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Arithmetical operations

Addition (addends, sum). Subtraction (minuend, subtrahend, difference).


Multiplication (multiplicand, multiplier, product, factors). Division
(dividend, divisor, quotient, dividing integers, fraction, divisible numbers,
remainder, division without remainder, division with remainder). Raising
to a power (power, base of a power, index or exponent of a power, value
of a power). Extraction of a root (root, radicand, index or degree of a
root, value of a root, square root, cube root). Mutually inverse operations.
Addition an operation of finding a sum of some numbers: 11 + 6 = 17. Here 11 and
6 addends, 17 the sum. If addends are changed by places, a sum is saved the
same: 11 + 6 = 17 and 6 + 11 = 17.
Subtraction an operation of finding an addend by a sum and another addend: 17 6
= 11. Here 17 is a minuend, 6 a subtrahend, 11 the difference.
Multiplication. To multiply one number n ( a multiplicand ) by another m ( a
multiplier ) means to repeat a multiplicand n as an addend m times. The result of
multiplying is called a product. The operation of multiplication is written
as: n x m or n m . For example, 12 x 4 = 12 + 12 + 12 + 12 = 48. In our case 12 x 4 =
48 or 12 4 = 48. Here 12 is a multiplicand, 4 a multiplier, 48 a product. If a
multiplicand n and a multiplier m are changed by places, their product is saved the
same: 12 4 = 12 + 12 + 12 + 12 = 48 and 4 12 = 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 +
4 + 4 + 4 = 48. Therefore, a multiplicand and a multiplier are called usually factors or
multipliers.
Division an operation of finding one of factors by a product and another factor: 48 :
4 = 12. Here 48 is a dividend, 4 a divisor, 12 the quotient. At dividing integers a
quotient can be not a whole number. Then this quotient can be present as a fraction. If
a quotient is a whole number, then it is called that numbers are divisible, i.e. one
number is divided without remainder by another. Otherwise, we have a division with
remainder. For example, 23 isnt divided by 4 ; this case can be written as: 23 = 5 4
+ 3. Here 3 is a remainder.
Raising to a power. To raise a number to a whole (second, third, forth, fifth
etc.) power means to repeat it as a factor two, three, four, five and so on. The number,
repeated as a factor, is called a base of a power; the quantity of factors is called
an index or an exponent of a power; the result is called a value of a power. A raising to
a power is written as:
3
5
= 3 3 3 3 3 = 243 .

Here 3 a base of the power, 5 an exponent (an index) of the power, 243 a value
of the power.
The second power is called a square, the third one a cube. The first power of any
number is this number.
Extraction of a root an operation of finding a base of a power by the power and its
exponent:


Here 243 a radicand, 5 an index (degree) of the root, 3 a value of the root. The
second root is called a square root, the third root a cube root.The second degree of
square root isnt written:

Addition and subtraction, multiplication and division, raising to a power and
extraction of a root are two by two mutually inverse operations.
Order of operations. Brackets
If brackets are absent, the following order of operations is right:
1) raising to a power and extraction of a root (one after another);
2) multiplication and division (one after another);
3) addition and subtraction (one after another).
If brackets are present, at first all operations inside brackets are executedaccording
to the aforesaid order, and then the rest of the operations out of brackets are executed
(in the same order).
E x a m p l e . Calculate the next expression:

( 10 + 2
3
3 ) + 4
3
( 16 : 2 1 ) 5 150 : 5
2
.
S o l u t i o n . At first, powers must be calculated and changed by theirs values:

( 10 + 8 3 ) + 64 ( 16 : 2 1 ) 5 150 : 25 ;
after this, multiplication and division in the brackets and out of
them are executed:

( 10 + 24 ) + 64 ( 8 1 ) 5 6 ;

now, additions and subtractions in the brackets are executed:

34 + 64 7 5 6 ;

finally, after the rest of the multiplication 7 5 = 35 we receive:

34 + 64 35 6 = 57 .
Back
Laws of addition and multiplication


Commutative laws of addition and multiplication.
Associative laws of addition and multiplication.
Distributive law of multiplication over addition.
Commutative law of addition: m + n = n + m . A sum isnt changed at
rearrangement of its addends.
Commutative law of multiplication: m n = n m . A product isnt changed at
rearrangement of its factors.
Associative law of addition: ( m + n ) + k = m + ( n + k ) = m + n + k . A sum
doesnt depend on grouping of its addends.
Associative law of multiplication: ( m n ) k = m ( n k ) = m n k . A product
doesnt depend on grouping of its factors.
Distributive law of multiplication over addition: ( m + n ) k = m k + n k . This
law expands the rules of operations with brackets (see the previous section).
Divisibility criteria


Divisibility of numbers by 2, 4, 8, 3, 9, 6, 5, 25, 10, 100, 1000, 11.
Divisibility by 2. A number is divisible by 2, if its last digit is 0 or is divisible by 2.
Numbers, which are divisible by 2 are called even numbers. Otherwise, numbers are
called oddnumbers.
Divisibility by 4. A number is divisible by 4, if its two last digits are zeros or they
make a two-digit number, which is divisible by 4.
Divisibility by 8. A number is divisible by 8, if its three last digits are zeros or they
make a three-digit number, which is divisible by 8.
Divisibility by 3 and by 9 . A number is divisible by 3, if a sum of its digits is
divisible by 3. A number is divisible by 9, if a sum of its digits is divisible by 9.
Divisibility by 6. A number is divisible by 6, if it is divisible by 2 and by 3.
Divisibility by 5. A number is divisible by 5, if its last digit is 0 or 5.
Divisibility by 25. A number is divisible by 25, if its two last digits are zeros or they
make a number, which is divisible by 25.
Divisibility by 10. A number is divisible by 10, if its last digit is 0.
Divisibility by 100. A number is divisible by 100, if its two last digits are zeros.
Divisibility by 1000. A number is divisible by 1000, if its three last digits are zeros.
Divisibility by 11. A number is divisible by 11 if and only if a sum of its digits,
located on even places is equal to a sum of its digits, located on odd places, OR
these sums are differed by a number, which is divisible by 11.
There are criteria of divisibility for some other numbers, but these criteria are more
difficult and not considered in a secondary school program.
E x a m p l e . A number 378015 is divisible by 3, because a sum of its digits 3 + 7 + 8 + 0 + 1 +
5 = 24, which is divisible by 3. This number is divisible by 5, because its last digit
is 5. At last, this number is divisible by 11, because a sum of even digits: 7 + 0 +
5 =12 and a sum of odd digits: 3 + 8 + 1 = 12 are equal. But this number isnt
divisible by 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 25, 100 and 1000, because Check these cases
yourself !

Prime and composite numbers


Prime numbers. Composite numbers. Infinite set of prime numbers.
All whole numbers (except 0 and 1) have minimum two factors: 1 and itself.
Numbers, which arent divisible by any numbers except 1 and itself, are called prime
numbers. Numbers, which have also other factors, are called composite
numbers. There is an infinite set of prime numbers. The set of them till 200 is:
2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43,

47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89, 97, 101,

103, 107, 109, 113, 127, 131, 137, 139, 149, 151,

157, 163, 167, 173, 179, 181, 191, 193, 197, 199.
Factorization. Resolution into prime factors


Prime factoring of composite numbers.
Any composite number can be presented as a product of prime factors by the single
way. For example,
48 = 2 2 2 2 3, 225 = 3 3 5 5, 1050 = 2 3 5 5 7.
For small numbers this operation is easy. For large numbers it is possible to use the
following way. Consider the number 1463. Look over prime numbers one after
another from the table:
2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43,

47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89, 97, 101,

103, 107, 109, 113, 127, 131, 137, 139, 149, 151,

157, 163, 167, 173, 179, 181, 191, 193, 197, 199
and stop, if the number is a factor of 1463. According to the section the divisibility
criteria, we see that numbers 2, 3 and 5 arent factors of 1463. But this number is
divisible by 7, really, 1463 : 7 = 209. By the same way we test the number 209 and
find its factor: 209 : 11 = 19. The last number is a prime one, so the found prime
factors of 1463 are: 7, 11 and 19, i.e. 1463 = 7 11 19. It is possible to write this
process using the following record:
Number Factor
----------------------------
1463 7
209 11
19 19
----------------------------
Greatest common factor


Common factor of some numbers.
Greatest common factor (GCF). Finding GCF.
Common factor of some numbers - a number, which is a factor of each of them. For
example, numbers 36, 60, 42 have common factors 2 and 3 . Among all common
factors there is always the greatest one, in our case this is 6. This number is called
a greatest common factor (GCF).
To find a greatest common factor (GCF) of some numbers it is necessary:
1) to express each of the numbers as a product of its prime factors, for example:
360 = 2 2 2 3 3 5 ,
2) to write powers of all prime factors in the factorization as:
360 = 2 2 2 3 3 5 = 2
3
3
2
5
1
,
3) to write out all common factors in these factorizations;
4) to take the least power of each of them, meeting in the all factorizations;
5) to multiply these powers.
E x a m p l e . Find GCF for numbers: 168, 180 and 3024.
S o l u t i o n . 168 = 2 2 2 3 7 = 2
3
3
1
7
1
,
180 = 2 2 3 3 5 = 2
2
3
2
5
1
,

3024 = 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 7 = 2
4
3
3
7
1
.
Write out the least powers of the common factors 2 and 3 and multiply
them:
GCF = 2
2
3
1
= 12
Least common multiple
Common multiple of some numbers.
Least common multiple (LCM). Finding LCM.
Common multiple of some numbers is called a number, which is divisible by each of
them. For example, numbers 9, 18 and 45 have as a common multiple 180. But 90
and 360 are also theirs common multiples. Among all common multiples there is
always the least one, in our case this is 90. This number is called a least common
multiple (LCM).
To find a least common multiple (LCM) of some numbers it is necessary:
1) to express each of the numbers as a product of its prime factors, for example:

504 = 2 2 2 3 3 7 ,
2) to write powers of all prime factors in the factorization as:

504 = 2 2 2 3 3 7 = 2
3
3
2
7
1
,
3) to write out all prime factors, presented at least in one of these numbers;
4) to take the greatest power of each of them, meeting in the factorizations;
5) to multiply these powers.
E x a m p l e . Find LCM for numbers: 168, 180 and 3024.
S o l u t i o n . 168 = 2 2 2 3 7 = 2
3
3
1
7
1
,
180 = 2 2 3 3 5 = 2
2
3
2
5
1
,
3024 = 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 7 = 2
4
3
3
7
1
.
Write out the greatest powers of all prime factors: 2
4
, 3
3
, 5
1
, 7
1

and multiply them:
LCM = 2
4
3
3
5 7 = 15120 .
Vulgar (simple) fractions
Vulgar fraction (denominator, numerator).
Proper fraction. Improper fraction.
Mixed number (integer and fractional parts).
Converting of a mixed number into a vulgar
improper fraction and back. Reciprocal fractions.
A part of a unit or some equal parts of a unit is called a vulgar (simple) fraction. A
number of equal parts into which a unit has been divided, is called a denominator; a
number of these taken parts, is called a numerator. A fraction record:

Here 3 a numerator, 7 a denominator.
If a numerator is less than a denominator, then the fraction is less than 1 and called
a proper fraction. If a numerator is equal to a denominator, the fraction is equal to 1.
If a numerator is greater than a denominator, the fraction is greater than 1. In both last
cases the fraction is called an improper fraction. If a numerator is divisible by a
denominator, then this fraction is equal to a quotient: 63 / 7 = 9. If a division is
executed with a remainder, then this improper fraction can be presented as a mixed
number:

Here 9 an incomplete quotient ( an integer part of the mixed number ), 2 a
remainder ( a numerator of the fractional part ), 7 a denominator .
It is often necessary to solve a reverse problem to convert a mixed number into a
fraction. For this purpose, multiply an integer part of a mixed number by a
denominator and add a numerator of a fractional part. It will be a numerator of a
vulgar fraction, and its denominator is saved the same.

Reciprocal fractions are two fractions whose product is 1. For example, 3 / 7 and 7 /
3 ; 15 / 1 and 1 / 15 and so on.
Operations with vulgar fractions


Extension of a fraction. Cancellation of a fraction. Comparison
of fractions. Reducing of fractions to a common denominator.
Addition and subtraction of fractions. Multiplication of fractions.
Division of fractions.
Extension of a fraction. A fraction value isnt changed, if to multiply its numerator
and denominator by the same non-zero number. This transformation of a fraction is
called anextension of a fraction. For instance:

Cancellation of a fraction. A fraction value isnt changed, if to divide its numerator
and denominator by the same non-zero number. This transformation of a fraction is
called acancellation of a fraction. For instance:

Comparison of fractions. From two fractions with the same numerators that one is
more, a denominator of which is less:

From two fractions with the same denominators that one is more, a numerator of
which is more:

To compare two fractions, which have different both numerators and denominators, it
is necessary to extend them to reduce to the same denominators.
E x a m p l e . Compare the fractions:

S o l u t i o n
.
Multiply numerator and denominator of the first fraction - by denominator of the
second fraction and numerator and denominator of the second fraction - by
denominator of the first fraction:

The used transformation of fractions is called a reducing of fractions to a common
denominator.
Addition and subtraction of fractions. If denominators of fractions are the same, then
in order to add the fractions it is necessary to add their numerators; in order to subtract
the fractions it is necessary to subtract their numerators (in the same order). The
received sum or difference will be a numerator of the result; a denominator is saved
the same. If denominators of fractions are different, before these operations it is
necessary to reduce fractions to a common denominator. At addition of mixed
numbers a sum of integer parts and a sum of fractional parts are found separately. At
subtracting mixed numbers we recommend at first to reduce the mixed numbers to
improper fractions, then to subtract these fractions and after this to convert the result
into a mixed number again (in case of need).
E x a m p l e .

Multiplication of fractions. To multiply some number by a fraction means to multiply
it by a numerator and to divide a product by a denominator. Hence, we have the
general rule for multiplication of fractions: to multiply one fraction by another it is
necessary to multiply separately their numerators and denominators and to divide the
first product by the second.
E x a m p l e .

Division of fractions. To divide some number by a fraction it is necessary to multiply
this number by a reciprocal fraction. This rule follows from the definition of
division (see the section "Arithmetical operations").
E x a m p l e .
Decimal fractions (decimals)
Decimal fractions (decimal point, decimal places).
Properties of decimals. Repeating decimals.
Decimal fraction is a result of dividing of unit by ten, hundred, thousand parts etc.
These fractions are very comfortable in calculations, because they are based on the
same system, that calculus and record of integers are built. Due to this both record and
rules of operations with decimal fractions are actually the same as for integers. At
recording decimal fractions it isnt necessary to mark parts ( as denominator ); this is
known by place, that the corresponding digit occupies. At first the integer part of a
number is written; to the right of it the decimal point is put; the first digit after the
point means a number of tenths ( a number of tenth parts of unit ), the second a
number of hundredths, the third thousandths, and so on. Digits, located after decimal
point, are called decimal places.
E x a m p l e .
One of advantages of decimals they are easily reduced to the shape of vulgar
fractions: a number after a decimal point ( 5047 in our case ) is a numerator, and
the n-th power of 10 ( n a quantity of decimal places, in our case n = 4 ) is a
denominator:

If a decimal doesnt contain an integer part, zero is put before a decimal point:

Properties of decimals.
1. A decimal fraction isnt changed, if to add some zeros to the right of it:
13.6 =13.6000.
2. A decimal fraction isnt changed, if to reject zeros, located in the end:
0.00123000 = 0.00123 .
Note: its prohibited to reject zeros, located not in the end of a decimal !
3. A decimal fraction will be increased by 10, 100, 1000 ,times, if to transfer a decimal point
to one, two, three, places to the right:

3.675 ---> 367.5 (it increases by 100 times).
4. A decimal fraction will be decreased by 10, 100, 1000 ,times, if to transfer a decimal point
to one, two, three, places to the left:

1536.78 ---> 1.53678 (it decreases by 1000 times).
These properties permit quickly to multiply and to divide decimal fractions by 10,
100, 1000 and so on.
Repeating decimal is a decimal in which a digit or a group of digits repeats endlessly
in a pattern. This group of repeating digits is called a period of decimal and is written
in brackets. For instance,
E x a m p l e . If to divide 47 by 11, then the result is 4.27272727 = 4.(27).
Operations with decimal fractions


Addition and subtraction of decimals. Multiplication of decimals.
Division of decimals. Division of decimal fraction by integer.
Division of decimal fraction by another one.
Addition and subtraction of decimals. These operations are executed as well as an
addition and a subtraction of whole numbers. It is only necessary to write the
corresponding decimal places one under another.
E x a m p l e .

Multiplication of decimals. At first stage lets multiply the fractions as integers, not
taking a decimal point into consideration. After this we use the following rule: a
number of decimal places in a product is equal to a sum of numbers of decimal places
in all factors. Note: before putting the decimal point in the product it is prohibited to
reject zeros in the end of it !
E x a m p l e .

A sum of numbers of decimal places in factors is equal: 3 + 4 = 7. A sum of digits in
the product is 6. Therefore, it is necessary to add one zero to the left: 0197056 and to
put before this a decimal point: 0.0197056.
Division of decimals.
Division of decimal fraction by integer.
If a dividend is less than a divisor, write zero in an integer part of a quotient and put
after it a decimal point. Then, not taking the decimal point of dividend into
consideration, join to its integer part the next digit of fractional part and compare
again the received integer part of a dividend with a divisor. If a new number is again
less than a divisor, put one more zero after a decimal point in a quotient and join to an
integer part of a dividend the next digit of its fractional part. Thus, repeat this process
till the received dividend would be not more than a divisor. After this one can fulfill
the division as for integers. If a dividend is more than a divisor or equal to it, divide at
first its integer part, write a result of the division in the quotient and put a decimal
point. After this one can continue the division as for integers.
E x a m p l e . Divide 1.328 by 64.
S o l u t i o n :
Division of decimal fraction by another one.
At first transfer decimal points in a dividend and a divisor by the number of decimal
places of divisor, i.e. make the divisor an integer. Now divide as well as in the
previous case.
E x a m p l e . Divide 0.04569 by 0.0006.
S o l u t i o n. Transfer the decimal points to 4 places to the right and divide 456.9 by
6:

Converting a decimal to a vulgar fraction and back


To convert a decimal to a vulgar fraction it is necessary: a number after a decimal
point to make as the numerator, and the n-th power of 10 ( here n a quantity of
decimal places ) - as the denominator. A non-zero integer part of a decimal is saved
the same in a vulgar fraction; a zero integer part is omitted. For example:

To convert a vulgar fraction to a decimal it is necessary to divide a numerator by a
denominator according to the division rules.
E x a m p l e . Convert 5 / 8 to a decimal fraction.
S o l u t i o n . Dividing 5 by 8, well receive 0.625. ( Check it, please ! )
In the most of cases this process can be continued infinitely. Then a simple fraction
cannot be converted exactly to a decimal. But in practice this is never required.
Dividing is broken if decimal places, that are of interest, have been already received.
E x a m p l e . Convert 1 / 3 to a decimal fraction.
S o l u t i o n . Dividing 1 by 3 will be infinite: 1:3 = 0.3333 . Check it, please.
Percents


Percent. Three main problems by percents.
Percent is a hundredth part of unit. A record 1% means 0.01. There are three main
problems by percents:
Problem 1. Find an indicated percent of a given number.
The given number is multiplied by the indicated number of percents; then a
product is divided by 100.
E x a m p l e . A deposit in a bank has an annual increase 6%. A sum of money in the beginning
was equal to $10000. How many dollars will the sum be increased by in the end
of the year?
S o l u t i o n : $10000 6 : 100 = $600.
Problem 2. Find a number by another given number and its percent value of the unknown
number.
The given number is divided by its percent value; the result is multiplied by 100.
E x a m p l e . A salary by January was equal to $15000, that was equal 7.5% of an annual
salary. What was the annual salary ?
S o l u t i o n : $15000 : 7.5 100 = $200000 .
Problem 3. Find the percent expression of one number by another.
The first number is divided by the second, and a result is multiplied by 100.
E x a m p l e . On 2001 a plant have produced 40000 cars; and on 2002 - only 36000 cars. What
percent does it constitute relatively to the output of 2001 ?
S o l u t i o n : 36000 : 40000 100 = 90% .
Ratio and proportion. Proportionality


Ratio. Proportion ( border and middle terms ).
The main property of a proportion.
Proportional values. Factor of a proportionality.
Ratio is a quotient of dividing one number by another.
Proportion an equality of two ratios. For instance:
12 : 20 = 3 : 5; a : b = c : d .
Border terms of the proportion: 12 and 5 in the first proportion;
a and d in the second proportion.
Middle terms of the proportion: 20 and 3 in the first proportion;
b and c in the second proportion.
The main property of a proportion: A product of border terms of a proportion is
equal to a product of its middle terms.
Two mutually dependent values are called proportional ones, if a ratio of their values
is saved as invariable. This invariable ratio of proportional values is called a factor of
a proportionality.
E x a m p l e
.
A mass of any substance is proportional to its volume. For instance, 2 liters of
mercury weigh 27.2 kg, 5 liters weigh 68 kg, 7 liters weigh 95.2 kg. A ratio of
mercury mass to its volume ( factor of a proportionality ) will be equal to:

Thus, a factor of a proportionality in this example is density.








The note. In examples no. no. 1.004 - 1.006, 1.008 - 1.010, 1.024 where decimal periodic fractions are, it
is
possible to use for their transformation in simple fractions the following method. Well admit the
fraction 0. (263)
is given. Let's designate it through x = 0.(263), and then multiply both parts of this equality by 1000
(more precisely,
by 10n where n a number of digits in the decimal fraction period), well receive: 1000 x = 263.(263).
From here
1000 x - 263 = x, or 999 x = 263, and finally, x = 263/999. Thus, 0.(263) = 263/999. The alternative
method
of transformation of decimal periodic fraction in a simple fraction is given in solution of the example
1.004.




Operations with negative and positive numbers
Absolute value (modulus) of a number. Addition.
Subtraction. Multiplication. Division.
Rules of signs at multiplication and division.
Absolute value (modulus): for a negative number this is a positive number, received
by changing the sign " " by " + "; for a positive number and zero this is the number
itself. The designation of an absolute value (modulus) of a number is the two straight
brackets insideof which the number is written.

E x a m p l e s :
| 5 | = 5, | 7 | = 7, | 0 | = 0.
Addition: 1) at addition of two numbers of the same sign their absolute values are added and
before the sum their common sign is written.

E x a m p l e s :
( + 6 ) + ( + 5 ) = 11 ;
( 6 ) + ( 5 ) = 11 ;


2) at addition of two numbers with different signs their absolute values are
subtracted(the smaller from the greater) and a sign of a number, having a greater
absolute value is chosen.

E x a m p l e s :
( 6 ) + ( + 9 ) = 3 ;
( 6 ) + ( + 3 ) = 3 .
Subtraction: it is possible to change subtraction of two numbers by addition, thereat
a minuend saves its sign, and a subtrahend is taken with the back sign.

E x a m p l e s :
( + 8 ) ( + 5 ) = ( + 8 ) + ( 5 ) = 3;
( + 8 ) ( 5 ) = ( + 8 ) + ( + 5 ) = 13;
( 8 ) ( 5 ) = ( 8 ) + ( + 5 ) = 3;
( 8 ) ( + 5 ) = ( 8 ) + ( 5 ) = 13.
Multiplication: at multiplication of two numbers their absolute values are multiplied,
and a product has the sign " + ", if signs of factors are the same, and " ", if the signs
are different. The next scheme ( a rule of signs at multiplication) is useful:
+ + = +
+ =
+ =
= +
At multiplication of some factors (two and more ) a product has the sign " + ", if a
number of negative factors is even, and the sign " ", if this number is odd.

E x a m p l e :

Division: at division of two numbers the first absolutevalue is divided by the second
and a quotient has the sign " + ", if signs of dividend and divisor are the same, and "
", if they are different. The same rule of signs as at multiplication acts:
+ : + = +
+ : =
: + =
: = +


E x a m p l e :
( 12 ) : ( + 4 ) = 3 .

Monomials and polynomials
Monomial. Numerical factor. Coefficient. Similar (like) monomials.
Addition of monomials. Reducing of like terms. Multiplication and
division of monomials. Polynomial. Degree of polynomial.
Multiplication of sums and polynomials.
Monomial is a product of two or some factors, each of them is either a number, or a
letter, or a power of a letter. For example,
3 a
2
b
4
, b d
3
, 17 a b c
are monomials. A single number or a single letter may be also considered as a
monomial. Any factor of a monomial may be called a coefficient. Often only
a numerical factor is called acoefficient. Monomials are called similar or like ones, if
they are identical or differed only by coefficients. Therefore, if two or some
monomials have identical letters or their powers, they are also similar (like)
ones. Degree of monomial is a sum of exponents of the powers of all its letters.
Addition of monomials. If among a sum of monomials there are similar ones, he sum
can be reduced to the more simple form:
a x
3
y
2
5 b
3
x
3
y
2
+ c
5
x
3
y
2
= ( a 5 b
3
+ c
5
) x
3
y
2
.
This operation is called reducing of like terms. Operation, done here, is called
also taking out of brackets.
Multiplication of monomials. A product of some monomials can be simplified, only
if it has powers of the same letters or numerical coefficients. In this case exponents of
the powers are added and numerical coefficients are multiplied.
E x a m p l e :
5 a x
3
z
8
( 7 a
3
x
3
y
2
) = 35 a
4
x
6
y
2
z
8
.
Division of monomials. A quotient of two monomials can be simplified, if a dividend
and a divisor have some powers of the same letters or numerical coefficients. In this
case an exponent of the power in a divisor is subtracted from an exponent of the
power in a dividend; a numerical coefficient of a dividend is divided by a numerical
coefficient of a divisor.
E x a m p l e :
35 a
4
x
3
z
9
: 7 a x
2
z
6
= 5 a
3
x z
3
.
Polynomial is an algebraic sum of monomials. Degree of polynomial is the most of
degrees of monomials, forming this polynomial.
Multiplication of sums and polynomials: a product of the sum of two or some
expressions by any expression is equal to the sum of the products of each of the
addends by this expression:
( p+ q+ r ) a = pa+ qa+ ra opening of brackets.
Instead of the letters p, q, r, a any expressions can be taken.
E x a m p l e :
( x+ y+ z )( a+ b )= x( a+ b )+ y( a+ b ) + z( a+ b ) =
= xa + xb + ya + yb + za + zb .
A product of sums is equal to the sum of all possible products of each addend of one
sum to each addend of the other sum.
Formulas of abridged multiplication


From the rules of multiplication of sums and polynomials the following seven
formulas of abridged multiplication can be easily received. It is necessary to know
them by heart, as they are used in most of problems in mathematics.
[1] ( a + b ) = a + 2ab + b ,
[2] ( a b ) = a 2ab + b ,
[3] ( a + b ) ( a b ) = a b,
[4] ( a + b ) = a + 3a b + 3ab + b ,
[5] ( a b ) = a 3a b + 3ab b ,
[6] ( a + b )( a ab + b ) = a + b ,
[7] ( a b )( a + ab + b ) = a b .
E x a m p l e : Calculate 99 using the formula [5] .

S o l u t i o n : 99 = (100 1) = 1000000 3 10000 1 + 3 100 1 1 = 970299.
Division of polynomials


Division of polynomials (quotient, remainder). Long division.
Division of polynomials. What means to divide one polynomial P by another Q ? It
means to find polynomials M ( quotient ) and N ( remainder ), satisfying the two
requirements:
1). An equality MQ + N = P takes place;
2). A degree of polynomial N is less than a degree of polynomial Q .
Division of polynomials can be done by the following scheme ( long division ):

1) Divide the first term 16a
3
of the dividend by the first term 4a
2
of the divisor; the
result 4a is the first term of the quotient.

2) Multiply the received term 4a by the divisor 4a
2
a + 2; write the result 16a
3

4a
2
+ 8a under the dividend, one similar term under another.

3) Subtract terms of the result from the corresponding terms of the dividend and
move down the next by the order term 7 of the dividend; the remainder is 12a
2
13a
+ 7 .

4) Divide the first term 12a
2
of this expression by the first term 4a
2
of the divisor; the
result 3 is the second term of the quotient.

5) Multiply the received second term 3 by the divisor 4a
2
a + 2; write the result
12a
2
3a + 6 again under the dividend, one similar term under another.

6) Subtract terms of the result from the corresponding terms of the previous
remainder and receive the second remainder:
10a + 1. Its degree is less than the divisor degree, therefore the division has been finished.
The quotient is 4a + 3,
the remainder is 10a + 1.
Division of polynomial by linear binomial


Linear binomial. Bezout's theorem.
Linear binomial is a polynomial of the first degree: ax+ b. If to divide a polynomial,
containing a letter x, by a linear binomial x b, where b is a number ( positive or negative ),
then a remainder will be a polynomial only of zero degree, i.e. some number N , which can be
found without finding a quotient. Exactly, this number is equal to the value of the polynomial,
received at x = b. This property is proved by Bezouts theorem: a polynomial a
0
x
m
+ a
1
x
m
-1 +
a
2
x
m-2
+ + a
m
is divided by x b with a remainder N = a
0
b
m
+ a
1
b
m-1
+ a
2
b
m-2
+ + a
m
.
The p r o o f . According to the definition of division (see above) we have:
a
0
x
m
+ a
1
x
m
-1 + a
2
x
m-2
+ + a
m
= ( x b ) Q + N ,


where Q is some polynomial, N is some number. Substitute here x = b , then ( x
b ) Q will be missing and we receive:


a
0
b
m
+ a
1
b
m-1
+ a
2
b
m-2
+ + a
m
= N .
The r e m a r k . It is possible, that N = 0 . Then b is a root of the equation:
a
0
x
m
+ a
1
x
m
-1 + a
2
x
m-2
+ + a
m
= 0 .
The theorem has been proved.
Divisibility of binomials


As consequences from Bezouts theorem the next criteria of divisibility of binomials
are valid:
1) A difference of identical powers of two numbers is divided without a remainder by a difference
of these two numbers, i.e. x
m
a
m
< is divided by ( x a ).
2) A difference of identical even powers of two numbers is divided without a remainder both by a
difference and by a sum of these two numbers, i.e. if m an even number, then the binomial
x
m
a
m
is divided both ( x a ) and by ( x + a ).

A difference of identical odd powers of two numbers isnt divided by a sum of these two
numbers.
3) A sum of identical powers of two numbers is never divided by a difference of these two
numbers.
4) A sum of identical odd powers of two numbers is divided without a remainder by a sum of
these two numbers.
5) A sum of identical even powers of two numbers is never divided both by difference and by a
sum of these two numbers.
E x a m p l e s : ( x
2
a
2
) : ( x a ) = x + a ;

( x
3
a
3
) : ( x a ) = x
2
+ a x+ a
2
;

( x
5
a
5
) : ( x a ) = x
4
+ a x
3
+ a
2
x
2
+ a
3
x + a
4
.
Factoring of polynomials


In general case factoring of a polynomial is not always possible. But there are some
cases, when it can be executed.
1. If all terms of a polynomial contain as a factor the same expression, it is possible to take it
out of brackets (see above).
2. Sometimes grouping terms of a polynomial into brackets, one can find a common expression
inside the brackets, the expression may be taken out of the brackets as a common factor, and
after this the same expression will be inside all brackets Then this expression must also be
taken out of the brackets and the polynomial will be factored.

E x a m p l e : ax + bx + ay+ by = ( ax+ bx ) + ( ay + by ) =

= x ( a + b ) + y ( a + b ) = ( x + y ) ( a + b ) .
3. Sometimes including of new, mutually cancelled terms, helps to factor a polynomial.

E x a m p l e : y
2
b
2
= y
2
+ yb yb b
2
= ( y
2
+ yb ) ( yb + b
2
) =

= y ( y + b ) b ( y + b ) = ( y + b ) ( y b ) .
4. Usage of the formulas of abridged multiplication.
Algebraic fractions


Algebraic fraction. Canceling fractions.
Addition and subtraction of fractions.
Multiplication and division of fractions.
Algebraic fraction is an expression of a shape A / B, where A and B can be a number,
a monomial, a polynomial. As in arithmetic, A is called a numerator, B
a denominator. Arithmetical fraction is a particular case of an algebraic one.
Canceling fractions

E x a m p l e :

Addition and subtraction of fractions

To add or to subtract two or some fractions it is necessary to make the same
operations as in arithmetic.
E x a m p l e :

Multiplication and division of fractions
Multiplication and division of algebraic fractions doesnt differ from the same
operations in arithmetic. Canceling a fraction can be done both before and after
multiplication of numerators and denominators.
E x a m p l e :


Proportions


Proportion. Crosswise lied terms. Ratios.
Overturned ratios. Derived proportions.
Proportion is an equality of two ratios. From a proportion follows:
ad = bc (cross products are equal). Inversely, from ad = bc the next proportions
follow:

All these proportions and some others can be received from the original proportion
a / b = c / d by the next rules:
Crosswise lied terms of any proportion can be changed by places.
Ratios in any proportion can be changed to overturned ones.
Derived proportions . If then the next so called derived proportions,
received from the original, also take place:

All these and a lot of other proportions can be united by the two base formulas:


where m, n, k, l any numbers.
E x a m p l e : If m = n = k = 1, l = 0, then we receive:


Equations: common information
Equality. Identity. Equation (unknowns, roots
of an equation, solving). Equivalent equations.


Equality - two expressions (numerical or literal ones), jointed by sign " = ".
Identity - a valid numerical equality or a literal equality, valid at any numerical values
of letters, contained in it.

E x a m p l e s : 1) A numerical equality 4 7 + 2 = 30 is an identity.

2) A literal equality ( a + b )( a b ) = a
2
b
2
is an identity,
because it is valid at all values of letters, contained in it.
Equation a literal equality, which is valid ( i.e. it becomes an identity ) only
at some values of letters, contained in it. These letters are called unknowns and the
values, at which an equality is valid roots of an equation. Procedure of
finding all roots of an equation is called solving. To solve an equation means to find
all its roots. Substitution of each root into an equation instead of unknown converts it
into a valid numerical equality (identity). Two or some equations are
called equivalent equations, if they have the same roots.

E x a m p l e : Equations 5x 25 = 0 and 2x 7 = 3 are equivalent, because
they have the same root: x = 5 .
Main ways used at solving of equations
Identical transformations. Replacement of expression.
Transferring terms of equation from one side to another.
Multiplication and division by non-zero expression (number).
Raising to a power. Extraneous roots of equation.
Extracting of a root. Loss of roots of equation.

Solving of equation is a process, consisting mainly in a replacement of the given
equation by another, equivalent equation. This replacement is called an identical
transformation.Main identical transformations are the following.
1. Replacement of one expression by another, identically equal to it. For example, the
equation ( 3x+ 2 )
2
= 15x + 10 may be replaced by the next equivalent equation: 9x
2
+12x
+ 4 = 15x + 10 .
2. Transferring terms of equation from one side to another with back signs. So, in the
previous equation we can transfer all terms from the right-hand side to the left with the sign
"minus": 9x
2
+ 12x + 4 15x 10 = 0, after this we receive: 9x
2
3x 6 = 0 .
3. Multiplication or division of both sides of equation by the same expression ( number ), not
equal to zero. This is very important, because a new equation can be not equivalent to
previous, if the expression, by which we multiply or divide, can be equal to zero.

E x a m p l e : The equation x 1 = 0 has the single root x = 1 .
Multiplying it by x 3 , we receive the equation ( x 1 )( x 3 ) = 0, which
has two roots:
x = 1 and x = 3 . The last value isnt a root for the given equation x 1 = 0 .
This value is
so called an extraneous root. And vice versa, division can result to a loss of
roots . In our
case, if ( x 1 )( x 3 ) = 0 is the origin equation, then the root x = 3 will be
lost at division
of this equation by x 3 .
In the last equation (p.2) we can divide all terms by 3 (not zero!) and finally receive:
3x
2
x 2 = 0 .
This equation is equivalent to an original one:
( 3x+ 2 )
2
= 15x + 10 .

4. It is possible to raise both sides of an equation to an odd power and to extract the odd
degree root from both sides of an equation.
It is necessary to remember that:
a) raising to an even power can result in acquisition of extraneous roots;
b) a wrong extraction of even degree root can result in loss of roots.

E x a m p l e s : The equation 7x = 35 has the single root x = 5 . Raising this equation to
the second power, we receive the equation:
49x
2
= 1225 ,

having the two roots: x = 5 and x = 5 . The last value is an extraneous
root. A wrong
extraction of square root from both sides of the equation 49x
2
= 1225
results in 7x = 35 ,
and we lose the root: x = 5. A right extraction of this root leads to the
equation:
| 7x | = 35, hence the two cases imply:

1) 7x = 35, then x = 5 ; 2) 7x = 35, then x = 5 .

Hence, at a right extraction of square root we dont lose roots of an
equation. What means
a right extraction of a root ? Here we meet the notion of an arithmetical
root, which is
considered further in the section of the same name.
Linear equations in one unknown


An equation of the shape: ax + b = 0, where a and b the known numbers, x an
unknown value, is called a linear equation in one unknown. To solve this equation means to
find the numerical value of x , at which this equation becomes an identity.
If a is not equal to zero ( a 0 ), then a solution ( root ) has the shape:



If a = 0 , then the two cases are possible:

1. b = 0, then 0 x + 0 = 0 . Here x can be any number ( check this ! ).

2. b 0, then 0 x + b = 0 . There is no solution ( check this also ).


expressions: x
2
+ 2x = x
2
2x + x 2 . Transfer all terms to the
left-hand side of the equation. After reducing all similar terms well
receive: 3x + 2 = 0, hence x = 2 / 3 .
Systems of two simultaneous linear equations in two unknowns
Systems of two simultaneous linear equations in two unknowns.
Basic methods of solution. Substitution. Addition or subtraction
of equations. The second order determinants. Cramer's rule.
Investigation of solutions.


Systems of two simultaneous linear equations in two unknowns have the shape:


where a, b, c, d, e, f numerical coefficients; x, y unknowns.
Solution of these simultaneous equations can be found by two basic methods:
Substitution. 1). From one equation we express one of unknowns, for example x, by coefficients
and another unknown y :

x = ( c by ) / a , (2)

2). Substitute in the second equation instead of x :

d ( c by ) / a + ey = f .

3). Now, solving the last equation, find y :

y = ( af cd ) / ( ae bd ).

4). Substitute this value for y in the expression (2) instead of y :

x = ( ce bf ) / ( ae bd ) .

E x a m p l e . Solve the system of simultaneous equations:

From the first equation express x by coefficients and y :

x = ( 2y + 4 ) / 3 .

Substitute this expression into the second equation and find y :

( 2y + 4 ) / 3 + 3y = 5 , hence y = 1 .

Now find x , substituting the found value instead of y into
expression for x: x = ( 2 1 + 4 ) / 3 , from here x = 2 .

Addition or subtraction. This method consists in the following.

1). Multiply both sides of the first equation of the system (1) by ( d ) and both sides
of the second equation by a and add them:

From here we receive: y = ( af cd ) / ( ae bd ) .

2). Substitute the found value of y into any equation of the original system (1) :
ax + b( af cd ) / ( ae bd ) = c .

3). Find another unknown x : x = ( ce bf ) / ( ae bd ) .

E x a m p l e . Solve the system of simultaneous equations:

by the second way ( addition or subtraction ).
Multiply the first equation by 1, the second by 3 and add them:

From here y = 1 . Substitute this value into the second equation
( is it possible to substitute this into the first equation ? ): 3x + 9 = 15, hence, x
= 2 .

The second order determinants. We saw, that formulas for solution of the system of two
simultaneous linear equations in two unknowns have the shape:

x = ( ce bf ) / ( ae bd ) ,
(3)
y = ( af cd ) / ( ae bd ) .

These formulas can be remembered very easily, if to introduce for their numerators and
denominators the next symbol:
, which will be used to mean an expression: ps qr .
This expression is received by crosswise multiplication of numbers p, q, r, s :

and the following subtraction of one product from another: ps qr. The sign + is
taken for a product of numbers, located on the diagonal, going from the left upper
number to the right lower number. The sign for another diagonal, going from the
right upper number to the left lower number. For example,

The expression is called the second order determinant.
Cramers rule. Using the determinants, the formulas (3) can be written as:

Formulas ( 4 ) are called Cramers rule for solution of the system of two simultaneous linear
equations in two unknowns.

E x a m p l e . Solve the system of simultaneous equations

using Cramers rule.
S o l u t i o n . Here a = 1, b = 1, c = 12, d = 2, e = 3, f = 14 .

Investigation of solutions of a system of two simultaneous linear equations in two unknowns
shows, that depending on coefficients three different cases are possible:

1) coefficients at unknowns in equations are disproportionate: a : d b : e ,
in this case the system of simultaneous linear equations has a single solution,
presented by formulas (4) ;

2) all coefficients of equations are proportional: a: d = b: e = c: f , in this case
the system of simultaneous linear equations has an infinite set of solutions,
because we have actually one equation instead of two.

E x a m p l e . In the system



and this system has an infinite set of solutions. ( Why? )
Dividing the first equation by 2 and the second - by 3,
well receive two identical equations:

that is one equation in two unknowns, which has an infinite set of solutions.

3) coefficients at unknowns are proportional, but disproportionate to free terms:
a : d = b : e c : f , in this case the system of simultaneous linear equations has
no solutions, because we have here contradictory equations.


terms is 7/12, not equal to 1/3. Why has not
this system solution?
An answer is very easy. If to divide the second equation by 3,
well receive:

These equations are contradictory, because the same expression
2x 3y cannot be equal both to 7 and 4 simultaneously.

Systems of three simultaneous linear equations in three unknowns
Systems of three simultaneous linear equations in three unknowns.
Basic methods of solution. Substitution. Addition or subtraction
of equations. The third order determinants. Cramer's rule.


Systems of three simultaneous linear equations in three unknowns have the shape:

where a, b, c, d, e, f , g, h, p, q, r, s numerical coefficients; x, y, z unknowns. Solution
of this system can be found by the same two basic methods, considered
above:substitution and addition or subtraction. Here well consider in details only Cramers
method. At first, well introduce the notion of the third order determinant.
The expression

is called the third order determinant.
It isnt necessary to remember this expression, because it is easy received, if to rewrite the table
(2), repeating the two first columns on the right side. Then it is calculated by multiplication of
numbers, located on the diagonals, going from a, b, c to the right ( with the sign + ) and
from c, a, b to the left ( with the sign ), and summing these products:

Using the third order determinant (2), the solution of (1) can be presented as:

These formulas are Cramers rule for solution of the system of three linear simultaneous
equations in three unknowns.

E x a m p l e . Solve the following system of three simultaneous linear equations
by Cramers method:

S o l u t i o n . Introduce the following notations: D a denominator in the
formulas (4), Dx, Dy, Dz numerators in the expressions
for x, y, z correspondingly. Then, using the scheme (3),
well receive:

hence, by Cramers formulas ( 4 ) : x = Dx / D = 0 / 32 = 0;
y = Dy / D = 32 / 32 = 1; z = Dz / D = 64 / 32 = 2 .

Powers and roots
Operations with powers. Multiplication and division of powers.
Power of product of some factors. Power of a quotient (fraction).
Raising of power to a power. Operations with roots. Arithmetical
root. Root of product of some factors. Root of quotient (fraction).
Raising of root to a power. Proportional change of degrees of a
root and its radicand. Negative, zero and fractional exponents
of a power. About meaningless expressions.


Operations with powers.

1. At multiplying of powers with the same base their exponents are added:

a
m
a
n
= a
m + n
.

2. At dividing of powers with the same base their exponents are subtracted:



3. A power of product of two or some factors is equal to a product of powers of these factors:

( abc )
n
= a
n
b
n
c
n


4. A power of a quotient (fraction) is equal to a quotient of powers of a dividend (numerator)
and a divisor (denominator):

( a / b )
n
= a
n
/ b
n
.

5. At raising of a power to a power their exponents are multiplied:

( a
m
)
n
= a
m

n
.

All above mentioned formulas are read and executed in both directions from the left to the
right and back.
E x a m p l e . ( 2 3 5 / 15 )
2
= 2
2
3
2
5
2
/ 15
2
= 900 / 225 = 4 .

Operations with roots. In all below mentioned formulas a symbol means an arithmetical
root ( all radicands are considered here only positive ).

1. A root of product of some factors is equal to a product of roots of these factors:


2. A root of a quotient is equal to a quotient of roots of a dividend and a divisor:



3. At raising a root to a power it is sufficient to raise a radicand to this power:


4. If to increase a degree of a root by n times and to raise simultaneously its radicand to the n-
th power, the root value doesnt
change:



5. If to decrease a degree of a root by n times and to extract simultaneously the n-th degree root
of the radicand, the root value
doesnt change:


Widening of the power notion. Till now we considered only natural exponents of powers; but
operations with powers and roots can result also to negative, zero and fractional exponents. All
these exponents of powers require to be defined.

Negative exponent of a power. A power of some number with a negative (integer) exponent is
defined as unit divided by the power of the same number with the exponent equal to an absolute
value of the negative exponent:



Now the formula a
m
: a
n
= a
m - n
may be used not only if m is more than n , but also for a
case if m is less than n .

E x a m p l e . a
4
: a
7
= a
4 7
= a
3
.

If we want the formula a
m
: a
n
= a
m - n
to be valid at m = n we need the definition of zero
exponent of a power.

Zero exponent of a power. A power of any non-zero number with zero exponent is equal to 1.

E x a m p l e s . 2
0
= 1, ( 5 )
0
= 1, ( 3 / 5 )
0
= 1.

Fractional exponent of a power. To raise a real number a to a power with an exponent m /
n it is necessary to extract the n-th degree root from the m-th power of this number a:

About meaningless expressions. There are some expressions:

Case 1.

where a 0 ,doesnt exist.

Really, if to assume that where x some number, then according
to the definition of a division we have: a = 0 x , i.e. a = 0 , but this result
contradicts to the condition: a 0.

Case 2.

is any number.

Really, if to assume that this expression is equal to some number x , then
according to the definition of a division: 0 = 0 x . But this equality is valid
at any number x , which was to be proved.

Case 3.

If to assume, that rules of operations with powers are spread to powers with
a zero base, then

0
0
is any number .



S o l u t i o n . Consider the three main cases:

1) x = 0 this value doesnt satisfy the equation ( Why ? ) ;

2) at x > 0 we receive: x / x = 1, i.e.1 = 1, hence, x any number,
but taking into consideration that in this case x > 0, the answer
is: x > 0 ;

3) at x < 0 we receive: x / x = 1, i.e. 1 = 1, and the answer is:
there is no solution in this case.

So, the answer: x > 0 .

Arithmetical root


Arithmetical root. Algebraic root.
Absolute value (modulus) of number.
As we know, an even degree root has two values: positive and negative, so

An arithmetical root of the n-th degree of a non-negative number a is called a non-
negative number, the n-th power of which is equal to a .
An algebraic root of the n-th degree of a given number a iscalled a set of all roots of
this number. An algebraic root of an even degree has the two values:positive and
negative, for instance:

An algebraic root of an odd degrees has a single value: either positive, or negative.For
example, the arithmetical root

Unlike this, the cube degree root:

An arithmetical root is closely connected with the notion of an absolute
value(modulus) of number, exactly:

Operations with roots in more detail see the section Powers and roots.
rrational numbers. Formula of complicated radical
Rational numbers. Irrational numbers.
Examples of irrational numbers.
Formula of complicated radical.
Irrational numbers in contrast to rational numbers (see above) arent presented as a
vulgar, not cancelled fraction of the shape: m / n , where m and n are integers.
There are numbers of a new kind, which are calculated with any accuracy, but cant
be changed by a rational number. They can appear as results of geometrical
measurements, for example:

- a ratio of a square diagonal length to its side length is equal to ,

- a ratio of a circumference length to its diameter length is an irrational number
Examples of another irrational numbers:


Let's prove that is the irrational number. Assume the opposite: is
the rational number, then according to the definition of rational number we can write:
= m / n , then: 2 =m
2
/ n
2
, hence, m
2
= 2 n
2
, that is m
2
is divisible by 2, hence, m is divisible by 2
and it is possible to write: m = 2 k, then m
2
= 4 k
2
or 4 k
2
= 2 n
2
, hence, n
2
= 2 k
2
, that is n
2
is
divisible by 2, then n is divisible by 2, hence, m n have the common factor 2, what
contradicts to the definition of rational number (see above). So, we have proved that is
the irrationalnumber.
To realize algebraic transformations of irrational expressions and equations, containing square roots,
the following formula of complicated radical

may be useful (all the radicands are nonnegative). To prove the formula it is enough to
raise to square the both of its parts.

Quadratic equation
Quadratic equation. Reduced quadratic equation.
Non-reduced quadratic equation. Pure quadratic equation.
A quadratic equation is an algebraic equation of the second degree:
ax
2
+ bx + c = 0 , (1)
where a, b, c the given numerical or literal coefficients , x an unknown.
If a = 0, then this equation becomes a linear one. Therefore, well consider here
only a 0. So, it is possible to divide all terms of the equation by a and then we
receive:
x
2
+ px + q = 0 , (2)
where p=b/a, q=c/a. This quadratic equation is called a reduced one. The equation
(1) is called a non-reduced quadratic equation. If b or c (or both) is equal to zero,
then this equation is called a pure one. The examples of pure quadratic equations are
following:
4x
2
12 = 0, x
2
+ 5x = 0, x
2

= 36 .

Imaginary and complex numbers
Imaginary numbers. Imaginary unit. Imaginary roots.
Real numbers. Complex numbers.
Consider the pure quadratic equation:
x

2
= a ,
where a a known value. Its solution may be presented as:


Here the three cases are possible:
1). If a = 0 , then x = 0.
2). If a is a positive number, then its square root has two values: one positive and one
negative; for example, the equation x
2
= 25 has the two roots: 5 and 5.
This is often written as the root with double sign before:
3). If a a negative number, then the equation has no solution among known us positive and
negative numbers, because the second power of any number is a non-negative number
(think over this!). But, if we wish to receive solutions of the equation x
2
= a also at
negative values of a, we are obliged to introduce the new kind numbers imaginary
numbers.So, a number is imaginary, if its second power is a negative number. According
to this definition of imaginary numbers we can define an imaginary unit as:

Then, for the equation
x
2
= 25
we receive the two imaginary roots:
Substituting both these roots into our equation well receive the identity. Check it,
please!
In contrast to imaginary numbers all the rest numbers (positive and negative, integers
and fractional, rational and irrational ones) are called real numbers. A sum of a real
and an imaginary number is called a complex number, and marked as:
a + b i ,
where a, b real numbers, i an imaginary unit.
In more details about complex numbers see the section Complex numbers.

E x a m p l e s of complex numbers: 3 + 4 i , 7 13.6 i , 0 + 25 i = 25 i , 2 + i

Solution of a quadratic equation
Formulas for solution of non-reduced
and reduced quadratic equation.
In general case of a non-reduced quadratic equation:

ax
2
+ bx + c = 0 ,

its roots are found by the formula:

If to divide all terms of a non-reduced quadratic equation by a (is it possible ?), and to sign b /
a = p and c / a = q , then well receive the reduced quadratic equation:
x
2
+ px + q = 0 ,
roots of which are calculated by the formula:




E x a m p l e . x
2
+ 5x + 6 = 0 . Here p = 5, q = 6. Then we have:


hence, x
1
= 5 / 2 + 1 / 2 = 2 , x
2
= 5 / 2 1 / 2= 3

Properties of roots of a quadratic equation. Vietes theorem
Roots of quadratic equation. Discriminant. Viete's theorem.


The formula


shows, that the three cases are possible:

1) b
2
4 a c > 0 , then two roots are different real numbers;

2) b

2
4 a c = 0 , then two roots are equal real numbers;

3) b
2
4 a c < 0 , then two roots are imaginary numbers.

The expression b
2
4 a c , value of which permits to differ these three cases, is called
a discriminant of a quadratic equation and marked as D.

Vietes theorem. A sum of roots of reduced quadratic equation x
2
+ px + q = 0 is equal to
coefficient at the first power of unknown, taken with a back sign,
i.e.

x
1
+ x
2
= p ,

and a product of the roots is equal to a free term, i.e.

x
1
x
2
= q .

To prove Vietes theorem, use the formula, by which roots of reduced quadratic
equation are calculated.

Factoring of a quadratic trinomial

Each quadratic trinomial ax
2
+ bx+ c can be resolved to factors of the first degree by the next
way. Solve the quadratic equation
ax
2
+ bx+ c = 0 .
If x
1
and x
2
are the roots of this equation, then
ax
2
+ bx+ c = a ( x x
1
) ( x x
2
) .
This affirmation can be proved using either formulas for roots of a non-reduced
quadratic equation or Vietes theorem. ( Check it, please ! ) .
E x a m p l e . Resolve to the first degree factors the trinomial: 2x
2
4 x 6.
S o l u t i o n . At first we solve the equation: 2x
2
4x 6 = 0 . Its roots are:
x
1
= 1 and x
2
= 3. Hence, 2x
2
4x 6 = 2 ( x + 1 ) ( x 3 ) .
( Open the brackets and check the result, please ).

Equations of higher degrees

Equations of higher degrees.
Biquadratic equation. Cubic equation.

1. Some kinds of the higher degrees equations may be solved using a quadratic equation.
Sometimes one can resolve the left-hand side of equation to factors, each of them is a
polynomial of the degree not higher than second. Then, equaling each of them to zero and
solving all these quadratic and / or linear equations, well receive all roots of the original
equation.

E x a m p l e . Solve an equation: 3x
4
+ 6x
3
9x
2
= 0 .

S o l u ti o n . Resolve the left-hand side of this equation to factors:

x
2
( 3x
2
+ 6x 9 ) .

Solve the equation: x
2
= 0; it has two equal roots: x
1
= x
2
= 0 .
Now we solve the equation: 3x
2
+ 6x 9 = 0, and receive:
x
3
= 1 and x
4
= 3 . Thus, the original equation has four roots:
x
1
= x
2
= 0 ; x
3
= 1 ; x
4
= 3 .


2. If an equation has the shape:

ax
2n
+ bx
n
+ c = 0 ,

it is reduced to an quadratic equation by the exchange:

x
n
= z ;

really, after this exchange we receive: az
2
+ bz + c = 0 .

E x a m p l e . Consider the equation:

x
4
13 x
2
+ 36 = 0 .

Exchange: x
2
= z . After this we receive:

z
2
13 z + 36 = 0 .

Its roots are: z
1
= 4 and z
2
= 9. Now we solve the equations:
x
2
= 4 and x
2
= 9 . They have the roots correspondingly:
x
1
= 2 , x
2
= 2 , x
3
= 3 ; x
4
= 3 . These numbers are
the roots of the original equation ( check this, please ! ).

Any equation of the shape: ax
4
+ bx
2
+ c = 0 is called a biquadratic equation. It is reduced
to quadratic equations by using the exchange: x
2
=
z .

E x a m p l e . Solve the biquadratic equation: 3x
4
123x
2
+ 1200 = 0 .

S o l u t i o n . Exchanging: x
2
= z , and solving the equation:
3z
2
123z + 1200 = 0 , well receive:



hence, z
1
= 25 and z
2
= 16 . Using our exchange, we receive:
x
2
= 25 and x
2
= 16, hence, x
1
= 5, x
2
= 5, x
3
= 4, x
4
= 4.


3. A cubic equation is the third degree equation; its general shape is:


ax
3
+ bx
2
+ cx + d = 0 .

The known Cardanos formulas for solution of this kind equations are very difficult and
almost arent used in practice. So, we recommend another way to solve the third degree
equations.

1). At first we find one root of the equation by selecting, because these equations have
always at least one real root, and an integer root of a cubic equation with integer
coefficientsis one of factors of a free term d. Coefficients of these equations have been
selected usually so that the root, which must be found, is among not great integers, such
as: 0, 1, 2, 3. Therefore, well find the root among these numbers and check it by
substituting into the equation. A probability of successful result is very high. Assume
this root is x
1
.

2).
The second stage of solution is dividing of the third degree polynomial ax
3
+ bx
2
+ cx
+ d by the binomial ( x x
1
) . According to Bezouts theorem (see the section
Division of polynomial by linear binomial) this division is possible without a
remainder, and well receive as a result the second degree polynomial, which would be
annihilated, will give us a quadratic equation, solving which well find (or not !) the
rest of the two roots.

E x a m p l e . Solve the equation: x
3
3x
2
13x + 15 = 0 .

S o l u t i o n . Selecting the first root among the indicated numbers:
2 , 1, 0, 1, 2 and substituting each of them in the
given equation, we find that 1 is a root of this equation.
Dividing the left-hand side of the equation by binomial
( x 1 ), well receive:


Now we solve a quadratic equation: x
2
2x 15 = 0
find the rest of the two roots: x
1
= 3 and x
2
= 5 .


Principles of vector calculus
Vectors. Opposite vectors. Zero vector. Length (modulus) of vector.
Collinear vectors. Coplanar vectors. Equality of vectors. Parallel
transfer of vectors. Addition of vectors. Subtraction of vectors.
Laws of addition of vectors. Laws of multiplication of vector by a
number. Scalar product of vectors. Angle between non-zero vectors.
Scalar square. Properties of a scalar product. Unit orthogonal vectors.
Coordinates of a vector. Algebraic operations with vectors. Vector
product of vectors. Properties of a vector product. Necessary and
sufficient condition of collinearity of vectors. Necessary and sufficient
condition of coplanarity of vectors.



Vector is a directed segment, connecting two points in a space ( in a plane ). Vectors are signed
usually eitherby small letters or by initial and final points. For example, a vector directed from
point A to point B can be signed as a,

__
A zero vector 0 or 0 is avector, for which initial and final points coincide, i.e. A=B. From here
it follows: 0 = 0.
A length ( modulus ) of vector a, signed as | a |, is a length of its imaging segment AB.
Particularly, | 0 | = 0.
Vectors are called collinear ones, if their directed segments belong to parallel lines. Collinear
vectors a and b are signed as a || b .
Three or more vectors are called coplanar, if they lie in the same plane.

Equality of vectors. Two vectors a and b are equal, if they are collinear ones and
their lengths are equal, i.e. a || b and | a | = | b | . Hence, vectors dont change ata parallel
transfer.

Addition of vectors. As vectors are directed segments, then their addition can be
executed geometrically. (Algebraic addition of vectors see below, in the point Unit orthogonal
vectors).
Assume, that __ __
a = AB and b = CD ,
then __ __
a + b = AB + CD

is a vector, received after executing of the two operations:
a) a parallel transfer of one of thevectors till its initial point will coincide with
a final point of another vector;
b) a geometrical addition by drawing the resulting vector from an initial point
of an immovable vector to a final point of a transferred vector.

Subtraction of vectors. This operation is reduced to the previous by changing a subtracted vector
to an oppositeone:

a b = a + ( b ) .

Laws of addition. I. a + b = b + a ( C o m m u t a t i v i t y ).
II. ( a + b ) + c = a + ( b + c ) ( A s s o c i a t i v i t y ).
III. a + 0 = a .
IV. a + ( a ) = 0 .

Laws of multiplication of vector by a number.

I. 1 a = a , 0 a = 0 , m 0 = 0 , ( 1 ) a = a .
II. m a = a m , | m a | = | m | | a | .
III. m ( n a ) = ( m n ) a . ( A s s o c i a t i v i t y of
multiplication by a number ).
IV. ( m + n ) a = m a + n a , ( D i s t r i b u t i v i t y of
m ( a + b ) = m a + m b . multiplication by a number ).
__ __
Scalar product of vectors. Anangle between non-zero vectors AB and CD is an angle, formed at
a parallel transfer one of the vectors till coinciding the points A and C. A scalarproduct of
vectors a and b is called a number, equal to a product of lengths ( modules )of these vectors by
cosine of angle between them:



If one of vectors is a zero vector, then a scalar product of these vectors is equal to zero by the
definition:

( a , 0 ) = ( 0 , b ) = 0 .

If both vectors are non-zero ones, then cosine of the angle between them may be found by the
formula:


A scalar product ( a , a ), equal to | a | , is called a scalar square.
A length of vector a and its scalar square are tied by the relation:



A scalar product of two vectors is:
- positive, if an angle between the vectors is acute ;
- negative, if an angle between the vectors is obtuse .

A scalar product of two non-zero vectors is equal to zero, if and only if an angle between the
vectors is right, i.e. these vectors are perpendicular ( orthogonal ):



Properties of a scalar product. For any vectors a , b , c and any number m the following
relations are valid:

I. ( a , b ) = ( b , a ) . ( Co m m u t a t i v i t y )
II. ( m a , b ) = m ( a , b ) .
III. ( a + b , c ) = ( a , c ) + ( b , c ). ( D i s t r i b u t i v i ty )

Unit orthogonal vectors. In anyrectangular system of coordinates it is possible to introduce unit
two-and-two orthogonal vectors i, j and k, connected with coordinate axes: i for x-axis, j
for y-axis and k for z-axis. According to this definition we have:

( i , j ) = ( i , k ) = ( j , k ) = 0,

| i | = | j | = | k | = 1.

Any vector a can be expressed through these vectors by the only way: a = x i + y j
+ z k . Another form of the record is: a = ( x, y, z ) . Here x, y, z coordinates of the
vector a in this system of coordinates. According to the last relationand properties of the unit
orthogonal vectors i , j , k a scalar product of two vectors can be written in another shape.
Assume a = ( x, y, z ); b = ( u, v, w ). Then ( a , b ) = xu + yv + zw. A scalar product of
two vectors is equal to a sum of products of corresponding coordinates. A length (modulus) of
vector a = ( x, y, z ) is equal to:


Besides, we receive now the possibility for algebraic operations with vectors; namely, addition
and subtraction of vectors can be executed by coordinates:
a + b = ( x + u , y + v , z + w ) ;
a b = ( x u , y v , z w ) .
Vector product of vectors. A vector product [ a , b ] of vectors a and b ( in the indicated
order ) is a vector:


There is another formula for a length of vector [ a, b ] :
/\
| [ a, b ] | = | a | | b | sin ( a, b ) ,

i.e. a length ( modulus ) of vector product of the vectors a and b is equal to product of
lengths ( modules )of these vectors by sine of the angle between them. Differently this fact can be
interpreted as following : a length ( modulus ) of vector [ a, b ] is equal numerically to an area
of parallelogram,built on vectors a and b .

Properties of vector product.

I. A vector [ a, b ] is perpendicular (orthogonal) both to vector a and vector b. ( Prove this,
please ! ) .
II. [ a , b ] = [ b , a ] . ( A n t i c o m m u t a t i v i t y ).
III. [ m a , b ] = m [ a , b ] .
IV. [ a + b , c ] = [ a , c ] + [ b , c ] . ( D i s t r i b u t i v i t y ).
V. [ a , [ b , c ] ] = b ( a , c ) c ( a , b ) .
VI. [ [ a , b ] , c ] = b ( a , c ) a ( b , c ) .
Necessaryand sufficient condition of collinearity of vectors a = ( x, y, z ) and b = ( u, v, w ) :


Necessary and sufficient condition of coplanarity of vectors a = ( x, y, z ) , b = ( u, v, w )
and c = ( p, q, r ) :



E x a m p l e . The vectors: a = ( 1, 2, 3 ) and b = ( 2 , 0 ,4 ) are given. Calculate
their scalar product, vector product and an angle between these vectors.

S o l u t i o n . Using the corresponding formulas (see above), well receive:
a). the scalar product: ( a , b ) = 1 ( 2 ) + 2 0 + 3 4 = 10 ;
b). the vector product:





Complex numbers
Imaginary and complex numbers. Abscissa and ordinate of a complex
number. Conjugate complex numbers. Pure imaginary number. Pure
imaginary number. Operations with complex numbers. Geometric
representation of complex numbers. Complex plane. Modulus and
argument of a complex number. Trigonometric form of a complex
number. Operations with complex numbers in the trigonometric form.
Moivre's formula.


The initial information about imaginary and complex numbers has been presented above, in the
section Imaginaryand complex numbers. A necessity of these new kind numbers has appeared
at solving of quadratic equations in the case of D < 0
(D a discriminant of a quadratic equation). During a long time these numbers had no physical
applications, therefore they were called imaginary numbers. But now these numbers have
various applications in different physical and technical fields, such as: electrical engineering,
hydro- and aerodynamics, theory of elasticity and others.

Complex numbers are written in the shape: a+ bi. Here a and b real numbers, and i
an imaginary unit, i.e. i
2
= 1. A real number a is called an abscissa of complex number a+
bi, and b an ordinate of complex number a+ bi. Two
complex numbers a+ bi and a bi are called the conjugate complex numbers.

Main agreements:
1. A real number a can also be written in the shape of a complex number: a+ 0 i or a 0 i. For
example, the records 5 + 0 i and 5 0 i mean the same real number 5 .
2. A complex number 0+ bi is called a pure imaginary number. The record bi means the
same as 0+ bi.
3. Two complex numbers a+ bi and c+ di are considered as equal ones,
if a=c and b=d. Otherwise, the complex numbers arent equal.

Addition. A sum of complex numbers a+ bi and c+ di is called a complex number ( a+ c )
+ ( b+ d ) i. So, at addition of complex numbers their abscissas and ordinates are added
separately. This definition corresponds to the rules of operations at usual polynomials.

Subtraction. A difference of two complex numbers a+ bi ( a minuend ) and c+ di ( a
subtrahend ) is called a complex number ( a c ) + ( b d ) i. So, at subtraction of two
complex numbers their abscissas and ordinates are subtracted separately.

Multiplication. A product of complex numbers a+ bi and c+ di is called a complex number:
( ac bd ) + ( ad + bc ) i.
This definition follows from two requirements:
1) the numbers a+ bi and c+ di must be multiplied as algebraic binomials,
2) a number i has a main property: i = 1.

E x a m p l e . ( a+ bi )( a bi )= a + b . Hence it follows, that
a product of two conjugate complex numbers is a real positive number!

Division. To divide a complex number a+ bi ( a dividend ) by another c+ di ( a divisor
) means to find the third number e+ f i ( a quotient ), which being multiplied by the divisorc+
di, results the dividend a+ bi. If divisor isnt equal to zero, then division is always valid.

E x a m p l e . Find ( 8 + i ) : ( 2 3i ) .
S o l u t i o n . Rewrite this quotient as a fraction:
Multiplying its numerator and denominator by 2 + 3i and
executing all operations, well receive:



Geometric representationof complex numbers. Real numbers are represented by points in a
numerical line:



Here a point A means a number 3, a point B a number 2, and O zero. In contrast this
complex numbers are represented by points in a numerical ( coordinate ) plane. For this we
select a system of rectangular ( Cartesian ) coordinates with the same scale in both axes. Then, a
complex number a+ bi will be represented by point P with abscissa a and ordinate b ( see
figure ). This coordinate system is called a complex plane.

___
Modulus of a complex number is a length of vector OP, representing this complex number in a
coordinate(complex) plane. Modulus of complex number a+ bi is signed as | a+ bi | or by
letter r and equal to :


Conjugate complex numbers havethe same modulus.
___
Argument of a complex number is the angle between x-axis and vector OP, representing
this complex number.

Trigonometric form of a complex number. Abscissa a and ordinate b of the complex
number a + bi can be expressed by its modulus r and argument :



Operations with complex numbers, represented in the trigonometric form.


This is the famous Moivres formula.




Here k is any integer. To receive n different values of the n-th degree root of z its necessary
to give n consecutive values for k ( e.g., k = 0, 1, 2,, n 1) .

Mathematical induction



Assume its necessary to prove a statement ( formula, property etc.), depending on a natural
number n . If :
1) this statement is valid for some natural number n
0
,
2) from validity of this statement at n = k its validity follows at n = k + 1 for any k n
0
,
then this statement is valid for any natural number n n
0
.

E x a m p l e 1. Prove that 1 + 3 + 5 + ...+ ( 2n 1 ) = n
2
.

To provethis equalityweusethe mathematical induction method.
It is obvious that at n = 1 this equality is valid. Assume that it is
valid at some k , i.e. the following equality takes place:

1 + 3 + 5 + ... + ( 2k 1 ) = k
2
.

Prove that then it takes place also at k + 1. Consider the correspon-
ding sum at n = k + 1 :

1 + 3 + 5 + ... + ( 2k 1 ) + ( 2k + 1 ) = k
2
+ ( 2k + 1 ) = ( k +1)
2
.

Thus, from the condition that this equality is valid at k it follows,
that it is valid at k+ 1 , hence, it is valid at any natural number n ,
which was to be proved.

Inequalities: common information
Inequality. Signs of inequalities. Identical inequality. Strict inequality.
Non-strict inequality. Solving of inequality or system of simultaneous
inequalities. Main properties of inequalities. Some important inequalities.
Two expressions ( numerical or literal ones ), connected by one of the signs: "more" (>) , "less"
(<), "more than or equal to" (), "less than or equal to" () form an inequality ( numerical or
literal ). Any valid inequality is called an identical inequality. For example, the following
inequalities are identical: 3 7 20 > 2 4 10, a
2
0, | 5 | > 3 ( Why ? ). Depending on
the sign of inequality we have a strict inequality ( > , < ), or a nonstrict inequality ( ,
). The record 5a 4b means, that either 5a is less than 4b or is equal to it. Literal values,
included in an inequality, can be both known values and unknowns. To solve an
inequality means to find the bounds, within which values of unknowns must be contained, so as
the inequality will be valid. To solve a system of simultaneous inequalities means to find the
bounds, within which values of unknowns must be contained, so as all inequalities, containing in
the system will be valid simultaneously.

Main properties of inequalities.


1. If a < b, then b > a ; or if a > b, then b < a .
2. If a > b, then a + c > b + c ; or if a < b, then a + c < b + c . That is, one can add (or
subtract) the same value to both sides of inequality.
3. If a > b and c > d, then a + c > b + d . That is, inequalities of the same sense ( with the
same sign > or < ) can be added term by term. Note, that inequalities of the same sense
cannot be subtracted term by term one from another, because the result can be both
correct and incorrect.
4. If a > b and c < d, then a c > b d . Or if a < b and c > d, then a c < b d . That
is, inequalities of the opposite sense can be subtract one from another, and the sign of the
resulting inequality is the same as of the minuend inequality.
5. If a > b and m > 0, then ma > mb and a/m > b/m . That is, both sides of any inequality
can be multiplied or divided by the same positive number; the inequality sense is the
same.
6. If a > b and m < 0, then ma < mb and a/m < b/m . That is, both sides of any inequality can
be multiplied or divided by the same negative number, but the inequality sense changes to
the opposite one.

Some important inequalities.

1. | a + b | ,a, + , b | . Modulus of sum is not more than sum of the modules.

2. a + 1 / a 2, ( a a positive number ). An equality is valid only at a = 1.

( a and b positive numbers ). An equality takes place only if a = b.
Geometric average is not more than arithmetic average.
In general case this inequality has the following shape:


Numbers a
1
, a
2
, , a
n
are positive. The equality takes place only if all numbers are equal.

Proving and solving of inequalities
Proving of inequalities. Basic methods. Solving of inequalities.
Equivalent inequalities. Method of intervals. Double inequality.
Systems of simultaneous inequalities.

Proving of inequalities. There are some ways to prove inequalities. Well consider
them to prove the inequality:
where a a positive number .
1). Using of the known or before proved inequality. It is known, that: ( a 1 ) 0 .
Opening the brackets, well receive:

Hence it follows:
which was to be proved.
2). Estimating of the sign of difference between sides of inequality. Consider the
difference between the left and the right sides:

moreover, the equality takes place only if a = 1 .
3). Reductio ad absurdum proof ( an indirect proof ) . Assume the contrary
proposition:

Multiplying both of the sides by a , well receive: a + 1 < 2a, i.e. a + 1 2a <
0 , or
( a 1 ) < 0, that is wrong. ( Why ? ) .
The received contradiction proves the validity of the considered inequality.
4). Using of an indefinite inequality.
An indefinite inequality is an inequality with the sign \/ or /\ , when we dont
know how
to turn this sign to receive the valid inequality. There are the same rules of
operations as
for inequalities, containing the signs > or < .Consider the indefinite inequality:

Multiplying both of the sides by a, we receive: a+ 1\/ 2a, i.e. a + 1 2a \/ 0 , or
( a 1 )\/ 0 , but here we know, how to turn the sign \/ to receive the valid
inequality.
( How ? ). Turning it in the whole chain of transformations to the right direction,
we
receive the inequality, which was to be proved.
Solving of inequalities. Two inequalities, containing the same unknowns, are
called equivalent, if they are valid at the same values of the unknowns. The same
definition is used for the equivalence of two systems of simultaneous
inequalities. Solving of inequalities is a process of transition from one inequality to
another, equivalent inequality. For this purpose main properties of inequalities are
used (see above). Besides this, an exchange of any expression by another, identical
one may be used. Inequalities can be algebraic (containing only polynomials)
and transcendental (for instance, logarithmic or trigonometric inequalities). Well
consider here one very important method, often used at solving algebraic inequalities.
Method of intervals. Solve the inequality: ( x 3 )( x 5 ) < 2( x 3 ) . Its
impossible to divide both of the sides of this inequality by ( x 3 ), because we dont
know the sign of this binomial (it contains unknown x ). So, we must transfer all terms
to the left-hand side:
( x 3 )( x 5 ) 2( x 3 ) < 0 ,
and after factoring the left-hand side expression is following:
( x 3 )( x 5 2 ) < 0 ,
we receive: ( x 3 )( x 7 ) < 0. Now we determine the sign of the left side product
in different numerical intervals. Note, that x = 3 and x = 7 are the roots of this
expression. Therefore, the whole numerical line is divided by these roots to the
following three intervals:

In the interval I ( x < 3 ) both factors are negative, so their product is positive; in the
interval II ( 3 < x < 7 ) the first factor ( x 3 ) is positive, and the second factor ( x
7 ) is negative, so their product is negative; in the interval III ( x > 7 ) both of the
factors are positive, so their product is also positive. Now we must select the interval
within which ourproduct is negative. This is the interval II , hence we have the
solution: 3 < x < 7.
The last expression is the so called a double inequality. It means that x must be
greater than 3 and less than 7 simultaneously.
E x a m p l e . Solve the following inequality by the method of intervals:
( x 1 )( x 2 )( x 3 ) ( x 100 ) > 0 .
S o l u t i o n . The roots of the left-hand side of this inequality are: 1, 2, 3, , 100.
The numerical line will be divided by these roots into 101 intervals:

Note, that number of the factors from the left is equal to 100, i.e.
an even
number. Hence, at x < 1 all factors are negative and theirproduct
is positive.
Then well have a change of the product sign at transition of any next
root.
Therefore, the next interval, within which the product is positive will
be
( 2, 3 ) , then ( 4, 5 ) , then ( 6, 7 ) , , ( 98, 99 ) and the last
interval is
x >100. So, the given inequality has the solution:
x < 1, 2 < x < 3, 4 < x < 5 ,, x >100.
Thus, to solve some algebraic inequality its necessary to transfer all terms to the left
(or to the right) side of the inequality and to solve the corresponding equation. After
this, the numerical line is divided by the found roots into some intervals. In the last
stage of solution it is necessary to determine the sign of the polynomial within each of
these intervals and to select the necessary intervals according to the sense of your
inequality.
Note that the most of transcendental inequalities are reduced by exchange of unknown
to an algebraic inequality. Then it should be solved in new unknowns; after the
inverse exchange of unknown it is solved finally in the given unknowns.
Systems of simultaneous inequalities. To solve the system of simultaneous
inequalities it is necessary to solve each of them and to compare their solutions. This
comparison results to one of two possible cases: either the system has a solution as a
whole or does not.
E x a m p l e 1. Solve the system of simultaneous inequalities:


S o l u t i o n. The first inequality solution: x < 4 ; and the second: x > 6. Thus, this
system of
simultaneous inequalities has no solution. ( Why ? )
E x a m p l e 2. Solve the system of simultaneous inequalities:

S o l u t i o n. The first inequality as before gives: x < 4; but the second inequality
gives in this
case: x > 1. Thus, there is the solution: 1 < x < 4.

Arithmetic and geometric progressions
Sequences. Numerical sequences. General term of numerical sequence.
Arithmetic progression. Geometric progression. Infinitely decreasing
geometric progression. Converting of repeating decimal to vulgar fraction.

Sequences. Lets consider the series of natural numbers: 1, 2, 3, , n 1, n , .
If to replace each natural number n in this series by some number u
n
, subordinated
to some law, well receive a new series of numbers:
u
1
, u
2
, u
3
,, u
n - 1
, u
n
, ,
called a numerical sequence. A number u
n
is called a general term of the numerical
sequence.
E x a m p l e s of numerical sequences:
2, 4, 6, 8, 10, , 2n, ;
1, 4, 9, 16, 25, , n , ;
1, 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, , 1/n , .
Arithmetic progression. The numerical sequence, in which each next term beginning
from the second is equal to the previous term, added with the constant for this
sequence number d, is called an arithmetic progression. The number d is called
a common difference. Any term of an arithmetic progression is calculated by the
formula:
a
n
= a
1
+ d ( n 1 ) .
A sum of n first terms of arithmetic progression is calculated as:

E x a m p l e . Find a sum of the first 100 odd numbers.
S o l u t i o n . Use the last formula. Here a
1
= 1, d = 2 . So, we have:

Geometric progression. The numerical sequence, in which each next term beginning
from the second is equal to the previous term, multiplied by the constant for this
sequence number q, is called a geometric progression. The number q is called
a common ratio. Any term of a geometric progression is calculated by the formula:
b
n
= b
1
q
n - 1
.
A sum of n first terms of geometric progression is calculated as:

Infinitely decreasing geometric progression. This is the geometric progression, with
| q | < 1 . For it the notion of a sum of infinitely decreasing geometric progression is
determined as a number, to which a sum of the first n terms of the considered
progression unboundedly approximates at an unbounded increasing of number n .
The infinitely decreasing geometric progression sum is calculated by the formula:

E x a m p l e . Find the sum of the infinitely decreasing geometric progression:

S o l u t i o n . Use the last formula. Here b
1
= 1, q = 1/2. So, we have:

Converting of a repeating decimal to a vulgar fraction. Assume, that we want to
convert the repeating decimal 0.(3) to a vulgar fraction. Consider this decimal in the
more natural form:

This is the infinitely decreasing geometric progression with the first term 3/10 and a
common ratio q = 1/10. According to the above shown formula the last sum is equal
to:



Logarithms


Logarithm. Main logarithmic identity. P roperties of
logarithms. Common logarithm. Natural logarithm.

A logarithm of a positive number N to the base b ( b > 0, b 1) is called an exponent of a
power x , to which b must be raised to receive N .

The designation: & nbsp; &n bsp;


This record is identical to the following one:

E x a m p l e s :

The above presented definition of logarithm may be written as the logarithmic identity :



The main properties of logarithms.

1) log b = 1 , because b
1
= b .
b & nbsp;
& nbsp;
2) log 1 = 0 , because b
0
= 1 .
b

3) Logarithm of a product is equal to a sum of logarithms of factors:

log ( ab ) = log a + log b .

4) Logarithm of a quotient is equal to a difference of logarithms of dividend and divisor:

log ( a / b ) = log a log b .

5) Logarithm of a power is equal to a product of an exponent of the power by logarithm of its
base:



A consequence of this property is the following: logarithm of a root is equal to the logarithm of
radicand divided by the degree of the root:



6) If a base of logarithm is a power, then a value, reciprocal to this power exponent, may be
carried out of the logarithm symbol:



The two last properties may be united in the general property:
& nbsp;


7) The transition module formula ( i.e. a transition from one base of the logarithm to another
base ):


& nbsp; &n bsp; &nb sp; &nbs p;
In the particular case: N = a we have:



Common logarithm is a logarithm to the base 10. It marks as lg , i.e. log 10
N =
lg N. Logarithms of the numbers 10, 100, 1000, ... are equal to 1, 2, 3, correspondingly, i.e. they
haveas many positive ones as many zeros are placed in the number after one. Logarithms of the
numbers 0.1, 0.01, 0.001, ... are equal to 1, 2, 3, , i.e. they have as many negative ones as
many zeros are placed in the number before one ( including zero of integer part ). Logarithms of
the rest of the numbers have a fractional part, called a mantissa. An integer part of logarithm is
called a characteristics. Common logarithms are the most suitable for practical use.

Natural logarithm is a logarithm to the base . It marks as ln , i.e. log
e
N = ln N . The
number is irrational, its approximate value is 2.718281828459045. This number is a limit,
which the number ( 1 + 1 / n )
n
approaches at unbounded increasing of n ( see the first
remarkable limit on the page "Sequences. Limits of numerical sequences. Some remarkable
limits").Strange though it may seem, natural logarithms are very suitable at different operations
in analysis of functions. Calculation of logarithms to the base is executed quicker, than to
any otherbase.

Theory of combinations. Newtons binomial
Permutations. Factorial. Arrangements. Combinations. Newton's binomial.
Binomial coefficients. Pascal's triangle. Properties of binomial coefficients.

By the general name combinations we call three kinds of combinations, composed
from some number of different elements, belonging to the same set ( for instance,
letters of an alphabet, books of a library, cars on a parking, etc.).
Permutations. Take n different elements a
1
, a
2
, a
3
, , a
n
. Well permute them in all
possible ways, saving their quantity and changing only their order. Each of combinations,
received so, is called a permutation. A total quantity of permutations of n elements is signed
as P
n
.This number is equal to a product of all integer numbers from 1 to n:

The symbol n! ( it is called a factorial ) is an abridged record of the product 1 2 3
( n 1 ) n .
E x a m p l e . Find a number of permutations of three elements a, b, c.
S o l u t i o n . According to the above presented formula: P
3
= 1 2 3 = 6.
Actually, we have 6 permutations: abc, acb, bac, bca, cab, cba.
Arrangements. Compose groups of m different elements, taken from a set
of n elements, placing these m taken elements in a different order. The received
combinations are called arrangements of n elements taken m at a time.
Their total quantity is signed as: and equal to the product:

E x a m p l e . Find a number of arrangements of four elements a, b, c, d taken two
at a time.
S o l u t i o n .According to this formula we have:

These arrangements are: ab, ba, ac, ca, ad, da, bc, cb, bd, db, cd, dc.
Combinations. Compose groups of m different elements, taken from a set of n
elements, not taking into consideration an order of these m taken elements. So, we
receivedcombinations of n elements taken m at a time.
Their total quantity is signed as and can be calculated by the formula:

From this formula it is clear, that

Note, that it is possible to compose only one combination of n elements taken n at a
time, that contains all n elements. The above shown formula gives this value only if
to assume, that 0! = 1. This is the definition of 0! .
According to this we have now:

Also another expression is used for total quantity of combinations:

E x a m p l e . Find a number of all combinations of five elements: a, b, c, d, e taken
three at a time.
S o l u t i o n :
All these combinations are: abc, abd, abe, acd, ace, ade, bcd, bde, cde.
Newtons binomial. This is the formula, representing the expression ( a + b )
n
at positive
integer nas the polynomial:

Note, that a sum of exponents of powers for a and b is the constant, equal to n.
E x a m p l e 1 .
( See above one of the formulas of abridged multiplication).

Numbers are called binomial coefficients.
They can be received only by an addition, using the following scheme. In the upper
row we write two units. All following rows begin and end with 1. Intermediate
numbers in these rows are received as a sum of neighboring numbers from the
previous row. This scheme is called Pascals triangle:

The first row in this table contains binomial coefficients for n = 1; the second row -
forn = 2; the third row - forn = 3 and so on.Therefore, if it is necessary, for instance,
to expand an expression:
( a + b )
7
,
we can receive the result at once, using the table:

Properties of binomial coefficients.
1. A sum of coefficients of an expansion ( a + b)
n
is equal to 2
n
.
To prove this, its sufficient to assume a = b = 1. Then, in the right side in Newtons binomial
well have a sum of coefficients :

2. Coefficients of terms, equally removed from ends of the expansion, are equal.

This property follows from the relation:

3. A sum of coefficients of even term is equal to a sum of coefficients of odd terms,
and each of them is equal to

To prove this property well use the binomial: Here even terms
have the sign " + ", odd terms - the sign " - ". As the expansion result is 0, hence,
sums of their binomial coefficients are equal one to another, therefore each of them is
equal to: which was to be proved.