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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS TESIS


JUDUL :

FIBER OPTIC DUPLEXER

SESI PENGAJIAN: 2006/2007 Saya

ABUBAKER.O.S.ALI
(HURUF BESAR)

mengaku membenarkan tesis (Sarjana)* ini disimpan di Perpustakaan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia dengan syarat-syarat kegunaan seperti berikut: 1. 2. 3. 4. Tesis adalah hakmilik Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Perpustakaan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia dibenarkan membuat salinan untuk tujuan pengajian sahaja. Perpustakaan dibenarkan membuat salinan tesis ini sebagai bahan pertukaran antara institusi pengajian tinggi. **Sila tanda ( 4 ) SULIT (Mengandungi maklumat yang berdarjah keselamatan atau kepentingan Malaysia seperti yang termaktub di dalam AKTA RAHSIAH RASMI 1972) (Mengandungi maklumat TERHAD yang telah ditentukan oleh organisasi/badan di mana penyelidikan dijalankan)

TERHAD

TIDAK TERHAD

Disahkan oleh

(TANDATANGAN PENULIS)

(TANDATANGAN PENYELIA)

Alamat tetap SENAWEN- GHDAMS LIBYA Abubakr_asgher@yahoo.co.uk Tarikh: 1/DECEMBER/2006

PROF.DR.ABUBAKAR BIN MOHMMAD Nama Penyelia Tarikh: 1/DECEMBER/2006

CATATAN:

*
**

Potong yang tidak berkenaan. Jika tesis ini SULIT atau TERHAD, sila lampirkan surat daripada pikah berkuasa/ organisasi berkenaan dengan menyatakan sekali sebab dan tempoh tesis ini perlu dikelaskan sebagai SULIT atau TERHAD. Tesis dimaksudkan sebagai tesis bagi Ijazah Doktor Falsafah dan Sarjana secara penyelidikan, atau disertasi bagi pengajian secara kerja kursus dan penyelidikan, atau Laporan Project Sarjana Muda (PSM)

I hereby declare that I have read this thesis and in my opinion this thesis is sufficient in terms of scope and quality for the award of the degree of Master of Engineering (Electrical-Electronics &Telecommunication)

Signature Name of Supervisor Date

: : :

... Prof.Dr.AbuBakar Bin Mohammad ...

FIBER OPTIC DUPLEXER

ABUBAKER.O.S.ALI

A project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Master of Engineering (Electrical-Electronic & Telecommunications)

Faculty of Electrical Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

DECEMBER , 2006

DECLARATION

I declare that this thesis entitled Fiber Optic Duplexer is the results of my own research except as cited in the references. The thesis has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted in candidature of any other degree.

Signature Name Date

: : :

AbuBaker.O.S.ALI December 2006

ii

To my mother and father & My brother-in-law

For your infinite and unfading love, sacrifice, patience, encouragement and Best wishes

iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

All praises and thanks be to Allah (S.W.T), who has guided us to this, never could we have found guidance, were it not that Allah had guided us!(Q7:43)

Words cannot express my gratitude towards my supervisor,Prof.Dr.AbuBakar Bin Mohammad for the patience, humble supervision and fatherly advice I received from him in the course of his project. May the sky be your limits in all your future endeavors and may jannatul-firdaus be your abode in the hereafter.

Also I would like to heartily thank PHD students Mohmmad Hanif, Leow and the technician in the photonic Laboratory,Encik Ahmad for constantly being helping hands during my laboratory sessions and of course to the rest of the staff, academic and non-academic wise.

Finally, my acknowledgment will be incomplete if I keep mum on support and help I received from my co-brothers Mohammed Shapeer and Iliyasaak Ahmad, as well as, all other colleagues (both local and international), really you have made Malaysia to be my home away from home.

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ABSTRAK

Penghantaran

dwiarah

dalam

komunikasi

optik,

secara

tradisinya,

dilaksanakan melalui dua fiber yang berasingan; satu fiber berfungsi sebagai penghantar, dan satu lagi berfungsi sebagai penerima. Namu begitu, dari segi ekonomi, sistem penghantaran gelombang pembahagi multipleks (WDM) dwiarah yang hanya menggunakan fiber tunggal adalah lebih menyenangkan. Oleh yang demikian penggunaan komponen dalam sistem WDM tersebut dapat dikurangkan. Seterusnya, transmisi dwiarah ini juga boleh menggandakan kapasiti fiber sehala yang sedia ada. Cakap-silang jalur-inter dan jalur-intra di model dan di analisa di dalam system ini. Keputusan yang diperolehi menunjukan cakap-silang jalur-intra tidak menganggu isyarat yang diterima selagi nilanya berada dibawah 25dB. Peningkatan nilai cakap-silang jalur-intra akan menyebabkan peningkatan dalam nilai kuasa tendangan. Sekiranya keadaan ini berlaku nilai kuasa tendangan akan dikira. Pengiraan juga dilakukan bilamana hingar didominasi oleh hingar terma. Keputusan yang diperolehi menunjukkan nilai kuasa tendangan merosot teruk. Keputusan eksperimen tersebut menunjukkan bahawa nilai minimum cakap-silang adalah 39dB dan nilai kuasa tendangan yang sepadan denganya adalah 0.513dBM. Untuk mencegah nilai cakap-silang daripada terakru, penambahan jalur diantara saluran yang hendak dihantar mestilah mematuhi ITU-T piawaian.

ABSTRACT

In traditional optical communication, duplexity is achieved by using two fibers, each having a transmitter and a receiver. Economically, bidirectional wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) transmission systems utilizing a single fiber will be more attractive not only reducing the use of the fiber by a factor of two, but also the number of components. Duplex transmissions over a single fiber can double the capacity of an installed unidirectional link. Optical fiber duplexer was implemented in this work, where two signals were carried over a single fiber. The interband and intraband crosstalk were modeled and analyzed. It was found that the intraband crosstalk did not affect the received signal as long as it is below -25dB. Increasing this value caused the power penalty to increase. The power penalty when the spontaneous beat noise of the received signal dominates was calculated. Calculation was also made in the case when the noise is dominated by thermal noise. It was found that the power penalty is worst for the thermal noise dominated case. From the experimental results, it was found that the minimum crosstalk was -39dB and the corresponding power penalty was 0.1513dBm. The case worsened when more than three signals had same wavelength, the gain band between the channels to be transmitted should be according to the ITU-T standards to prevent crosstalk from occurring.

vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER

TITLE

PAGE

TITLE PAGE DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT ABSTRAK TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF SYMBOL

i ii iii iv v vi vii x xi xiii

INTRODUCTION

1.1 1.2 1.3

Optical Fiber Communication Technology Basic Block of Fiber Optic Transmition Link Wave-length Division Multiplexting 1.3.1 Different Wave-length Division Multiplexer 1.3.1.1 1.3.1.2 1.3.1.3 WDM CWDM DWDM

1 2 3 4 4 5 5 5 6 6

1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7

Problem Statements Research Objectives Project Scope Thesis Outlin

vii 2 Bi-Directional Transmition Systems 9

2.1 2.2

Bi-Directional Transmition Systems Simplex Transmition System 2.2.1 Simplex Dense Wave-length Division Multiplexing

9 10 10 11 12

2.3

Duplex Transmition System 2.3.1 Duplex Dense Wave-length Division Multiplexing

Literature Review

14

3.1 3.2

Bi-Directional Repeater Less Optical Fiber Transmition Crosstalk Limited Trasnmition Distance in Bi-Directional Fiber

14

Optic Systems 3.3 Bi-Directional 10 Channels 2.5GBit/s WDM

18 22

Link Design Consideration

26

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4

System Crosstalk System Dispersion Wave-length Separation between Channels System Power Penalty

26 27 29 30

Project Implementation

32

5.1 5.2

Systerm Diagram Component used and Specifications 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 Tunable laser Source Optical Spectrum Analyser 3 Port Optical Circulator Dense Wave-length Division Multiplexing

32 32 33 34 34 36 37

5.3

Mathemical Model

viii 5.4 5.5 First Architecture of Fiber Duplexer Second Architecture of Fiber Duplexer 39 40

Measrements and Results

42

6.1 6.2 6.3

First Architecture of Fiber Duplexer Second Architecture of Fiber Duplexer The Analysis of Results 6.3.1 6.3.2 Interband Crosstalk Intraband Crosstalk

42 45 48 48 49 50 50 55

6.4

Mathematical Model 6.4.1 6.4.2 First Architecture Second Architecture

Conclusion and Proposed Future Work

60

7.1 7.2

Conclusion Recommendation for Future Work

60 61

REFERENCES APPENDIX A

62 64

ix

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NO. 5.1: TLS Specification 5.2: 5.3: 6.1:

TITLE

PAGE 34 35 37 52 57 57

Optical Circulators Specifications DWDM Specification Mathematical Model Readings

6.2: Power Penalties when thermal noise dominated 6.3: Power Penalties when Spontaneously beat noise deminated

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE NO. 1.1 1.2: 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 3.1 3.2 3.3: 3.4 3.5

TITLE Basic Lock Diagram of Fiber Otic Communication Link Wave-length Division Multiplexing Conventional Optical Communication Link Conventional Dese Wavelength Division Multiplexing Full Duplex Optical Transmition System Full Duplex Dese Wavelength Division Multiplexing Bi-Directional Transmission System Bit Error Rates Curves for Unidirectional System Bit Error Rates Curves for Uni and Bidrirectional Scematic Block Diagram of Experimantal Setup

PAGE 3 4 10 11 12 13 15 16 17 19

Measured Results of Bit Error Rate as Interference Power for representatative Signal Level 20 21 22 23

3.6 3.7 3.8: 3.9 4.1 4.2 4.3 5.1 5.2: 5.3 5.4 5.5 6.1 6.3

Power Penalty in the presence of Interference Scematic Diagram of Full Duplex System Experimantal Setup for Bidirectional WDM

Bit Error Rate against average Received Power input to APD 24 Chromatic Dispertion per Kilometer VS wavelength nm Dispertion Effect Fiber Optic Attenuation Proposed System Diagram Optical Circulator AWG of Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Experimental Setup of Full Duplex System 1 Experimental Setup of Full Duplex System 2 Fiber Duplex Architecture 1 The Power Received at receiver1(RX1) 28 28 29 33 35 36 39 34 42 43

xi 6.2 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8: 6.9: 6.10 6.11: 6.12: 6.13 6.14 6.15: 6.16 The Power Received at receiver2(RX2) Fiber Duplexer Architecture 2 Optical Signal Detected at (RX1) Optical Signal Detected at (RX2) Interband Crosstalk Intraband Crosstalk Crosstalk Coupling Coefficient vs the Power Penalty Different Interband Crosstalk Values Intraband Crosstalk The Power Penalty and Crosstalk Elements The Power Penalty in Case of Intraband Crosstalk The Received signal thermal noise dominated The Received Signal Spontaneous beat noise dominated 44 45 46 47 48 49 51 53 54 55 56 57 58

Combination of Two Results of Power Penalties of the Optical Signal Receive 58

xii

LIST OF SYMBOL

DWDM BER CWDM C-Band dB ITU APD AWG Gb/s DS LED LD SMF SONET FBG PD

dense wavelength division multiplex/multiplexing bit error rate course wavelength division multiplex/multiplexing Optical band from 1530 to 1570 nanometers long Decibel International Telecommunications Union Avalanche photodiodes Arrayed waveguide grating gigabits per second dispersion shifted light emitting diode laser diode single mode fiber Synchronous Optical Network Fiber Bragg Grating photodiode

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

In this chapter introduction is made on some general information about optical fiber communication technology, the basic blocks of fiber optic transmission link, wavelength division multiplexing, problem statement, research objectives and the scope of the project.

1.1

Optical Fiber Communication Technology

An optical communications system is similar to other communication systems in that it consists of the three main parts: Transmitter, Receiver and the Communication channel. In order for a fiber to guide the light signal, it must consist of a core of material whose refractive index is greater than that of the surrounding medium, which is called the cladding. Depending on the design of the fiber, light is constrained to the core by either total internal reflection or refraction.

In optical links the transmitter is a light source whose output acts as the carrier wave. Although frequency division multiplexing (FDM) techniques are used in longer broadcast systems, most optical communication links use time division multiplexing (TDM) techniques. The easiest way to modulate a carrier wave with a digital signal is to turn it on and off, where that is called on-off keying, or amplitude shift keying. In optical systems this is commonly achieved by varying the source drive current directly, so causing a proportional change in optical power.

2 The components that used to transmit or receive the optical signal are semiconductors devices. For transmitting the most common light source used are laser diode and light emitting diode (LED) where they have different specification according to power spectrum and fabrication. At the receiving end of the optical link a PIN photodiode or Avalanche photodiode (APD), converts the modulated light back into an electrical signal the photodiode current is directly proportional to optical power [10].

1.2

The Basic Blocks of Fiber Optical Transmission link

The basic block of an optical fiber transmission system is illustrated in Figure 1.1 consists of three main parts: The transmitter block Laser Driver and temperature control: the electrical signals will be transferred into optics. For long haul, laser diode is used for this purpose because of the narrow spectral width and high optical power that is used to carry data over long distance. The light is then coupled into the transmission channel, the optical fiber cable, where most of the dispersion and attenuation takes place. The receiver block which is the last part of the system converts the optical signal back into the replica of the electrical signal using the Avalanche photodiode (APD) or PIN-type photodiode then to the amplification stage before reaching the end user.

Figure 1.1: Basic block diagram of fiber optic communication

1.3

Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM)

WDM as shown in Figure 1.2, [1] combines multiple optical TDM data streams onto one fiber through the use of multiple wavelengths of light. Each individual TDM data stream is sent over an individual laser transmitting a unique wavelength of light. Wavelength division multiplexing was used with only two wavelengths 1310 nm and 1550 nm. However, this was suitable only for limited applications for example; applications in which analog optical cable television signals co-existed with digital optical telecommunication signals. WDM takes advantage of the fact that different wavelengths of light can be transmitted over a single fiber simultaneously. The light sources of different wavelengths can be combined using suitable components like couplers, splitters etc. the figure 1.2 shows the general structure of WDM system.

The ITU-T standard recommends 81 channels in C band with a constant spacing of 50 GHz and it is occupies wavelengths approximately from 1530 to 1560 nm which is the band around the minimum attenuation region among the other bands.

Figure 1.2: Wavelength Division Multiplexing

1.3.1

Different Wavelength Division Multiplexer Early WDM systems transported two or four wavelengths that were widely

spaced. WDM and the follow on technologies of CWDM and DWDM have evolved well beyond this early limitation.

1.3.1.1 WDM

Traditional, passive WDM systems are wide spread with 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 channel counts being the normal deployments. This technique usually has a distance limitation of less than 100 km.

1.3.1.2 CWDM

Today, coarse WDM (CWDM) typically uses 20-nm spacing (3000 GHz) of up to 18 channels. The CWDM Recommendation ITU-T G.694.2 provides a grid of

5 wavelengths for target distances up to about 50 km on single mode fibers as specified in ITU-T Recommendations G.652, G.653 and G.655. The CWDM grid is made up of 18 wavelengths defined within the range 1270 nm to 1610 nm spaced by 20 nm.

1.3.1.3 DWDM

Dense WDM common spacing may be 200, 100, 50, or 25 GHz with channel count reaching up to 128 or more channels at distances of several thousand kilometers with amplification and regeneration along such a route.

1.4

Problem Statement

The need of increasing the capacity of data transmitted within the fiber transmission links became the most attractive topic for researcher. Even though optical fiber communication is the best communication system in transmitting high data rate still the researchers are pushing to get the highest bit rate. One of the main concern in an optical network is the high cost of components. The global network is made of a large submarine cable network that is expensive to modify. An interesting and smart solution is to double the capacity of each fiber by using a duplexer. It is a system capable of duplex communication over a single fiber in contrast to two fibers required in the present scenario.

1.5

Research Objectives

Main objectives are:

1. Theoretical study and analysis of duplex optical communication.

2. Simulation of duplex optical communication utilizing single fiber.

6 3. Choosing the required components.

4. Implementation of the hardware.

5. Measurements and comparison of performance.

1.6

Project Scope

It is too vast for any single research work under a given time frame to cover all the topics related to Optical Fiber Duplexer system. This project will focus on a certain properties of the system.

1. To transmit two optical signals in opposite directions within one single mode fiber (SMF) simultaneously.

2. To realize wavelength division multiplexing using fiber duplexer technique.

3. To carry out performance analysis like:

i.

Analysis and calculation of crosstalk and the power penalty.

ii.

Comparing the power penalties for different crosstalk using the mathematical model (MATLAB).

7 1.1 1.2 1.7 Thesis outline

As an introduction (Chapter 1), the motivations of research the overview of fiber optic communication technology and the main block diagram of fiber optic link, introducing the fundamental work of WDM and including the problem statement, objectives, and the scope of the project.

Chapter (2) explains the basic concepts and the theory of bidirectional transmission systems and the characteristic of each system. Proposing the idea of implementing DWDM in full duplex system was at the end of the chapter.

Chapter (3) has been titled by the literature review, where the works that have been done and related works published by other researchers in this field and the results of each work explained and concluded

Chapter (4) studied the link design considerations, where the most important issues that might face the researcher whose is doing such kind of systems. The sections of the chapter were crosstalk, dispersion, wavelength separation between channels and lastly the power penalty of the system.

Chapter (5) discussed the implementation of the project where it shows the general architecture of the system block diagram, then the components was used and their specifications after that the mathematical model used in the simulation part of the project then the operation of the first architecture of fiber duplexer and lastly the second architecture in fiber duplexer and its operation.

Chapter (6) was for the discussion and the analysis of measurements and results. First section in this chapter was introducing the first architecture of the system measurements. Then the second architecture came after that to introduce the results as the previous one. Analytical the results of the two architectures discussed in the third and fourth sections of the system.

8 Chapter (7) which is the last chapter in this work was written to be the conclusion and proposed future work in this filed. The conclusion part talked about the final analyzed results and the summarizing of the work while some recommendations or ideas proposed in future work section.

CHAPTER 2

BIDIRECTIONAL TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS

In any communication system there are two main types of systems that used in telecommunication unidirectional or bidirectional transmissions in this chapter was the focusing on the bidirectional to investigate the possibility of increasing the capacity of transmitted data.

2.1

Bidirectional transmission systems

Bidirectional transmission is an appealing means of increasing the bandwidth utilization in a single optical fiber and, at the same time, reducing the operation and maintenance cost, and therefore a long haul optical links will likely require a considerable increase in total spectral efficiency. Recently the most interesting area is engaging (WDM) in Bidirectional transmissions over a single fiber in terms of increase the capacity of transmitted data. Recent progress on access network systems has increased the communication bit rate to several Gb/s. Now a low cost optical transceiver is required for optical access network systems. Specifically, a bidirectional single fiber optical transceiver is expected to be an effective way of reducing system cost. There are certain approaches to designing the optical transceiver configuration that will enable achieving such a low cost [9].

2.2

Simplex Transmission System

Conventional light wave systems rely on the unidirectional fiber transmission to carry traffic between terminals, and thus, full duplex transmission requires two individual fiber optics and their requirements such as splicing and regenerating signals to be implemented. In contrast, bidirectional transmission takes place over a unique fiber and, therefore, offers a more efficient use of the optical fiber networks and of their transmission bandwidth. The Figure 2.1 illustrated the simplex transmission system and the main requirements of this system.

2-Tx 2-Rx 2-fiber 2-cables

Figure 2.1: Conventional optical communication link

2.2.1

Simplex Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Dense wavelength division multiplexing permits rapid network deployment

and significant network cost reduction. Use of DWDM allows deployment of less fiber and hardware with more bandwidth being available relative to standard Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) [1]. In the conventional systems for most WDM products, a fiber pair is required to achieve full duplex interconnection

3 between nodes unidirectional systems. The systems of (DWDM) allow many discrete transport channels to be carried over a single fiber pair.

For example eight discrete 10 GB/s channels share the fiber pair with an aggregate bandwidth of 80 GB/s in Figure 2.2.

Figure 2.2: Conventional Dense Wavelength Division multiplexing link

The system in the figure 2.2 has classified the two groups of the transmitted channels into odd channels and even channels according to their wavelength.

2.3

Duplex Transmission System

Utilizing one Single Mode Fiber to transmit and receive two optical signals in both directions simultaneously, in this case, is different to using a pair of (SMF) optical cables to transmit and receive data. One (SMF) cable will be used and the two optical signals will be traveling within the cable using optical Circulator. Figure 23 shows the basic of the signals within the Single Mode Fiber (SMF).

Figure 2.3: Full duplex Optical transmission system One important issue in the full duplex transmission must be taken in account is the band separation between channels that is traveling within the fiber to avoid the interference crosstalk at the receivers in each end. This is the standard that has been determined by ITU-T.

2.3.1

Duplex Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Engaging the AWG of the DWDM into full duplex system by connecting the

common cable of the AWG with the cable number 1 and 3 of the circulators all transmitted channels will exit to cable number 2 of the circulators at both side and travel down the Single Mode Fiber (SME) toward the receivers at each terminal. The two groups of wavelengths will be transmitted in opposite directions without interference in case of maintaining the separation between the wavelengths as shown in figure 2.4.

Figure 2.4:

Full duplex Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing link

Figure 2.4 was the aim of this work to be done, where there is two groups of different wavelengths represent the channels of the system has been classified to be even and odd channels. On another hand there is another idea of classifying the transmitted wavelengths in a form of up stream and down stream such as the wavelengths transmitted from terminal A sequentially following each other (

1. 2, 3, 4 ) and they will be called up stream. The other wavelength transmitted


from terminal B ( 5, 6, 7, 8 ) called down stream, in this case the band of the system divided into two, up stream and down stream and the probability of crosstalk will be small.

CHAPTER 3

LITERATURE REVIEW

Bidirectional fiber optic communication is improving through research. This is driven by the needs for higher transmission capacity and low cost, which several methods have been developed for two-way transmission operating in a full duplex mode. In this chapter some works have been done and the result of these works studied and taken as back ground in this project.

3.1

10 GB/s 150 Bidirectional Repeaterless Optical Fiber Transmission J.-M. P. Delavaux, et [2] at (1995) have implemented successful bidirectional

transmission at 10 Gb/s over 150 km of dispersion shifted fiber (DSF) with two signal wavelengths at 1553.3 and 1557.7 nm, respectively For both transmission directions they measured the bit error rate (BER) performance with no sensitivity degradation or error floor down to BER of whether the system was operated in a bidirectional or unidirectional system configuration. The use of a fully engineered rack mounted modules contributed to the robustness of the system and to the stability of the long term BER performance. The results indicate the advantages in upgrading existing unidirectional systems to full bidirectional systems.

Figure 3.1 shows the bidirectional system configuration. The downstream transmission signal (forward transmission) used the 1557.7nm wavelength while the upstream signal reverse transmission used the 1553.3nm wavelength. Each terminal consisted of a rack-mounted transmitter regenerator and amplifier modules. Each

7 transmitter was an externally modulated DFB laser whose output -5 dB was boosted by a dual 980nm pumped Erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) to a 15 dB saturated output power level. Low insertion loss (<1.5 dB) and high optical isolation (<70 dB) three port polarization independent optical circulators provided the combination and separation of both transmission signals. Each receiver-regenerator was preceded by a low noise figure (NF < 5 dB) amplifier to ease the BER measurements [2].

Figure 3.1: Bidirectional Transmission System

The amplifiers used were two stage compensating optical balance reflective amplifiers that incorporated a mid way circulator. This midway circulator allowed the insertion of a reflecting filter to filter out the transmitted signal from the Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) before amplification by the second stage. The same BER regenerator set up was used for both transmission directions. In addition, a 10 MHz sinusoidal dithering signal was superimposed on each laser modulation to eliminate the Brillouin scattering by spectral broadening which is another type of scattering like the one cause crosstalk in this project Raylight Backscattering. The dispersion shifted fiber had a loss of 0.23 dB/km and a zero

8 dispersion at the 1552nm wavelength. The total transmission loss for the 125km and 150km fiber spans amounted to 28.6 dB and 35 dB, respectively [2].

Figure 3.2 summarizes the baseline measurements obtained for different test configurations for the case of unidirectional transmission at (1557.7 nm). The receiver sensitivity of (15.2 dB) is degraded by (0.6 dB) for transmission through (150 km) of single mode fiber, compared to the back to back measurement.

Figure 3.2: Bit error rates curves for different Unidirectional System Configurations at 1557.7nm

The experimental data show straight BER curves with no BER floor above ( 10 14 ) Figure 3.3 compares BER curves for several system operating conditions for the upstream (1553.3 nm) and the downstream (1557.7 nm) for uni-bidirectional transmissions, respectively.

Figure 3.3: Bit error curves for both systems over 125km of DSF at 1553.3nm

In the detecting the 1553.3 nm signal, a fiber grating (FG) blocking filter was placed in front of the amplifier to prevent the RB at 1557.7 nm to enter the preamplifier Aq. The fiber grating filter (FG) had a 0.8 nm bandwidth centered at 1557.7 nm and a 1dB insertion loss including connection losses. After amplification by Aq, a 1.3 nm full width half maximum tunable dielectric filter (F) was used to remove excess ASE. In Figure 3.3, measured uni-bidirectional BER curves through the 125 km fiber span are comparable to the back to back measurement. Also graphed in Figure 3.3 is the effect of the RB ASE, generated by post-amplifier A1 with the downstream signal disconnected on the BER performance. Under this condition, the BER measurements exhibit a hard floor at BER of
10 10 this

degradation is due to the reduction of the signal to noise ratio associated to the amplification of the RB ASE by the preamplifier A4 [2].

10

From this paper, it is concluded that a successful repeaterless 150 km, 10 Gb/s bidirectional transmission system at 1550 nm was demonstrated using a fully engineered system. . A large channel wavelength separation of 4.4nm was used for practical reasons, however, much closer signal separation less than 1nm should be possible, using narrow band fiber grating filters. Clearly, these results indicate the potential of doubling the transmission capacity of exiting repeaterless system in upgrading them to bidirectional system with minimal changes.

3.2

Crosstalk-limited transmission distance in bidirectional fiber optic systems Yoshida and Asakura (1993) in this paper [3], the crosstalk problem

associated with bidirectional systems is dealt with. When the two signals are carried over a single fiber as shown in Figure 3.4, the system is subject to optical crosstalk and the crosstalk causes an unwanted increase of the bit error rate at the receiver in both channels. The author first measurement results of the bit error rate are shown when there is crosstalk interference combined with a wanted signal. Second, the system design considerations are presented regarding such questions as how the crosstalk limited transmission distance is determined, and what the optimum launch power is to obtain maximum allowable transmission distance.

The optical power levels from the laser transmitters were varied individually by two variable optical attenuators. Then, the two signals which simulate the optical crosstalk were combined in the same fiber by a 3 dB directional fiber coupler, and were detected by a pin photodiode optical receiver as shown in Figure 3.4.

11

Figure 3.4: schematic block diagram of excremental setup

To evaluate the effect of optical crosstalk on BER performance, the output from transmitter A was assumed to be a wanted signal and the output from transmitter B was assumed to be an unwanted interference signal. The optical average power levels of the wanted signal and the unwanted signal were determined with an optical power meter at the entrance to the optical receiver [3].

BER measurements were made with different levels of interference power to evaluate the effects of crosstalk interference on various signal levels. The measured results for representative signal levels are shown as a function of the interference power in Figure 3-5 with full circles and curves which are drawn connecting each measured point. In this case, (S) and (I) are the received average signal power and the average interference power in (dB), respectively. In the figure, it is seen that, for signal levels higher than -25dB, BERS improve rapidly beyond ( 10 9 ) with a decrease of the interference power, while the BERS for signal levels lower than 27dB are always worse than ( 10 9 ) even when the interference power level becomes very low. This point is clearly understood by noting that the receiver sensitivity under test is -26.5dBm which is defined as the average signal power that ensures a ( 10 9 ) BER without the interference optical power.

12

Figure 3.5: results of bit error rate as a function of interference power for representative signal level. The measured signal power levels which give a BER of ( 10 ) relative to the receiver sensitivity Rs or power penalty, are shown in dB in Figure 3.6 (full circles with error bars showing the spreads of the measured values) for varying levels of interference power. The measured values in Figure 3.6 in dB were found to increase according to the following empirical formula:
9

p = ( I RS + 15) 2 / A. (3.1)
p

Where ( in

) is the power penalty in dB, (I) is the average interference power

(dB) and (A) a constant chosen to fit the measured points. The quadratic curve

given by equation (3.1) is drawn in figure 3 with the dashed line. In this case, (A = 45) is properly chosen to fit the measured values.

13

Figure 3.6: Power penalty in the presence of interference crosstalk

In the design considerations, Yoshida and Asakura (1990) assume that the power penalty caused by the interference signal obeys equation (3.1) which has been obtained empirically. They limit the discussion to the cases where the input power levels are relatively low so that they can neglect the detrimental effects of non linearities in the fiber material on optical power levels.

They have taken into account for the system design the power penalty characteristic which they have obtained as shown in Figure 3.6, and considered the symmetric duplex system schematically shown in figure 3.7 where directional coupler was used to couple into the Single Mode Fiber the transmitted signal from T1 and receive the signal coming from the other terminal and same at the other terminal.

14

Figure 3.7: Schematic diagram of full duplex system.

Some mathematical calculation according to the schematic diagram of the full duplex system to come out with the transmission characteristics such as the return loss and the isolation and concluded that in this case the maximum length for such system is around 40km repeaterless. When the power separation is less than 15dB a power penalty is imposed on the signal, ensure a bit error rate of 10 9 or better with a negligible power penalty, a 15 dB separation was required between the two signals.

3.3

Bi-directional 10-channel 2.5Gbit/s WDM transmission over 250km using 76nm (1531-1607) gain-band bidirectional erbium doped fiber amplifier

A paper published by Suzuki et al [4] in (1997) discussed using two sets of channels. The signals was sent between two transceivers along 250 km single mode fiber divided into three stages by optical amplifiers and it use optical circulator as multi / demultiplexer to circulate these channels for the transceivers .Wide gain-band bidirectional optical amplifiers was the method used to suppress the crosstalk that can degrade the transmission system. (76nm) gain-band bidirectional optical amplifier using a novel configuration of gain-band separation between the

15 transmitted signals has reported and it is achieved by combining an optimized gainflattened long erbium-doped silicate fiber amplifier (EDSFA) and an erbium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier (EDFFA).Figure 3.8 shows the schematic of the system implemented.

Figure 3.8: Experimental setup for bidirectional WDM transmission

Looking at Figure 3.8 the bidirectional signals were multiplexed and demultiplexed by using two optical circulators followed by post-and pre-amplifiers. The optical signals were 10-channel WDM signals at the bit rate of 2.5 Gbitis. The wavelengths of the upstream signals were allocated to (1532, 1541, 1547, 1555, and 1562) nm, and those of the downstream signals were allocated to (1569, 1580, 1588, 1597, and 1607) nm. These signal wavelengths completely cover the entire gain-band of the amplifier. Three conventional single mode fibers were used as a 250km transmission line. The bidirectional transmitted signals were passed to 2.5 Gbps optical receivers (In GaAs APD receivers) via the optical circulators followed by the optical pre-amplifiers and (1nm) optical bandpass filter [4].

16

Figure 3.9 shows the bit error rate (BER) against average received power input to the APD receiver for each channel. Error operation (BER <10^-12) achieved for each channel

Figure 3.9: Bit error rate against average received power input to APD

Suzuki et al. (1997) adopt the configuration of gain-band separation between upstream and downstream signals to avoid signal crosstalk due to Rayleigh backscattering. It is concluded that they successfully avoided the crosstalk that may happen due to Rayleigh backscattering and demonstrated 10 channel bidirectional WDM transmissions.

Finally in this chapter full optical duplex system implemented in different methods and studies the possibility of transmitting one or more optical signal

17 bidirectionaly with the characteristics such as the BER, the interference power and the maximum distance of the length link.

CHAPTER 4

LINK DESIGN CONSIDERATION

The most important issues that will be discussed in this chapter is the problem that will be faced by the researcher whose is doing this kind of systems. The sections of the chapter were crosstalk, dispersion, wavelength separation between channels and problem of power penalty of the system

4.1

System Crosstalk

Crosstalk occurs in multichannel optical transmission systems. There are two types of crosstalk noise discussed and analyzed in this work. First is the interband crosstalk and its a known also by out of band crosstalk. Second is intraband its known by inband [5]. The use of the same wavelength in both directions causes these problems for Full Optical Duplex system. The effect of Crosstalk due to non ideal circulator characteristics and the fiber Rayleigh backscattering is degrading to the transmitted data and raising the noise floor. It is known that when an optical signal enters a fiber strand of virtually infinite length it will experience back scattering effect due to the glass material itself and the light guiding properties of the fiber. Crosstalk can be caused by the following: The spectral skirts of one channel entering the de-multiplexing and filtering pass-band of another cause crosstalk. Practical limits on selectivity and isolation cause crosstalk.

19 Non-linear effects within the fiber at the high power densities possible in single mode systems can cause crosstalk or cross modulation. The mechanism is Raman scattering, which is a non-linear stimulated scattering effect that allows the optical power at one wavelength to affect scattering and thus the optical power in another wavelength. The optical power at one wavelength acts as pump that interferes with amplified signal power at another wavelength. The signal power in turn depletes the pump power. The phenomenon is such that the shorter wavelength is reduced in power while the longer wavelength is increased. The amount of interference or crosstalk is a function of signal power and wavelength separation.

4.2

System Dispersion

For long haul transmission, the Dispersion factor must be taken into account during designing any fiber optic transmission system. The effect of this factor causes crosstalk problem at the far end of the system, especially in transmitting more than one wavelength in both directions with close wavelengths between channels.

There are two kinds of dispersion. Material dispersion and chromatic dispersion, the most common is called chromatic dispersion and is routinely compensated for by DWDM systems for proper operation. The effects of polarization mode dispersion (PMD) are much more insidious and difficult to make compensation for in the real networks [7].

Material dispersion is particularly important if sources of broad spectral width are used, but narrow line width lasers which are spectrally broadened under modulation also incur penalties from material dispersion. For single mode fibers, material dispersion must always be considered along with waveguide and profile dispersion.

20 Chromatic dispersion is a measure of fiber delay for different wavelengths. Different wavelengths travel at different velocities through fiber. The difference in velocity is called delay or chromatic dispersion of the signal. Figure 4.1 illustrates the common fiber type delay profiles. The Erbium window represents the minimum slope of chromatic dispersion.

Figure 4.1: chromatic Dispersion per km vs. wavelength in (nm)

Each signal has a spectrum that is affected by dispersion. The faster the rate of transmission, the greater the dispersion effects as shown in Figure 4.2.

Figure 4.2: dispersion effects

21

There is a new type of fiber [6], called Dispersion Optimized Fiber that minimizes dispersion while reducing the unwanted crosstalk effects. By using a very sophisticated fiber profile, it is possible to minimize dispersion over the entire wavelength range from 1300 to 1550 nm, at the expense of very high loss (around 2dB/km); this is known as Dispersion Flattened Fiber.

4.3

Wavelength Separation Between channels

The separation between channels is now 0.8 nm or more in most of the installed networks using DWDM [1]. International Telecommunication Union ITU-T standardization proposes a frequency grid with separations of 100GHz about 0.8 nm with multiples and submultiples. Currently, the published minimum channel spacing is about 0.1 nm. However, at the beginning of the twenty first century was nothing lower than 0.2 nm, 25GHz spacing was commercially available. At first glance, a fiber without OH peak would allow 1,000 channels at 50 GHz spacing to be multiplexed over its large spectral range, Figure 4.3 illustrate the optical wavelength and the attenuation for each wavelength.

Figure 4.3: Fiber optic attenuation

22 The main problem in crosstalk parasitic light coming from technical defects is from the demultiplexers and from physical problems such as wavelength conversion along the transmission fiber by chromatic dispersion and Brillouin or Raman effect. Thus far ITU-T standards recommends 81 channels in the C band with a constant spacing of 50GHz anchored at 193.1 THz. This range can be extended in the L band 191.4 to 185.9THz where sources and amplifiers become available now. This will add 111 channels at 50 GHz spacing.

4.4

System Power Penalty

In optical communication the receiver sensitivity is defined with respect to the receiver noise for several basic detection scenarios. The highest sensitivity means the lowest value of the received optical power that is needed. The sensitivity of the photodetector of real receiver is degraded due to the impact of two principal noise contributions, the thermal noise (in PIN photodoides) and quantum shot noise (in APD).

The engineering consideration is to include the impact of other impairments that degrade the receiver sensitivity [7]. Some of these impairments, such as a finite extinction ratio and chromatic dispersion, are very important and should be considered in most practical situations, while the others, such as fiber modal noise and timing jitter, might play an important role only in some specific cases.

The power penalty is equal to the increase in signal power that is needed to keep the Q-factor and BER at the same level that would exist if no impairments were present [8]. The impact of different impairments can cause different power penalties such as Power Penalty due to Extinction Ratio, Power Penalty due to Intensity Noise, Power Penalty due Timing jitter, and Power Penalty due Signal Crosstalk.

23 In this work the last power penalty which is due to crosstalk is discussed and analyzed for some crosstalk values and comparison between different crosstalk is performed.

CHAPTER 5

PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION

In this chapter the implementation is discussed by explaining the general architecture of the system block diagram, then the components was used and the specifications of each one after that the mathematical model used in the simulation part to investigate the power penalty and crosstalk of the project then the operation of the first architecture of fiber duplexer and lastly the second architecture in fiber duplexer and its operation.

5.1

System Block Diagram

Full optical duplex was implemented in terms of transmitting one or more optical signals in each direction and receive these two signals at both receivers. Circulators in this structure are the most important optical components because of plying the main role of controlling the incoming and outgoing signals at the two transceivers since the distance between the two transceivers is constant then the power of the two signals must be same, adopting a configuration of gain band separation between each two signals not less than 0.8nm to avoid crosstalk due to Rayleigh backscattering or dispersion The general architecture of the duplexer system is proposed as shown in Figure 5.1.

25

Figure5.1 The proposed system diagram

In case of transmitting more than one optical signals using (DWDM) the optical signals classify into two groups up stream and down stream, five different wavelengths are sent in one direction up-stream and another five wavelengths in the other direction down stream.

5.2

Components Used and Specifications

5.2.1

Tunable Laser Source

AQ4321 A/D Tunable Laser Source variable wavelength optical source (called the AQ4231 system) was used as the transmitter in both transceivers of the full duplex system to transmit variable wavelengths it covers the WDM communication bandwidth in the 1480 to 1580-nm range. The table 5.1 shows the TLS specifications.

26

Table 5.1 TLS specifications Specifications AQ4321A AQ4321D

Laser Type

EC-Laser(*1) InGaAsP

EC-Laser(*1) InGaAsP

Laser class According to 21 CFR1040.10 According to IEC825-1,E,N60825-1 IIIA 3A IIIA 3A

Output Power Beam Diameter Numerical Aperture Wavelength

+10dBm(typical )
10 m 0.1 1480 to 1580nm

+7dBm(typical)
10 m 0.1 1520 to 1620nm

5.2.2

Optical spectrum analyzer The ANDO made optical spectrum analyzer was used to view the outputs at

different stages of the implementation. The power readings were also taken from the analyzer. The output from the spectrum was recorded directly into a computer for future analysis.

5.2.3

Three port Optical Circulator C-band

In order to separate transmit and receive directions at any node, optical circulators are used. The circulator is a special optical component supporting three ports, in its most typical implementation. The signal entering port 1 is directed to port 2whereas the signal entering port 2 is directed to port 3. The connection between

27 port 3and port 1 is generally not available. In some way, light is circulated across the device. In Figure 5.2 and Table 5.2 show the circulator and its specifications.

Figure 5.2: Optical Circulator Table 5.2 optical circulator specifications Item port Min Insertion loss P1-P2 P2-P3 Polarization Dependent Loss 50dB
Isolation

Max 0.7dB 0.9dB 0.10dB

Conditions @23degC,1550nm To,1530-1565nm To,1530-1565nm

P1-P2 P2-P3

@23degC,1550nm To,1530-1565nm 0.1ps To,1530-1565nm

P2-P1 P3-P2

40dB

Polarization Mod Dispersion Directivity

P1-P2 P2-P3

P1-P3 P3-P1

50dB

To,1530-1565nm

Return Loss Max. incident power Fiber type/length

All Port

50dB

To,15301565nm

P1,P2

500mW

1550nm

Corning SMF28 CPC6/1m min

28 5.2.4 Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing

DWDM systems send signals from several sources over a single fiber these systems must have some means to combine these incoming signals. This is done with a multiplexer (AWG),which takes optical wavelengths from multiple fibers and converges them into one beam .At the receiving end the system must be able to separate out the components of the light so that they can be discreetly detected .Demultiplexers perform this function by separating the received beam into its wavelength components and coupling them to individual fibers .Demultiplexing must be done before the lights detected, because photodetectors are inherently broadband devices that can not selectively detect a single wavelength. Figure 5.3 shows the AWG of DWDM system that utilized in this project.

Figure 5.3: AWG of Dense wavelength Multiplexing

29

Table 5.3 and Figure 5.3 show the AWG of the DWDM and the number of wavelength multiplexed and its specification.

Table 5.3 DWDM specifications Item Fiber length Performance Directivity Return loss Wavelength Insertion loss 1549.32nm 1.33dB

DWDM1FM4C3221 2.0 m (@ 0,23, 65 C) >60dB >40dB 1550.12nm 1.65dB 1550.92nm 1.31dB 1551.72nm 1.33dB

5.3

Mathematical Model This project is mainly concerned with the impairment caused by the optical

crosstalk, the penalty can be regarded as the reduction of optical power level differences between the one and the zero states and this is represented in the following equation [5]:

x =

P(t1 ) | d s (t1 ) = 1 P(t 0 ) | d s (t 0 ) = 0 ------------------- (5.1) A2 / 2

Where [ P(t1 ) | d s (t1 ) = 1 ] is the optical power in state one and the [ P(t0 ) | d s (t0 ) = 0 ] is the optical power in state zero. The power penalty will be:

PX = 10. log{ x } ---------------------------- (5.2) In general terms, the spectral emission from a conventional LD conforms reasonably well to a Gaussian distribution, which then provides a simple analytical expression for use in any model. According to Gaussian distribution in the mathematical model, the mean and variance for a random variable will be: E[ x ] = 1 -------------------------------- (5.3)

30

var[ x ] = i --------------------------- (5.4)


i

Since

E[ x ] and var[ x ] calculate the mean and variance of a random variable,

respectively. With Gaussian distribution, considered the following:

Prop x 1 6.
9

i = 10 9 ---------------------- (5.5)
i =1

Here the use of 10

as a figure of merit for establishing the confidence for

the penalty analysis. But this is not necessarily a confidence requirement for actual system design, as this figure does not really have to coincide with the commonly used BER figure of merit at 10 . However, with this level of confidence for calculating crosstalk penalty: PX = 10. log1 6. ------------------------ (5.6)
9

i =1

Where ( PX ) represents the power penalty of the receiver optical signal, (N) is the number of crosstalk elements and ( i ) is the crosstalk coupling coefficient. Equation (5.6) represents the power penalty to the received optical signal in the case where the optical receiver noise is dominated by thermal noise. But for more accurate estimate if the detection is signal spontaneous beat noise dominated (5.7) the equation will be [5]:

PX = 5. log1 6.

i =1

--------------------- (5.7)

The equations (5.6) and (5.7) have been used for analyzing the implementation results as models for power penalty of the optical fiber duplexer.

31 From the equations notes that the relationship between the power penalty and the crosstalk must be directly proportional to each other, and obviously that relationship between the signal power received and the power penalty is inversely proportional.

5.4

First Architecture of Fiber duplexer

The experimental configuration used to attain the required objectives of project is shown in figure 5.4.

Figure 5.4: Experimental setup of full duplex system (1)

The fiber optic duplexer was achieved where two optical signals were planned to be transmitted bidirectionally, the (TLSs) used as the transmitters at both transceivers, the optical signal transmitted from (TLS1) at cable (1) directed to the common cable (2) using an optical circulator where its received at the far end of the system. The same thing happened with the (TLS2) at the other transceiver. The (OSAs) were used as the detectors in both transceivers. The coming signal from the far end of the system within the common cable (2) is transferred to the (OSA1) at (3). The two optical signals have different wavelengths to be received without interference. The output at each end was recoded and analyzed with different wavelengths and powers.

32 5.5 Second Architecture of Fiber duplexer

The second architecture of the system is transmitting more than one optical signal within the (SMF) in both directions as shown in Figure 5.5.

Figure 5.5: Experimental setup of full duplex system (2) In case of transmitting more than one wavelength in each direction, the AWG of the DWDM is used. The specific AWG used in this experiment was of 1 4 type. The four different wavelengths were already defined by the manufacturer based on ITU-T grid. Three TLSs are used as optical sources for the system. Two outputs of tunable laser sources (Tx1) were coupled into DWDM to be multiplexed. The two different wavelengths connected to the circulator through cable (1) then its directed to the common cable (2) then traveling down to the receiver (Rx1).on the other hand one optical signal was transmitted from (Tx2) and directed to the common cable (2) to be received in the other side from the system at (Rx2). The three optical signals transmitted have the same power but their wavelengths are different according to the ITU-T standardization. Due to certain technical difficulties we were not able to design the whole system but the objective of transmitting more than one wavelength at each transmitter was done.

CHAPTER 6

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

This chapter is dedicated experimental results, where application for different powers as well as different wavelength to be transmitted along the single mode fiber is used . The two architectures of this system that will be implemented are:

6.1

First Architecture of Fiber duplexer

The first application for the duplexer was transmitting two different wavelengths of optical signals from the two terminals as shown in the figure 6.1.

Figure 6.1: Fiber duplexer architecture (1)

34 The coupled power of the transmitter Tx1 was 0.0dB with wavelength 1550.92nm. The signal traveled down the common cable 2 which is 2m long to the receiver RX1. The detected power at RX1 was -1.1dB, as shown in the Figure 6.2.

Figure 6.2: The power received at receiver 1 (Rx1)

From Figure 6.2 observed that there are two peak powers within the range of the receiver that has been used for the two optical powers representing the two transmitted signals, the signal of the small peak power suppose not to be detected and is considered as noise in form of crosstalk. The big peak power is the desired signal that came from the fare end transmitter and the attenuation of this signal is not much which is due to the component and the slicing along the link.

35 The coupled power of the transmitter TX2 was 0.0dB with wavelength 1554.9nm. The signal directed to the common cable 2 to travel in the reverse direction of the previous one, it is received at Rx2 where its power detected was 1.2dB as shown in Figure 6.3.

Figure 6.3: The received power at receiver 2 (Rx2)

Figure 6.3 represents the signal transmitted from (Tx2), at receiver (Rx2) but there is another small peak of power detected which represented the signal transmitted from (Tx1) and it suppose not to be there and it considered as crosstalk element that might cause degradation in the system, in this case, the effect of crosstalk can be managed as long as the wavelength separation is there 0.8nm is used in this case.

36

6.2

Second Architecture of Fiber Duplexer The second application for the duplexer was transmitting more than one

wavelength of optical signals at each side as shown in the Figure 6.4.

Figure 6.4: Fiber duplexer

The two optical signals transmitted from Tx1 with 1549.32nm, 1550.12nm wavelengths with -2.5dB power. These signals were received at Rx1 with attenuation 3dB due to the splicing and PC connectors etc. At the far end of the system one optical signal with 1550.92nm and -2.5dB power transmitted to be received at Rx2. The attenuation of this signal is 1.5dB. The extra losses at Rx1 refer to DWDM loss that is not at Tx2.

37 The receiver (Rx1) had detected the interband crosstalk that happened due to same factors that has been discussed in the previous architecture as shown in Figure 6.5.

Figure 6.5: Optical signals detected at receiver 1 (Rx1)

The value of the crosstalk in Figure 6.5 is -30.09dB where the desired received signals have value -4.9dB the different between them is around 25dB by referring to the previous work has been done [3] still the different power between the crosstalk and the desired optical signal is more than 15dB and the power penalty is not more than 1dB.

38 The receiver (Rx2) had detected the desired signals transmitted at (TX2), including the two wavelengths transmitted using the DWDM at (TX1) detected as crosstalk signals which is unwanted signals as shown in Figure 6.6.

Figure 6.6: Optical signal detected at receiver 2 (Rx2)

This result is slightly better than the previous one, but in case the two small crosstalk peaks was in the same wavelength with the received signal, then the power penalty of the received signal will be higher which will be around 1.34dB.

39 6.3 The Analysis of Results In this section, the discussion is about the small peak power detected at each receiver in the system and the definition of this phenomenon that this small peak of power is defined as crosstalk and it might disturb the performance of the system. The crosstalk of the system classified into two types of crosstalk (interband crosstalk, intraband crosstalk) depends on the wavelength of this small power and these two have different effect on the system.

6.3.1

Interband crosstalk According to the output results at each receiver show in the Figures 6.2 and

6.3, the losses of both signals recorded were around 2dB. This loss is due to the splicing and the PC connecter that used in the system. Including with the received signal power was a small peak of power that came with same wavelength of the other transmitted signal. This small amount of power that was detected with the main signal received is more important to be studied and discussed. This small power is caused by two factors (the Rayleigh Backscattering and the isolation of the circulators) and it can be more than one crosstalk in case of transmitting more than one channel at each transceiver Figure 6.7 shows the interband crosstalk which is same as the figure 6.6 in architecture (2).

Figure 6.7: Interband Crosstalk

40 The small peak power detected along with desired power was considered as crosstalk because it is still in the range of the used detector. This type of crosstalk called interband crosstalk or out of band crosstalk. The side effect of this power in this case is not that serious, because this crosstalk can be overcome by using narrow band filter or choosing small range detector to detect only the desired power.

6.3.2

Intraband Crosstalk In case of the two optical signals that have been transmitted with the same

wavelength, the interband crosstalk came within the same wavelength of the desired optical signal and it is directly affected by the desired signal, where there would be overlapping. This situation leads to define a new type of crosstalk called intraband crosstalk or in band crosstalk. The side effect of this kind of crosstalk is serious. In the case of the value of crosstalk coupling coefficient higher than -25dB, the power penalty of the received signal became more than 1dB, Figure 6.8 explained the situation of the three transmitted channels have the same wavelength. The power penalty increases by increasing the number of crosstalk elements in the system.

Figure 6.8: Intraband Crosstalk

41 As long as the wavelength separation is maintained the crosstalk that will be detected is only the interband crosstalk unless the distance between the two transceivers is quite long and the dispersion within the link is quit high where that may causes the intraband crosstalk.

For long haul transmission, the wavelength separation is one of the most important considerations to overcome this problem that might happen due to the chromatic dispersion within the fiber span .ITU-T standardizations were given to be used in such systems and to avoid the distortion that caused by some factors during the transmission process.

6.4

Mathematical Model In this section focused on the intraband crosstalk drawback was the main

objective because of its direct and serious effect on the system performance. Wavelength separation between transmitted signals at both transmitters is very important. Avoiding intraband crosstalk comes only through applying the ITU-T standard in the wavelength separation, unlike interband crosstalk that can be avoided using small range detector or narrow band filter.

6.4.1

First Architecture The effect of different crosstalk values were calculated using the

mathematical model (5.6) and (5.7) in MATLAB. The range of crosstalk coupling coefficient determined from -65dB up to -25dB to cover all the possibilities of crosstalk values. Figure 6.9 shows some of the crosstalk values chosen randomly and recorded in the in the implementation part using OSA .the results are tabulated as shown in the table 6.1.

42 The number of crosstalk elements in this case is only one because, sending one optical signal from each transmitter according to the first architecture in this work. The power penalty increasing by increasing the value of crosstalk, that can cause higher degradation to the received data transmitted from the other side.

Figure 6.9: Crosstalk coupling coefficient VS the power penalty

The red curve in the figure represented the power penalty when the optical received signal is dominated by thermal noise (5.6). The blue curve represented the optical received signal spontaneous beat noise dominated (5.7) and it is more accurate than the previous one. From the curves, it is observed that the crosstalk that dominated by the thermal noise always have higher power penalty than the spontaneous beat noise dominated crosstalk. The signals received at each terminal of the system has two situation, that means the power penalty of each situation also has different values depends on the

43 situation, when the signal dominated by thermal noise and when the signal spontaneous beat noise dominated the different in the power penalty. Using the Mathematical Model the results was shows in the table 6.1 below.

Table 6.1: Mathematical Model Readings Crosstalk coupling coefficient signal dominated by thermal noise signal spontaneous beat noise dominated -45 -34 -41 -39 -37 -35 -33 -31 -29 -27 -25 Power penalty signal dominated by thermal noise signal spontaneous beat noise dominated 0.07453 0.1885 0.1193 0.1513 0.1923 0.245 0.3132 0.4023 0.5198 0.6775 0.8938

-45 -43 -41 -39 -37 -35 -33 -31 -29 -27 -25

0.1491 0.09425 0.2 0.3027 0.3846 0.49 0.6264 0.8045 1.04 1.355 1.788

44 Some more experimental results for the two architecture show different power and wavelength for interband crosstalk. See Figure 6.10

Figure 6.10: Different interband crosstalk values From the experimental results observed that the range of crosstalk coupling coefficient always around -25dB to -39 dB. Transmitting as concluded from the previous work that less than (15dB) different between the crosstalk and the desired signal.

45 Figure 6.11 shows the overlapping between the optical transmitted signals when the wavelengths of these signals are same in this case the interband crosstalk changed to become Intraband crosstalk. The effect of intraband crosstalk is much higher than interband crosstalk where the two powers of the crosstalk and the received signal calculated together.

Figure 6.11: Intraband crosstalk

46 6.4.2 Second Architecture In this architecture the number of interband crosstalk elements was depend on the number of optical transmitted from the far end. As long as the number of crosstalk elements is small the power penalty caused by the intraband would be low and this is shown in Figure 6.12.

Figure 6.12: The power penalty and crosstalk elements curve

The plotted curve in Figure 6.12 shows small increasing in the power penalty between number of element and another, that because of the crosstalk coupling coefficient value which is too small which is -65dB, up to five elements the power penalty equal to 0.01468dB, but if the crosstalk coupling coefficient is higher like 35dBm crosstalk coupling coefficient which is the power penalty is equal to 0.49dB.

47 Figure 6.13 shows the increasing of power penalty for some intraband crosstalk which is different from one to another depends on the value of crosstalk coupling coefficient. Table 6.2 represents the power penalty for random values of crosstalk coupling coefficient with 5 numbers of elements.

Figure 6.13: The power penalty in case of intraband crosstalk

Figure 6.13: Explain the case of five crosstalk elements have the same wavelength to be as intraband crosstalk. Three colored curves plotted to show a comparison between three crosstalk coupling coefficients. The yellow curve represents crosstalk value -27dB which is the highest power penalty, the red one represents -31.5dB and the blue one for the lowest coupling coefficient which is 35dB.

48 Figure 6.14: Random values of crosstalk and the induced power penalty in case of received signal thermal noise dominated.

Figure 6.14: The received signal thermal noise dominated

Table 6.2: power penalty and crosstalk coupling coefficient when the received signal is thermal noise dominated. NO.ELEMENTS CROSSTALK COUPLING COEFFICIENT (dB) -23.77 1 2 3 4 5 2.138 3.465 4.859 6.526 8.835 -26.84 1.385 2.119 2.781 3.429 4.094 -29 1.04 1.556 1.998 2.409 2.807 -30.09 0.9033 1.34 1.709 2.045 2.365 -31.78 0.7293 1.701 1.353 1.606 1.842 -35 0.49 0.7104 0.8874 1.042 1.184

49 The same random values of crosstalk and the induced power penalty in case of received signal spontaneous beat noise dominated shown in Figure 6.15.

Figure 6.15: The received signal spontaneous beat noise dominated Table 6.3: power penalty and crosstalk coupling coefficient when the received signal spontaneously beat the noise dominated NO.ELEMENTS CROSSTALK COUPLING COEFFICIENT (dB) -23.77 1 2 3 4 5 0.245 0.3552 0.4437 0.5212 0.5919 -26.84 0.3646 0.5357 0.6767 0.8031 0.9202 -29 0.4516 -30.09 0.5198 -31.78 0.6913 1.059 1.39 1.715 2.047 -35 1.069 1.733 2.429 3.263 4.418

0.6702 0.7778 0.85443 0.9989 1.023 1.182 1.205 1.403

50 In the previous two Figures the calculation for some samples of crosstalk coupling coefficient was to show the difference in the power penalties between two optical received signals in different states, the first one, when the received signal thermal noise dominated, and the second one when the received signal spontaneous beat noise dominated. Figure 6.16 shows the combination of the two results.

Figure 6.16: Combination of two results of power penalties of the optical signals received

The blue curves represent the received signal spontaneous beat noise dominated which is more accurate than received signal is the thermal noise dominated which is represented in the red curves. Its found that the power penalties when the received signal thermal noise is dominated is much higher than when the received signal spontaneous beat noise is dominated.

51

CHAPTER 7

CONCULUSION AND PROPOSED FUTURE WORK

7.1

Conclusion Optical fiber duplexer system was successfully accomplished to study the

characteristics of the system by considering effect of Rayleigh backscattering, so we could calculate the crosstalk and the power penalty that may degrade the optical received signal in the system. Full fiber duplexer system achieved by applying one or more optical carrier signals with different wavelengths at each transmitter to travel down simultaneously within (SMF) toward the receivers, signals is received by using OSA recorded and analyzed by applying different power at each transmitter.

The crosstalk of the system has been classified into two types of crosstalk interband crosstalk and intraband crosstalk the experimental results proved that the effect of intraband crosstalk is more than the interband crosstalk and also the intraband crosstalk classified into two, the first one when the received signal is dominated by thermal noise and the other one when the received signal spontaneous beat noise dominated and it is more accurate than the thermal noise dominated, then because of that this work focused the most effective one.

From the experimental results, found that the maximum intraband crosstalk that can cause higher degradation was -23.77dB where the accurate power penalty of this value was 2.138dBm, which is the worst case, and the minimum intraband crosstalk was -39dB and the power penalty caused 0.1513dBm.

52 Comparison in power penalty between the received signal spontaneous beat noise dominated and the received signal thermal noise dominated and concluded that the power penalty is much higher in case of the received signal is thermal noise dominated than in case of the received signal spontaneous beat noise dominated.

7.2

Recommendation for Future Works Fiber optical duplexer that has been achieved in this work must be completely

done using WDM system to increase the capacity of transmitted data and more accurate results, the method of transmitting one group of channels at each transmitter can be done in two different ways. The first one is by sending the two groups in terms of odd and even wavelengths the odd wavelengths will be at one transmitter; the even group will be at the other transmitter as it was demonstrated in chapter (2) of this work. The interband cross talk in this case received between each two desired signals. The other method which is preferred to be done is by dividing the C band into two groups of wave length (up stream group and down stream group), where in this way the interband will be totally avoided and the probability of intraband to be happened is much lower, because the wavelengths separation will be much wider.

Fiber optical duplexer system is abroad topic for more works to be done. In this work, the optical signal transmitted is only the optical carrier one, which means this work, can be done for transmitting data that is modulated by the carrier wave and recording the transmitted signals in a form of eye diagram. From there some more properties can be focused on and studied such as SNR, BER and dispersion can be carried out.

53

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55

APPENDIX

MATLAB Program for power penalty calculation

56 MATLAB Program code for number of crosstalk elements

57