechnology development.Atthesametimeithasbannedthedirectlandfillingofwastesthatcanbe convertedtoenergy,inlinewiththeLandfillDirectivepublishedin1999. AppendixIIIdescribessomeinnovativeinternationalenergyfromwasteinitiativesthatindicate directionsinwhichJamaicacouldmove.

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RationaleforEnergyfromWaste Policy
Jamaicasinterestincreatinganenergyfromwaste(EFW)sectorstemsfromtheincreasein growthinmunicipalsolidwaste(MSW)coupledwiththeincreasingdemandforenergy.Energy fromwasteisknowntobeaneffectivemethodofwastemanagementandwastevolume reductionwiththeaddedbenefitofgeneratingcleanenergy. ThisEnergyfromWastePolicyrespondsto Energy-from-waste is a win-win case thedirectivewithintheNationalEnergy Policytoincreasethepercentageof for Jamaica and this policy will renewablesinthecountrysenergymixto enable us to generate clean energy enablethereductioninthedependenceon using appropriate technologies within importedpetroleum.Developingthissector a good regulatory framework, expand willnotonlyrespondtotheNationalEnergy renewable energy sources and create Policybutalsowilleffectivelysupportthe a more sustainable environment countryswastereductiongoals,including through better management of waste. addressingtheproblemofscarcelandfill space. Energygeneratedfromwasteisconsideredtoberenewablesincemuchofthewasteis biomass4.Thereforeincreasingtheportionofenergyobtainedfromwastewillcontributeto theachievementofJamaicastargetsofrenewablesinthetotalenergymixof11%by2012, 12.5%by2015and20%by2030. Thepromotionoftheenergyfromwastesectorthroughthispolicywillnotresultinthe creationofmorewastebutwillsupportJamaicasgoalsofminimizationofwasterequiringfinal disposalamajorthrustbeingconsideredaspartoftherevisedintegratedwastemanagement frameworktobepromulgatedbytheNationalSolidWasteManagementAuthority(NSWMA). Wastereductionandrecyclingwillremainatthetopofthewastemanagementhierarchy,with energyfromwasteinitiativesbeingusedonlyforthoseunavoidableresidualmunicipalwastes thatcannotbereusedorrecycled.

AccordingtotheEuropeanDirectiveonRenewableEnergySourcesthebiodegradablefractionofmunicipaland industrialwasteisconsideredbiomass,thusarenewableenergysource.Also,EFWisdesignatedasrenewableby theUS2005EnergyPolicyActandbytheUSDepartmentofEnergy.


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Internationally,ithasbeenproventhatrecyclingandenergygeneratedfromwastematerials whichcannotberecycledgohandinhandinordertoimprovenationalenvironmental outcomeswithrespecttowastemanagementwhileatthesametimesupportingviableenergy fromwasteoperations.Thus,thispolicywillhelptofacilitatebettermanagementofwasteby localauthoritiesandwillthereforecomplementthecountrysnationalwastemanagement strategies.Withthedevelopmentofamodernizedandrevisednationalspatialplanthatis currentlytakingplace,thepromulgationofthispolicyalsowillpromotethepropersitingof EFWplants. Thisenergyfromwastepolicywillpromoteenergydiversificationwhichwillhelptoenhance Jamaicasenergysecurity.Also,thepolicywillprovideincomegeneratingoptionsforhandling agriculturalwastesandwastewatersludge.Inaddition,convertingwasteatdisposalsitesto usableformsofenergyreducesthevolumeofsolidwasteby90%andthereforewillalleviate theproblemofinappropriatelymanageddisposalsitesthatcontributetopoorhealthand environmentalstandards,emissionofgreenhousegasesandtheoccurrenceoffiresfrom combustionorarson.Also,thiswillreducethecostsassociatedwithcreatingandmanaging disposalsites. Table1summarizesthesocial,economicandenvironmentalbenefitstoJamaicaof implementingthisEnergyfromWastePolicy. Table1:SummaryofBenefitsofanEnergyfromWastePolicy Social Economic Environmental
Generationofcleanelectric power Reducedlandspaceusedfor landfills Sustainableeconomic growthanddevelopment Jobcreation Reducedcostsforusersof electricityandbiodiesel Increasedsupplyofbio diesel Increasedindependence andlessrelianceon importedpetroleum Improvedbalanceof payments Sustainableeconomic growthanddevelopment Jobcreation Stimulatedindustrial development Reducedcostsforsolid wastemanagement Environmentallysafewaste managementanddisposal Reductionindiseasevectors suchasverminandinsects Reducedgreenhousegas (GHG)emissions Reductionintheoverall wastequantitiesrequiring finaldisposal

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TheEnergySectorinJamaica
ThedevelopmentofJamaicasenergysectorshowsmuchpromiseinreducingdependenceon importedpetroleum,loweringthecostofenergytoconsumersandcreatingaframeworkfor betteruseofenergythroughenergyconservationandefficiencybyallJamaicans,becauseof thepromulgationofthecountrysfirstlongtermNationalEnergyPolicy20092030.The nationalpolicywaspromulgatedin2009toaddressthesituationfacingtheenergysectorof beingcharacterizedbyanalmostcompletedependenceonimportedpetroleum;highratesof energyuse;andaninadequatepolicyandregulatoryframework. Thefollowingprovidesasynopsisoftheenergysector,identifyingsomekeystrengthsand weaknesses.TheNationalEnergyPolicywillbuildonthestrengthsandreducemanyofthese weaknesses.

Strengths:
Existenceofaregulatoryframework Jamaicahasawelldevelopedpowersupplyanddistribution systemwithmorethan90%ofthepopulationhavingaccessto electricity Jamaicaisendowedwithaveryhighpotentialfortheuseof renewablesintheformofsolar,wind,hydroandbiomass production Therearediverseopportunitiesforcogeneration

Weaknesses:
Highdependenceonimportedpetroleum Highenergyimportbill Highcostofelectricity Old/agingelectricitygenerationplantOver40%ofthepower generationsystemisoldandinneedofreplacement/retirement Agedtechnologyofthelocalpetroleumrefinery Lackofdetailedanduptodatedatafordeterminingrenewable energyprojects Lowlevelofadaptationofnewenergytechnologies Useofcharcoalandfirewoodasenergysources Slowdevelopmentofrenewableenergyresources Lowlevelsofpublicactiononenergyconservation Weakenforcementbyregulatoryagencies

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EnergyUseinJamaica
TheenergysectorinJamaicaisdominatedbyimportedpetroleum, whichmeetsapprox91%ofthenationsenergyneeds. Approximately9%oftheenergysupplymixcomesfromrenewable sourcessuchaswind,hydro,biomassandsolar(seeFigure1). Biomasssourcesincludefuelwood,bagasse(usedincogeneration facilities)andethanolprocessedfromsugarcaneusedasa componentofE10(aliquidfuelcomposedof10%ethanoland90% gasolinewhichisnowwidelyusedinthetransportationsector). Figure 1.Compositionofrenewable energysourcesinJamaica2009 Asmallpercentageofrenewableenergycomesfrombiogas plantslocatedacrosstheisland.Theygeneratefuelfromanimalwastesfromtheagricultural, smallmanufacturing,educationalandresidentialsectors. AsshowninFigure2,transportisthelargestconsumerofpetroleuminoureconomy, accountingfor37percentoftotalpetroleumconsumptionin2008andthedemandfor automotivefuels(gasolineanddieseloil)isgrowingatarateof4.3%perannum.Thebauxite andaluminaindustryaccountsfor34percent,whileelectricitygenerationaccountsfor23per cent.

DRAFTOctober4,2010 Figure2:PetroleumConsumptionbyActivity,2008

ManagementoftheEnergySector
TheMinistryofEnergyandMininghasoverarchingresponsibilityforthedevelopmentofthe energysectorinJamaica.TheMinistrysEnergyDivisionfacilitatesthedevelopmentof strategies,programmesandprojectstoensurethesuccessfulimplementationoftheNational EnergyPolicywithafocusontheidentificationofnew,renewableandalternativeenergy sourcesandthepromotionofenergyconservationandefficiency. ThePetroleumCorporationofJamaica(PCJ)isthemainimplementingagencyoftheMinistry andfocusesonimplementingtheenergysecurityandfueldiversificationstrategiesandthe costeffectiveavailabilityofpetroleumproducts. TheJamaicaPublicServiceCompanyLimited(JPSCo)istheNationalElectricGridOperatorand, alongwithseveralIndependentPowerProducers(IPPs),satisfiestheelectricitygeneration needsofthecountry. TheRuralElectrificationProgramme(REP)hasresponsibilityforprovidingelectricitytonon urbanareas.UndertheREP,7,000kmoflowvoltagedistributionlineswereconstructedand approximately70,000ruralhomeselectrified.Inexcessof90%ofhouseholdsislandwidenow haveaccesstoelectricity. Currently,theGovernmentofJamaicaowns20%oftheJamaicaPublicServiceCompany(JPSCo) Limited.TheGovernmenthastakenthedecisiontoprivatizeandliberalizetheelectricity sector,andasafirststep,allnewgeneratingcapacityisbeingundertakenbytheprivatesector throughindependentpowerproducers(IPPs)whichgenerateelectricityfortheirownuse(self producers)and/orforsaletothenationalgrid.WhileJPSCoretainsamonopolyonthe transmissionanddistributionofelectricity,independentpowerprovidersnowaccountforover 25%ofelectricitygenerationcapacity.In2008,totalgeneratingcapacityinJamaicawas approximately818megawatts(MW),whichincluded217MWcapacityprovidedbyIPPs.

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WasteManagementin Jamaica
Jamaicageneratesalltypesofwasteincludinggaseous emissions,solidwaste,hazardouswaste,medicalwasteand sewage.Withintheenergyfromwasteframework,thefocusis onthetypesofwastethatcanbeusedtosafelygenerateenergy. Thesearemunicipalsolidwaste,agriculturalwastes(including bagasseandanimalwastes)andsewagesludge.Typesofwaste thatJamaicageneratesthatwouldnotbeincludedintheenergy fromwastesectorbecauseoftheirpotentialimpactonhuman healthandtheenvironmentincludehazardouswasteand medicalwaste.

Typesofwastethatcan beconsideredwithinan energyfromwaste frameworkinclude:


municipalsolid waste agriculturalwastes (includingbagasse andanimalwastes) sewagesludge

ManagementofMunicipalSolidWaste
Solidwasteisbroadlydefinedasnonhazardoussolidmaterialemanatingfromhouseholdsand institutional,industrialandcommercialfacilities.Bydefinition,solidwastedoesnotinclude solidcomponentofhazardousandmedicalwastessincethosewastesaresubjecttospecial handlingandtreatmentregimes.In2006,approximately1,463,905.5tonnes5ofsolidwaste wereproducedfromresidential,commercialandinstitutionalsources.Therewasa150per centincreaseinpercapitagenerationofsolidwastefrom0.6kg/person/dayin1996toan estimated1.5kg/person/dayin2006(Treasure,2002).

CharacterisationoftheSolidWasteStream
ACharacterizationofWastestudycarriedoutbytheNationalSolidWasteManagement Authority(NSWMA)in2006reportedthat69percentofthesolidwasteproducedinJamaicais organicandrepresentsapproximately1.01milliontonnesbyvolume(seeTable2andFigure3). Table2.WasteGenerationbyType2006
TypeofWaste Compostables(Organic) Paper Plastic Metal Cardboard Glass Textile
5

Percentage 69 5.9 13.9 1 3.7 2.4 2.3

Volume(tonnes) 1010094.8 86370.5 203482.9 33669.8 54164.5 35133.7 33669.8

Thisisacrudeestimatebasedon1.5kgpercapitaperdayandapopulationsizeof2,673,800in2006.

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Wood/Board Other Total

0.3 0.2

4391.7 2927.8 1463905.5

Source: Waste Characterisation Study, NSWMA, 2006

Figure 3: Components of Jamaicas Waste Stream

Approximately70percentoftheestimatedtotalsolidwastecomesfromhouseholdswhile commercialandindustrialsolidwasterepresentabout20percentand10percentrespectively ofthetotalwastegenerated.

SolidWasteManagement
TheNationalSolidWasteManagementAuthority(NSWMA) hasthesolejurisdictionforsolidwastemanagementinthe country.TheNSWMAwasgivenitslegalmandatewiththe enactmentoftheNationalSolidWasteManagementPolicy andtheNationalSolidWasteManagementAct(2002).The Authoritycurrentlycollectsanddisposesofdomesticsolid waste(includinghazardouswaste)whilesimultaneously regulatingthesector. Collectionbygarbagetrucksandburningarethe predominantmethodsofgarbagedisposalandtreatment. GarbagecollectionintheKingstonMetropolitanArea(KMA) andothertownshasbeenmoreefficientthaninotherareas ofthecountry.Collectionisparticularlylowinruralareas

Sanitarylandfill Asanitarylandfillisasolid wastedisposalsitewith: designatedcellsfortipping differenttypesofwaste leachatecontrols(e.g.cell linings) gascontrols(e.g.anetwork ofpipestocollectthelandfill gasmethanethatis generatedfromthe decomposingwastewithin thelandfill) dailycoveringofwaste

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wherethemainmethodoftreatmentanddisposalisburning.Otherdisposalmethodsinclude buryinganddumpingonopenlotsandingullies. Jamaicahasnosanitarylandfillsbuthaseight(8)authorizeddisposalsiteswhicharemanaged bytheNSWMA.AccordingtotheNSWMA,thecountrysdisposalsitesreceivedabout940,000 tonnesofgarbageduringtheyear2006andthisfigureisprojectedtoincreaseto1.2million tonnesby2010.AccordingtotheNSWMA,ittakesaboutUS$100pertonnetocollectand disposeofsolidwasteinJamaica.Overthepasttenyears,municipalsolidwastedumpedat disposalsitesacrosstheislandhasgrownbyanannualaveragerateof6%peryear.The NationalSolidWasteManagementAuthorityprojectsthat70to75%ofthecountryssolid wasteiscollected,whiletheremainderisuncollectedduetoinaccessibility,competingdisposal practicessuchasburningandimproperwastemanagementpracticessuchasdumpinginto openspaces.The25to30%ofuncollectedwasterepresentsinputsthatcouldbeusedasinput intoenergyfromwastefacilities. Privatewastemanagementfirmsestablishlongtermcontractswithbusinesses,hotelsand residentialcomplexesforgarbageremoval.Jamaicasdisposalsitesaredividedintocells,and tractorsareusedtocompactthegarbageonadailybasis.Hazardouswastes,suchasmotor vehiclebatteries,areseparatedfromthegeneralwastestream.Additionally,workhasbeen initiatedtoseparateandbaleusedtires.ThedisposalsitesacrossJamaicaarelistedinTable3 below: Table3.DisposalSitesinJamaica Location ParishesServed St.Catherine KingstonandSt.Andrew, St.Catherineandsectionsof Clarendon St.Thomas Portland St.Ann St.AnnandSt.Mary Manchesterandsectionsof Clarendon St.Elizabeth Trelawny,St.James,Hanover andWestmoreland

NameofDisposalSite Riverton

ChurchCorner DoctorsWood Tobalski Haddon MartinsHill Myersville Retirement

St.Thomas Portland St.Ann St.Ann Manchester St.Elizabeth St.James

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ThelargersitesareRiverton,Retirement,MartinsHillandHaddon.Thesesitesareconsidered primarysitesfordevelopmentbasedonthefour(4)regionswhichtheNSWMAregulates. Generally,thesedumpshavenothadthebenefitofappropriateequipmentorsufficient fundingforadequatemanagementtobesustained.Inaddition,thesmallsizeofthedisposal siteshasaffectedtheeconomiesofscaleforpropermanagementtobeinstituted. TheGovernmentplanstoclosethesmallerdumpsitesinordertofunnelresourcesintoproper developmentandmanagementofthelargersites.Tofacilitatethedisposalofthewasteatthe mainsites,transferstationsaretobeestablishedinornearthesesmallersites.

Processing/RecyclingofSolidWaste
WasteprocessingonlytakesplaceonaformalscaleonalimitedbasisinJamaica.Therearea fewcompaniesthatarecollectingwastepaper,PET(polyethyleneterephthalate)plasticbottles andscrapmetal,reducingthevolumebyshreddingorcrushingandthenbalingtherecyclables forexport.Thesecompaniesoperateindependentlyandarenotwithinthejurisdictionofthe NSWMA.Withtheexceptionofglassbottlerecyclingthereisnomajorrecyclingindustry. Therehavebeenanumberofinvestorsthathavemadeproposalstorecyclethehundredsof thousandsoftyresthathavebeenbaledbytheNSWMAandarecurrentlybeingstoredat Riverton.TheNSWMAcontinuestohavedialoguewithpotentialinvestorsinrelationtothis issue. Thescrapmetalindustryhasbeenvibrantinrecentyears.Nearlyalldisposalsiteshavescrap metalstockpiles,withRivertonandRetirementhavingthelargest.Scrapmetalexportswere valuedatUS$100millionin2009.Whilethisindustryprovidesincomegenerationfor communitiesandprovidesanincentiveforrecyclingwastematerials,ithasanegativeside. Tradeinscrapmetalsisposingathreattosomeofthecountrysimportantinfrastructuredue totheftoftelephoneandtrafficlightcables;removalofdrainandmanholecovers;andremoval ofbridgerailsandroadsidings.Recognizingthisproblem,inApril2010,theGovernmentof Jamaicaplacedabanontradeinscrapmetal6.However,theGOJrealizestheimportanceofthis industrytolocalcommunitiesandthecountryingeneralandisintheprocessofformulating strategiesaimedatformalizing,regulatingandimprovingthisindustry.

ManagementofAgriculturalWastes
InJamaica,theagriculturesectoristhelargestsourceofwasteoutsideoftheminingsector. Bagasseconstitutes30%byvolumeofJamaicassugarcropandisthelargestcomponentof

Thisbanexemptsmanufacturerswhogeneratetheirownmaterial,anddonotbuyfromothersources.

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agriculturalwaste.Bagasseisalreadybeingusedincogenerationfacilitiestoproduceelectricity andcontributesabout47%tothecurrentrenewableenergymix,representing5%ofnational energyuse.Basedonrecentresearch,cogenerationpotentialfrombagassefortheperiod 2008to2030isestimatedtorangebetween20and63MW. TheMinistryofAgriculturehasoverallresponsibilityforthesugarindustry,butitdealswith generalpolicyissueswhiledelegatingtotheSugarIndustryAuthority(SIA)thespecificsof regulationandcontroloftheindustry. WastesfromanimalfarmsalsofallwithintheresponsibilityoftheMinistryofAgriculture. However,theScientificResearchCouncil(SRC)workswiththeMinistryandothergovernment agenciesaswellastheprivatesectortoprovidesolutionsforhandlinganimalwastesusing biodigestertechnologies.

ManagementofWastewater
Sanitationservicesexistinmostmajorurbanareas,andarebeingimproved.IntheKingston MetropolitanArea(KMA),92%ofhouseholdshaveflushtoilets,whileinothertowns60%of householdshavethisfacility.Thegreatmajorityofhouseholdswithoutflushtoiletsusepit latrines.Inorderforanationalsystemtobedevelopedtoprocesswastewatersludgefor energygeneration,centralizedwastewatertreatmentplantsarenecessary.However,while coverageofsewerageserviceshasincreasedsignificantlyinrecentyears,only20percentof thepopulationislandwideisconnectedtosewagetreatmentfacilities.IntheKMAthe percentageisconsiderablyhigherwith60%ofhouseholdslinkedtosewersystems,whilein othertownsonly11%ofhouseholdsareconnectedmostofwhichareinhousing developments.TheNWCiscurrentlyimplementingaprogrammetoexpandthesewer connectionsintheKMAandrecentlycompletedtheconstructionofanewseweragesystemin theMontegoBayarea. TheNationalWaterCommission(NWC)isastatutoryorganizationchargedwiththe responsibilityofprovidingwastewaterservicesforthepeopleofJamaica.However,therearea numberofentitiesthatownandoperatewastewatertreatmentfacilitiesinJamaica.TheNWC operatesthelargestnumberofplantsandhasafairlylargenetworkofseweragesystemsin majorcitiesandtowns.InadditiontotheNWC,sewagetreatmentplantsareownedbyhotels, stratacorporationsandpublichousingdevelopmentagencies.Majorurbancentressuchas KingstonandSt.Andrew,St.JamesandSt.Catherineaccountforapproximately90percentof thewastehandledbytheNWC. Jamaicaswastewatersectorgenerallyhasalowlevelofperformance,andsewageeffluent qualityfrommosttreatmentplantshasgenerallynotbeenunabletomeettheNRCAssewage

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effluentstandards.Thisismainlyduetoissuessuchasimproperplantdesigns,oldtechnology, overloading,lackofmaintenance,andimproperoperations.Thisproblemhasbeenalleviated somewhatbythe2008commissioningofthefirstphaseoftheSoapberryTreatmentPondsthat providetertiarytreatmentofsewagefromKingstonandSt.AndrewandSouthEastSt. Catherine(Portmore). Wastewaterisalsogeneratedfromagribusinesses.However,industrialwastewatertreatment facilitiesintheagroindustrialsectorarealsoplaguedwithpoortradeeffluentdischarge quality.Thisisofparticularconcerninthesugarindustry,coffeeindustry,distilleries,and abattoirs.CodesofPracticehavebeendevelopedforthecoffeeandsugarindustrieswhichaim toimprovethequalityofeffluents. Sludgeisleftbehindfromtheprocessoftreatmentofwastewaterandissuitabletogenerate energythroughprocessessuchasgasificationtoproducesyngas,incinerationtogenerate electricity,oranaerobicdigestion.

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DefiningtheScopefortheUseof WasteintheEnergySectorinJamaica
Whiletherearediversemethodologiesusedtoobtainenergyfromwastematerials implementedincountriesthroughouttheworld,thispolicywillfocusonthosetechnologies thatarefeasiblewithinthecontextofJamaicasphysicalsize,population,economicactivities andnaturalenvironment.

ProspectsforDevelopmentoftheEnergyfromWasteSectorinJamaica
Asdescribedabove,wastessuitableforgenerationofenergyconsistofmunicipalsolidwaste andbiomass.ThemostpromisingtechnologiesforenergyfromwasteinJamaicaare: IncinerationofMunicipalSolid Waste CaptureofLandfillGas ProductionofBiodiesel CogenerationusingBagasse ProductionofBiogasusingAnimal Wastes UseofWastewaterSludge Thesetechnologiesaredescribedbelowwithrespecttothecurrentandanticipated developmentenvironmentinJamaica.

IncinerationofMunicipalSolidWaste
Burningnontoxicwasteisconsideredanefficient methodofwastedisposalasitisrapidandhasthe potentialforcreatingthermalenergythatcanbe utilized.Disposalofmunicipalsolidwaste(MSW)by incineratingisenvironmentallypreferredto uncontrolleddumpingasitreducesthevolumeof garbagebyover85%.

A modern energy-from-waste facility

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Thetechnologyusedconsistsofareceptionbunkerforstoringthedeliveredwaste,an incinerationfurnacewithgrateandairsupply,asteamgeneratorforenergyconversionand coolingfluegases,slagandashremovalsystems,equipmentforcleaningthefluegasesto acceptableenvironmentalstandards,andastackfordischargingthecleanedfluegasesto atmosphere. In19956,afeasibilityanalysiswasconductedbyDr.Mohini KiswanifortheuseofwasteatRivertonCitytogenerate energybyincinerationinawastetoenergyfacility.The studyreportedthattheaveragecalorificvalueofresidential wastedisposedatthesitewas8.87MJperkgperday.Table 4showstheheatingvaluesofthecomponentsofthewaste atRiverton.Therequirementsforcombustionisthatthe wastehaveaminimumcalorificvalueof5MJperkgperday; themoisturecontentofwasteshouldbelessthan50%;andthecombustibleportionofthe wasteshouldnotbelessthan50%.Basedontheanalysis,heatrecoverythroughincineration ofmunicipalwasteatRivertonCityseemsfeasible.Theannualenergygenerationfor109,500 tonnesisestimatedtobe269,698MWh,withathermalefficiencyofabout25%.Theenergy outputwouldbe67,500MWhwithabout9MWavailableforexporttothenationalgrid. Table4.HeatingvaluesofResidentialWasteDisposedRivertonCity Items LowerEnd QuantityDisposed TotalHeating (MJ/kg) perday(kg) Values (MJperday) Plastic 22.7 44,020 999,254 Wood/Board 15.0 36,684 550,260 GardenWaste,Trees 4.8 110,051 528,245 Paper/Cardboard 12.2 40,352 492,294 Textiles 16.1 29,347 472,487 Food 4.12 51,357 211,591 Total 311,811 3,254,131
Source:PresentationbyM.Kiswani,PhDtotheEFWPWGonMay26,2010

PotentialNSWMAplansfordivertinggardenandfoodwasteintocompostinginitiativeswill reducethevolumeofwastebeingdepositedatthedisposalsite.However,Table4showsthat thesecomponents,althoughconstitutingalargevolume,havethelowestcalorificcontentand thereforecontributecomparativelylessthantheotherwastestreamcomponentssuchas plastic.Also,giventhevolumeofgardenandfoodwastegeneratedinJamaica,composting initiativeswouldnotlikelybeabletouseallthisorganicwaste,someofwhichwouldstillend


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upatdisposalsitessuchasRiverton.Therefore,theenergygeneratingpotentialofRiverton, afteracompostinginitiativehasbeenestablished,wouldbelessbutstillviable. AdescriptionofaneconomicviabilityanalysisofwastetoenergyatRivertonCitybasedonthis studyispresentedinAppendixII. In2009,thePetroleumCorporationofJamaica(PCJ)enteredintoanagreementwithaprivate sectorcompanyandpartnersfortheestablishmentoftwowastetoenergyplantsusingnew technologies.Whentheplantsareestablished,theywillgenerateupto65MWofelectricity fromgarbageatthecountrystwolargestwastedisposalsites.Theprojectasproposedwillsee theconstructionofone45MWfacilityatRivertonthatwillgenerate358gigawatthours(GWh) ofelectricityayearandone20MWfacilityatRetirementproducing141GWh.Annualsavings infossilfuelareprojectedtobesome700,000barrelsorUS$60million.

CaptureofLandfillGas
Landfillsproducegasmainlymethaneandcarbondioxidedirectlyinproportiontothetotal quantityoforganicmaterialcontainedinthem.Therefore,Jamaicandumpsitesgeneratelarge volumesofgassince69%ofthemunicipalwastestreamconsistsoforganicmatter. ThevolumeofmethaneavailableforrecoveryfromtheRivertondumpsiteisestimatedat 200L/kgofrefuseoveraperiodof30years.Theestimatedquantityofmunicipalsolidwaste for3yearsis520,125tonnes.Themethanerecoveryrateduringthefirst5yearsis1,040,250 m3peryear.Theenergycontentofthemethanefuelisequalto222,424,440x105kJperyear. AccordingtoJPSCo,theaveragerequirementperhouseholdis1,869kWhperyear.Therefore, basedontheestimatedconversionof3.6x106J=1kWh,theenergyproducedcanserveover 3,300homes(Model:EmconAssociatesHenry1989study,Model:ZsuzsaHungarianbiogas). BothmodelsdemonstratethatgarbagedumpedatRivertonCityhaspotentialforgenerating energy.However,adetailedviabilitystudyneedstobedone.

ProductionofBiodiesel
Existinginitiativestoexploretheproductionofbiodieselfocus ongrowingcropsasfeedstock.ThePetroleumCorporationof JamaicasCentreofExcellenceforRenewableEnergy(CERE) andtheMinistryofAgricultureandFisheriesResearchand DevelopmentDivisionarepartneringonaJ$13.59million biodieselprojectthat,ifsuccessful,shouldopenupnewcrops tofarming.Thejointventureagreementwilltestwhether Jamaicacanviablygrowthefeedstock.Theprojectwillestablish10acresofintercropped

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jatrophaandcastorplantsattheBodlesResearchStationinOldHarbour,StCatherine.The researchwillconsidertheharvestpotentialunderprevailingclimaticconditionandwillseekto determinetheproductivityoffeedstockvarietiesonmarginallands. However,thepotentialexiststoincorporatewastecookingoilsinthesystemtogeneratebio diesel.Theunsafepracticesofcookingoildisposalposeanenvironmentalhazard.Currently, whiletherearesomesmalloperationsinexistence,thereisnonationalsysteminplacefor collectingusedcookingoilwhichisusuallythrownaway,orpoureddownthedrain.According totheUSEnvironmentalProtectionAgency,agallonofdieselproduces22poundsofcarbon dioxide(CO2)emissions.Butvegetableoilisacarbonneutralfuel:itemitsonlyasmuchCO2as itabsorbedwhilegrowinginthefieldasplants.

CogenerationusingBagasse
Approximately600,000tonnesofbagasseequivalentto about940,000barrelsofoilatavalueofUS$37.5million areusedperannum(asof2003)incogenerationin Jamaicassugarfactories.Itisestimatedthatexcess electricityofapproximately300GWhperyearwouldbe availablewithbagassecombustionalone,resultinginabout 68MWofavailablecapacity.

ProductionofBiogasusingAnimalWastes
TheScientificResearchCouncilhasbeeninvolvedinthedevelopmentofbiogasplantsusing animalwastesintheagricultural,smallmanufacturing,educationalandresidentialsectors.A totalof250oftheseplantsareinoperationacrosstheisland,thoughculturalbarriersarestill tobebrokeninordertogainfullacceptanceofbiogasasafuelforcooking.However,no overallestimateexistswhichdetermineshowmuchbiogascontributestotheenergymix. ArecentexampleisatSt.JohnBoscoBoysHomeinManchester.Thepropertyincludesafarm thatproducespork,beefandchickenthatissoldfromawellestablishedbutchery.Vegetables andothercropsarealsogrown.SRCconstructeda100m3biodigesteralongwithadryingbed andapolishingpond.Thesystemnowproducesover50m3ofgasperdayequivalentto300 kWhperdayand25litreofdieseloilperday.Theschoolpresentlyutilizesthegasgeneratedto operateindustrialcookers,stoves,waterheaters,chickenandpigbrooders. TheJamaicaPigFarmersAssociation,theEbonyParkAcademyandotherpartnershavebeen workingtomanagewastesfrompigfarmsacrossthecountry.Pigfarmsproduceanestimated 195,000kgofmanureperdayandwithoutproperdisposal,thiswastecanposeapotential threattoJamaicasfreshwatersupply.Currently,fourfarmsemploybiodigesterstohelp managemanure,andseveralothersarecurrentlyunderconstruction.Thesebiodigestershave

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thepotentialtorefinetherawmanureintousefulfertilizerandsomewillcapturemethanegas, whichcanaugmentorcompletelyreplaceafarmersneedforcookingfuelssuchaspropane.

UseofWastewaterSludge
Sludgeisleftbehindfromtheprocessoftreatmentof wastewater.Duetothephysicalchemicalprocesses involvedinthetreatment,thesludgecanconcentrate heavymetalsandpoorlybiodegradabletraceorganic compoundsaswellaspotentiallypathogenic organisms(viruses,bacteriaetc)presentin wastewaters.Sludgeis,however,richinnutrientssuch asnitrogenandphosphorousandcontainsvaluable organicmatter.Sludgegeneratedasaresultofthetreatmentofagriculturalwastewateris oftenusedasasoilconditionerorfertiliseroncrops.SomeNationalWaterCommission facilitiesgiveawaythedriedsludgetofarmersforuseontheircrops.Thehighorganiccontent alsomakesthiswastesuitabletogenerateenergy. TheNaturalResourcesConservationAuthorityWastewaterandSludgeRegulationshavebeen developedtoaddressthesafemanagement,treatmentanddisposalofwastewaterfrom residential,businessorindustrialsourcesaswellassewageandindustrialsludge.The regulationsincludestandardsforthedisposalofsludgebymeansoflandfillingorapplication foragriculturalpurposes.Theregulationsalsoprovideforthedisposalofsludgeotherthanina landfilltobedoneinaccordancewiththemanagementpracticessetoutintheguideline documenttobeissuedbytheNaturalResourcesConservationAuthority.Theconversionof sludgetoenergy,forexample,wouldbeaddressedintheguidelinedocument. TheScientificResearchCouncil(SRC)providesbiodigestersystemswhichoperateonthe principlesofanaerobictechnology,andareusedtotreatorganicfarmwaste.Anothervariant, theBiodigesterSepticTank(BST)isanonsitesanitationunitthatutilizesanaerobictechnology forthedisposaloftoilet(black)wastewateraswellasofkitchenandbathroom(grey)water,in aclosedsystem.TheSRCcurrentlyappliesthistechnologyinsteadofseptictanksand absorptionpitsonseveralfarms,housingcomplexesandsinglehouseholdstotreatanimal wasteanddomesticsewage.OneexampleisabiodigestersysteminWesternKingstonwhich treatssolidwastebananaskinandsewagetogeneratebiogasandorganicfertilizeratalocal chipfactoryinthecommunity.

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Incentives/DisincentivesforDevelopmentandUtilizationofEnergy fromWaste
JAMPROissupportiveofgreenenergyinvestmentsandrecentlylaunchedtheWorld InvestmentReport2010titledInvestinginaLowCarbonEconomy. Specificincentivesthatmayapplytoenergyfromwasteprojectsonacasebycasebasis include: FulldutyandGCTexemptionforimportationofmachineryandequipmentusedonthe project(excludingmotorvehicles) Taxcreditsforanumberofyears(tobenegotiated) AcceleratedDepreciationbenefitsallowingfullwriteoffofcapitalcostsassociatedwith theacquisitionofnewmachineryandequipmentitemsforrenewableenergyprojects Landatconcessionaryrates(wherepossible)

TheCurrentLegislativeFrameworkforEnergyandWasteManagement inJamaica
Allenergyfromwasteprojectsmustcomplywiththelaws,standards,andregulationslisted below: NationalSolidWasteManagementActandregulations NaturalResourcesConservationAuthorityActandregulations ElectricityLightingAct FactoriesAct PublicHealthAct OccupationalHealthandSafetyAct(draft) CompaniesAct OfficeofUtilitiesRegulationAct TheNaturalResourcesConservationAuthority(PermitsandLicences)Regulations,1996are applicabletoEFWprojects.Itprovidesforthepermitsandlicensingsystemtocontrolthe undertakingofanynewconstructionordevelopmentofaprescribednature.Certainactivities mayrequireanenvironmentalimpactassessment(EIA)beforeapermitcanbeissued. OtherapplicableregulationsundertheNRCAActwillinclude: AirQualityRegulationsanditsamendment WastewaterandSludgeRegulations

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LinkagesbetweenEnergyfromWaste PolicyandNationalEnergyFramework
TheEnergyfromWastePolicyhasbeendevelopedtosupporttheNationalEnergyPolicy2009 2030andhasstronglinkageswithothersubpoliciesoftheNationalEnergyPolicythatgovern renewableenergy,biofuels,electricity,energyconservationandefficiency,andcarbon emissionsandtrading.

LinkagesbetweenEnergyfromWastePolicyandNationalEnergyPolicy
TheNationalEnergyPolicy20092030isdesignedtoensurethatby2030Jamaicaachieves:A modern,efficient,diversifiedandenvironmentallysustainableenergysectorproviding affordableandaccessibleenergysupplieswithlongtermenergysecurityandsupportedby informedpublicbehaviouronenergyissuesandanappropriatepolicy,regulatoryand institutionalframework. ThePolicyplacespriorityonsevenkeyareas,including: SecurityofEnergySupplythroughdiversificationoffuelsaswellasdevelopmentof renewableenergysources Developmentofrenewableenergysourcessuchassolarandhydro TheEnergyfromWastePolicyspecificallyaddressesthesepriorityareaswhichare encapsulatedintwogoalsoftheNationalEnergyPolicy: Goal3:Jamaicarealizesitsenergyresourcepotentialthroughthedevelopmentof renewableenergysourcesandenhancesitsinternationalcompetitivenessandenergy securitywhilstreducingitscarbonfootprint Thisgoalfocusesonthedevelopmentofindigenousrenewableenergyresourceswith thegoalofincreasingthepercentageofrenewablesintheenergymixto20%by2030. Wasteisconsideredarenewablesourceofenergysinceitisindigenousand sustainable.Byaddingwastetothelistofsolar,hydro,windandbiofuels,thetargetof renewablesinthenationsenergymixwillbefacilitated. Goal4:Jamaicasenergysupplyissecureandsufficienttosupportlongtermeconomic andsocialdevelopmentandenvironmentalsustainability

DRAFTOctober4,2010

Underthisgoal,Jamaicawillreducethepercentageofpetroleuminthecountrys energysupplymixfromthecurrent91%inordertoprotectthecountryfrom disruptionsinoilsupplyandpricevolatility.TheEnergyfromWastePolicywill contributetofueldiversificationtoachievethisgoal.

LinkagesbetweenEnergyfromWastePolicyandVision2030Jamaica: NationalDevelopmentPlan
LiketheNationalEnergyPolicyitself,theEnergytoWastePolicyisconsistentwithVision2030 Jamaica:NationalDevelopmentPlan.TheEnergytoWastePolicysupportstheimplementation ofstrategiesthatcontributetothreenationaloutcomes: NationalOutcomeNo.10:EnergySecurityandEfficiencyStrategy:Diversifythe energysupply NationalOutcomeNo.13:SustainableManagementandUseofEnvironmentaland NaturalResourcesStrategy:Manageallformsofwasteeffectively NationalOutcomeNo.14:HazardRiskReductionandAdaptationtoClimateChange Strategies:Developmeasurestoadapttoclimatechange;andcontributetotheeffort toreducetheglobalrateofclimatechange ThestrategiesidentifiedinthispolicyareconsistentwiththosepresentedintheSectorPlans forEnergyandforEnvironmentalManagementunderVision2030Jamaica.

Linkageswithotherenergysubsectorpolicies
TheEnergyfromWastePolicyhascloselinkageswithotherenergysectorpoliciesasdescribed inTable5. Table5.LinkagesbetweentheEnergyfromWastePolicyandotherenergysectorpolicies Energy Biofuels Renewable Carbon Electricity Energy Emissionsand Conservation Trading andEfficiency Energy Agricultural Energyfrom SomeEFW Electricity generatedfrom wastese.g. wasteis initiativescanbe generatedfrom wastecan bagasseare considereda consideredfor wasteshould improveenergy biofuelsusedas renewable CDMprojects feedintothe efficiencieson asourceof sourceofenergy whichgenerate nationalgridand thesupplyside energy andwill carboncredits shouldalsobe Biodieselcanbe contributetothe allowedtobe madeusing renewable distributed wastevegetable energytargets separatefrom oils thenationalgrid

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LinkagesbetweenEnergyfromWaste PolicyandNationalSolidWaste ManagementPolicy


TheNationalSolidWasteManagementPolicyhastwoobjectivesthatarelinkedtotheEnergy fromWastePolicy:wasteminimizationandwasteprocessing.Thepolicystatesthatthe Governmentwillbeencouragingprojectsandprogrammesthataregearedtowardsreducing thequantityofwastegeneratedandthatInvestorsinterestedinestablishingwaste processingandwastetoenergyenterpriseswillbefacilitated.Pursuanceofenergyfrom wasteinitiativesrequiresadequatefeedstock(i.e.waste)forconversiontoenergy. IntheexistingNationalSolidWasteManagementPolicy,thehierarchyofintegratedsolidwaste managementisstatedas:Reduce,Reuse,Recycle,LandfillasindicatedinFigure4below.This EnergyfromWastePolicyamendsthishierarchytointroduceEnergyRecoveryasastage beforeLandfill,asindicatedinFigure5.Allwastethatremainsafterreducing,reusingand recyclingshouldbeprocessedtogenerateenergy,withlandfillingbeingusedtohandleonly thosewastesthatcannotbeusedinotherprocessesorprogrammes.Thewasteprocessing describedintheNationalSolidWasteManagementPolicyshouldbeexplicitlyintegratedinto thewastemanagementhierarchy. HierarchyofIntegratedSolidWasteManagement
Figure4 NationalSolidWasteManagementPolicy
First order of business is not to generate the waste in the first place If you generate the waste see if you can find another use for it If it cannot be reused, join the recycling programme in your community The last resort should be to dispose of it in a landfill

Figure5 NationalEnergyfromWastePolicy
First order of business is not to generate the waste in the first place If you generate the waste see if you can find another use for it

REDUCE

REDUCE

REUSE

REUSE

If it cannot be reused, join the recycling programme in your community

RECYCLE

RECYCLE

LANDFILL

If the waste cannot be reused ENERGY or recycled, utilize it to RECOVERY generate energy

LANDFILL

The last resort should be to dispose of it in a landfill

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GivingefficientEFWplantspriorityoverlandfillingbyprovidingwastetoEFWfacilitiesbefore sendingtodumpsitesisnotexpectedtohamperrecycling.Recyclingisclearlyhigherupthe wastehierarchythanenergyrecoveryfromwaste.Recyclingandgeneratingenergyfromwaste whichcannotberecycledproperlybothcontributetodivertingwastefromlandfills.Takinginto accountthefactthatnotallmunicipalwasteissuitableforrecycling,wastethatcanbe separatedatsourceshouldberecycledifpossible.Theremainingresidualwasteshouldbe transformedintoenergyincleanandsafeEFWplants,insteadofbeingburiedinlandfills. AcknowledgingthatbothrecyclingandEFWareessentialpillarstosteerwastefromthelowest stepinthehierarchy,theNationalSolidWasteManagementPolicyshouldincorporatethe3Rs (reduce,reuse,recycle)anddeveloparecyclingsector,bearinginmindthatrecyclinginitiatives cancontributetoeconomicbenefitsandjobcreationandgenerallyconservemoreenergythan energyrecoveryeffortscangenerate7.ThesolidwastepolicyshouldrecognizeEFWsplacein thewastehierarchybelowrecycling,butabovelandfilling.

AccordingtoastudybyJeffreyMorrispublishedintheJournalofHazardousMaterials,recyclingconserves energythatwouldotherwisebeexpendedextractingvirginrawmaterialsfromthenaturalenvironmentand transformingthemtoproducegoodsthatcanalsobemanufacturedfromrecycledwastematerials.Furthermore, energyconservedbyrecyclingexceedselectricitygeneratedbyenergyfromwasteincinerationbymuchmore thantheadditionalenergynecessarytocollectrecycledmaterialsseparatelyfrommixedsolidwaste,process recycledmaterialsintomanufacturingfeedstocks,andshipthemtomanufacturers.


7

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SWOTAnalysisofEnergyfromWaste Sector
FortheenergyfromwastesectorinJamaica,theidentificationofstrengthsandweaknesses representstheinternalassessmentofthesectorwhiletheconsiderationofopportunitiesand threatsrepresentstheanalysisoftheimpactoftheexternalenvironmentonthesector.The SWOTanalysis,alongwiththeissuesandchallengesandtheprofileofthewasteandenergy sectorspresentedabove,formthebasisforidentifyinggoalsandstrategiesthatwillbe employedtoapplythestrengthsandaddresstheweaknessesofthesector,andcapitalizeon theopportunitiesandmitigatethethreatsforthelongtermdevelopmentandsustainabilityof thesector.

Strengths
Existenceoflongtermnationalenergypolicythat establishestheframeworkforthedevelopmentofthe energyfromwastesector:NationalEnergyPolicyand Vision2030Jamaica Nationalpoliciesforrenewableenergyandbiofuels Existenceofaninstitutionalframeworkforrenewable energyingovernment(forexampleCERE)topromote researchandfacilitatethedevelopmentoftheREsector Availableenergysources/wastesteam55%ofmunicipal wastestreamcangointotheenergyfromwastesector Existenceofhighenergycropresidues(bagasse)andhigh levelsofexperienceinsugarcaneproduction Existingtechnicalcapacityforappropriatebiodigester technologies

Weaknesses
Poorcoordinationamongstentities Nosanitarylandfills;inappropriatetechniquesbeingused atdisposalsites NSWMAindualroleasregulatorandoperatorinthewaste managementsector Noframeworkforseparationofwaste DifficultytodobusinessinJamaica(doingbusinessrating) Lackofacomprehensivewastemanagementframework Limitedcapacityofregulatingagenciestomonitorand enforcelaws LowlevelsoftechnicalandR&DcapacityinEFW Limitedregulatoryframeworkforpromotingthe generationofenergyfromwaste Lackofinfrastructureandinadequatefinancing

Opportunities
Privatesectorinterest Improvedbalanceofpaymentsthroughimport substitution Newandinnovativetechnologiesexistingworldwide Limitedlifespanofdisposalsitesandlandspacefor landfillspresentanincentivefordevelopingEFWinitiatives CarbontradingandCDMprojects Regionalleaderinthedevelopmentofenergyfromwaste Creationofnewjobsandnewindustries Availabilityofnewtechnologiesanddevelopments

Threats
Negativepublicperceptionbyenvironmentalistsand communities Demandforwastebyunregulatedentities Conflictbetweenwasteminimizationandadequate feedstocksforEFWinitiatives FluctuatingoilpricesrelativetoEFW(ifoilpricesfalllow therecouldbelossofinterestinEFW)

DRAFTOctober4,2010 improvedtechnologyandcapacityforincreased productivityassistedbyregionalexpertise Highpopulationdensitiesduetourbanizationoffer opportunityforefficientcollectionofwaste

DRAFTOctober4,2010

KeyIssuesintheEnergyfromWaste Sector
TheNationalEnergyfromWastePolicyaddressesanumberofkeyglobalandlocalissuesthat mustbeconsideredinthedevelopmentofasuccessfulenergyfromwastesector.Theseissues focusprimarilyonprotectingthehealthofJamaicans,preventingenvironmentaldegradation, andarerelatedtotheviabilityofsector.Theissuesaredescribedbelowandareaddressedby strategiesassociatedwitheachgoalofthispolicy.

Certaintyofwaste
EFWfacilitieswillrequireaguaranteedvolumeofwastematerialsasfeedstock.WhileJamaica producesover1.5milliontonnesofsolidwasteperyear,only7075%ofitiscollectedandthus availabletoEFWfacilities.Reducedillegaldumpingandincreasedcollection,especiallyinrural areas,wouldprovideadditionalwastematerialsforEFWplants.Thegoalshouldbetotransfer allwastematerialsthatarenotsuitableforrecyclingtoEFWfacilities. Collectionofmunicipalsolidwastecanbefacilitatedbythecreationoftransferstationslocated throughoutthecountry.Thesetransferstationswouldreceivewastefromruralareas,thereby reducingtheamountofwastethatisinformallydisposedof.Thiswastewouldthenbe transportedtocentralwastemanagementfacilities,includingEFWplants,thushelpingto increasetheamountofwastethatisavailableforthegenerationofenergy.

Importationofwaste
Thispolicywillnotsupporttheimportationofwaste.However,whilstnotafavouredoption, thecountrymayberequiredtoimportfeedstockmaterials(e.g.woodchips)forEFWfacilities. Anyimportationoffeedstockmustbebasedonconsideredstudyofthevolumesandtypesof wasterequiredfordifferentEFWinitiativesusingdifferenttechnologies.Clearrulesforthe importationofmaterialsforinputintoEFWinitiativeswillhavetobedevelopedconsistentwith thecountrysinternationalobligationsandtheprotectionofthehealthofJamaicans.Therules shouldspecifythecharacteristicsofthematerials(forexample,highcaloricvalue)thatwillbe allowedintothecountryandmustensurethattherearenonegativehealthorenvironmental impactsfromthematerialsimported.Acomparativeanalysisofothercountrieswithwell developedenergyfromwastesectorswouldprovideexamplesofinternationalbestpracticein implementingsuccessfulEFWfacilities.

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Conflictbetweenenergyfromwasteandsolidwasteminimization
Eventhoughtheenergyfromwastesectordependsonwasteasitsrawmaterial,itiscritical thatenergyfromwasteinitiativessupportacountryssolidwastemanagementgoalsofwaste minimizationandnotresultinthecreationofmorewaste.Wastereductionandrecycling (whichincludescomposting)areatthetopofthewastemanagementhierarchyandmust remainso,withenergyfromwastebeingthefinalstagebeforewasteissenttoalandfillor disposalsite.Takingintoaccountthefactthatnotallmunicipalwasteissuitableforrecycling, wastethatcanbeseparatedeasilyatsourceshouldberecycled.Theremainingresidualwaste shouldbetransformedintoenergyincleanandsafeEFW/WTEplants,insteadofbeingburied inlandfills.Therefore,wastetoenergyinitiativesshouldbeconsideredasenergyrecovery optionsandnotdisposal(atthesamelevelaslandfill).

Countriesthathavemostsuccessfullyreduceddependenceonlandfill(<5%)havethehighest recyclingratesinEurope,andhaveachievedthisincombinationwithEFW/WTE(Germany, Netherlands,Belgium,Denmark,Sweden),provingthatrecyclingandgeneratingenergyfrom wastewhichcannotberecycledproperlygohandinhandinordertodivertwastefrom landfills. A2008briefingreleasedbytheEuropeanEnvironmentAgencystates: Increasedrecoveryofwasteanddivertingwasteawayfromlandfillplayakeyrolein tacklingtheenvironmentalimpactsofincreasingwastevolumes.Asrecyclingand incinerationwithenergyrecoveryareincreasinglyused,netgreenhousegasemissions frommunicipalwastemanagementareexpectedtodropconsiderablyby2020. Otherstudieshavefoundthatimprovedwastemanagementcouldcontributetoclimate reductiontargetsifclearlegislationisappliedandifhighcalorificandbiodegradablewasteis divertedfromlandfillandmoresupportisgiventobothrecyclingandenergyfromwaste initiatives.Thesestudieshaveconcludedthatenergyfromwastedoesnothamperrecycling.

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Theoptimumcombinationofrecyclingandenergyfromwastesavesprimaryenergysources, combatsclimatechangeandhelpstosecureacountrysenergysupply.

Rethinkingtheconceptofwastewasteasaresource
Wasteisusuallydefinedbymostpeopleasanythingunused,unproductive,ornotproperly utilized.Inthetypicalscenario,newproductsarepurchasedandwhentheyare"usedup" theyarethrownawayandcartedofftoalandfill.Thenewwayofthinkingistheconceptof industrialecologywhichseekstoeliminateallwastebycapturingandutilizingtheoutput fromeveryoperationasaninputtoanotheroperationwiththenecessaryenvironmentaland healthsafeguards.Inotherwords,onepersonstrashisanotherpersonscash.Both recyclingandenergyfromwasteinitiativescanproducevaluefromwasteitems.Forexample, EFWprojectscanturnmunicipalsolidwasteintoelectricityorbagasseintoliquidfuel.Ifwaste ismanagedproperly,environmentalandhealthconcernswillbeaddressed,whichwillresultin personsfeelingmoreconfidentthatthewastecanbeconvertedsafelyintoausefulproduct andwillbemoreamenabletousingthatproduct.

Securityofwaste
Treatingwasteasaresourceactuallycreatesamarketforwaste.Energyfromwastefacilities requireaguaranteedvolumeofwasteinordertooperate.Typically,wasteisnotprotectedor lockedupandthereispotentialforcreatingablackmarketforwaste.Theenergyfrom wastesectormustincludeasystemtosafeguardtheincomingfeedstockandtoensurethat entitiessuchastheNationalSolidWasteManagementAuthoritycontrolthewastematerials andprovidethemtothegenerationfacilitiesunderspecificagreements.

Landuseandsiting
DecisionsregardingthesitingofEFWfacilitieswillbemadeinaccordancewiththeNational SpatialPlanbeingdevelopedandunderthedirectionofNEPA/NRCAandlocalplanning authorities.Wherepossible,suchfacilitiesshouldbesitedonmarginallandswhicharenot suitableforagricultureorhousing.InordertopromotetheEFWsector,theJamaican Governmentmayprovidestateownedlandsatconcessionaryratestotheoperatorsofenergy fromwastefacilities.

Dispatchability
Oneconcernaboutpowergeneratedfromwasteisitspossibleintermittentgeneration,which couldlimititscontributiontothegrid.Adispatchablepowerplantisonethatcanbedirectly calleduponbygridoperatorstoproducepower,andwhoseoutputcanbeincreasedor decreasedinresponsetorealtimefluctuationsindemandforelectricity.Theremustbe coordinationofallwastetoenergyplantoperationsinthecountryinordertomeetthe requiredloadonthenationalgrid.

DRAFTOctober4,2010

NIMBYconcerns
ItisnaturalforpersonsandcommunitiestosayNotInMyBackYard(NIMBY)toany proposedEFWfacilitiestobeconstructedintheirvicinity.NationalLandUseSpatialand DevelopmentPlansshoulddictatewheresuchfacilitiesshouldbesitedtakingintoaccountthe concernsofstakeholders,includingcommunities.Itisparamountthatenvironmentalregulators coordinatewithlocalofficialstoholdpublichearingswherenewfacilitiesandtechnologies, operatingstandardsandthedonothingconsequencescanbediscussed.

Airqualitystandardsandwaste/effluentenforcement
TheprotectionoftheenvironmentisaprimaryobjectiveofthisEnergyfromWastePolicy,and assuch,theenvironmentalguidelinesoftheNationalEnvironmentandPlanningAgency(NEPA) willbeenforced.EFWfacilitiesmustmeetorexceedtheenvironmentalstandardsforeffluent discharge,airemissionsandallotherapplicablestandards.

Hazmatstandardsandintegration/nonintegration
TherearenohazardouswastedisposalsitesinJamaica.However,disposalofhazardousash generatedfromtheoperationsofaMSWincineratorwillhavetobehandled.Alsoitis inevitablethatsomehazardouswastesendupatmunicipaldisposalsites,especiallythosenear majorindustrial,residentialandbusinesscentres.However,theamountofhazardous materialspresentinthecountrysdumpsitesisunknown.Ifmunicipalsolidwasteistobe incineratedtogenerateenergy,standardsforhazardousmaterials(hazmat)mustbe establishedandthesewastesseparatedfromthegeneralsolidwaste.Thiswillrequirethatthe necessaryinfrastructureandongoingpubliceducationandawarenesscampaignsareinplace.

Typesoftechnologytobeusedandtechnologytransfer
Developmentoftheenergyfromwastesectorwillnotoccurwithoutresearch.Theselected technologyandprocessingcapacityofaenergyfromwastefacilityisafunctionofanumberof technicalconsiderations(i.e.,theamountofwasteremainingafterrecyclingtobeprocessed, thecapitalandoperatingcostofthefacilityandthepricepaidfortherenewableenergy produced)andthecountryslongtermsolidwasteplanninggoals(i.e.,reductionincarbon footprint,benefitsofastabledomesticsourceorrenewableenergy,stabilityofdisposalcosts). IthasbeenshownintheUSA,EuropeandAsiathatthereisnosinglethresholdsizethatmakes energyfromwasteprojectsfeasible.Researchandfeasibilitystudieswillbeconductedto determinethemostappropriatetechnologiesforJamaica,takingintoaccountthevolumeand typesofwastegenerated. Whilemuchoftheexpertisecurrentlyexistsoutsidetheregion,itwillbecriticaltoensurethat theknowledgeandskillsaretransferredtolocalinstitutionsandindividualssothatcapacity withinthecountryisbuilt.

DRAFTOctober4,2010

Wasteseparation
Currently,withinmunicipalsolidwaste,thereislittletonoseparationofthedifferenttypesof wasteatsource.AllMSWisdepositedatthedisposalsitesdistributedthroughoutthecountry whichprovideresidentsofnearbyareasasignificantsourceofincome.Forsocialreasons,it maybeinthecountrysbestinteresttocontinueallowingaccessbythesepersonstothe disposalsites.Aregulatedsystem,whichsafeguardspublichealth,willneedtobedeveloped whichwouldallowforthesortingandcollectionofwastebysuchpersonsatthesites,thereby facilitatingthepursuanceofincomegeneratingactivities.However,thereshouldbeclearly definedandidentifiedareaswhereaccesswillbeallowed/notallowed. Anationalsystemwillneedtobeestablishedtochannelallusefulresidualwastetoenergy fromwastefacilities.Agriculturalresidues,includinggardencuttings,andbiosolidswillbe directedtobiodigesters.

Financingandtippingfees
LegislationdraftedaftertheenactmentoftheNationalSolidWasteManagementAct,2001 includesprovisionsfortippingfees.Duetothehighcostofwastecollection,sortingand management,someofthesecostsmayberecoveredthroughtippingfees.Areviewoftipfee trendsandchargesinanumberofcountriesindicatesthattheaveragetipfeeisaboutUS$75 pertonne.Somecountrieschargehighercommercialfees,whichrelatetothequantityand characteroftheircommercialwastestreams.Jamaicacurrentlyhaspropertyand environmentaltaxlegislationwhichgeneratesfundsthatareusedforanumberofpurposes includingsolidwastecollection.In2008,Jamaicasannualtaxrevenuesforpropertytaxwas J$1,299Million(US$20Million),whiletheenvironmentallevyrecoveredJ$2,217Million(US$34 Million).Whilethesetaxescouldbeasourceoffinancing,theyarenotlikelytobeableto adequatelysupportenergyfromwasteinitiatives.InordertofinanceEFWinitiatives,tipping feesmustbeestablishedandtheircollectionenforced.

Legislativeandpolicyinconsistencies
Goalsandobjectivesofnationalpoliciesandlegislationthatgovernvariousaspectsofthe energyfromwastesectormustbealignedsothattherearenoconflictingpriorities.Also,the relativerolesoftherelevantentitieswithmanagementresponsibilitiesmustbeclarifiedto ensurethesmoothdevelopmentofthesectorandimplementationofinitiatives.

Climatechangeandgreenhousegasemissions
Climatechangeiscausedbytheemissionofgreenhousegases(GHGs)suchaswatervapour, carbondioxideandmethaneintotheatmosphereandtheremovalofcarbonsequestering treesandotherplants.Thecombustionoffossilfuelsandproductionofmethanefromlandfills andagriculturalactivitiescausethehighestlevelsofgreenhousegasemissions.Methanehasa heattrappingeffectintheatmospherethatis21timesstrongerthanthatofcarbondioxide

DRAFTOctober4,2010

emittedfromfossilfuelcombustion.Someenergyfromwaste(EFW)initiativescaptureand burnmethanefromlandfills,therebyreplacingemissionsofmethanewithCO2.EFWinitiatives alsolessenthedemandforfossilfuelsandthereforereducethevolumeofCO2generatedfrom combustionofthesefuelsources. JamaicaisaPartytotheUnitedNationsFrameworkConventiononClimateChangeandits KyotoProtocolthatsettheoverallframeworkforintergovernmentaleffortstostabilizethe concentrationsofgreenhousegases(carbondioxideandmethaneinparticular)inthe atmosphere.AsanonAnnex1(developingcountry)partytotheProtocol,Jamaicaisnot boundbyspecifictargetsforreductionsingreenhousegasemissions.However,the specificationofemissionstargetsfordevelopingcountriesisbeingreviewedatthegloballevel inthedevelopmentofanewcarbontradingregimeafter2012whentheKyotoProtocolcomes toanend.

Carbonemissionscredittrading
UndertheKyotoProtocol,countrieswithcommitmentstolimitorreducegreenhousegas emissionsmustmeettheirtargetsprimarilythroughnationalmeasures.Asasupplemental meansofmeetingthesetargets,theKyotoProtocolintroducedtheCleanDevelopment Mechanism(CDM)asatradingregimethatwouldallowAnnex1Partiestoimplementproject activitiestoreduceGHGemission(orremovalbysinks)indevelopingcountries(nonAnnex1 Parties). EligibleprojectsundertheCDMfallunderseveralcategoriesincludingrenewableenergy, diversificationoffuelsourcesinareassuchastransportation,alternativefuels,andenergy fromwaste(e.g.biogas,methane).TherearespecificenergyfromwasteCDMproject opportunitiesforJamaicaintheareasofbagassecogeneration,landfillgasrecoveryand biofuels.JamaicasCarbonEmissionsandTradingPolicyaddressesthisissueindetail.

DRAFTOctober4,2010

Section2 DefiningthePolicy Framework

DRAFTOctober4,2010

StrategicFrameworkforEnergyfrom WasteinJamaica
ThisStrategicFrameworkunderpinningtheEnergyfromWastePolicyisdesignedtoaccomplish thefollowingvision:

Jamaicaistheregionalleaderinprovidingaffordableandcleanenergyfrom wastecontributingtoasustainablefuture
Thisvisionguidesthecreationofanenergyfromwastesectorthatwillcreateamarketfor waste,openingupopportunitiesforinvestmentinboththeenergyandwastesectorswhile achievingbothenergyandwastemanagementgoals. TheStrategicFrameworksupportsthegoalsoftheNationalEnergyPolicyandwillbesustained to2030andbeyondyetbeflexibleandadaptabletomeetnewchallengesandopportunitiesas theyarise.Theframeworkspecifiesshorttomediumtermaswellaslongtermstrategic directionsforthegovernment,privatesectorandindustryaswellascivilsociety. ThevisionandstrategicframeworkoftheEnergyfromWastepolicyreflecttheinputofapolicy workinggroupchargedwiththeresponsibilityofdevelopingthispolicyusingasastartingpoint, aConceptPaperpreparedbytheOfficeofthePrimeMinistersDepartmentofLocal GovernmentinAugust2009.AppendixIVliststhemembersofthisworkinggroup.

GoalsoftheNationalEnergyfromWastePolicy
Therearefour(4)goalsinthispolicywhich,whenachievedtogether,willrealizethevisionof Jamaicabecomingtheregionalleaderinprovidingaffordableandcleanenergyfromwaste contributingtoasustainablefuture Thegoalsare:

Goal1:Jamaicacreateseconomicinfrastructureandplanningconductionsconducingtothe
developmentoftheenergyfromwastesector

Goal2:Jamaicabuildsitsenergyfromwastesectoronmostappropriatetechnologiesthatare
environmentallyfriendly,producingacleanreliablerenewablesourceofenergy

DRAFTOctober4,2010

Goal3:Jamaicacreatespartnershipsbetweentheenergysectorandthewastemanagement
andagriculturesectorstofacilitatethecontinuousstreamsofwasteintotheenergyfromwaste

Goal4:Jamaicahasawelldefinedgovernance,institutional,legalandregulatoryframework
forthegenerationofenergyfromwastelegalframework

TheStrategicFramework
Thestrategicframeworkthatwillleadtothedevelopmentoftheenergyfromwastesectoris presentedbelow.Theframeworkincludes: Policygoals Outcomes Strategies Foreachgoal,theoutcomesandstrategiesarelistedaswellasthekeyissuesaddressedbythe strategiesandthekeyagenciesandpartnerswhowillberesponsibleforensuringthesuccessful implementationofthestrategies.Adescriptionofthespecificrolesandresponsibilitiesof theseimplementingagenciesandpartnersisprovidedintheInstitutionalFrameworksub sectionofSection3,theImplementation,MonitoringandEvaluationFramework.

Goal1
Jamaicacreateseconomicinfrastructureandplanningconductionsconducing tothedevelopmentoftheenergyfromwastesector
Thisgoalinvolvestheestablishmentofanationalenablingenvironmentforthedevelopmentof theenergyfromwastesector.Thefocuswillbeonestablishingthenationalandlocalsystems withinwhichtheenergyfromwastepractitionerswillfunction.Thiswillincludecreating opportunitiesforprivatesectorinvestmentaswellaspublicprivatesectorpartnerships.This goalisalsoconcernedwithincreasingawarenessandacceptanceamongtheJamaicanpublic forenergygeneratedfromwastematerials.

Outcomes
Outcome1:PercentageofrenewablesourcesofenergyinJamaicasenergymixincreased Outcome2:Anenablingfinancialandinvestmentenvironmentfortheincubationand developmentofanenergyfromwastesector Outcome3:Anationalenergyinfrastructurethatenableselectricitygeneratedfromwasteto beintegratedintothenationalelectricitygridaswellasallowingflexibilityintheuseandsaleof electricityandfuelsgeneratedfromwaste

DRAFTOctober4,2010

KeyIssuesAddressed

Certaintyofwastevolumes/Importationofwaste Rethinkingtheconceptofwastewasteasaresource Securityofwaste Landuseandsiting Dispatchability NIMBYconcerns

StrategiesandActionsforGoal1
Createanenablingenvironmentforprivatesectorinvestmentfortheenergyfrom wastesector UndertakeperiodicreviewsoftheeconomicsofenergyrecoveryinJamaicathat incorporateuptodatetechnologiesaswellasglobalandlocalrealities Applyconcessionaryrates(wherepossibleandappropriate)forlandtobeusedtosite energyfromwastefacilities Infuseenergyissuesintonationalspatialplantoaddressissuesrelatedtothesitingof EFWfacilities Conducteconomicassessmentsofenergyfromwastefacilitiestodeterminethecosts andbenefitsofinvestmentinthesector Throughasystemofincentives,createaplatformforimprovinginvestorconfidencefor investingintheenergyfromwastesector Implementtaxpoliciesdesignedtoencouragethedevelopmentoftheenergyfrom wasteenergysector Identifypotentialuseableresiduesandmarketopportunities Implementanationalpubliceducationprogrammegearedtowardsovercomingthe populationsbiasagainstusingenergygeneratedfromwastematerialsandsensitizing themonthebenefitsofenergyfromwasteandtheirresponsibilitiestoensurea successfulEFWsector Createasystemofaccountingthatincorporatesenergyfromwasteintoenergy statistics Continuouslyassessresourcesavailableforenergyrecoverybasedoncurrentwaste planningdriversandanalysisofthecountryswastestream

DRAFTOctober4,2010

Allocateaportionoftheenvironmentallevyforenergyfromwasteinitiatives CreatepublicprivatepartnershipstodevelopEFWinitiatives Conductassessmentsofnonpricesensitivebarrierstothetakeupofenergyrecovery includingplanningapprovalandsupplychainlimitations Createaframeworkofnationaltargetsforrecyclingmunicipalsolidwasteandthe amountofwastethatgoesintoEFWfacilities AlignEFWinitiativeswiththeCleanDevelopmentMechanism(CDM)tofacilitatethe saleofcarboncredits Createsystemforthemeasurement,verificationandmarketingofgreenhousegas (carbondioxide)creditsthatwillresultfromreducingmethanegenerationpotential CreateaframeworkfornetmeteringthatallowselectricityproducedfromEFWfacilities tobesoldtothenationalgrid Establishdedicatedsubstationsandtheprotectionsystemsrequiredforinterconnection withtheelectricitygrid Establishnationalandlocalsystemstofacilitatethesaleofliquidfuelgeneratedfrom waste Examineasystemtoimportqualitycontrolledrefinedmaterialswithhighcaloricvalue tosupplementlocalsuppliesforenergyfromwastefacilities.Thiswillinclude conductingafeasibilitystudyandestablishingrulesfortheimportationoffeedstock materialsasaninputintoEFWinitiatives

KeyImplementingAgenciesandPartners
MinistryofEnergyandMining PetroleumCorporationofJamaica OfficeofUtilitiesRegulation OfficeofthePrimeMinister MinistryofFinanceandthePublicService JamaicaPublicServiceCompanyLtd. NationalSolidWasteManagementAuthority JAMPRO(JamaicaTrade&Invest) NationalEnvironmentandPlanningAgency Localauthorities NationalLandAgency

DRAFTOctober4,2010

Goal2
Jamaicabuildsitsenergyfromwastesectoronmostappropriatetechnologies thatareenvironmentallyfriendly,producingacleanreliablerenewable sourceofenergy
Jamaicahastheopportunitytogenerateenergyfromavarietyofwastematerials,includingbut notlimitedto,municipalsolidwaste,agriculturalwasteincludingbagasseandanimalwastes, andwastewatersludge.Thefocusofthisgoalwillbetodevelopenergyfromwasteinitiatives bydeterminingthemostappropriatetypesofwastematerialsinthecountrythatcanbeused togenerateenergyandthebesttechnologiestobeused.Thisgoalwouldfocusonthe employmentofcontinuousresearchanddevelopmenttofacilitatethedevelopmentand operationsofaviableindustrythatistheidentificationofthoseenergyfromwasteinitiatives thatcanbeviablewithinthecontextofJamaicassizeandeconomy,whileensuringthatthe maximumamountofenergyisobtainedfromthedifferenttypesofwaste.

Outcomes
Outcome1:Appropriateandinnovativeenergyfromwastetechnologiesbasedonsound research Outcome2:Energyfromwastefacilitiesthatmeetorexceednationalenvironmentalstandards andoperationalpracticesthatcontributestotheachievementofenvironmentalprotection

KeyIssuesaddressed

Enforcementofairqualityandwastewaterandsludgestandards Hazmatstandards Typesoftechnologytobeusedandtechnologytransfer

StrategiesandActionsforGoal2
Developaresearchagendathatwouldfacilitateconductingresearchtoanalyze differentEFWoptionsintermsofwastetypeandtechnologieswithintheJamaican context UndertakeresearchtodetermineoptionsavailableatsmallscaleforEFWinitiativesin ruralparishesandotherareas Requireenvironmentalimpactassessmentsaswellhealthimpactassessmentsand otherrelevantimpactassessments(socialimpactassessments,tradeimpact assessmentsetc.)foranyenergyfromwastefacilitypriortodevelopmentapproval.The

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assessmentsshouldincludealifecycleanalysisofallassociatedenvironmentaland energyimpactsthatwillresultfromeachoption. Establishtraining,labtestingandplantcontrolfacilities,whichwillbeusedtoensure theairquality,processquality,fuelandpowerqualityspecificationsaremet.Theair pollutioncontrolequipmentshouldincludebutnotbelimitedtodryscrubbersforacid gascontrol,filterfabricbaghousesforparticulates,nitrogenoxide(NOX)controls,a continuousemissionmonitoringandanactivatedcarboninjectionsystemformercury anddioxincontrol Enforcetreatmentofresidues(e.g.ash)tomeetnationaldischargestandards ContinuouslyassessEFWplantsinoperationwithaviewtosafeguardinghumanhealth andtheenvironment CreateasystemtotransferknowledgeandskillsregardingEFWtechnologiesto Jamaicanprofessionalsandinstitutions DevelopcertificationandtrainingprogrammesforoperatorsofEFWfacilities Exploreanddevelopsystemsforthecaptureoflandfillgas Incorporatewastecookingoilsinthenationalsystemtogeneratebiodiesel Maximizetheamountofbagasseusedincogenerationfacilities Expandthesystemofgeneratingbiogasfromwastes Stimulateindustrialdevelopmentbyencouragingsynergiesfromcogeneration Conductafeasibilitystudyforproducingfuelfromwastewatersludge Undertakeresearchtodeterminethepotentialofthelongtermuseofcommercialand industrialsolidwastewithinEFWinitiatives Establishasystemforsaleanddistributionofliquidfuelsgeneratedfromwaste IncludeaccommodationsatEFWsitesforVisitorCentresorviewingareasto accommodatefieldtripsbyschools,institutionsorcommunitygroups

KeyImplementingAgenciesandPartners

MinistryofEnergyandMining PetroleumCorporationofJamaica OfficeofthePrimeMinister

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NationalEnvironmentandPlanningAgency NationalSolidWasteManagementAuthority MinistryofHealth MinistryofTransportandWorks MinistryofAgriculture Traininginstitutions(MIND,HEART,etc.) Universitiesandresearchinstitutions

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Goal3
Jamaicacreatespartnershipsbetweentheenergysectorandthewaste managementandagriculturesectorstofacilitatethecontinuousstreamsof wasteintotheenergyfromwaste
Achievementofthisgoalwillgeneratethemaximumamountofenergyfromagriculturaland municipalsolidwastes.Strategieswillbeimplementedtomaximizetheuseofsolidwastethat cannotbereusedorrecycledwhichalsowillreducethevolumeofsolidwastethatisdisposed ofinlandfillsordumps.Thisgoaladdressesthelinkagesbetweentheenergyandsolidwaste managementandagriculturesectors,tofacilitatetheaccomplishmentofimportantgoalsinall threesectors:diversificationofenergysourcesandbettermanagementofthecountryswaste.

Outcomes
Outcome1:Volumeofsolidwastebeingtransportedtoanddisposedofinlandfillsminimized, therebyresultinginlessair,groundandsurfacewaterpollutionaswellasreducedgreenhouse gasemissions Outcome2:Allunavoidablemunicipalsolidwasteresiduesusedtogenerateenergy,thereby reducingthedemandforimportedpetroleum Outcome3:Maximizationofagriculturalwastesusedtogenerateenergy,therebyreducingthe demandforimportedpetroleum

KeyIssuesAddressed

Conflictbetweenenergyfromwasteandsolidwasteminimization Wasteseparationatsource

StrategiesandActionsforGoal3
Developmemorandaofunderstandingandothercollaborativeagreementsbetweenkey stakeholdersintheenergysectorandothersectorssuchasagriculture,solidwaste management,wastewatertreatment,localgovernmentandtransportinorderto maximizetheuseofwasteproductstogenerateenergyandtoutilizetheenergy producedfromwaste. Createsystemstocollectwastestobeusedinenergyfromwastefacilities.These wasteswillincludeusablemunicipalsolidwaste(MSW),bagasse,animalwastes,used oils,andsewagesludge.

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WorkwithNSWMAinthedesignwasteintakeandsortingprocessesthatwillallowfor reusableandrecyclablematerialstobetransferredtotheNSWMAandnonrecyclable materialstobetransferredtoEFWfacilities Createcollectionsystemstofacilitatetransportofsolidwastestowastetoenergy facilities IncollaborationwithNSWMA,establishasystemthatincludeslicensingandzoningfor residentstosortandcollectwastefromdisposalsites Withinthenationalintegratedwastemanagementframework,implementincentivesto encouragetheemploymentofthe3Rsasanalternativetoreducetheuseoflandfilling Encourageenergyrecoveryasanalternativetolandfillingbutnotattheexpenseof recyclingandcomposting Createteamsofrepresentativesoftheenergyandwastemanagementsectors, involvingboththepublicandprivatesectors,todevelopanunderstandingofthe appropriateapplicationofenergyrecoveryincludingintegrationofrecoverywith recyclingfacilities Createastrategyundertheintegratedwastemanagementframeworktousewasteasa resourceforenergygeneration

KeyImplementingAgenciesandPartners
MinistryofEnergyandMining NationalSolidWasteManagementAuthority PetroleumCorporationofJamaica(CentreofExcellenceforRenewableEnergy) OfficeofthePrimeMinister NationalEnvironmentandPlanningAgency Localplanningauthorities ScientificResearchCouncil

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Goal4
Jamaicahasawelldefinedgovernance,institutional,legalandregulatory frameworkforthegenerationofenergyfromwaste
Achievementofthisgoalwillresultinacoherentpolicyandregulatoryframeworkthatwill enablethedevelopmentofdiverseenergyfromwastetechnologiesandtheincorporationof EFWinitiativeswithintherelevantcomponentsofthenationalenergysystemsuchasthe electricitygridandtransportationfueldistribution.Thisgoalwillfocusalsoonensuringthat theinstitutionswithresponsibilityforguidingthissectorhavetherequisitecapacityand protocols.

Outcomes
Outcome1:Nationalpoliciesthatsupportthesmoothdevelopmentandsustainabilityofthe EnergyfromWastesector Outcome2:Linkagesbetweenallenergypoliciesclarifiedandthebenefitstobederivedfrom aligningthepoliciesrealized Outcome3:Nationalandlocalinstitutionsoperatingincollaborationtogovernissuesrelatedto energy,solidwastemanagementandfinance Outcome4:Clearrulesguidingthepublicandprivatesectorsinimplementingenergyfrom wasteinitiatives

KeyIssueAddressed
Legislativeandpolicyinconsistencies Legal Coherentlegalframeworkforenergymanagement Financingandtippingfees

StrategiesandActionsforGoal4
AssistwiththerevisionoftheNationalSolidWasteManagementPolicytominimizethe volumeofsolidwastethatisdisposedofinlandfillsbycommittingtoenergyfrom wasteandincludingenergyfromwasteinthewastemanagementhierarchybelow the3Rs(Reduce,Reuse,Recycle)andaboveDisposalinLandfills AssistwiththerevisionoftheNationalTransportPolicytoincludeprovisionsforwaste derivedfuels

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AssistwiththerevisionoftheNationalAgriculturePolicytoensurethemaximumuseof bagassetogenerateenergyandtoexpandtheuseofanimalwastesasasourceof energy Establishprotocolsforgovernmentagenciesandtheprivatesectortoimplement energyfromwasteinitiatives Implementtaxpoliciesdesignedtoencouragethedevelopmentofenergyfromwaste initiativesandtheinvolvementoftheprivatesector Developstandardsandregulationsthatgovernspecificaspectsoftheenergyfrom wastesector,includingtheimportationoffeedstockmaterialsandsaleofEFW electricitytothenationalgrid Buildmonitoringandenforcementcapacityinkeyagencies(forexample,NEPAandthe BureauofStandards)tobeabletoassesseffectiveperformanceofEFWfacilities Establishtippingfeestructuresandratesatauthorizeddisposalsites,forthedisposalof wastethatwillbeinincludedintheenergyfromwastesector EstablishpartnershipswithNEPAandtheMinistryofHealthtodeterminearrangements toensureprotectionofhumanhealthandtheenvironment

KeyImplementingAgenciesandPartners
MinistryofEnergyandMining NationalSolidWasteManagementAuthority MinistryofTransportandWorks MinistryofAgriculture OfficeofUtilitiesRegulation JamaicaPublicServiceCompanyLtd OfficeofthePrimeMinister MinistryofFinanceandthePublicService MinistryofJustice/ChiefParliamentaryCouncil BureauofStandards,Jamaica NationalEnvironmentandPlanningAgency ScientificResearchCouncil NationalEnvironmentandPlanningAgency MinistryofHealth

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Section3 Implementation, MonitoringandEvaluation Framework

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PolicyImplementation
TheMinistryofEnergyandMiningwillleadandfacilitatetheimplementationoftheEnergy fromWastePolicy,incollaborationwithotherGovernmentDepartmentsandAgencies,the privatesectorandNGOs.Thesuccessfulimplementationofthispolicywillrequirethatlinkages bemadebetweentheenergyandwastemanagementsectorsaswellasotheraspectsofthe economyandsocietyincluding,butnotlimitedto,agriculture,transport,environment,finance andeducation.

InstitutionalFramework
ThekeyplayersintheimplementationoftheNationalEnergyfromWastePolicyandtheirroles andresponsibilitiesaredescribedbelow. TheMinistryofEnergyandMiningwillberesponsiblefortheoverallimplementationofthe EnergyfromWastePolicyandwillprovideexpertadviceandguidancewithrespecttoall energyfromwasteinitiatives.ThePetroleumCorporationofJamaica(PCJ),whichisan agencyoftheMinistry,anditsCentreofExcellenceforRenewableEnergy(CERE)willbe involvedinfacilitatingtheimplementationofenergyfromwasteinitiatives. TheOfficeofthePrimeMinister(DepartmentofLocalGovernment)hasportfolio responsibilityforsolidwastemanagement,andwillhaveresponsibilityforthedevelopment andimplementationofwastetoenergyinitiatives,includingeconomicperformance.The NationalSolidWasteManagementAuthority(NSWMA),withintheDepartmentofLocal Government,hasmanagementresponsibilityforsolidwasteislandwide.TheAuthorityhas responsibilityforestablishingsectorstandardsandperformancecriteriaandlicensingsolidwaste companies,solidwastecollectionvehiclesanddisposalsiteoperators.ThefocusoftheAuthorityisto providemanagementwhiletheprivatesectorwillbeencouragedtocarryouttheoperations thatincludecollection,transportationanddisposal.Withregardtogenerationofenergyfrom solidwaste,theNSWMAwillberesponsibleforprovidingtherequiredsupplyofwastestothe processingfacilitiesandformonitoringoperationalactivitiesattheseplants. TheOfficeofthePrimeMinister(EnvironmentalManagementDivision)willprovideexpert adviceandguidanceontheenvironmentalimpactsofallenergyfromwasteprogrammes.Also, theDivisionwillfacilitateproposalsforconsiderationofprojectstobenefitfromtheClean DevelopmentMechanism.

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TheNationalEnvironmentandPlanningAgency(NEPA),anExecutiveAgencyundertheOffice ofthePrimeMinister,willhavetheresponsibilityofensuringthatenergyfromwastefacilities operateinsuchawaythathumanhealthandtheenvironmentareprotectedfromharmful emissions.Also,NEPAwillberesponsiblefortheissuanceoftherelevantpermitsforthe establishmentofEFWfacilities.Incarryingoutitsrole,theAgencywillcontinuouslyassess plantoperationsandtheirenvironmentalperformanceforexamplebyroutinelychecking emissionsofEFWplants.NEPAwillberesponsiblefortakingappropriatemonitoringand enforcementactionsorprosecutinganoperatorifthereisabreach. Localplanningauthoritieswillhaveafundamentalroleinensuringthatthegoalsofthispolicy aremet.TheywillbepartofthepermittingprocessforEFWplantsandwillplayarolein decidingonthecharacteristicsofthesefacilities,forexample,wherethefacilitieswillbebuilt andtheirsizeandcapacity.Also,localauthoritieswillhaveavoiceindecisionsrelatedtothe utilizationofpropertytaxestosupportenergyfromwastefacilities. JAMPRO(JamaicaTrade&Invest)willberesponsibleforimplementingincentivesand facilitatingthegrowthofinvestmentintheenergyfromwastesector. TheOfficeofUtilitiesRegulation(OUR)willhaveoversightresponsibilityfortheregulatory frameworkguidingenergyfromwasteinitiatives.Thatofficewillprotecttheinterestofboth theconsumerandinvestorintheprovisionandutilizationofpublicutilityservices.TheOUR willworkwiththeJamaicaPublicServiceCompany(JPSCo)tocreatepowerpurchase agreements(PPA)arrangementswithEFWfacilitiestosellelectricitytothenationalgrid. TheMinistryofAgricultureisresponsibleforthemanagementofagriculturalwastessuchas bagasseandwillensurethegenerationofenergyfromthesewastes. TheNationalWaterCommissionisresponsibleformanagementofsewagesludgeandwill assumealeadroleintheanalysisofoptionstoutilizesludgetogenerateenergy. TheMinistryofFinanceandthePublicServicewillberesponsibleforestablishinganyfinancial ortaxincentivesordisincentivesforthedevelopmentoftheEFWsector,andforany considerationoftheutilizationoftheenvironmentallevyinsupportofenergyfromwaste facilities. TheMinistryofHealthwillworkcloselywiththeNationalEnvironmentandPlanningAgency (NEPA)todeterminepotentialhealthimpactsofEFWplantsbasedonemissionsstandardsand guidelinessetbyNEPA. TheMinistryofInvestmentandJAMPROwillberesponsibleforpromotingthedevelopmentof theenergyfromwastesector,particularlywithintheprivatesector.

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Localuniversitieswillplayakeyroleinkeepingabreastofresearchinenergyfromwaste technologiesandthelinkagesbetweenEFWfacilitiesandimpactonhumanhealthandthe environment,andthusensuringenvironmentalsustainability.

ImplementationFramework/ActionPlanforEnergyfromWaste2010 2012
ForeachgoaloutlinedintheEnergyfromWastePolicy20102030,priorityprojects/initiatives willbedevelopedandimplementedtowardscontributingtotheachievementofthegoals.The priorityactionsfor20102012arepresentedbelow. ThestrategiesidentifiedintheStrategicFrameworkwillbeoperationalizedbytheassociated implementingagenciesandpartnersthroughtheincorporationofspecificactionsinthe StrategicandOperationalPlansoftheseentities.Theseplanswillprovidedetailedinformation onspecificactionstobeundertaken,theimplementingagenciesandpartners,timelinesand costs.

PriorityActionsfortheEnergyfromWasteSector20102012
PriorityAction Infuseenergyissuesintonationalspatialplantoaddressissues relatedtothesitingofEFWfacilities Developmemorandaofunderstandingandothercollaborative agreementsbetweenkeystakeholdersintheenergysectorandother sectorssuchasagriculture,solidwastemanagement,wastewater treatment,localgovernmentandtransportinordertomaximizethe useofwasteproductstogenerateenergyandtoutilizetheenergy producedfromwaste AlignEFWinitiativeswiththeCleanDevelopmentMechanism(CDM) tofacilitatethesaleofcarboncredits Developaresearchagendathatwouldfacilitateconductingresearch toanalyzedifferentEFWoptionsintermsofwastetypeand technologieswithintheJamaicancontext Undertakeresearchtodetermineoptionsavailableatsmallscalefor EFWinitiativesinruralparishesandotherareas Conductafeasibilitystudyforproducingfuelfromwastewatersludge onanationallevel AssistwiththerevisionoftheNationalSolidWasteManagement Policytominimizethevolumeofsolidwastethatisdisposedofin landfillsbycommittingtoenergyfromwasteandincludingenergy fromwasteinthewastemanagementhierarchybelowthe3Rs (Reduce,Reuse,Recycle)andaboveDisposalinLandfills

ResponsibleEntities MEM,NLA MEM,MOA,SRC, NSWMA,OPM,NWC, MTW

MEM,OPM(EMD) MEM,PCJ,CERE, SRC,UTech,UWI MEM,SRC MEM,NWC,SRC MEM,NSWMA, OPM(LGD)

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AssistwiththerevisionoftheNationalTransportPolicytoinclude provisionsforwastederivedfuels AssistwiththerevisionoftheNationalAgriculturePolicytoensure themaximumuseofbagassetogenerateenergyandtoexpandthe useofanimalwastesasasourceofenergy EstablishpartnershipswithNEPAandtheMinistryofHealthto determinearrangementstoensureprotectionofhumanhealthand theenvironment

MEM,MTW,PCJ MEM,MOA,SIRI

MEM,NEPA,MOH

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MonitoringandEvaluationFramework
TheMinistryofEnergyandMiningwillbeaccountableformonitoringandevaluatingthe implementationofthisPolicy.Theproposedindicatorsoutlinedinthispolicyrepresentthe foundationofaresultsbasedmonitoringandevaluationsystemtoensurethatthefourgoalsof thispolicyareachievedwhichwill,inturn,contributetotheachievementoftherelatedgoals assetoutintheNationalEnergyPolicy20092030andVision2030Jamaica,National DevelopmentPlan. Acontinuousprogrammeformonitoringandevaluation,conductedbyrelevantstakeholders frompublicandprivatesectors,willbeimplemented.TheMinistryofEnergyandMiningwill conductbroadstakeholderconsultationsperiodicallytoreviewandassesstheeffectivenessof thePolicyusingtheindicatorsidentifiedbelowasaguide.Theresultsoftheassessment includingrecommendationswillbepublishedinanannualreportforsubmissiontotheCabinet.

ProposedIndicators
TheproposedindicatorsfortheNationalEnergyfromWastePolicyovertheperiod20102030 arepresentedinTable6.TheseindicatorsarethebuildingblocksoftheMonitoringand Evaluationprogramme.Targetswillbesetincollaborationwiththekeyimplementation partners. Table6.EnergyfromWasteIndicatorsandTargets Baseline Targets
2010 2012 2015 2030

Indicator

Percentageofenergyfromrenewableenergy sourcesgeneratedfromEFWinitiatives GWhofelectricitygeneratedfromEFW facilities PercentageofworkforceemployedinEFW sector NumberofnewEFWprojects Volumeofsolidwastedisposedofin dumpsites Areaoflandusedbydumpsites Volumeoffeedstockmaterialimportedfor EFWsector

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Appendices

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AppendixI Glossary
3Rs Reduce,Reuse,Recyclethetopthreegoalsinthesolidwastemanagementhierarchy. Biofuels Biofuelsarerenewablefuelsmadefrombiomass(plantsoranimalwastes).Theycanbeusedto supplementorreplacethefossilfuelspetroleumanddieselusedfortransport.Thetwomain biofuels created from plants are ethanol and biodiesel. Ethanol is produced from the fermentationofsugarorstarchincropssuchascornandsugarcane.Biodieselismadefrom vegetableoilsincropssuchassoybean,orfromanimalfats.Dependingontheprocessesused to make biofuels, greenhouse emissions from cars and fuelpowered machinery can be substantiallyreducedbytheiruse. Calorificvalue Theheatperunitmassproducedbycompletecombustionofagivensubstance.Calorificvalues areusedtoexpresstheenergyvaluesoffuels;usuallytheseareexpressedinmegajoulesper kilogram(MJ/kg). Carbonfootprint The global warming impact of human activities in terms of the amount of greenhouse gases they produce. The emissions associated with the use of power, transport, food and other consumption for an individual, family or organisation are added up to give one comparable measureinunitsofcarbondioxideequivalent. Carbonneutral Anindividual,householdororganisationthatisresponsiblefornonetemissionsofgreenhouse gasesfromallitsactivitiesisconsidered"carbonneutral".Emissionsmustbecuttoaminimum and any necessary emissions then offset by emission reducing activities elsewhere. Buying accreditedcleanelectricityhelpscuthouseholdorofficegreenhouseemissions,whileinvesting insustainableenergyprojectsorafforestationschemesareexamplesofoffsets. CleanDevelopmentMechanism(CDM) A Kyoto Protocol initiative under which projects set up in developing countries to reduce greenhousegasemissionsgeneratetradablecreditscalledCERs,thefirststeptowardsaglobal carbonmarket.Thesecreditscanbeusedbyindustrializednationstooffsetcarbonemissions at home and meet their Kyoto reduction targets. The projects include renewable energy generation,reforestationandcleanfuelsswitching.

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Disposalsite Solidwastedisposalsitethathaslittleornomanagement,unregulatedtippingandno environmentalcontrols,infrequentornocoveringofwaste Energyfromwaste(EFW) Energyfromwasteencompassesalltechnologiesandsystemsthatproduceenergyfromwaste productsandincludeswastetoenergy(seebelow). GreenhouseGas(GHG) Anygasthatabsorbsinfraredradiationintheatmosphere.Greenhousegasesinclude,butare notlimitedto,watervapour,carbondioxide(CO2),methane(CH4),nitrousoxide(N2O), chlorofluorocarbons(CFCs),hydrofluorocarbons(HFCs),hydrochlorofluorocarbons(HCFCs), ozone(O3),perfluorocarbons(PFCs),andsulfurhexafluoride(SF6). KyotoProtocol TheagreementreachedinKyotoin1997committingdevelopedcountriesandcountriesmaking thetransitiontoamarketeconomytoachievequantifiedtargetsfordecreasingtheiremissions ofgreenhousegases. Landfill Solidwastedisposalsitethatismanaged,ithasdesignatedcellsfortippingandregular coveringofwaste. Landfillgas Allgasesgeneratedfromthelandfilledwaste Municipalsolidwaste Householdwasteandcommercialwastethatcanbecollectedatcurbside. Residualwaste Seeunavoidableresidualwaste. Sanitarylandfill Solidwastedisposalsitewithleachatecontrols,gascontrols,designatedcellsfor tippinganddailycoveringofwaste. Tippingfees Sumofmoneypaidtotheoperatorofadisposalfacilitythatgoestowardsoperatingand maintainingthefacility.

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Unavoidableresidualwaste All solid waste that remains after efforts to reduce, reuse and recycle; this waste would normallybedisposedofinalandfill UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Also referred to informally as the UNclimatechangeconvention.Itistheinternationalagreementforactiononclimatechange andwasdrawnupin1992.Aframeworkwasagreedforactionaimedatstabilizingatmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. The UNFCCC entered into force on March 1994 and currentlyhas192signatoryparties.TheUNFCCCinturnagreedtheKyotoProtocolin1997to implementemissionreductionsinindustrializedcountriesupto2012andiscurrentlyseeking thenegotiationofanewtreatytoextendcommitmentsbeyond2012. Wastetoenergy(WTE) Combustionofmunicipalsolidwasteathightemperaturesinfacilitiestorecoverenergyforthe generationofelectricity

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AppendixII EconomicViabilityAnalysisofWasteto EnergyatRivertonCity


In19956,afeasibilityanalysiswasconductedbyDr.MohiniKiswanifortheuseofwasteat RivertonCitytogenerateenergyusinganestimatedamountofwasteof300tonnes(300truck loads)perdayor109,500tonnesperyear.ThecombustiblewastestreamdepositedatRiverton includes:plastics,wood,gardenwaste,trees,paper,textiles,andfood.TableA1showsthe heatingvaluesofthecomponentsofthewastedepositedatRivertonbasedonasampleof312 tonnes(approximately85%ofthetotalwastedeposited). TableA1.HeatingvaluesofResidentialWasteDisposedRivertonCity Items LowerEnd Quantity TotalHeating (MJ/kg) Disposedper Values day(kg) (MJperday) Plastic 22.7 44,020 999,254 Wood/Board 15.0 36,684 550,260 GardenWaste,Trees 4.8 110,051 528,245 Paper/Cardboard 12.2 40,352 492,294 Textiles 16.1 29,347 472,487 Food 4.12 51,357 211,591 Total 311,811 3,254,131
Source:PresentationbyM.Kiswani,PhDtotheEFWPWGonMay26,2010

Thestudyreportedthattheheatingvalueofresidential wastedisposedatthesitewas3,254,131MJperday.The totalresidentialwastedisposedwas366,837kgperday; therefore,theaveragecalorificvaluewas8.87MJperkgper day.Therequirementsforcombustionisthatthewaste haveaminimumcalorificvalueof5MJperkg;themoisture contentofwasteshouldbelessthan50%;andthe combustibleportionofthewasteshouldnotbelessthan 50%.Basedontheanalysis,heatforrecoverythroughincinerationofmunicipalwasteat RivertonCityseemsfeasible.Theannualenergygenerationfor109,500tonnesisestimatedto

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be269,698MWh,withathermalefficiencyofabout25%.Theenergyoutputis67,500MWh withabout9MWavailableforexporttothenationalgrid. PotentialNSWMAplansfordivertinggardenandfoodwasteintocompostinginitiativeswill reducethevolumeofwastebeingdepositedatthedisposalsite.However,Table4showsthat thesecomponents,althoughconstitutingalargevolume,havethelowestcalorificcontentand thereforecontributecomparativelylessthantheotherwastestreamcomponentssuchas plastic.Also,giventhevolumeofgardenandfoodwastegeneratedinJamaica,composting initiativeswouldnotlikelybeabletouseallthisorganicwaste,someofwhichwouldstillend upatdisposalsitessuchasRiverton.Therefore,theenergygeneratingpotentialofRiverton, afteracompostinginitiativehasbeenestablished,wouldbelessbutstillviable. CapitalInvestment Theestimatedtotalcapitalinvestmentcostpertonneofawastetoenergytreatmentplantto isapproximatelyUS$15pertonne,excludingthecostoflandandassociatedoffice,waste storage,visitorscentreandroad/parkingnetwork.PCJsCEREsassessmentofthetotalcapital investmentcostpertonneforthermaltreatmentisestimatedtobebetweenUS$25US$30 pertonne,includingcostsforland,office,storage,visitorscentreandroad/parkingnetwork. OperatingCosts Wastetoenergyplantsincurannualcostsforenergyconsumedonsite,labour,water, maintenanceandsparesanddepreciation.Abouteightypercent(80%)ofthesecostsrelateto loanrepaymentcostsforthedirectcapitalinvestmentandutilities.Henceprojectsare financedbasedonbankablelongtermpowerpurchaseagreementsandwastesupply agreementswithcosteffectiveandsustainabletippingfees.Theestimatedannualoperating costforthermaltreatmentisbetweenUS$80US$100pertonne. Capitalexpenditureandannualoperatingandmaintenancecostsforwastetoenergy treatmentanddisposalmaybefinancedthroughrevenuesfromlongtermagreementsfor electricalenergysales,environmentallevies,aportionoftippingfeesandpropertytaxesas wellasdirectforeigninvestmentincentives. ElectricalEnergySales TheJamaicaPublicServiceCompanyLimited(JPS)hastheexclusiverightstotransmit, distributeandsupplyelectricitythroughoutJamaica,foratwenty(20)yearperiod,basedon theAllIslandElectricityLicense(2001).Renewableelectricitygenerationhasthepotentialto reducethecurrentretailcostofelectricity.

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Theannualizedvalueofelectricalenergysalesfora300tonneperdayprocessdrivedelivering 67,500MWhand9MWofbaseloadelectricitytothegridatvariedavoidedcostsisshown below: TableA2.PotentialFutureElectricitySalesUsingaRangeofAvoidedCosts Energy, Capacity & 12.05 13.05 14.05 15.05 Premium(US/kWh) Sales by Wasteto US$8.13M US$8.80M US$9.48M US$10.15M Energy Plant (300 tonnesperday) RevenueinUS$/tonne US$74 US$80 US$87 US$93 Source:PCJsCERE(2010) Theeconomicviabilityfora300tonneperdaywastetoenergyplantissummarizedinTable6 belowtoindicatethepotentialforimprovingenvironmentalconditions,whilesupporting energydiversificationandsecurity.Thetraditionalfinancingoptionsmaybeusedtosupport suchforeigndirectinvestments;howevertheunderlyingissuesofaffordabilityand collectabilityofrevenuesmustbeworkedoutbytherelevantlocalgovernmentauthorities. TheRivertonCitydisposalsitehasthepotentialforseveral300tonneperdayprocessdrives,or largerequipmentthatmayderivegreatereconomiesofscale.Theconversionofthedisposal siteintoaworldclasswastetoenergyfacilitywillrequireextensivedesignanddevelopment works,whicharefocusedonpopulationgrowthtrends,landusepolicy,transportationlogistics andtheincreasingdiversityofwastes. TableA3.EconomicViabilityfora300tonneperdayProcess Category WasteQuantity, EstimatedRevenues &Costs Annualwastetobeincinerated(tonnesperyear) 109,500 AnnualOperatingCost US$11.63Million AnnualEnergySalestotheGrid(@US12.05/kWh) US$8.13Million AnnualTippingFee(@US$75pertonne) US$8.21Million NetProfit/Loss US$4.71Million IndirectBenefits ValueofOilImportReductions US$6.40Million ValueofCO2EmissionTrade US$1.91Million OverallDirect&IndirectBenefits(Annual) US$8.31Million Source:PCJsCEREJuly2010

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AppendixIII MembersoftheEnergyfromWaste PolicyWorkingGroup


Mr.OralRainford(Chair) Mr.WayneRobertson Mr.AdrianCharlesStewart Mr.BradshawIssacs Mr.WilliamBroughton Mr.CharlesLewis MsShernetteSampson MsMonifaBlake Mr.GaryCampbell Mr.VivianBlake Mrs.PauletteKolbusch Dr.AndrinaStandhope Mr.GarfieldMurray MsGillianGuthrie MissLeonieBarnaby Mr.RollinAlveranga Dr.MohiniKiswani Mrs.PaulaRobinsonRussell Ms.SimoneWalker Mr.HopetonHeron Mr.RichardBrown Mr.CourtneyFrancis Mr.AndrewWilson Mrs.DeniseTulloch Mrs.AllisonRichards Mr.ConroyWatson Ms.JuliaBrown MinistryofEnergyandMining OfficeofthePrimeMinister(DepartmentofLocalGovernment) MinistryofAgriculture MinistryofHealth MinistryofHealth MinistryofHealth MinistryofTransport&Works MinistryofTransport&Works NationalEnvironment&PlanningAgency NationalEnvironment&PlanningAgency NationalEnvironment&PlanningAgency NationalSolidWasteManagementAuthority NationalSolidWasteManagementAuthority OfficeofthePrimeMinister(EnvironmentalManagementDivision) OfficeofthePrimeMinister(EnvironmentalManagementDivision OfficeofthePrimeMinister(EnvironmentalManagementDivision) OfficeofthePrimeMinister(LandAdministrationandManagement Division) OfficeofthePrimeMinister(DepartmentofLocalGovernment) OfficeofthePrimeMinister(DepartmentofLocalGovernment) OfficeofUtilitiesRegulation OfficeofUtilitiesRegulation OfficeofUtilitiesRegulation PetroleumCorporationofJamaica PetroleumCorporationofJamaicaCentreofExcellencefor RenewableEnergy PlanningInstituteofJamaica MinistryofEnergyandMining ScientificResearchCouncil

DRAFTOctober4,2010

AppendixIII ExamplesofInternationalEnergyfrom WasteInitiatives


JapanandChinabuiltseveralplantsthatwerebasedondirectsmeltingoronfluidbed combustionofsolidwaste.InChina,thereareaboutfifty(50)wastetoenergyplants.Japanis thelargestuserinthermaltreatmentofmunicipalsolidwasteintheworldwithforty(40) milliontonnes.Someofthenewestplantsusestokertechnologyandothersusetheadvanced oxygenenrichmenttechnology.Therearealsooveronehundred(100)thermaltreatment plantsusingrelativelynovelprocessessuchasdirectsmelting,theEbarafluidizationprocess andtheThermoselectJFEgasificationandmeltingtechnologyprocess. TheEastBayMunicipalWaterDistrict,whichprovideswatertoaportionoftheSanFrancisco BayArea,haslaunchedafoodwastetoenergyandcompostprogrammeatitswastewater treatmentplant.Foodcollectedfromrestaurantsandgrocerystoresisdigestedbybacteria thatemitmethaneasabyproduct.Theemittedmethaneiscollectedandusedtogenerate electricitythathelpsrunthetreatmentplant.Thematerialthatremainsisthensenttoa greenwastecompostingfacilitytobeturnedintofertilizer. CountriessuchasGermanyandJapanhavecreatedindependentbioenergytownsutilizing sewagesludge,foodwaste,livestockmanureandforest,agriculturalbyproducts.InSpain,a groupofSpanishdevelopersdevelopedabiochemicalprocesstoconvertsolidwasteinto biodiesel.TheUSAutilizestheMassBurningmethod.Inthisprocess,burningwasteconverts watertosteamtodriveaturbineconnectedtoanelectricitygenerator. From1January1997,Denmarkstoppedlandfillingwastesuitableforincineration.Thisledto anextensiveincreaseintheincinerationcapacityattheendofthe1990sandinearly2000. Since2001allwastesuitableforincinerationisbeingincineratedatwasteincinerationplants whereenergyproductionisexploited.Sincewastegenerationvaries,limitedwastevolumes mayhoweverbetemporarilylandfilledforlaterincineration.In2007about3.7milliontonnes ofwastewasincineratedatatotalof29wasteincinerationplantsinDenmark.Theincineration capacityoftheplantsvariesbetween12,000tonnesand520,000tonnesofwasteeachyear.