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IN THE SUPREME COURT OF BANGLADESH

APPELLATE DIVISION


PRESENT:
Mr. Justice A.B.M. Khairul Haque.
-Chief Justice.
Mr. Justice Md. Muzammel Hossain.
Mr. Justice S. K. Sinha.
Mr. Justice Md. Abdul Wahhab Miah.
Ms. Justice Nazmun Ara Sultana.
Mr. Justice Syed Mahmud Hossain.
Mr. Justice Muhammad Imman Ali.

CIVIL APPEAL No. 139 of 2005 with CIVIL PETITION
FOR LEAVE TO APPEAL NO.596 OF 2005.

(From the certificate granted under Article 103(2)(a) of the Constitution
of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh and from judgment and order
dated 4.8.2004 passed by the High Court Division in Writ Petition No.
4112 of 1999 )

Abdul Mannan Khan .................. Appellant.
(In C.A. No.139/20005)

Abdul Mannan Khan ................... Petitioner
(In C. P. No.596/2005)
-VERSUS-
Government of Bangladesh, represented
by the Secretary, Ministry of Law, Justice
and Parliamentary Affairs and others.
: ..................Respondents.
(In both the cases)




For the Appellant.
(In C.A. No.139/05)
: Mr.M.I. Farooqui, Senior Advocate
(with Mr. Mohsin Rashid, Advocate)
instructed by Mr. M.G. Bhuiyan,
Advocate-on-Record.
For the Petitioner.
(In C.P.No.596/05)
: Mr.M.I. Farooqui, Senior Advocate
(with Mr. Mohsin Rashid, Advocate)
instructed by Mr. M. G. Bhuiyan,
Advocate-on-Record
For Respondent Nos.1-2.
(In C.A. No.139/05)
: Mr. Mahbubey Alam, Attorney
General, with Mr. M. K. Rahman,
Additional Attorney General, Mr.
Murad Reza, Additional Attorney
General, Md. Mothahar Hossain Saju,
Deputy Attorney General, A.B.M.
Altaf Hossain, Deputy Attorney
General, Md. Ekramul Haque,
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Assistant Attorney General, Khandaker
Diliruzzaman, Assistant Attorney
General, Amit Talukder, Assistant
Attorney General, instructed by Mr. B.
Hossain, Advocate-on-Record.

Respondent Nos.3-7.
(In C. A. No.139/05)

: Not represneted.

Respondents.
(In C.P.No.596/05)

: Not represented.
As amici curiae :
Mr. T.H. Khan, Senior Advocate
Dr. Kamal Hossain, Senior Advocate
Mr. Rafique-ul-Huq, Senior Advocate
Dr. M. Zahir, Senior Advocate
Mr. M. Amirul Islam, Senior Advocate
Mr. Mahmudul Islam, Senior Advocate
Mr. Rokanuddin Mahmud, Senior Advocate
Mr. Ajmalul Hossain, Senior Advocate

Dates of hearing. : 01.03.2011, 10.03.2011, 21.03.2011,
22.03.2011,24.03.2011, 30.03.2011,
31.03.2011, 03.04.2011, 04.04.2011,
06.04.2011 & 10.05.2011.



J U D G M E N T


A.B.M. KHAIRUL HAQUE, C.J. :-

c _ g f vM

A vc xj ` vq i I c v_ wg K A vj vPb v

1| c vi t nvBK vU wef vM K Z K mswea vb ( q v` k
msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 6 ( 19 9 6 Gi 1b s A vBb ) Gi ea Z v c ` vb
mwVK nBq vQ wK b v A A vc xj mB c k D vc b K i v nBq vQ|
c K Z c mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 6 ( 19 9 6
Gi 1b s A vBb ) Gi A vBb MZ A e vb wb i c Y A A vc xj i wePvh
wel q |
2 | msw A v` k t 10 / 0 5 / 2 0 11 Z vwi L i vq c ` vb K vj
wb v A v` k c ` vb K i v nq t
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It is hereby declared:
(1) The appeal is allowed by majority without any order as to costs.
(2) The Constitution (Thirteenth amendement) Act, 1996 (Act 1 of 1996)
is prospectively declared void and ultra vires the Constitution.
(3) The election of the Tenth and the Eleventh Parliament may be held
under the provisions of the above mentioned Thirteenth Amendment
on the age old prinicples, namely, quod alias non est licitum,
necessitas licitum facit (That which otherwise is not lawful, necessity
makes lawful), salus populi suprema lex (safety of the people is the
supreme law) and salus republicae est suprema lex (safety of the
State is the Suprme law).
The parliament, however, in the meantime, is at liberty to bring
necessary amendments excluding the provisions of making the
former Chief Justices of Bangladesh or the Judges of the Appellate
Division as the head of the Non-Party Care-taker Government.
The Judgment in detail would follow.
The connected Civil Petition for leave to appeal No.596 of 2005 is
accordingly, disposed of.

3 | nvBK vUK Z K i j R vi x t A A v` vj Z i GK R b we
GvW&f vK U g i g M. Saleem Ullah q v` k msk va b A vBb i ea Z v
D vc b K i Z t nvBK vUwef vM GK wU i xU&g vK v g v, i xU wc wUk b b s
4 112 / 19 9 9 ` vq i K i b | ` i L v K vi x c i we GvW&f vK U
g nv` q K k eY K i Z t nvBK vUwef vMi GK wU e evsj v` k
mi K vi c mwPe, A vBb I msm` wel q K g Yvj q I A b vb
c wZ ev` xMYi ei vei GK wU Rule Nisi wb wj wL Z f ve 2 5 - 1- 2 0 0 0
Z vwi L R vi x K i t
Upon hearing Mr. M.I. Farooqui the learned Counsel for the petitioner in
support of the petition and the learned Attorney General appearing for the
Bangladesh who opposed the petition and as serious points of constitutional
importance emerged out of the arguments of the learned counsel and the learned
Attorney General, let a rule nisi be issued upon the respondents calling upon
them to show cause as to why the impugned Constitution (Thirteen Amendment)
Act, 1996 (Act No. 1 of 1996) (Annexure A & A-1 to the petition) should
not be declared to be ultra vires of the constitution of the Peoples Republic of
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Bangladesh and of no legal effect and/or pass such other or further order or
orders as to this court may fit and proper.
.......................................................................
4 | c wZ ev` x c f ~ K i Y t evsj v` k d Wvi j BDwb q b
A e&R vb vwj m Gi mf vc wZ R b ve A vg vb yj vn K wei Gi A ve` b i
wf wZ nvBK vUwef vM Bnvi 19 - 4 - 2 0 0 0 Z vwi L i A v` k ej
Z vnvK 5 b s c wZ ev` x wnmve c f z K i | Z vnvQvo v, A vI q vg x j xM
I evsj v` k R vZ xq Z vev` x ` j Gi g nvmPxeq i A ve` b g
A v` vj Z Bnvi 2 5 - 4 - 2 0 0 0 Z vwi L i A v` k ej Z vnvw` MK
h _ v g 6 I 7 b s c wZ ev` x wnmve c f ~ K i Z t Z vnv` i ei vei
Rule R vi x nq |

5 | R eve, c Z zi BZ vw` t 1, 5 I 6 b s c wZ ev` xc
c _ K c _ K affidavit in opposition ` vwL j K wi q v RulewU Discharge c v_ b v
K i | ` i L v K vi xc GK wU Supplementary affidavit I GK wU affidavit in
reply ` vwL j K i v nq |
6 | wWwf k b e b vb x t nvBK vUwef vMi wePvi c wZ
Shah Abu Nayem Mominur Rahman I wePvi c wZ Md. Abdul Awal mg b q MwVZ
GK wU Division Bench G 2 1- 7 - 2 0 0 3 Z vwi L g vK v g vwU b vb x A vi
nq | wK b vb x K vj c Z xq g vb nq h q v` k msk va b A vBb wUi
ea Z v c m BwZ c ~ei xU&wc wUk b b s 17 2 9 / 19 9 6 ( mq ` g vnv `
g wk Di i ng vb eb vg evsj v` k i i vc wZ I A b vb ) g vK v g vq
D vc b K i v nBq vwQj , wK wePvi c wZ Md. Mozammal Haque I wePvi c wZ
M.A. Matin mg b q MwVZ Division Bench K vb Rule R vi x b v K wi q v 2 5 - 7 -
19 9 6 Z vwi L wb wj wL Z msw A v` k c ` vb K wi q v wc wUk b wU
L vwi R K i b t
Since the provisions of the 13
th
Amendment Act, as it appears to us, do
not come within definitions of alternation, substitution or repeal of any provision
of the Constitution and since for temporary measures some provisions of the
Constitution will remain ineffective, we do not find any substance in the
submission of the petitioner that Article 56 of the Constitution had been in fact
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amended by 13
th
Amendment Act. On the face of the 13
th
Amendment Act it
appears that those provisions were made only for a limited period for ninety
days before holding general election after dissolution of the Parliament or before
expiry of the Parliament. We find that no unconstitutional action was taken by
the legislature and as such we do not find any reason to interfere with 13
th

Amendment Act, we do not find any merit in the application and accordingly it
is summarily rejected.

7 | eni e MVb i myc vwi k t eZ g vb i xU&g vK v g vq
( i xU&wc wUk b b s 4 112 / 19 9 9 ) we wePvi K e` nvBK vUwef vMi
Dc i v A v` k i mwnZ wg Z c vl Y K wi q v wel q wU b vb x K wi evi
R b GK wU Full Bench MVb K wi evi R b 2 1- 7 - 2 0 0 3 Z vwi L
wb wj wL Z g Z c K vk K wi q v g vb b xq c a vb wePvi c wZ ei vei c k
K i b t
Since we could not agree with the earlier decision in the case of Syed
Md. Mashiur Rahman on the issue of validity of Act 1/96, we refrain from
entering into other issues raised in the writ petition and did not take into our
consider any submission on the issue of violation as to or destruction of basic
structure of the Constitution, though we have mentioned hereinabove in the
context of understanding the issue of amendment of Articles-48 and 56 of the
Constitution, and the same should not be treated as our opinion or observation
on the issue of violation or destruction of the basic structure of the
Constitution, more so when we have not given any hearing on that issue.
Accordingly as submitted by the learned Advocates on behalf of the
petitioner and respondent No. 6 as well as by the learned Additional Attorney-
General we are of the opinion that it is proper case for referring for a decision by
Full Bench as per provision of chapter-VII of the High Court Division Rules.
Having regard to the gravity and importance of the issues raised in the writ
petition, including that of destruction of basic structure of the Constitution, we
are of the opinion that the Full Bench, if constituted, should decide all issues
raised in the writ petition and particularly the issue whether the Act 1/96 has
caused amendment in the provisions of Articles-48(3) and 56 of the Constitution
requiring assent thereto through referendum as contemplated by Article-
142(1A), (1B) and (1C) of the Constitution.
Accordingly let this matter be placed before the learned Chief Justice for
necessary order for a decision by a Full Bench as required under Rule-1 of
Chapter-VII of the High Court Division Rules.

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A Z t c i , g vb b xq c a vb wePvi c wZ wZ b R b wePvi c wZ mg b q
GK wU Full Bench MVb K i Z t A i xU&g vK v g vwU b vb xi wb ` k c ` vb
K i b |
8 | Full Bench G b vb x t b vb x A nvBK vUwef vMi
GK wU Full Bench q v` k msk va b A vBb wU ea Nvl Yv K wi q v Rule wU
L vwi R K i |
` yBwU c v_ wg K wel q mn g vU c vuPwU wel q Full Bench weePb v
K i | c v_ wg K wePvh wel q q wb i c t
K ) whether the petitioner had the necessary locus standi to challenge
the impugned amendment,
L ) whether the writ petition is hit by the principle of res judicata.
Full Bench Dc i i ` yBwU wePvh wel q B i xU&` i L v K vi xi c
wb w K i |
Full Bench Dc i v wePvh wel q weePb v K wi Z h vBq v K.M.
Rahman V. Bangladesh 26 DLR (AD) 44, Dr. Mohiuddin Faruque V. Bangladesh 49
DLR (AD) 1 Ges ETV Ltd. V. BTRC 54 DLR(AD) 130 g vK v g v wj i i vq i
Dc i wb f i K i Z t A i xU&g vK v g vwU ` vq i K wi Z ` i L v K vi xi
locus standi i wnq vQ ewj q v Nvl Yv K i |
Res judicata Z m ^ Full Bench Gi wb K U c wi j w Z nq h
eZ g vb i xU& g vK v g vi ` i L v K vi x c ~ei i xU& wc wUk b b s
17 2 9 / 19 9 6 g vK v g vq ` i L v K vi x wQj b b v ev Z vnv` i g a A b
K vb c vi wi K c wZ wb wa Z g yj K m K (mutual representative character)
wQj b v| GB K vi Y eZ g vb i xU&g vK v g v Res judicata Z vi v ` y b q
ewj q v Full Bench g Z c K vk K i |

A b vb c a vb wePvh wel q wj wb i c t
M) whether the impugned amendments require referendum under sub-
article (1A) of Article 142 of the Constitution.
N) whether the impugned Act, bringing the amendments in the
Constitution, is destructive of the principle of democracy,
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O) whether the amendment of Article 142 by adding clauses (1A), (1B)
and (1C) thereto by the Second Proclamation (Fifteenth Amendment) Order,
1978, can be said to be a valid constitutional amendment.
Z vnvQvo v, wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v ms v wel q wUI Full Bench
weePb v K i |
Full Bench Gi wZ b R b we wePvi K e` GK g Z nBq v Rule wU
Discharge K i b , Z e Z uvnvi v c Z K B c _ K c _ K i vq c ` vb K i b |

9 | 10 3 A b y Q` i A a xb mvwUwd K U c ` vb t i vq
c ` vb k l ` i L v K vi xi A ve` b weePb v K i Z t Full Bench mswea vb i
10 3 A b y Q` Gi A vI Z vq GB g g mvwUd K U c ` vb K i h
g vg j vwUi mwnZ mswea vb - evL vi wel q A vBb i i Z c ~Yc k R wo Z
i wnq vQ|
nvBK vUwef vM mywb w` f ve Dj L b v K wi j I c K Z c
mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 6 ( 19 9 6 Gi 1b s A vBb )
Gi A vBb MZ A e vb wb i c YB mvswea vwb K i I c ~b c k I A
A vc xj wef vMi g ~j wePvh wel q |
A Z t c i , A vc xj wef vM wel q wU A vc xj wnmve b w_ f z K i v
nq | Z vnvQvo v, i xU&` i L v K vi x A vi GK wU c _ K Civil Petition for Leave
to Appeal No. 596 of 2005 ` vq i K i | BnvI A vc xj wUi mwnZ GK i vL v
nq |
A vc xj K vi x A ve` b i c w Z we Chamber wePvi c wZ Z uvnvi
14 - 12 - 2 0 10 Z vwi L i A v` k ej A vc xj wU 10 - 1- 2 0 11 Z vwi L
b vb xi R b wb a vi Y K i b |
A Z c i , 1- 3 - 2 0 11 Z vwi L A vc xj wUi b vb x A vi nq |

10 | nvBK vUwef vMi i vq c h vj vPb v t c _ g B A vg i v
nvBK vUwef vMi Full Bench Gi i vq A vj vPb v K wi e|
8
c ~eB ej v nBq vQ h g ~j wePvh wel q weePb vi c ~eFull Bench
c _ g ` yBwU c v_ wg K wel q , h _ v, i xU&` i L v wUi i Yxq Z v I res
judicata Z vi v evwi Z wK b v Z vnv weePb v K i |
Full Bench Gi wZ b R b we wePvi K e` GK g Z nBj I
c Z K B c _ K c _ K i vq c ` vb K i b |
c _ g B wePvi c wZ Md. Joynul Abedin Gi A vj vPb vwU weePb vq
j I q v nBj | wZ wb Z vnvi i vq i c _ g ` i L v K vi xi wb R i Locus standi
I ` i L v wU res judicata Z vi v evwi Z wK b v Z vnv c v_ wg K wePvh wel q
wnmve weePb v K wi q vQb |
h K vb i xU&g vK v g vq , wek l K wi q v Z vnv h w` R b ^v_ g ~j K
i xU&g vK v g v nBq v _ vK m ` i L v K vi xi locus standi wel q wU
A Z i Z c ~Y| K vi Y, h K vb ew mswea vb i 10 2 A b y Q` i
A vI Z vq myc xg K vUi nvBK vUwef vMi GB wek l A vw` g Z v
h vP&T v K wi Z c vi b v| wZ wb h 10 2 A b y Q` i A vI Z vq GK R b
ms z ew c _ g B Z vnv c wZ w Z K wi Z nBe|
i xU&` i L v K vi x Z vnvi i xU&` i L v i 2 q ` d vq Z vnvi locus standi
c m wb wj wL Z e e c ` vb K wi q vQb t
Your petitioner is a citizen of Bangladesh. He is a practising Advocate
of the Supreme Court of Bangladesh and holds the Constitution of the
Republic in high esteem. It is the sacred duty of every citizen to
safeguard and defend the Constitution and to maintain its supremacy as
the embodiment of the will of the people of Bangladesh. Your petitioner
is also the Secretary General of the Association for Democratic and
Constitutional Advancement of Bangladesh (ADCAB), which has been
working for the peoples awareness to guard against the violation of the
Constitution and the rule of law.

mswea vb g vb K i v evsj v` k i mK j b vMwi K i GK wU wek l
mvswea vwb K ` vwq Z | eZ g vb i xU&g vK v g vq ` i L v K vi x mswea vb i
Z wK Z msk va b wUK mswea vb i A b Z g c a vb basic feature MYZ i
mwnZ mvsNwl K ` vex K wi q vQb | Z wK Z msk va b evsj v` k i
GK R b mveK c a vb wePvi c wZ K Z vea vq K mi K vi i Dc ` v
9
wb q vMi wea vb _ vK vq wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v zb nBZ c vi
ewj q v Z vnvi ` i L v A vk v c K vk K i v nBq vQ| wePvi wef vMi
^va xb Z vI mswea vb i GK wU basic structure ewj q v wZ wb ` vex K wi q vQb |
Z vnvQvo v, ` i L v K vi x myc xg K vUi GK R b we GvW&f vK U|
A Z Ge, evsj v` k i GK R b b vMwi K wnmve I myc xg K vUi GK R b
we GvW&f vK U wnmve ` k i mswea vb I wePvi wef vMi
^va xb Z vi wel q ` i L v K vi xi ms z nBevi K vi Y _ vwK Z c vi
wea vq GB i xU&g vK v g v ` vq i Z vnvi locus standi i wnq vQ ewj q v
A vg i v nvBK vUwef vMi wm v i mwnZ GK g Z |
A A v` vj Z i c ~ewb wK Z Kazi Mukhlesur Rahman V. Bangladesh
26 DLR (SC) (1974) 44 I Dr. Mohiuddin Faruque V. Bangladesh 49 DLR (AD)
(1997) 1 g vK g vq D vwc Z Locus standi Bmyi Dc i c ` wm v
A b yg v` b K i v nBj |

Dj L h A A vc xj g vK v g vwU A vc xj wef vM wePvi va xb
_ vK vK vj xb mg q g ~j i xU&` i L v K vi x A vwc j U g Z zg yL c wZ Z
nb | A Z c i , R b ve g vt i j K z ym, GvW&f vK U, Z vnvi j vwf wl
nb | R b ve g vt i j K y ym Z vnvi j vwf wl nBevi 4 - 11- 2 0 0 8
Z vwi L i A ve` b c wb wj wL Z wb e` b i vL b t

2. That during pendency of the present appeal, the appellant M. Saleem Ullah
died on 3.8.2008 at BIRDEM hospital in Dhaka. A true copy of his death
certificate is annexed hereto as Annexure-A.
3. That Mr. M. Saleem Ullah was a pioneer of Public Interest Litigation and
was the Secretary General of the Association for Democratic and
Constitutional Advancement of Bangladesh (in short ADCAB) and he
brought the case before the Honble Court in capacity of the Secretary
General of ADCAB in the interest of public.
4. That the applicant Md. Ruhul Quddus is the successor Secretary General of
ADCAB after the sad demise of Mr. M. Saleem Ullah. He is a learned
Advocate of the Supreme Court of Bangladesh, a public interest litigant and
public spirited person believes in supremacy of the Constitution and is
having same grievance of Mr. M. Saleem Ullah.
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5. That the present Civil Appeal is having great public importance, by which
the Constitution (Thirteen) Amendment) Act 1996 (Act No. 1 of 1996) has
been challenged as being ultra vires of the Constitution. The said amendment
has introduced the concept of Non-party Care Taker Government, a non-
representative and undemocratic Government in violation of the basic and
fundamental concept of democracy and also in violation of the mandatory
provision of Article 142 (1A) of the Constitution; that independence of the
judiciary, a basic structure of the Constitution is also affected and impaired
by the impugned Act.

BwZ g a R b ve g vt i j K z ym nvBK vUwef vM wePvi c wZ
wb h y nBj R b ve A v yj g vb vb L vb A vc xj K vi x wnmve Z vnvi
j vwf wl nb | Z vnvi 9 - 12 - 2 0 10 Z vwi L i A ve` b c wZ wb
ej b t

4. That after the sad demise of M. Saleem Ullah, his successor-in-office
Md. Ruhul Quddus was substituted in the present appeal, who has now been
elevated on the bench on 4.11.2010.
5. That after elevation of Mr. Ruhul Quddus, the central committee of
ADCAB through a decision of its general meeting entrusted the present
applicant, Md. Abdul Mannan Khan as the next Secretary General of ADCAB
and also instructed him to proceed with and conduct the public interest
litigations (PIL) initiated by ADCAB. The applicant is an Advocate of the
Supreme Court of Bangladesh, a public spirited person who believes in
supremacy of the Constitution of the Republic and independence of the
judiciary. He is having the same grievance as Mr. M. Saleem Ullah had as
Secretary General of ADCAB.

Dj L , h L b A vc xj wU ` vq i K i v nq Z L b g ~j A vc xj K vi x
R xweZ wQj b | Z r c i , Z vnvi j vwf wl ew I myc xg K vUi
GK R b we GvW&f vK U| ` k i b vMwi K I A A v` vj Z i we
GvW&f vK U wnmve A A vc xj g vK v g vwU c wi Pvj b v K wi Z Z vnvi
c q vR b xq locus standi i wnq vQ eU|

Z vnvQvo v, eZ g vb A vc xj g vK v g vq GK wU A Z i Z c ~Y
mvswea vwb K c k D vwc Z nBq vQ| Bnv myi vnv K i v R vZ xq ^v_ A wZ
c q vR b | GB c m Ardeshir H Mama V. Flora Sassoon 55 Ind. App. 360=AIR
11
1928 PC 208 g vK v g vwU c wYa vb h vM| Bnv GK wU Pzw c ej i
g vK v g v wQj | wK g vK v g vwU wb A v` vj Z wb w nBevi c ~eB
ev` x Pzw A vi c vj b K wi Z i vwR b b ewj q v weev` xK R vb vq wea vq
Privy Council G c MYi A vBb MZ A e vb wb a vi Yi c q vR b wQj b v,
Z eyI we vwi Z b vb x nq Ges G c m Lord Blanesburgh ej b t
In these circumstances their Lordships think, that whether or not this
appeal can be disposed of without further reference to it, they ought to express
their views upon so important a question of practice now that it has been raised
and fully argued. In such a matter certainty is more important than anything else.
A rule of practice, even if it be statutory, can when found to be inconvenient be
altered by competent authority. Uncertainty in such a matter is at best an
embarrassment and may at its wrost be a source of injustice which, in some
cases, may be beyond judicial remedy. Accordingly in this judgment, their
Lordships will deal with all the matters in controversy to which they have
referred, irrespective of the question whether last of them of necessity now calls
for determination at their hand. (page 366 IA)

Union of India V. Sankalchand Himatlal Sheth, AIR 1977 SC 2328
g vK v g vq wePvi c wZ Sheth K A b GK wU nvBK vUe` wj K wi j
R i vU nvBK vUZ vnv A ea Nvl Yv K i | myc xg K vUA vc xj
wePvi va xb _ vK vK vj xb mg q mi K vi Z vnvi e` wj i A v` k c Z vnvi
K wi j wZ wb I i xU&g vK v g vwU c Z vnvi K i b | wK Z vnv mZ I
myc xg K vUi wePvi c wZ MY Z wK Z wel q wU m K we vwi Z i vq c ` vb
K i b | G c m Justice VR Krishna Iyr Gi A wf g Z c wYa vb h vMt
118. We have earlier stated that the appeal has happily ended by
consensus. The deeper constitutional issues have been considered and answered
by us, responding to our duty under Article 141 and to avoid future shock to the
cardinal idea of justice to the justices. ......... The highest court with
constitutional authority to declare the law cannot shrink from its obligation
because the lis which has activised its jurisdiction has justly been
adjusted.(A a vi L v c ` )

Gg Z A e vq h nZ zg ~j A vwc j Ui j GK B a i b i Locus
Standi m b A vwc j U j vwf wl nBq vQb Ges Z wK Z wel q wU
mvswea vwb K f ve A wZ k q i Z c ~Ywea vq wb w K i v c q vR b |
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c ~eB Dj L K i v nBq vQ h i xU&wc wUk b b s 17 2 9 / 19 9 6 (Syed
Muhammed Mashiur Rahman V. Bangladesh 17 BLD 55) g vK v g vq mswea vb
( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb Gi ea Z v Pvj K i v nBq vwQj wK
nvBK vUwef vM i j R vi x b v K wi q v GK wU msw A v` k Z vnv
L vwi R K i |
Bnv mZ h ` I q vb x K vh wewa A vBb i 11 a vi v A b ymvi GK B
c MYi g a GK B wel q j Bq v GK B K vi Yva xb A vi GK wU b ~Z b
g vK v g v res judicata Z A b ymvi evwi Z | BnvI mZ h ` I q vb x
K vh wewa A vBb i 14 1 a vi v A b ymvi mva vi YZ ` I q vb x K vh wewa
A vBb i xU&g vK v g vi I c h vR , Z e mB c q vM ` I q vb x
g vK v g vi b vq memg q GK B i K g f ve b vI nBZ c vi |
i xU&g vK v g v GK wU wek l A vw` ev g ~j g vK v g v| GBi c
g vK v g v g ~j Z A vBb i c k Z B mxg ve | nvBK vUwef vMi GK wU
e h w` A vBb i c k wU GK f ve wm v c ` vb K i Z e mva vi Y
f ve Bnv mg MnvBK vUwef vMi B wm v ewj q v MnY K wi Z nq |
Z e GK wU g vZ K A vBb x wm v K L b B nvBK vUi A vi GK wU
e A b ymi Y K wi Z eva b q | The blunders of one age cannot warrant the
blunders of another ( Watkins : Principles of Conveyancing) (Professor J.H.Baker : An
Introduction to English Legal History, page-105) |
K vb GK wU wel q c ~ev wm v nBj nvBK vUwef vM GK B
A vBb i c k n c K wi Z msh Z nBe wVK B wK GL &wZ q vi wenxb
nBe b v| GB c vc U f vi Z xq myc xg K vUi B. Prabhakar Rao V. State
of A.P, AIR1986 SC 210, g vK v g vq c ` i vq c wYa vb h vM ( c v-
2 2 7 ) t
23........ a writ petition similar to Writ Petitions Nos. 3420-346/83 etc.
had been filed earlier and had been dismissed in limine by a Bench of
this Court. We do not see how the dismissal in limine of such a writ
petition can possibly bar the present writ petitions. Such a dismissal in
limine may inhibit our discretion but not our jurisdiction. So the
objection such as it was, was not pursued further.

13
Z e h w` nvBK vUwef vMi A vi GK wU e c ~ev e i
wm v i mwnZ wg Z c vl Y K i Z e High Court Rules A b ymvi D
e GK wU eni e MVb K wi evi j c ` c MnY K wi Z
c vi | Gnb res judicata-i K vb c k DV b v|
g ~j K _ v nBZ Q h Z wK Z wel q wU Pzo v wm v nBq vQ wK b v|
h w` A vc xj wef vM K vb A vBb x c k i Pzo v wm v nq , Z vnv
nvBK vUwef vM Ges A a b mK j A v` vj Z i Dc i eva K i | mB
GK B c k ev GK B NUb v c yb i vq nvBK vUD vc b evwi Z nBe|
A vc xj wef vM h w` I stare decisis Z A b ymvi D wef vM
g xg vsmxZ c k b wR i (precedence) wnmve c vq mK j mg q B A b ymi Y
K wi e Z e A vc xj wef vMi wb K U h w` wb R i K vb A vBb x wm v
g vZ K ewj q v c Z xq g vb nq Z e D A vBb x wm v c wi eZ b K wi Z
c vi K vi Y For that were to wrong every man having a like cause, becuase another
was wronged before: Vaughan, C.J. (in Bole V. Horton,1673) (Professor J.H.Baker:
An Introduction to English Legal History, page-105) |
Gnb A vBb x A e vb A vg i v res judicata c k nvBK vUwef vMi
mwnZ GK g Z c vl Y K wi |
Z r c i g ~j wePvh wel q ( M) m ^ wePvi c wZ Abedin ej b h
mswea vb i c veb v ev mswk h mK j wea vb h wj msk va b K wi j
MYf vU c q vR b nq Z uvnvi GK wUI msk va b K i v nq b vB wea vq
MYf vUi I c k I V b v|
` i L v K vi x c wb e` b h mswea vb i 5 8 L , 5 8 M I 5 8 N
A b y Q` wj c veb v, 8 , 4 8 I 5 6 A b y Q` wj K mi vmwi b v
nBj I c i v f ve msk va b K wi q vQ GB e ei c w Z we
wePvi K wm v c ` vb K i b h D A b y Q` wj i K vb msk va b x nq
b vB, Z wK Z A vBb wU 4 8 ( 3 ) , 14 1K ( 1) I 14 1M( 1) A b y Q` wj K
mxwg Z mg q i R b wMZ K wi q vQ g v |
Z r c i , mswea vb i basic structure h _ vt MYZ I wePvi wef vMi
^va xb Z vK 5 8 L nBZ 5 8 O Ges 9 9 ( 1) A b y Q` i msk va b x K vb
14
f ve L eK wi q vQ wK b v Z vnv we wePvi K weePb v K wi q vQb | GB
c m Z uvnvi g e GB h MYZ I wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v Df q B
mswea vb i basic feature | Z vnvQvo v, A eva I my wb evPb I MYZ i
A sk Ges mswea vb i basic feature|
c vwK vb I f vi Z Gg b wK evsj v` k i g ~j mswea vb I caretaker
mi K vi ee v i wnq vQ, R b ve i wd K - Dj nK I R b ve i v vK we
GvW&f vK U g nv` q MYi GB wb e` b , Ges Since such scheme was not
found to suit the genius of the people of our country there was an out cry for a non-party
care-taker government to hold the general election of the Parliament to ensure free, fair
and independent election Z uvnv` i GB e e wePvi c wZ Abedin h_
A _ en ewj q v g Z c K vk K i b |
mswea vb i 9 9 ( 1) A b y Q` m ^ ` i L v K vi x c D vwc Z
e e h A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ I wePvi c wZ MYK h _ v g
c a vb Dc ` v c ` wb q vMi mvswea vwb K eva v ` ~i xf ~Z K wi q v wePvi
wef vMi ^va xb Z v L eK i v nBq vQ| GB e ei c w Z wePvi c wZ
Abedin g b K i b h A eva , my z I wb i c wb evPb i mv_
A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ I wePvi c wZ MYK h _ v g h w` c a vb
Dc ` v wb q vM K i v nq Z vnv weZ wK Z K wi evi K vb K vi Y b vB|
wePvi c wZ Md. Joynul Abedin MYZ I wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z vK
mswea vb i basic structure ewj q vQb eU Z e Z wK Z msk va b wj D
basic structureq K L eK wi q vQ wK b v m m K vb g e K i b
b vB| wePvi c wZ Md. Awlad Ali Z uvnvi c _ K i vq ej b h Z wK Z
mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb mswea vb i 8 , 4 8 I 5 6
A b y Q` K msk va b K i b v wea vq 14 2 ( 1K ) A b y Q` i A vI Z vq
MYf vUi K vb c q vR b b vB|
wePvi c wZ Ali g b K i b h c K Z MYZ i ^v_ B wb i c
Z vea vq K mi K vi ee v c ewZ Z nBq vQ| wZ wb g b K i b h
MYZ i ^v_ mxwg Z mg q i R b mswea vb i 4 8 ( 3 ) , 5 6 I 5 7 ( 3 )
15
A b y Q` wMZ i vwL j K vb wZ b vB| wK mswea vb I i vxq R xeb
D wea vb wj i i Z m ^ wZ wb K vb e e c ` vb K i b b vB|
A Z t c i t , wePvi c wZ Ali mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb ,
mswea vb i 8 , 4 8 ( 3 ) , 5 6 I 5 7 ( 3 ) A b y Q` wj K vb f ve
msk va b K i wK b v Z vnv A vj vPb v K i b | wZ wb ej b h 5 8 ( L )
nBZ 5 8 ( O) c h A b y Q` wj mswea vb i , wek l K wi q v 4 8 ( 3 ) ,
5 6 I 5 8 ( O) A b y Q` i K vb c wi eZ b ev msk va b A vb q b K i
b vB| Z wK Z msk va b ` vi v Dc i v A b y Q` wj c wi ewZ Z nBj
m wj K K vh K i K wi Z msm` K c yb i vq A vBb wewa e K wi Z
nBZ , wK G wZ b g vm c i b ~Z b mi K vi g Z v MnYi c i g ~j
4 8 ( 3 ) , 5 6 I 5 7 ( 3 ) A b y Q` wj c yb i vq ^q sw q f ve K vh K i
nBe| GB wZ b g vm mg q D A b y Q` wj wMZ I A K vhK i
_ vwK e g v , K vR B GB K vh g K mswea vb msk va b ej v h vq b v
ewj q v wZ wb g Z c K vk K i b |
A ek q v` k msk va b m K wePvi c wZ Ali i wb R i g e t
is a peculiar and novel political contrivance, and it is an unprecedented
legislation in our legislative history....

G m ^ A vi K vb g e wb vq vR b |

A Z c i t , wePvi c wZ Ali q v` k msk va b A vBb , wePvi wef vMi
^va xb Z v zb K wi q vQ wK b v m m K A vj vPb v K i b | wePvi
wef vMi ^va xb Z v mswea vb i GK wU basic structure ewj q v wePvi c wZ Ali
g e K i b | wZ wb ej b h GK R b A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ
A emi MnYi c i wePvi wef vMK A vi K vb f ve c f vevwb Z K wi Z
c vi b b v| wZ wb A vk v c K vk K i b h A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ ev
A b K vb wePvi c wZ h vnvi c a vb Dc ` v nBevi K _ v Z uvnvi h w` K vb
wek l i vR b wZ K ` j i c wZ c c vZ ev ` yej Z v _ vK Z e Z vnvi
D c ` MnY b v K i vB DwPr |
wK c K Z c c vZ ev ` yej Z v _ vK v ev b v _ vK v c k b q , mwVK
c k nBZ Q h H i c K vb m veb v A vQ wK b v| Gg b wK h w`
16
m eb vI _ vK Z vnv nBj B mswk wePvi c wZ I Z vnvi m wePvi
wef vMi f veg ywZ I zb nBe|
mswea vb i basic structure a sm nI q v c m wePvi c wZ Ali mvg wi K
A vBb vi v mswea vb c wi eZ b Ges Z r c i mswea vb ( c g msk va b )
A vBb , 19 7 9 , g vi d r A b yg v` b I wb w Z K i Y c m A vj vPb v K i b
h vnv eZ g vb g vK v g vi wel q e yb q | wZ wb A ek mwVK f veB ej b
h R vZ xq msm` i I basic structure c wi eZ b K wi evi K vb g Z v b vB|
we wePvi c wZ basic structure c wi eZ b c m A vj vPb v K wi Z
h vBq v mvg wi K A vBb vi v mswea vb i basic structure c wi eZ b m ^
A vj vPb v K i b wK GB c m A g vK v g vi wePvh wel q b n|
wePvh wel q nBj Z wK Z mswea vb msk va b A vBb wUi vi v MYZ I
wePvi wef vM Gi b vq basic structure K K vb f ve L eK wi q vQ wK b v,
wK G m ^ we wePvi K K vb wb w Z g e K i b b vB|
wePvi c wZ Mirza Hussain Haider Z uvnvi i vq i c vi MYZ j Bq v
A vj vPb v K i b | wZ wb MYZ c m President Abraham Lincoln nBZ
D wZ c ` vb K i b , Justice Mathew nBZ rule of majority Ges Sir Ivor
Jennings nBZ the vesting of the political power in free and fair election g e
D Z K i Z t wb evPb g va g B h msL vMwi Z v wb Yq m e Z vnv
ej b | MYZ K c vwZ vwb K i c c ` vb K wi evi R b mg q g Z A eva
I my y wb evPb i c q vR b xq Z v Ge s H i c A eva I my y wb evPb i
A b yc w wZ Z MYZ h A _ nxb nBq v c o Z vnvI mywb c yb f ve eYb v
K i b |
Rao V. State (1998) 4 SCC 626 b wR i wUi c wZ ` w A vK l Y c ~eK
wePvi c wZ Haider ej b h MYZ h w` I mswea vb i GK wU basic structure
wK mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb , A ea nBe b v K vi Y Bnv
MYZ i Dr K l mva b K wi q vQ|
D Z b wR i wUZ c wZ i Dr K l i K _ v ej v nBq vQ
MYZ nxb Z vi K _ v ej v nq b vB| Z wK Z msk va b xi K vi Y nq Z v
wb evPb A eva I my ynBe wK wZ b g vm h MYZ A b yc w Z _ vwK e
17
Bnvi A vBb MZ I mvswea vwb K A e vb m ^ we wePvi K e` K nB
weePb v K i b b vB|
A c i ` yBR b we wePvi K MYi b vq wePvi c wZ HaiderI ej b h
h nZ zZ wK Z msk va b x c veb v, 8 , 4 8 , 5 6 I 14 2 A b y Q` K vb
msk va b A vb q b K i v nq b vB mnZ zMYf vUi c q vR b b vB|
A vBb MZ mwVK A e vb GB h BwZ g a myc xg K vUi Df q
wef vM mswea vb ( c g msk va b ) A vBb , 19 7 9 , evwZ j K i vq Ges
14 2 A b y Q` Bnvi g ~j A e vb wd wi q v h vI q vq mswk msk va b
MYf vUi wea vb j y nBq vQ|
wePvi c wZ Abedin I wePvi c wZ Haider Df q B GB Dc - g nv` k i
wZ b wU ` k i mswea vb wb evwPZ mi K vi i k vmb K vj A GK a i b i
care-taker mi K vi ei vei B we` g vb _ vK Ges we` vq x c a vb g x I
A b vb g xMY Z uvnv` i c wZ wb wa Z k xj Pwi nvi vq Z vnv g e
K wi j I wK f ve ev wK c w q vq Z uvnvi v Z uvnv` i c wZ wb wa Z k xj Pwi
nvi vq Z vnv evL v K i b b vB| Dj L h Z wK Z mswea vb msk va b
Gi c ~ei 12 3 A b y Q` we` vq x mi K vi i g q v` g a mva vi Y wb evPb
A b y vb i wea vb i vwL q vQ|

Z vnvi v 9 9 A b y Q` i msk va b m K e e i vwL q vQb eU
wK Z wK Z msk va b wePvi wef vMi mva xb Z v yb K i wK b v Z vnv
c _ g B ^va xb f ve weePb v K i b b vB| hw` yb b v K i Z eB a y
9 9 A b y Q` i msk va b weePb vi c k I V|
Full Bench Gi we wePvi K e` q v` k msk va b i A vBb MZ
A e vb wb Yq v_ R b MYi f vU c ` vb mywea v I D msk va b x mK j
i vR b wZ K ` j i g Z i wf wZ K i v nBq vQ Z vnvi Dc i B A wa K Z i
i Z A vi vc K wi q vQb wK D msk va b x i vi MYZ vw K I
c R vZ vw K Pwi , wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v c f wZ basic structure Gi
mwnZ mvsNwl K wK b v Z vnv A b mK j A vb ymvwK weePb v eR b K i Z t
m ~Y ^va xb f ve wb i c Y K wi evi Dc i Z uvnv` i A wa K Z i i Z
18
A vi vc K i v DwPr wQj , wK Z uvnvi v Z vnv h _ f ve K wi q vQb ewj q v
c Z xq g vb nq b v|
mK j we wePvi K MY mwVK I h w K f veB wb evPb K wg k b
Gi mvswea vwb K I A vBb MZ ` vq I ` vwq Z i Dc i i Z A vi vc
K wi q vQb |
11| Amicus Curiae wb q vM t A g vg j vwU b vb xi c vi
wb wj wL Z wmwb q i GvW&f vK UMYK amicus curiae wnmve A v` vj Z K
mnh vwMZ v K wi evi R b A vnvb K i v nq t
1) R b ve wU GBP L vb
2 ) W. K vg vj nvmb
3 ) R b ve i wd K - Dj nK
4 ) W. Gg . R nxi
5 ) R b ve g vn&g y` yj Bmj vg
6 ) R b ve Gg . A vg xi Dj Bmj vg
7 ) R b ve i vK b Dw b g vn&g y`
8 ) R b ve A vR &g vj yj nvmb

12 | A vc xj K vi x c e e c k t R b ve Gg A vB
d vi K x, wmwb q i GvW&f vK U, A vc xj K vi x c Z vnvi e e c k
A vi K i b |
e ei c _ g B wZ wb 19 9 4 mvj A b yw Z g v i v Dc - wb evPb
I Z r c i eZ xZ mK j ` j i h _ A v` vj b ` k A Pj nBq v c wo evi
NUb vej x eYb v K i b |
Z r c i , we GvW&f vK U g nv` q ej b h evsj v` k i vi
MYZ vw K I c R vZ vw K c wi Pq ev Pwi , wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v,
GB ewk wj MYc R vZ vw K evsj v` k i vi mswea vb i g ~j ewk
ev K vVvg v (basic structure) | wK Z wK Z q v` k msk va b mswea vb i
Dc i v g ~j ewk wj i a sm mva b K wi q vQ|
we GvW&f vK U g nv` q mswea vb i c veb vi c wZ ` w
A vK l Yc ~eK wb e` b K i b h R vZ xq Z vev` , mg vR Z , MYZ I
a g wb i c Z vi b vq D P A v` k ev` mswea vb i g wj K b xwZ | GK wU
19
MYZ vw K c w q vi g a w` q v evsj v` k i mg vR Z vw K mg vR mK j
b vMwi K ` i R b g wj K g vb evwa K vi , mg Z v Ges b vq wePvi
wb Z K i YB wQj mswea vb i D k |
7 A b y Q` i c wZ ` w A vK l Y c ~eK wZ wb wb e` b K i b h
R b MYi A wf c vq i c i g A wf ew i c mswea vb c R vZ i mev P
A vBb Ges c R vZ i mK j g Z vi g vwj K evsj v` k i R b MY| GB
mswea vb evsj v` k i R b MYi GK wU mvg vwR K Pzw ev eb i
A wf ew | Jean Jacques Rousseu Z vnvi myweL vZ Social Contract M
GBi c B K b v I a vi Yv K wi q vQb |
we GvW&f vK U g nv` q wb e` b K i b h mswea vb i q v` k
msk va b i c i mswea vb i Pwi B c wi eZ b nBq v wMq vQ K vi Y Bnvi
basic structure c wi eZ b nBq vQ| GB msk va b i d j wePvi K ` i
wb i c Z v c k we nBq vQ Ges mvweK f ve wePvi wef vM wZ M
nBq vQ|
wZ wb wb e` b K i b h mswea vb i PZ z_ f vMi 2 q c wi Q`
9 0 w` b i R b A K vh K i ev ineffective _ vwK evi wea vb K vh Z b ~Z b GK wU
Legal Order mw K i h vnvi K vb A vBb MZ ea Z v b vB| Bnv mZ h
R vZ xq msm` h K vb A vBb c Yq b K wi Z c vi , Gg b wK 14 2
A b y Q` i k Z mvc mswea vb I msk va b K wi Z c vi wK K L b B
basic structure zb K wi Z c vi b v| 5 5 A b y Q` m ^ wZ wb ej b h
Bnv i vi wZ b wU c a vb i GK wU wb evnx mi K vi mw K wi q vQ
Ges wb evnx mi K vi i Pvwj K v k w g w mf vK h _ f ve msm` i
wb K U ` vq x i vwL q vQ| GBf ve i vi A vi GK wU R vZ xq msm` i
g yL vc x K wi q v i v c wi Pvj b vq GK wU checks and balances ev f vi mvg
mw K wi q vQ| wK 2 K c wi Q` A vb q b K i vq mB f vi mvg A Z
9 0 w` b i R b , wek l 2 er mi ev Z r Da mg q i R b b
nBq vQ Ges mswe a vb A K vh K i nBq vQ Z _ v MYZ , A Z H mg q i
R b wej y nBq vQ Ges i vi c R vZ vw K Pwi L enBq vQ|
20
wZ wb A vi I ej b h 5 8 K A b y Q` i k Z g vZ veK 7 2 ( 4 )
A b y Q` i A a xb msm` c yb vi vnvb K i v nBj c a vb g xi
mvswea vwb K A e vb wK nBe Z vnvi I K vb evL v b vB|
we GvW&f vK U g nv` q nvBK vUi Full Bench Gi i vq i
mg vj vPb v K wi q v ej b h nvBK vUi we wePvi K MY Z wK Z
msk va b K msk va b ev amendment A wf wnZ b v K wi q v PZ y_ f vMi 2 q
c wi Q` 9 0 w` b i R b ineffective ev A K vh K i _ vwK e ewj q vQb
wK mswea vb mswea vb i K vb A sk GBi c ineffective _ vwK evi K vb
wea vb b vB ewj q v wZ wb wb e` b K i b |
we GvW&f vK U g nv` q mswea vb i 6 1 I 5 8 L ( 3 )
A b y Q` i Z zj b vg ~j K wek l Y K i Z t ej b h i vc wZ I c a vb
Dc ` vi g a GK wU dichotomy of power struggle ev ` yB mvswea vwb K
c ` vwa K vi x ew q i g a c i i wei va x GK wU g Z vi ` mw
K wi q vQ K vi Y GK w` K c a vb Dc ` v 5 8 L ( 3 ) A b y Q` i A a xb
i vi wb evnx c a vb , A b w` K , i vc wZ msm` I g w mf vi
A b yc w wZ Z 6 1 A b y Q` i A a xb wb R B mvg wi K evwnb xi c a vb
nBeb |
Z vnvQvo v, 4 8 ( 3 ) , 14 1K ( 1) Ges 14 1M( 1) A b y Q` Gi
A a xb K vb c ` c j BZ nBj c a vb g xi c i vg k I Z uvnvi
c wZ ^v i MnY K wi evi wea vb i wnq vQ wK 5 8 O A b yQ` A b ymvi
i vc wZ wb R i weePb v A b ymvi Dc i v A b y Q` e g Z v
c q vM K wi Z c vwi eb , d j k wZ Z wZ wb g yj mswea vb i L Z vex
i vc wZ nBZ c K Z c i vi wb evnx c a vb i vc wZ Z c wi YZ
nBeb | Bnvi d j i vc wZ GK Q g Z va vi x nBeb Ges g Z vi
c _ K &K i Y Z L e nBe|
we GvW&f vK U g nv` q A vk v c K vk K i b h i vc wZ 5 8 M
( 6 ) A b y Q` A b ymvi hw` c a vb Dc ` vi ` vwq Z f vi MnY K i b Z e
wZ wb ^i k vmK c wi YZ nBZ c vi b h vnv 2 0 0 6 mvj i k l f vM
21
` L v w` q vQ| GB c m wZ wb 19 9 6 , 2 0 0 1 I 2 0 0 6 mvj i
Z vea vq K mi K vi A vg j i wewf b NUb vej x eYb v K i b |
we GvW&f vK U g nv` q A vi I ej b h g v i v Dc - wb evPb
A b yw Z K vi Pzwc I eA vBb x NUb vej xK A wZ g v vq i Z c ` vb K i v
nBq vQ| e yZ H mK j A ea K vh K j vc i R b c K Z c wb evPb
K wg k b i e_ Z vB ` vq x| Z vnvi vB mg q g Z h _ vh _ c ` c j BZ
e_ nI q vq g v i vi wb evPb i b vq A b wf c Z NUb v NwUq vQ|
mR b wb evPb K wg k b mwVK f ve k w k vj x K wi evi c q vR b
_ vwK j I mswea vb i q v` k msk va b i K vb B c q vR b wQj b v|
wZ wb U.N. R. Rao V. Smt. Indira Gandhi, AIR 1971 SC 1002, g vK v g v
Dj L c ~eK wb e` b K i b h R vZ xq msm` f vwOq v h vI q vi c i I
g xmf v K vh K i _ vwK Z c vi , Z vea vq K mi K vi i K vb c q vR b
_ vK b v| ei , wZ wb wb e` b K i b h , MZ Z vea vq K mi K vi i
mg q wePvi wef vMK wb q Y K wi evi GK Uv c Pv wQj |
Z vnvQvo v, Anwar Hassain V. Bangladesh 1989 BLD (Special Issue)
g vK v g vi Dj L c ~eK wZ wb wb e` b K i b h wePvi c wZ Badrul Haider
Chowdhury mswea vb i 7 A b y Q` K Ges wePvi c wZ M.H. Rahman
mswea vb i c veb vK Pole Star wnmve eYb v K i b | wZ wb D
g vK v g vq c ` i vq i wewf b A sk D Z K wi q v GK wU mvi vsk ` vwL j
K i b |

R b ve d vi K x, GvW&f vK U, wb e` b K i b h GB f ve
q v` k msk va b A vBb mswea vb i c R vZ vw K Pwi L eK i |
Z vnvQvo v, wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z vI zb K i |

R b ve g vnvg ` g vnmb i wk ` , GvW&f vK U t
A vc xj K vi x c R b ve Gg A vB d vi K x ewZ i K R b ve
g vnvg ` g vnmb i wk ` A v` vj Z i A b yg wZ MnY c ~eK Z vnvi e e
c k K i b |
wZ wb mswea vb i i Z c ~Y w` K wj Z zwj q v a i b | wZ wb MYZ
h mswea vb i GK wU Basic Structure Z vnv wewf b b wR i Gi c wZ ` w
22
A vK l b c ~eK evL v K i b | Z vnvQvo v, wZ wb ej b h Z wK Z mswea vb
msk va b A vBb wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v L eK wi e, A emi c v c a vb
wePvi c wZ i vR b wZ K D k i wk K vi ( Political victim) nBZ c vi b |
we Gv&Wf vK U g nv` q ej b h, wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi
Gg b ew eMmg b q MwVZ h vnvi v R b MYi f vU wb evwPZ b nb |
Gg Z ve nvq wb evwPZ R b c wZ wb wa ` i Z _ v R vZ xq msm` i m` m` i
mg b q Z vea vq K mi K vi MVb K i v hvBZ c vi | hB mi K vi wU
A eZ xK vj xb mi K vi wnmve 9 0 w` b g Z vq _ vwK q v wb evPb
c wi Pvj b v K wi e| GB mi K vi i m` mMY K g c GK g q v` K vj
wb evPb A sk MnY K wi Z c vwi e b v| GB mi K vi wU MwVZ nBe
R vZ xq msm` i Z c ~YA e` vb i vwL q vQb A _ vr wb q wg Z nvwR i
_ vwK q v weZ K mn msm` i mK j K g K v A sk MnY K wi q vQb Gg b
mK j m` m evQvB K wi q v MwVZ nBe| Z vnv` i g a nBZ B
GK R b K mi K vi c a vb K i v h vBe| Z uvnvi v GK wU A eva I
MnYh vM wb evPb A b y vb i ee nv K wi eb |
wZ wb A vi I ej b h GK B mv_ wb evPb K wg k b K k w k vj x
K wi Z nBe| K vi Y wb evPb K wg k b B mva vi Y wb evPb A b y vb i
i Z c ~Y K vR m b K wi e| c q vR b xq A vBb c Yq b K wi q v
K wg k b i k wI ew K wi Z nBe|

13 | A vUb x- R b vi j c e e t
A vUb x- R b vi j g nv` q A vg v` i g yw h y I Z r c i 19 9 1
mvj MYZ c Z veZ b i BwZ nvm eYb v K i Z t wZ wb A vBb i k vmb
I wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v m ^ e e i vL b |
c R vZ m ^ e e i vwL Z h vBq v wZ wb ej b h 19 9 0
mvj i k l f vM wePvi c wZ mvnvey w b A vn&g ` ` j g Z wb wek l
mK j i A b yi va A vq x i vc wZ i c ` MnY K i b Ges ` k GK wU
A eva I wb i c wb evPb A b yw Z nq I ` k MYZ c ~b envj nq |
i vc wZ R vZ xq msm` K Z K wb evwPZ nb K vR B wZ wb h A wb evwPZ
23
Z vnv ej v h vq b v| Z vnvQvo v, mswea vb B Z uvnvK K Z K wj g Z v
c ` vb K wi q vQ, h g b , c a vb g x I c a vb wePvi c wZ wb q vM c ` vb |
Z vnvQvo v, 4 9 A b y Q` A b ymvi h K vb ` i g vR b v, wej ^b I
wei vg g yi K wi evi Ges h K vb ` g I K zd , wMZ ev nvm K wi evi
g Z v i vc wZ i i wnq vQ| K vR B i vc wZ i K vb g Z v b vB G K _ v
ej v h vq b v|
MYZ c k wZ wb ej b h evsj v` k i vi A b Z g g ~j b xwZ
nBj MYZ Ges i vi c Z K wU i MYZ i vee v wb w Z K i v
nBq vQ| Z e mswea vb i 5 6 ( 2 ) A b y Q` ej A wb evwPZ ew I g x
c ` wb q vM c vBZ c vi b Z vnvi wea vb i wnq vQ| G c m wZ wb
msm` - m` mMY K Z K wb evwPZ g wnj v m` mMYi I K _ v Dj L
K i b |
GB c vc U wZ wb A eva I wb i c wb evPb A b y vb i R b
A wb evwPZ Dc ` v wb q vMi c q vR b xq Z vi K _ v Dj L K i b |
wZ wb ej b h f vi Z i wb evPb K wg k b Gi b vq evsj v` k i
wb evPb K wg k b i I GK B g Z v I ` vwq Z i wnq vQ wK NUb v c evn
` L v h vq h evsj v` k i wb evPb K wg k b wb evPb ee vc b vq f vi Z i
wb evPb K wg k b i b vq k f ~wg K v j BZ e_ nb | GB K vi YB
wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi c q vR b nBq vQ ewj q v wZ wb R vb vb |
mswea vb msk va b i R b Mb f vUi c k wZ wb ej b h
mswea vb c g msk va b g vK v g v c ` i vq i c i D msk va b x
K Z K A b xZ mswea vb i 14 2 A b y Q` i msk va b wU j y nBq vQ
wea vq MYf vUi K vb c k A vi I V b v|
we A vUb xR b vi j ej b h h nZ zZ wK Z msk va b wU vi v
wK Qy b ~Z b A b y Q` msh vR b K i v nBq vQ g v wK we` g vb K vb
A b y Q` ev mi K vi i a i Y c wi eZ b K i v nq b vB wea vq Bnv ej v h vq
b v h Z wK Z q v` k msk va b mswea vb i Basic structure Gi K vb
c wi eZ b NUvBq vQ|
24
wZ wb A vi I ej b h h nZ z msm` - m` mMY GK wU wb w`
g q v` i R b wb evwPZ nb Ges c a vb g xI g ~j Z t GK R b msm` -
m` m wK wZ wb i vc wZ i A b yi va c i eZ x c a vb g x ` vwq Z MnY b v
K i v c h D c ` envj _ vwK Z c vi b |
GK B h yw Z wZ wb ej b h hnZ z c a vb g x Z uvnvi g q v`
c i eZ x wK QyK vj mg q Z uvnvi c ` _ vwK q v mi K vi c wi Pvj b v K wi Z
c vi b h mg q i R b wZ wb wb evwPZ b nb K vR B A eva I wb i c
wb evPb i ^v_ A wb evwPZ Dc ` vMYI mi K vi c wi Pvj b v K wi Z
c vi b |
A vc xj K vi x we GvW&f vK U g nv` q i e e h wb ` j xq
Z vea vq K mi K vi i c a vb Dc ` v c ` c a vb wePvi c wZ ev A c i
K vb wePvi c wZ wb q vM c v nBj wePvi wef vMi f veg ~wZ zb nBe
GB e ei mwnZ we A vUb x- R b vi j wg Z c vl Y K i b , Z e
wZ wb ^xK vi K i b h c a vb Dc ` v c ` MnYi myh vM _ vwK evi
K vi YB c a vb wePvi c wZ A vj vwPZ / mg vj vwPZ nb |
14 | Amicus Curiae c e e t
( 1) R b ve wU GBP L vb , wmwb q i GvW&f vK U, Z uvnvi h yw
Z K i c vi ej b h nvBK vU4 - 8 - 2 0 0 4 Z vwi L h L b eZ g vb
Z wK Z msk va b m ^ i vq nq Z L b I c g msk va b wel q i vq nq
b vB, nvBK vUD i vq nq 2 9 - 8 - 2 0 0 5 Z vwi L I A vc xj wef vM
i vq nq 1- 2 - 2 0 10 Z vwi L |
R b ve L vb 19 9 0 mvj i wWm ^i i c _ g evsj v` k i g Z vi
c U c wi eZ b I wePvi c wZ k vnveyw b A vn ` Gi A vq x i vc wZ i
` vwq Z MnYi NUb v c yb t mi Y K wi q v ej b h wZ wb B Gwel q
wePvi c wZ k vnveyw b A vn ` i mwnZ mv vr K wi q v i vc wZ i ` vwq Z
MnYi R b A b yi va K wi q v wQj b |
19 9 6 mvj 15 B d eq vi x Z vwi L A b yw Z GK Z i d v wb evPb i
c i ` k c P A w i Z v A vi nBj A a vc K W. e` i vR v Pa yi x
25
meR b ve wU. GBP L vb , R wg i Dw b mi K vi , L ` K vi g vn&eye Dw b ,
mvj vg Z vj yK ` vi mK j wg wj Z nBq v Z vea vq K mi K vi i a vi Yv mw
K i b | wePvi c wZ R b ve K z ym Pa yi x A vBb wUi L mo v c yZ K i b |
` k Z L b K vi c P A w i Z vi c vc U q v` k msk va b A vBb wU
c Yq b K i v R b MYi ^v_ A ek c q vR b xq nBq v c wo q vwQj | mvb `
mK j Z vnv Z L b MnYI K wi q vwQj | mB A vBb wUB GL b mswea vb
c wi c w A R ynvZ A ea Nvl Yvi eA vBb x c v_ Yv K i v nBq vQ ewj q v
R b ve L vb ` yt L c K vk K i b |
wZ wb ej b h mswea vb i K vb msk va b nBZ c vi b v Gg b
e e K L b B MnYh vM nBZ c vi b v| MYZ GK wU wek l a vi Yv|
BnvK c K Z c ywUZ K wi Z A ` w D` vi I c mvwi Z K wi Z nq |
wb i c I ^va xb wb evPb ewZ i K MYZ K b vI K i v h vq b v|
MYZ i mwnZ wb evPb A vxf ve R wo Z | MYZ K c K Z
i c ` vb i R b wb evPb engine Gi b vq K vR K i |
A Z t c i , we GvW&f vK U g nv` q Harold Lasky, Sir Ivor Jennings I
Sir Winston Churchill nBZ MYZ i ms v D Z K wi q v ej b h ` k i
R b MYi ^v_ I MYZ i ^v_ q v` k msk va b mswea vb i mwnZ
msh y K i v nBq vwQj |
MYZ I wb evPb i K _ v ewj Z wMq v R b ve L vb Sir Winston
Churchill K D Z K wi q v ej b t
At the bottom of all tributes paid to democracy is the little man, walking
into a little booth, with a little pencil, making a little cross on a little bit of paper,
no amount of rhetoric or voluminous discussion can possibly diminish the
overwhelming importance of the point.

wZ wb ej b h MYZ i R b B my yI wb i c wb evPb c q vR b
Ges mB D k B GB msk va b xwU A vb v nBq vwQj |
R b ve L vb A vi I ej b h wePvi c wZ Gg GBP i ng vb I
wePvi c wZ j wZ d zi i ng vb K Z K c wi Pvwj Z wb evPb wj meR b Mvn
nBq vwQj |
26
A Z t c i , R b ve wU GBP L vb , we GvW&f vK U g nv` q Full
Bench Gi wePvi c wZ R b ve R q b yj A vew` b i i vq i Dc msnvi i w` K
A vg v` i ` w A vK l Yc ~eK c _ g Pvi wU wm v K ( c c vi eyK c v-
9 6 - 9 7 ) mg _ b K i Z t e e i vL b | c g wm v m K wZ wb
ej b h mswea vb ( c g msk va b ) A vBb g vK v g vq A vc xj
wef vMi i vq nBevi c i D i vq K vh K i nBq vQ Ges D i vq
mvc c g msk va b x evwZ j K vh K i nBq vQ a wi q v j Bq v ej v h vq
h 14 2 A b y Q` i 1( K ) , 1( L ) I 1( M) ` d vq ewYZ MYf vUi
(referendum) ` vex ms v ` i L v K vi xi e e evwZ j nBe Ges
A v` vj Z i c g wm v A b vek K nBe|
wZ wb ej b h g vb b xq c a vb g x ewj q vQb h k xNB mswea vb
msk va b K i v nBe|
wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v weN nI q v m ^ ` i L v K vi xi
wb e` b i c w Z wZ wb ej b h 19 9 1 mvj i mva vi Y wb evPb mn
wZ b wU wb evPb evsj v` k i mveK c a vb wePvi c wZ MY md j f ve
c wi Pvj b v K wi q vwQj b |
wZ wb ej b h mswea vb i PZ z_ f vM 2 K c wi Q` msh vR b ,
mswea vb i basic structure c wi eZ b ev a sm ev mswea vb i K vb weK wZ
mva b K i b v| GB m wZ wb ej b h h w` b eg - K f vM MYZ K
zb b v K wi q v _ vK Z e 2 K c wi Q` I MYZ K zb K i b vB|
2 0 0 4 mvj mswea vb ( PZ z` k msk va b ) A vBb , 2 0 0 4 , g vi d r
9 6 ( 1) A b y Q` msk va b K i Z t myc xg K vUi wePvi K MYi PvK zi xi
eq m 6 7 er mi c h ew K wi evi mg vj vPb vi R eve wZ wb mswea vb
( PZ z_ msk va b ) A vBb , 19 7 5 , g vi d r 116 A b y Q` msk va b
K wi evi mg vj vPb v K i b |
mswea vb i c veb vi c wZ ` w A vK l Y c ~eK wZ wb ej b h
evsj v` k GK wU MYc R vZ vw K ` k | GL vb R b MY Z vnv` i wb evwPZ
c wZ wb wa g vi d r Z vnv` i g Z v c q vM K i | GB K vi Y wb evPb I
27
mswea vb i GK wU basic structure | wb evPb ewZ i K MYZ K b vI
K i v h vq b v| wb evPb i g va g B MYZ A R b K i v m e |
wePvi c wZ mvnveyw b A vn ` B c K Z c Z va vq K mi K vi
a vi Yvi c _ c ` k K Ges K nB Z uvnvi c wi Pvwj Z c k vmb Pvj K i
b vB|
f vU wQb Z vB i va K wi evi R b B Z vea vq K mi K vi ee v
MnY K i v nBq vwQj |
Z vea vq K mi K vi ee v K Z er mi ej er _ vK v DwPr c k
K wi j wZ wb Z vr wYK R eve ` b h c vk er mi |
R vZ xq msm` f vwOq v h vBevi c i c i B Z vea vq K mi K vi
` vwq Z MnY K i |
R vg vZ - B- Bmj vg ` j me mg q B ewj q v A vwmq vQ h wb evPb
A b y vb K wi evi R b GK wU c wZ vb c q vR b GB e ei judicial notice
j Bevi R b R b ve L vb A A v` vj Z i wb K U A ve` b R vb vb |
Z vnvQvo v, wZ wb R vZ xq msm` mswea vb msk va b K i v c h A
g vK v g vi b vb x wMZ K wi Z ev A Z i vq wMZ K wi Z A ve` b
R vb vb |
g yj mswea vb i 9 5 A b y Q` i vc wZ c a vb wePvi c wZ i mwnZ
c i vg k K wi q v A b vb wePvi K K myc xg K vUwb q vM c ` vb K wi eb
ewj q v wea vb wQj wK mswea vb ( PZ z_ msk va b ) A vBb wePvi K
wb q vMi c a vb wePvi c wZ i mwnZ c i vg k i wea vb eR b K i v
nBq vQ ewj q v R b ve L vb wb e` b K i b |
Dc msnvi R b ve wU GBP L vb nvBK vUwef vMi Full Bench Gi
i vq envj Ges A vc xj L vwi R K wi evi R b g Z c K vk K i b |
( 2 ) W. K vg vj nvmb , wmwb q i GvW&f vK U, Z uvnvi e ei
c vi ej b h GL vb mswea vb weePb vi R b Dc vc b K i v nBq vQ
(propounding the Constitution)| A vg v` i mswea vb i A b Z g g wj K b xwZ
evOvj x R vZ xq Z vev` Bnvi wf w|
28
wZ wb ej b h myc xg K vUi wePvi K ` i f xwZ ev A b yMni Da
DwVq v i vq c ` vb K wi Z nBe| A vg v` i i vxq R xeb A vg i v A b K
` yt mg q (moments of darkness) A wZ evwnZ K wi q vwQ wK A vg i v K L b B
A wePvi MnY K wi e b v| c wi evi i c wZ , mg vR i c wZ A vg v` i ` vwq Z
i wnq vQ, i vi c wZ A vg v` i mvswea vwb K ` vwq Z i wnq vQ| mswea vb
mK j i R b B A c wi nvh | A vg v` i mvswea vwb K g ~j eva i wnq vQ|
evOvj x R vwZ q Z vev` A _ A ^v` wk K Z v (Chauvinism) b n| Bnv
mv ` vwq K R vwZ q Z vev` b q | mswea vb A Z xZ nBZ A b yc i Yv c vBq v
_ vK | mswea vb c YZ vMY g ~j eva K m vb K wi Z b | mswea vb
g ~j eva i Dc i wf w K wi q v i wPZ nBq vwQj , A _ i Dc i wf w K wi q v
b n| Bnvi GK wU H wZ nvwmK g v v i wnq vQ|
GK B f ve MYZ i I g yj eva i wnq vQ| mswea vb i 7
A b y Q` mg M mswea vb i k w m vi Y K wi q vQ| R b MY (people)
k i A _ A vg v` i A b ya veb K wi Z nBe | i vi ^v_ i mwnZ
ew MZ ^v_ mg wb Z K wi Z nBe|
mswea vb i GK wU c we Z v i wnq vQ| wb evPb i b vg A b wK Qy
NUvb nBZ Q| c Z K wU g vb yl i B A _ , k w , Pvc , wb c xo b I
A xK vi i c f ve g y A e vq wb R i c Q` g Z f vU c ` vb i A wa K vi
i wnq vQ|
we GvW&f vK U g nv` q 19 9 0 mvj i 3 i v wWm ^i i
A mva vi Y I NUb vej A e vi K _ v mi Y K wi q v ej b h Z L b
GK w` K mvg wi K k vmb i m veb v A b w` K mK j i wb K U MnYhvM
GK R b wb i c i vc wZ c q vR b wQj | GBi c i Z i mg q
wePvi c wZ mvnveyw b A vng ` A vq x i vc wZ i ` vwq Z f vi MnY K i b |
A Z t c i , mswea vb I i v i v K wi evi ^v_ mswea vb i GK v` k I
v` k msk va b K i v nq |
wK g v i v Dc - wb evPb GK wU Dc vL vb , Bnv mK j
wek vmh vMZ v nvi vq | h vw K f ve mswea vb A b ymi Y K wi j ewj Z
nq h GK wU i vR b wZ K ` j msL v Mwi f vU c vBq v Dc - wb evPb wUZ
29
R q j vf K wi q vQ| wK c K Z c Bnv GK wU b vg g v wb evPb wQj
h L vb 10 % f vUvi MYI A sk MnY K i b vB| Bnv wQj GK wU
A wZ k q i Z i A e v h L vb mswea vb i c we Z v Ges MYZ vw K
g ~j eva j vc c vBq vwQj |
GBi c c wi w wZ Z GK wU Z vea vq K mi K vi g vi d r wb evPb
A b y vb K wi evi a vi Yv R b j vf K i K vi Y wb evPb K wg k b my ywb evPb
A b y vb K wi Z evi evi e_ nBq vQ|
mswea vb GK wU R xe ` wj j | Bnv K vb A c wi k xwj Z ev h vw K
Mb Yv b n|
mswea vb i 7 A b y Q` c wZ wb wa Z k xj MYZ i a vi Yv ev evq b
K wi q vQ| 19 9 6 mvj l R vZ xq msm` mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b )
A vBb wewa e K i |
q v` k msk va b i wf wZ mveK c a vb wePvi c wZ Gg GBP
i ng vb c a vb Dc ` v nb Ges Z uvnvi b Z Z 2 3 - 6 - 19 9 6 Z vwi L
m g R vZ xq msm` wb evwPZ nq |
K vb i vR b wZ K ` j K evuPvb vi R b b q , mswea vb K i v
K wi evi R b q v` k msk va b c q vR b nBq vwQj | Bnv Qvo v Z L b
A vi K vb Dc vq I wQj b v Ges Z vnv K i v nBq vwQj mK j ` j i
g Z vb ymvi |
GB c h vq we GvW&f vK U g nv` q Professor Amartya Sen wj wL Z
The Argumentative Indian M i 12 - 13 c vi K Z K vsk c wo q v k vb vb
Ges ej b h mK j i m A vj vPb vB Z vea vq K mi K vi a vi Yvi
h w K wf w| Z vnvQvo v, mswea vb i 7 A b y Q` emvg wi K k vmb i
a vi YvB ` q |
MYZ m ^ ewj Z wMq v W. K vg vj nvmb ej b Bnv a yg v
GK wU evj U ev I GK wU f vUi evc vi b q | Z vnvi _ K I A b K
wK Qyek x| Bnv a ymsL v Mwi i wel q b q | GK wU MYZ mK j
R b MYi e e _ vwK Z c vi | Gg b wK k Z K i v GK f vM j vK i I
K _ v ej vi A wa K vi A vQ, Z vnv` i I e e _ vwK Z c vi |
30
19 4 8 mvj Z ` vb x b i g b v i mK vmg q ` vb c vwK vb i c _ g
Mf Yi R b vi j R b ve Gg G wR b vni e Z v c m Dj L K wi q v we
GvW&f vK U g nv` q ej b h h L b wZ wb D` yB c vwK vb i i v f vl v
nBe ewj q v Nvl Yv K i b Z L b XvK v wek we` vj q i K q K R b Qv
b v b vewj q v wPr K vi K wi q v DV| D c wZ ev` B wQj h vnv mwVK I
b vq , Z vnvi GK wU my` i m~Pb v| MYZ vw K A v` vj b memg q B
k vw c ~Y nI q v DwPr | mi K vi MYg va g wb q Y K wi Z Pvwnj I
R b MYi e eB k eY K i v DwPr |
h _ vh _ wb evPb K wg k b i A b yc w wZ Z my y wb i c wb evPb
m e b n, d j MYZ weK wk Z nBe b v|
MYc R vZ vw K Z v m ^ we GvW&f vK U g nv` q ej b h
mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb , wK f ve mswea vb i
MYc R vZ vw K Pwi zb K i Z vnv eywS Z wZ wb A g |
wb evPb A b y vb i nmg wZ nq K vi Y mK j B g Z vi
A c eenvi K i | Z e wZ wb ej b h A vg i v mvg wi K k vmb Pvwn b v,
ei , my y I wb i c wb evPb i g va g wZ wb b vMwi K ^va xb Z vi
k Z ` vex K i b |
we GvW&f vK U g nv` q mswea vb i Pvi g ~j b xwZ Dj L K i Z t
wb e` b K i b h Bnvi A wZ mi j xK i Y c wi Z vR | c K Z g g e y
nBZ Q mZ K vi g ~j eva , BnvB wPi vq x|
Dr. Ambedkar Gi K _ v Dj L K wi q v wZ wb ej b h mvg vwR K
MYZ , mg vR Z , mg Z v, m vb i mwnZ mg A wa K vi GB wj B
nBZ Q mswea vb i c K Z g ~j b xwZ |
we GvW&f vK U g nv` q wb e` b K i b h mswea vb mwnsmZ v
eR b K wi q v k vw c yYf ve mg Z v vc b K i |
` i L v K vi x c D vwc Z e e h Z wK Z msk va b x MYZ vw K
a vi Yv a sm K wi q vQ Z vnv L b K wi q v wZ wb ej b h D e e
GK wU mvMvb eB A vi wK QyB b n|
31
wZ wb ej b h Z vea vq K mi K vi wb evPb K wg k b K mvnvh
mnh vwMZ v K i d j k wZ Z wb evPb A b K ek x my yI wb i c nq |
Z vea vq K mi K vi ewZ i K f vUvi ` i c Q` g Z f vU c ` vb i
^va xb Z v _ vK b v| wb evPb A _ i GK wU wei vU f ~wg K v _ vK |
i vR b wZ K ` j wj Z g b vb q b q - we q nq , Gg b wK g b vq b j Bq v
wb j vg i b vq A e v nq | wZ wb ej b h Gg b wK c ywj k evwnb xI
wb evPb K wg k b K c q vR b xq mnh vwMZ v c ` vb K i b v|
wZ wb 19 7 0 mvj i wb evPb K mi Y K wi q v ej b h Z L b
wb evPb g b vb q b wb j vg DwVZ b v wK GL b ` yb xwZ GK wU wek l
g wK eU| wZ wb ej b h g b vb q b c w q vi ^ QZ v wb w Z K i v
A wZ k q c q vR b xq | i vR b wZ K ` j wj i wb R ^` j xq ee vc b vZ I
^ QZ v c q vR b h vnvZ R b mva vi Y i vR b wZ K ` j wj Z mZ Z v I
MYZ i wnq vQ m m ^ wb w Z nI q v h vq |
wZ wb A vi I ej b h 2 0 0 6 mvj myc xg K vUi GK R b
wePvi K K c a vb wb evPb K wg k b vi wnmve wb q vM c ` vb K i v nq |
c i eZ xZ GK K vwU w k j f zq v f vUvi a i v c o |
eZ g vb wb evPb K wg k b i A va v- ePvwi K I R b k L j v i vi
g Z v i wnq vQ Z e g Z v A vi I ew K wi evi c q vR b i wnq vQ
ewj q v we GvW&f vK U g nv` q g b K i b | q v` k msk va b i
c i wb wK Z Masder Hossain g vK v g vq A vBb i k vmb I wePvi
wef vMi ^va xb Z vi c q vR b xq Z vi K _ v ej v nBq vQ ewj q v wZ wb
R vb vb | wePvi wef vMi I GK wU mw q f ~wg K vi c q vR b i wnq vQ
ewj q v wZ wb g b K i b |
( 3 ) R b ve i wd K Dj nK , wmwb q i GvW&f vK U, Z uvnvi wj wL Z
h yw Z K D vc b K wi q v ej b h 19 9 4 mvj g v i v Dc wb evPb
c i eZ x R i i x A e vi c vc U R vZ xq msm` 19 9 6 mvj GK wU ` j
wb i c Z vea vq K mi K vi c wZ mswea vb i PZ z_ f vM 2 q
c wi Q` i c i 2 K c wi Q` wnmve msh vR b K i |
32
we GvW&f vK U g nv` q ej b h R vZ xq msm` f vwOq v
h vBevi c i wb evPb A b y vb K wi evi R b A vg v` i mswea vb B GK
a i b i Z vea vq K mi K vi c wZ we` g vb i wnq vQ wb evPb A b y vb b v
nI q v c h Ges b ~Z b c a vb g x K vh f vi MnY b v K i v c h
mswea vb i 5 6 ( 4 ) I 5 7 ( 3 ) A b y Q` i A a xb msm` m` m I
c a vb g x ^xq c ` envj _ vK b | GB c wZ K B GK a i b i
Z vea vq K mi K vi ej v h vq | wK 19 9 6 mvj A Z mUg q
c wi w wZ Z wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi c wZ c eZ b K i v nq |
R vZ xq msm` i wb evPb A b y vb R b MY Z ` vb x b mi K vi i Dc i
A v v nvi vBq v d wj q vwQj wea vq wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi MVb
K wi evi c ve K i v nBq vwQj | H mg q evsj v` k R vZ xq Z vev` x ` j
g Z vmxb wQj | R vZ xq msm` GK wU my ~ I wb i c wb evPb
A b y vb i R b A b vb i vR b wZ K ` j i c nBZ GK wU wb ` j xq
Z vea vq K mi K vi vc b i ` vex wQj | mK j i vR b wZ K ` j wb ` j xq
Z vea vq K mi K vi ee v Z Z GK g Z nI q vq mswk A vBb wU
wewa e K i v nq | H mg q wb ` j xq Z ve a vq K mi K vi ee vi
c q vR b wQj wK eZ g vb Bnvi i Z ev c q vR b d zi vBq v wMq vQ
wK b v Z vnvB weePb vi wel q | wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi a vi Yv
mswea vb i g ~j Z wj i mwnZ mvsNwl K ewj q v mg vj vPb v K i v nq |
c _ g Z t wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi A wb evwPZ ew ` i vi v MwVZ ,
wZ xq Z t h nZ z, mek l A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ c a vb Dc ` v
nBeb , mnZ zBnv wePvi wef vMi f veg ~wZ yb K wi Z c vi |
we GvW&f vK U g nv` q wb e ` b K i b h c v_ wg K c h vq
wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi mvd j i mwnZ Bnvi ` vwq Z c vj b
K wi q vwQj | wK mek l 1/ 11 ( 2 0 0 7 mvj ) NUb vi c vi wb ` j xq
Z vea vq K mi K vi i b vg i vc wZ wb R B wb R K c a vb Dc ` v
wb q vM K i b Ges mvg wi K evwnb xi wb ` k c i eZ xZ Z vnv c wi eZ b
K i b | we GvW&f vK U g nv` q m eZ 2 0 0 7 - 2 0 0 8 mvj i
Z vea vq K mi K vi i mg q i K _ v ewj q v A vk v c K vk K i b h Bnv
33
A vi K L b I c yb i vew nBe b v Ges Z vnvQvo v wb ` j xq Z vea vq K
mi K vi m mvea vb Z vi K _ v ej b |
A Z c i , we GvW&f vK U g nv` q nvBK vUwef vMi Full Bench
Gi i vq A vj vPb v K i Z t ej b h 19 9 6 mvj h wb ` j xq
Z vea vq K mi K vi c wZ i c q vR b A b yf ~Z nBq vwQj , c wi eZ xZ
c wi w wZ Z Z vnv Pvj y _ vwK e wK b v Z vnvB GL b c k | Z wK Z
msk va b wU K vb msk va b b q Full Bench Gi K vb K vb we
wePvi K i GB g Z i mwnZ wg Z c vl Y K wi q v wZ wb ej b h
q v` k msk va b A ek B mswea vb i GK wU msk va b x wK , wZ wb
ej b h c k nBZ Q h D msk va b x mswea vb i K vb basic structure
zb K wi q vQ wK b v A _ ev eZ g vb c vc U GB c wZ i c q vR b xq Z v
I i Z yb nBq vQ wK b v Z vnvB weeP|
we GvW&f vK U g nv` q ej b h hw` I q v` k msk va b i
c i A b K w` b A wZ evwnZ nBq vQ wK my yI wb i c wb evPb , hvnv
GK wU MYc R vZ vw K i vi R b GK v A c wi nvh , Z vnv mswea vb
i Y K i v GL b I c q vR b i wnq vQ|
Z e q v` k msk va b A vBb wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi
c a vb wePvi c wZ I A b vb wePvi K MYi c a vb Dc ` v wnmve
wb q vMi wea vb i K vi Y R b MYi g b mev P A v` vj Z nBZ
^va xb , b vh I wb i c wm v c ` vb i evc vi R b MYi g b
A vk vi D` K nBZ c vi |
we GvW&f vK U g nv` q A vk v c K vk K i b h A vg i v
A vg v` i eVK L vb vq A vj vPb v K wi h K vb &c a vb wePvi c wZ ev
wePvi c wZ wh wb mek l A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ nBeb wZ wb
wb i c f ve Z uvnvi ` vwq Z c vj b K wi Z Qb b v A _ ev K vb &
wePvi c wZ K vnvK A wZ g K wi Z Qb (Supersede) hvnvZ wZ wb mek l
A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ nBq v wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi c a vb
nBZ c vi b | GB a i b i A vk v me v P A v` vj Z i c wZ R b MYi
m vb eva zb K wi Z c vi | h mK j wePvi K MYi mek l c a vb
34
wePvi c wZ nBevi m eb v i wnq vQ Z uvnvi v nq Z v GB c ` i R b
GK evi B c f vweZ b b wK R b MYi g b GB A vk v memg q
_ vwK Z c vi h wePvi c wZ X g Z vk xb ` j i ^v_ msi Y
K wi Z Qb K vi Y wZ wb c a vb wePvi c wZ Ges mva vi Y wb evPb i c ~e
mek l A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ nBZ Pvnb | c K Z c Bnv
c Z xq g vb nq h A vc xj wef vMi GK R b R wePvi c wZ K A wZ g
K i v nBq vwQj Ges GK R b K wb wePvi K K c a vb wePvi c wZ wb q vM
K i v nq | Bnv nq Z v m ~Yf ve h vMZ vi wf wZ nBZ c vi wK
R b MY g b K i , h mi K vi g Z vq A vQ R b ve X c a vb Dc ` v
wnmve Z vnv` i c wi K b v md j K wi e, myZ i vs X h vnvi Dc i ` j xq
ew i c Z vnv` i A v v I wek vm i wnq vQ, wZ wb Y K A wZ g
(Supersede) K i b | R b MYi g b GB a i b i A vk v MnYh vM b q ,
K vg I b q |
we GvW&f vK U g nv` q ej b h Z e wb ` j xq I Z vea vq K
mi K vi i GL b I c q vR b xq Z v i wnq vQ, K vi Y g Z vk xj ` j ev
c a vb wei va x` j mwVK c _ A vPi Y K wi Z Qb b v| K vb i c
m vb eva ewZ i K Z vnvi v c i i K mg vj vPb v K wi Z Qb | we
GvW&f vK U g nv` q A vk v c K vk K i b h Bnv A wZ k q c wi vi h
h w` mev P A v` vj Z q v` k msk va b K A ea Nvl Yv K i , Z vnv
nBj evsj v` k R vZ xq Z vev` x ` j wbevPb A sk MnY K wi e b v |
wZ wb A ek g b K i b h wePvi K ` i c a vb Dc ` v ev Dc ` v
nI q v DwPr b q |
we GvW&f vK U g nv` q G m K wb wj wL Z Pvi wU c ve
K i b t

(i) Before dissolution or expiry of Parliament, the party in power and the
opposition party in the Parliament shall nominate 3 or 5 persons each
whom they think are eligible to become Chief Adviser or Adviser of
the Non-party Caretaker Government.
(ii) Three retiring last Chief Justices of Bangladesh shall nominate one of
them from the panel of persons nominated as above to be the Chief
Adviser.
35
(iii) The Chief Adviser should then request the party in power and the
opposition party to suggest names from whom he can appoint
Advisers of the Non-party Caretaker Government. Both parties may
give 10 names each and from these 20 names the Chief Adviser shall
appoint the advisers of the Non-party Caretaker Government. May be
there are common names.
(iv) And it should be clearly stated that the Non-party Caretaker
Government shall complete the election of the Parliament within 90
days from the dissolution of Parliament. This is required to be
mentioned so that 1/11 is not repeated.

we GvW&f vK U g nv` q g b K i b h Dc i v f ve h w`
wb ` j xq Z va vq K mi K vi MwVZ nq Z vnv nBj Z vnvi v R b MYi
c wZ wb wa b b ewj q v K n mg vj vPb v K wi Z c vwi e b v ( Z vnvi v
wb evwPZ c wZ wb wa b v nBj I wb evwPZ c wZ wb wa MY` vi v g b vb xZ ) | h w`
GB f ve me` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi MwVZ nq Z e wZ wb g b K i b
h wePvi wef vM i vi k vmb ee v c wi Pvj b v K wi Z Q Ges/ A _ ev
Z vnvi v R b MYi c wZ wb wa b b , GB a i b i mg vj vPb v K wi evi myh vM
K g B _ vK | A vR I mva vi Y g vb yl g b K i , h mi K vi g Z vq
i wnq vQ Z vnv` i Z vea vb i c wi eZ a yg v wb ` j xq Z vea vq K
mi K vi i Z vea vb my I wb i c wb evPb A b yw Z nBe|
we GvW&f vK U g nv` q g b K i b h Bnv ` yf vMR b K | Bnv
A vZ A eg vb b vK i | h w` I g Z vk xb ` j 5 ( c vuP) er mi mi K vi
c wi Pvj b v K wi Z c vi , Bnv R vZ xq msm` i wb evPb A b y vb K wi Z
c vi b v| A vg v` i ` k Gg b A e v h K vnvi I K vb A v v A c i i
Dc i b vB| wb R ` i g a mK j i B A wek vm| myZ i vs, Gg b GK wU
c _ evwni K wi Z nBe h h vnvZ wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi ee v
eR vq _ vK wK GK B m wePvi wef vMi mi vmwi m Z v Go vb
m e, A b _ vq R b MYi g b wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v j Bq v c k
DwVZ c vi |
we GvW&f vK U g nv` q Z uvnvi wj wL Z e ei k l f vM
^xK vi K i b h wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi a vi Yv A vg v` i
mswea vb i g ~j K vVvg v ev i mwnZ mvg mc ~Y b q | wK
36
c wi ewZ Z c wi w wZ Z evsj v` k A vBb i k vmb I MYZ i R b
Gi K g GK wU mi K vi mn K wi Z nq | mek l A emi c v c a vb
wePvi c wZ i h nZ z evsj v` k i c a vb Dc ` v nBevi K _ v wQj
a yg v mB K vi Y 1/ 11 Gi mg q mi K vi i K g b A e v nBq vwQj
Z vnv mK j B R vb | f wel Z GB i c NUb v A vevi I NUzK Z vnv
K nB Pvnb v| mK j B my y I wb i c wb evPb Pvq h vnv ewZ Z
MYZ c wZ v m e b q | wZ wb ej b h Bnv A vg v` i Dc j w h
wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi A vg v` i A ek c q vR b xq wK Bnv Gg b
f ve c yb MVb c q vR b h vnvZ i vi c k vmb wePvi wef vMi mi vmwi
m Z v _ vwK e b v|
( 4 ) W. Gg . R nxi , wmwb q i GvW&f vK U, g nv` q ej b
h evsj v` k ewZ Z c w_ exi K v_ vI A wb evwPZ Z vea vq K mi K vi i
a vi Yv c vI q v h vq b v| A t Z wZ b g vm GK R b A wb evwPZ ewI Z _ v
mek l A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ wh wb mswea vb i A vj vK A emi
wMq vQb , wZ wb ` k c wi Pvj b v K wi eb | GB a vi YvwU A vg v` i mK j
i vR b xwZ we` ` i Ges wb evwPZ mi K vi i mZ Z vi Dc i K vwj g v j c b
K wi q vQ| Z I vea vq K mi K vi c wZ GB a vi YvB c ` vb K i h , mK j
i vR b wZ K ` j B A mva y Ges Z vnv` i Dc i GK wU wb i c wb evPb
c wi Pvj b v K wi evi wb wg A v nv i vL v h vq b v| ^xK Z g Z B h w`
A mZ Z vi A R ynvZ GK wU A eva wb i c wb evPb c wi Pvj b vi R b
Z vnv` i Dc i A v nv i vL v m f e b v nq Z vnv nBj ` k c wi Pvj b vi
R b wK f ve Z vnv` i Dc i A v nv i vL v h vq ? c w_ exi K v_ vI wb evPb
c m i vR b wZ K ` i c wZ A mZ Z vi Ges A wek Z Z vi Gg b mi j
^xK vi vwI A vi b vB| i vR b wZ K MY Ges ` j wj A mr Ges wb evPb i
mg q Z vnvw` MK g Z vi k xl i vL v h vq b v- Bnv a wi q v j I q v
A h wI K |
mswea vb i 7 A b y Q` wU g ~j touchstone| BnvZ ej v nBq vQ h ,
mswea vb R b MYi A vk v A vK vsL vi ewnt c K vk Ges Z vnvi vB
c R vZ i mK j g Z vi g vwj K | GB A v` vj Z i wewf b i vq vi v
37
A vBb I mswea vb i wewf b wea vb K evwZ j K wi q v GB A b y Q`
myc wZ w Z K i v nBq vQ|
wb ` j xq Z I vea vq K mi K vi ms v wea vb mg ~n, Chapter IIA Ges
14 1( K ) , ( L ) I ( M) A b y Q` GK wU wec ` b K mwb ek hvnv
MYZ Ges A vBb i k vmb K Z I vea vq K mi K vi vi v A wb w` K vj i
R b wePzZ K wi q v d wj Z c vi | Bnvi A wf Z v mv wZ K A Z xZ
2 0 0 7 - 0 8 mvj nBq vQ| MYZ i GB wePzwZ mswea vb i q v` k
msk va b xi c Z d j | h w` K vb e nr i vR b wZ K ` j g b K i h
K vb wb w` A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ c vwUR vb Ges GB A R ynvZ
wb evPb eq K U K wi q v em, Z e GB mg mv wb i mb i Dc vq K x? Gg b
wK c i eZ x c a vb wePvi c wZ K I GB A vc wi m yL xb nBevi A vk sK v
_ vK |
A b ` k , wek l Z t c wZ ek x f vi Z wb evPb K wg k b K
k w k vj x I ^va xb f ve Mwo q v Z vj v nBq vQ Ges mL vb wb i c
ew eMK wb evPb K wg k b MVb evwQq v j I q v nq | A vg v` i eZ g vb
wb evPb K wg k b K ej 2 0 0 8 mvj i mva vi Y wb evPb B m b K i b vB
vb xq wb evPb mg ~nI c wi Pvj b v K wi q vQ h vnvi vi v K wg k b ^ QZ v I
wb i c Z v c g vY m g nBq vQ| h w` I wb R c v_ x c i vwR Z nBevi
A R ynvZ K wg k b Df q enr ` j K Z K Xvj vI f ve mg vj vwPZ
nBq vQ| Bnv wb i c Z vi GK wU c K Z wb ` k b | Bnv wb w Z h
A vg i v GL b I f vi Z i b vq g R eyZ MYZ I A vBb i k vmb c wZ vq
m g nB b vB| A vg v` i ` k mK j wK QyGZ UvB i vR b xwZ K i Y K i v
nBq vQ h c a vb wePvi c wZ K i vR b xwZ i I weZ K i D i vL vi
a vi YvwUI c wi Z vM K i v nBq vQ| evsj v` k i c Z K wU b vMwi K i B
wb R ^i vR b wZ K g Z i wnq vQ Ges i vR b xwZ i R MZ i c uvwPj i Df q
c vk i ew MY wek vm K i b h c a vb wePvi c wZ mn c Z K B GK B
g vb wmK Z v c vl Y K i b A _ vr i vR b wZ K c c vZ ` vl ` y|
mswea vb i 5 8 O A b y Q` c ` g Z v ej i vc wZ R i i x
A e v Nvl Yv K wi Z c vi b - Bnvi R b c a vb g xi c wZ ^v i i
38
c q vR b nq b v| h vnvi d j 1/ 11 mw nq | 1/ 11 Gi d j m ve
i vb Gi nvZ nBZ ` k i v c vBq vQ Ges wb evPb x f ~wg K vI
h _ vh _ wQj | Z _ vwc Bnv c g vY nBq vQ h , q v` k msk va vb xi
A c eenvi K vb Z Z xq c K wi Z c vi Ges Z vnvi v A wb w` K vj i
R b g Z v A uvK o vBq v _ vwK Z I c vi |
GL vb 1/ 11 ewj Z we GvW&f vK U g nv` q 2 0 0 7 mvj i
11B R vb yq vi x Z vwi L Nvwl Z R i i x A e nv Ges Z r c i eZ x c vq ` yB
er mi k vmb K vj eyS vBq vQb |
wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi c wZ R b g b wePvi wef vMi
f veg ~wK wZ M K wi Z c vi ; mi K vi i c A v` vj Z nBZ
K vb i vq nBj GK a i b i mg vj vPb v nBZ c vi | Bnv A vg v` i K
R b i Z m b A vi K wU c k i m yL xb K i - GB c wZ P er mi
a wi q v Pwj q v A vwmZ Q Ges K vb i vR b wZ K ` j B wb evPb A c i
` j i mva vi Y wb evPb c f vweZ b v K i vi wel q A v vk xj b q - Gg b
GK wU c wi w wZ Z GB A v` vj Z h w` q v` k msk va b x evwZ j K wi q v
` q Z vnv nBj wK nBe? mswea vb ewYZ MYZ i g Z g wj K
K vVvg vi mwnZ A mvg m wea vb mg ~n evwZ j K wi evi g Z v GB
A v` vj Z i i wnq vQ| wK A vBb c Yq b ev mswea vb K vb wK Qy
msh vR b i g Z v b vB| GB i xU&wc wUk b wU hL b ` vq i K i v nq
Z L b I 1/ 11 NUb vwU NU b vB| wK GB i xU&wc wUk b h A vk sK v
e K i v nBq vQ Z vnv c i eZ x NUb vi vi v h w K c g vY nq | 1/ 11
Gi K zk xj eMY ` yB er mi i I A wa K mg q a wi q v g Z vq wQj h vnv
Z vnv` i K i v DwPZ nq b vB | we GvW&f vK U g nv` q A vk sK v
c K vk K i b h, c i eZ x 1/ 11 wf b Pwi j Bq v A vi v ` xNmg q i
R b A vwmZ c vi | A ek B MYZ msi Yi GK UvB Dc vq A vi
Z vnv nBj R b MYi MYZ vw K eva - h g b wU i wnq vQ c w g v
` k wj Z ev f vi Z |
GB A e v nBZ Di Yi GK g v Dc vq nBj ^Z Z _ v c _ K
evR U m ^wj Z GK wU k w k vj x wb evPb K wg k b | i vR b xwZ we` ,
39
mi K vwi A vg j v Ges wePvi K e` K wb R wb R ` j g Z Ges ew
i vR b wZ K c Q` i D _ vwK q v K vR K wi Z nBe| h vBnvK ,
GK R b A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ nq Z v ev wZ b g vmi R b
mi K vi c wi Pvj b v K wi j - wZ wb A _ ev Z uvnvi K vb Dc ` v wK mg M
` k wb evPb K wg k b i K g K vi Dc i n c K wi Z c vi b ?
c a vb Dc ` vi b Z Z MwVZ Z ve a vq K mi K vi ` k K ev ` nxb
evNewZ Z wK QyB b n| wb evPb K wg k b Ges Z vi K g K Z ve` wb evPb
c w q v c wi Pvj b v K wi eb | A wb evwPZ Z vea vq K mi K vi wZ b g vmi
g a GK wU my z wb evPb m b K wi eb Bnv GK wU A c wi c a vi Yv
eU|
GB A vg i v ej wR q vg i ` v j K wi Z c vwi |
mL vb GK wU Z vea vq K mi K vi 2 7 0 w` b i ek x mg q a wi q v
g Z vq wQj | A ek l i vR b xwZ K MYK GK wU mi K vi i wel q
GK g Z K wi evi R b m` k i R b MY i v vq b vwg q v A vwmq vwQj |
K Z K A c Pwj Z c wZ Z Z vnvi v c wZ ev` I c Pvi b v Pvj vBevi K k j
MnY K wi q vwQj |
A wj q vi Z vea vq K mi K vi ewj Z Mf Yi K Z K c vj vg U
f vwq v w` evi c i nBZ mva vi Y wb evPb A b y vb c h mi K vi K
eyS vBq v _ vK | wb evPb i c i I ^ mg q i R b , hZ Y c h
c i eZ x g xmf v wb hy b v nBe GB mi K vi g Z vq _ vwK Z c vi |
mB ` k K vb c _ K Z vea vq K mi K vi wb h yw i c q vR b nq b v|
we` g vb mi K vi B wb QK Caretaker mode G Pwj q v h vq | 19 7 5 mvj
A wj q vi mvswea vwb K msK UK vj Mf Yi R b vi j mvi R b K i
GK wU Z vea vq K mi K vi g vj K g d R vi i b Z Z MVb K wi q v
` b | k Z wQj h A wej ^ mva vi Y wb evPb i Nvl Yv ` I q v nBe
Ges GB mi K vi wU Z vea vq K wnmve K vR K wi e| c wi w wZ A b ymvi
Bnv wQj GK wU Pg r K vi mg va vb |
Guidance on Caretaker Conventions k xl K GK wU ` wj j vi v g x
c wi l ` i ` i nBZ Bnv c wi Pvwj Z nBq v _ vK | GB Z I vea vq K i
40
wea vb vej x mywb w f ve ewj q v w` Z Q h , msm` f vwq v h vBevi c i
mi K vi i K vh Gg A ek B Pvj vBq v h vBZ nBe Ges ` b w` b
c k vmwb K wel q wj A ek B a Z ei g a A vwb Z nBe| h vBnvK ,
Z I vea vq K ms v i I q vR Z I ve a vq K mi K vi i Dc i K Z K
wewa wb l a A vi vc K i | D` vni Y ^i c ej v h vq h , R i i x wel q
eZ xZ mi K vi wU K vb i Z i b xwZ wb a vi Yx wel q wm v MnY K wi Z
c vwi e b v| mi K vi x K vb D Pc ` wb q vM c ` vb K wi e b v| K vb
c K vi eo i K g i PzwI Z A ve nBe b v ev c wZ k wZ e nBe b v;
mK j c K vi A v R vwZ K mg S vZ v g q v` v i R b wc QvBq v w` e|
we GvW&f vK U g nv` q wb e` b K i b h , wb ` j xq
Z I vea vq K mi K vi i c wZ wU msm` xq MYZ vw K mi K vi i wei
h vq | wb evwPZ mi K vi i vi vB ` k c wi Pvj b v K i v msGv R vwZ i
c Z vk vK B K ej GB q v` k msk va b x A K vh K i x K i b v- wePvi
wef vMK I weZ K R o vBq v d j | mi K vi K Z K wb evPb c wi Pvj b vq
A c eenvi Go vBevi R b Z vunvi my c c Z ve nBj - GK wU
A vPi Ywewa mn A wj q v Ges c w g v ` k mg ~ni b vq Z I ve a vq K
mi K vi evsj v` k I c eZ b K i v h vBZ c vi | GB i K g wb QK
` b w` b K vh vej x c wi Pvj b vi wea vb A ek q v` k msk va b xZ I
wQj | wb evPb K wg k b K mevZ K g Z v c ` vb Ges Bj K Uwb K
f vUvi Z vwj K v c Z zZ K wi evi R b we GvWf vK U g nv` q g Z
c ` vb K i b |
( 5 ) R b ve Gg A vwg i - Dj Bmj vg , wmwb q i GvW&f vK U,
c _ g B mswea vb c g msk va b g vK v g v Gi c m D vc b K wi q v
ej b h D i vq i c w Z mswea vb i K vb wea vb c wi eZ b
MYf vUi A vi c q vR b b vB|
Z r c i we GvW&f vK U&g nv` q mswea vb c veb vi c vi i
c wZ ` w A vK l b K wi q v ej b h mswea vb wU R b MYi mswea vb Ges
GB evsj v` k i vi g vwj K evsj v` k i R b MY|
41
wZ wb ej b h GK wU my zwb evPb A b y vb i R b GK wU mwVK
f vUvi Z vwj K v c q vR b nq wK b 2 0 0 6 mvj wb evPb K wg k b f vUvi
Z vwj K v mwVK f ve nvj b vMv` K wi Z m ~Ye_ nq , ei f vUvi
Z vwj K v A msL f zq v f vUvi c wi c ~Y wQj | BwZ g a Z ` vb x b
g nvg vb i vc wZ Z vunvi mvswea vwb K A e nvb I ` vwq Z - K Z e wemZ
nBq v wb R B c a vb Dc ` vi c ` MnY K i b | Z vunvi D c ` c
nvBK vUwef vM Pvj K i v nq | wK c a vb wePvi c wZ Z vnv nwMZ
K i b |
wZ wb wePvi c wZ Holmes K D Z K wi q v ej b h The life of the law
has not been logic; it has been experience|
wZ wb mswea vb m ^ ej b h Bnv GK wU Social contract| Universal
Declaration of Human Rights, 1948, Gi Nvl Yvi c wZ ` w A vK l Y c ~eK
wZ wb ej b h c Z K wU b vMwi K i wb R i mi K vi c Q` K wi evi
A wa K vi i wnq vQ| 19 7 1 mvj i 10 B Gwc j i Proclamation of
Independence GB A wa K vi i Dc i wf w K wi q vB Nvwl Z nBq vwQj | GB
mveR b xb f vUvwa K vi A eva I wb i c wb evPb i Dc i wb f i k xj |
GB A eva I wb i c wb evPb I mswea vb i GK wU basic structure |
we GvW&f vK U&g nv` q A Z t c i i vR b wZ K b vq wePvi i
K _ v ej b | wZ wb ej b h i vR b wZ K b vq wePvi i R b B A eva I
wb i c wb evPb c q vR b | f vUvi Z vwj K vq b vg DVvb v GK wU
b vMwi K A wa K vi |
we GvW&f vK U g nv` q Anwar Hossain V. Bangladesh g vK v g vi
i vq i c wZ ` w A vK l b c ~eK ej b h evsj v` k i v GK wU
MYc R vZ vw K i v| G c m wZ wb mswea vb i c veb v, 8 I 11
A b y Q` i c wZ ` w A vK l Y K i b |
wZ wb i vR b wZ K e_ Z vi K vi Y wnmve A vBb i k vmb i
A b yc w wZ K B ` vq x K i b |
wZ wb ej b h A b K ` k B wb evPb K vj xb mg q i R b
A eZ xK vj xb mi K vi i wnq vQ h vnv c wZ wb wa Z k xj mi K vi b q | H
42
mK j ` k wb evwPZ m` mMYB DI A eZ xK vj xb mi K vi _ vK b
eU wK H mg q i R b wb evwPZ msm` m` m wnmve mi K vi
c wi Pvj b v K i b b v, Z vnvi v Z vnv` i wb evwPZ h vMZ v ev ewk
c wi Z vM K i Z t A eZ xK vj xb mi K vi i m` m wnmve H
wb evPb K vj xb mg q i R b mi K vi c wi Pvj b v K i b |
wb evPb i c ~emek l c a vb wePvi c wZ i c a vb Dc ` v c `
wb q vM c m wZ wb wePvi wef vMi f veg ~wZ h zb nBZ c vi Z vnv
A ^xK vi K wi Z c vi b b vB|
g v i v Dc - wb evPb m K we GvW&f vK U g nv` q ej b h
wb evPb K wg k b A vBb i k vmb A b ymi Y K wi Z e_ nBq vwQj | c a vb
wb evPb K wg k b vi Gg b wK g v i v nBZ Pwj q v A vwmZ eva
nBq vwQj b | 19 9 6 mvj i 15 B d eq vi x Z vwi L A b yw Z l R vZ xq
msm` i wb evPb GK wU g v i vR b wZ K ` j A sk MnY K wi q vwQj |
GB K vi YB R b MY wb ` j xq Z Z vea vq K mi K vi i R b msMvg
K wi q vwQj Ges GB msMvg wQj c K Z c MYc R vZ vw K mi K vi
c ~b t c wZ vi j | wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi i g va g wb evPb
K i Z t MYc R vZ vw K mi K vi c wZ v m e nBq vwQj |
we GvW&f vK U g nv` q Dj L K i b h my z, A eva I
wb i c wb evPb i g va g B g vb yl f vUvwa K vi wd wi q v c vBZ c vi I
c K Z MYZ c wZ w Z nBe Ges mswea vb i 7 A b y Q` Gi D k
md j nBe|
wZ wb A vi I ej b h GK wU wb i c mi K vi ewZ i K ` k i
A vg j vZ K mwVK c _ c wi Pvj b v K i v m e b q |
Dc msnvi wZ wb ej b h eZ g vb wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi
ee vq h mg d uvK d vK i i wnq vQ Z vnv ` ~wi f ~Z K wi evi c q vR b
i wnq vQ|
wZ wb g b K i b h MYZ i ^v_ GL b I Z ve a vq K mi K vi i
c q vR b i wnq vQ Ges Z wK Z mswe a vb q v` k msk va b A vBb wU
ea |
43
wK 2 0 0 7 I 2 0 0 8 mvj i Z vea vq K mi K vi ewZ i K I 3
( wZ b ) g vmi R b Z vea vq K mi K vi g q v` K vj xb mg q evsj v` k
MYZ vw K I c R vZ vw K i vee v _ vK wK b v GB c k wZ wb Go vBq v
h vb |
( 6 ) g vng y` yj Bmj vg , wmwb q i GvW&f vK U, g nv` q wb e` b
K i b h, q v` k msk va b xwU mswea vb i Pvi wU g wj K ewk i
mwnZ Z _ v c R vZ vw K ewk , MYZ Ges wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z vi
mwnZ A mvg mc ~Y(ultra vires) g g Pvj K i v nBq vQ|
wZ wb wb e` b K i b h c k D vc b K i v nBq vQ h , ea f ve
MwVZ b v nI q vi ` i Y K L b B wei va x` j K Z K MnYh vM nq b vB
Gg b GK wU ^ vq ymsm` ( l R vZ xq msm` ) vi v c vmK Z mswea vb i
GBi c msk va b x wK f ve ea wnmve weewPZ nBZ c vi ? c _ g
w` K A ek mswea vb i 14 2 ( 1K ) A b y Q` ewYZ MYf vU Gi wea vb
j swNZ nI q vi wel q wU Pvj K i v nBq vwQj | MYf vU A b y vb i
c mwUi msw R eve nBj - GB wea vb wU mvg wi K A vBb i d i g vb
ej A vb q b K i v nq Ges msm` K Z K mswea vb i c g msk va b xi
g va g ea Z v ` vb K i v nq ; wK D c g msk va b xwU mswea vb i
mwnZ ultra vires Z _ v A mvg mc ~YNvwl Z nBevi c i 14 2 ( 1K )
A b y Q` wUi A emvb NU Ges MYf vU A b yw Z b v K i vi A R ynvZ
mswea vb i K vb msk va b xK GL b A vi A K vh K i x ewj evi myh vM
b vB| l R vZ xq msm` i K vhK vwi Z v m K ej v h vq h , ` k i
mK j i vR b wZ K ` j l R vZ xq msm` K Z K c vmK Z q v` k
msk va b x MnY K wi q vQ; Bnvi wea vb i A b ymi Y GK vwa g A b yw Z
wZ b wU mva vi Y wb evPb ` k i R b MY A sk MnY K wi q vQ| myZ i vs l
R vZ xq msm` i h vMZ v ev K vhK wi Z v c m c k D vc b K i v
evZ zj Z v g v |
c R vZ vw K ewk ( c K wZ ) m ^ wZ wb c k D vc b K wi q vQb
h , weePb va xb msk va b xwU vi v mswea vb ev i vi c R vZ vw K
Pwi i K vb i c evZ q NwUq vQ wK b v| h L b i vc a vb i c ` wU
44
i vR K xq Di vwa K vi m~ wb a vwi Z nq Z L b BnvK i vR Z ej | hw`
GB i vR v meg q g Z vi A wa K vi x mvef g b vI nBq v _ vK b - K ej
b vg g v i vR v nBq v _ vK b Z _ vwc BnvK i vR Z B ej v nBq v _ vK |
MU weUb , A wj q v, K vb vWv, wb DwR j v GB k Yxi g a B MY
nBq v _ vK - h w` I GB mK j i v wj MYZ vw K | A vg v` i
mswea vb i 4 8 ( 1) A b y Q` A b ymvi i vc wZ nBj b i vc a vb | wZ wb
R vZ xq msm` R b MY K Z K wb evwPZ c wZ wb wa ` i vi v wb evwPZ nBq v
_ vK b | q v` k msk va b x vi v 4 8 ( 1) A b y Q` i K vb i c c wi eZ b
NUvb v nq b vB| i vc wZ i c ` wU GL b I R b c wZ wb wa ` i vi v c ~i Y
nBq v _ vK Ges mswea vb i c R vZ vw K ewk q v` k msk va b
h vnv wK Qz_ vK zK b v K b Bnvi vi v zb nq b vB|

MYZ vw K ewk c m we GvW&f vK U g nv` q ej b h
MYZ GK wU A Ges A w wZ vc K a vi Yv| Bnvi c K wZ ev eZ v
A b ymvi Z vi Z g NwUq v _ vK | Gg b wK K wg Dwb i vwk q vI ` vex K wi Z
h Z vnvi v c K Z MYZ i a vi K | A vg i v Bnvi ej c Pwj Z A _ B
ewj Z c vwi - R b MYi vi v, R b MYi R b I R b MYi MwVZ
mi K vi B MYZ | h vnv m e nBq vwQj c Pxb b Mi i vmg ~n - h L vb
mK j b vMwi K MY GK wU wb w vb GK w Z nBq v i vR b wZ K wm v
mg ~n MnY K wi Z | eZ g vb wek i z` Z g i vI GB a i Yi c Z
A sk MnYi g va g i v c wi Pvj b v m e b n| Z ` j R b MYi
wb evwPZ c wZ wb wa ` i vi v i vc wi Pvj b vi c wZ vb K wi q v j Bq vQ|
A vg v` i mswea vb i m g ( 7 ) I GK v` k ( 11) A b y Q`
R b c wZ wb wa ` i vi v c wZ wb wa Z g ~j K mi K vi Gi wb ` k b v c ` vb
K i | A vc xj K vi xi A wf h vM nBj - q v` k msk va b xi wea vb
A b ymvi c uvP er mi A i h Z K g mg q i R b B nDK b v K b GK evi
` k i mi K vi c wi Pvj b vi f vi R b c wZ wb wa b n Gg b ew eMi
nvZ Pwj q v h vq - h vnv mswea vb i g wj K K vVvg vi MYZ vw K Z vK
evnZ K wi q v _ vK | Bnv j Yxq h MYZ i wb R ^ mxg ve Z v
i wnq vQ| MYZ i A f i B Bnvi wb R ^ web vk i exR enb
45
K wi Z Q| GB wel q mevr K D` nvi YwU nBj Z Z xq R vg vb
wi c vewj K i g va g wnUj vi i D vb c e| Pareto, Mitchel Ges Moscai
g Z wZ b R b c L vZ i vR b wZ K ` vk wb K K Vvi f ve MYZ i GB
wU wj Z zwj q v a i b | h vnvi c wi YwZ Z BUvj xZ d vmxev` i D vb
nBq vQ| GK wU c _ K c _ A vg v` i c R vZ I MYZ a smi
c w q v Pwj Z Q| A eva I wb i c wb evPb i g va g wb evwPZ
R b c wZ wb wa ` i vi v MYZ c wZ v K i v m e| wK g Z vmxb ` j i
wb evPb K vi Pzwc ewZ g i c wi eZ wb q g c wi YZ nq | g v i v Dc -
wb evPb K vi Pzwc i mevwb K ` v nBq v i wnq vQ| c wZ ev`
g Z vmxb ` j ewZ Z i vR b wZ K ` j mg ~n i vR c _ A e vb
j Bq vwQj b | A vBb - k L j v c wi w wZ i g vi vZ K A eb wZ NwUq vwQj |
R b R xeb wei nBq v c wo q vwQj | BZ vg a R vZ xq msm` i g q v`
k l nBq v A vm Ges we Gb wc ewZ Z g ~j i vR b wZ K ` j wj i
A sk MnY Qvo vB GK wU wb evPb A b yw Z nq | ` xN` i K l vK wl i c i
GK wU i vR b wZ K H K g Z c wZ w Z nq - h vnvi d j nBj mswea vb i
q v` k msk va b x Ges g vUvg ywU MnYh vM wb evPb i g va g m g
R vZ xq msm` MwVZ nq | GB K mva c q vm K ej MYZ K i v
K wi evi R b MnY K i v nBq vwQj | Bnv mZ h q v` k msk va b xi
wea vb vi v mi K vi R b c wZ wb wa Z ^ mg q i R b wMZ _ vK ; Z e
Bnv ` k MYZ PPvi c _ K myMg K i | mvg vwR K we vb meK vj i
- me vb i mec K vi i vR b wZ K mg mv wb i mb i R b K vb vq x
mg va vb b vB| MU weUb h vnv c q vM K wi q v myd j c vI q v wMq vQ
Z vnv evsj v` k i R b c h vR b n|
we GvW&f vK U g nv` q i g Z evsj v` k i R b Mb i eZ g vb
i vR b wZ K c wi c Z v A b yh vq x ` k i I mswea vb i MYZ vw K ewk
msi Yi wb wg Z vea vq K mi K vi i A a xb wb evPb A b y vb i K vb
weK b vB| MYZ K euvPvBq v i vwL evi R b b v nq ^ mg q i R b
MYZ vw K ee v wMZ B i vL v nBj |
46
wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v c m we GvW&f vK U g nv` q ej b
h , wePvi wef vMxq ^va xb Z v vi v A vg i v c K Z c wK eyS vBZ wQ
Z vnvi Dc i wb f i K wi q v ewj Z nq h mswea vb Gg b A b K wel q
i wnq vQ h vnvi vi v wePvi wef vMxq ^va xb Z v L eK i v nBq vQ| Bnv
ej v h vq h wb evnx wef vM K Z K wePvi K wb q vMi wea vb wePvi
wef vMxq ^va xb Z v L eK wi q vQ| ej v nBq v _ vK h msm` K Z K
c YxZ A v` vj Z i K vh wewa c K Z b vq wePvi c wZ vq wePvi wef vMi
^va xb Z vK L eK wi q vQ| wK Jurisprudence Gi ` wK vY nBZ wePvi
wef vMxq ^va xb Z vi mywb w A _ i wnq vQ| Secretary of Ministry of Finance
V. Masdar Hossain 2000 BLD(AD) 104 g vK g vq GB A v` vj Z ( hL b
q v` k msk va b x envj wQj ) c h e Y c ` vb K i b h , mswea vb i
K vb wea vb B D P A v` vj Z i wePvi K MYi ^va xb Z vK L eK i b v
Ges GB Z wK Z msk va b xwUZ K ej D P A v` vj Z i wePvi K MYB
mswk |
mswea vb Gg b wK QzB b vB h vnvi wf wZ ej v hvBZ c vi h
myc xg K vUi wePvwi K K vh c i v n Z c K wi evi myh vM A vQ|
A wa K , myc xg R ywWwmq vj K vDw j Gi vi v myc xg K vUi
wePvi K MYi K vh K vj wb w Z K wi q vQb | A vc xj K vi xc nBZ GB
h yw c ` k b K wi Z c vi b h , c a vb Dc ` vi c ` wU myc xg K vUi
wePvi K MYi R b S zj g ~j v ^i c wb i c wePvi evnZ K wi evi
K vi Y nBZ c vi | wK BnvK GK R b wePvi K i wePvi K vh i
n Z c wnmve weePb v K i v h vBe b v ev BnvZ Z vnvi PvK zwi i
mywea v K Z b ev A b K vb f ve Z vnvi K g K vj enZ K i v h vBe b v|
Bnv g b i vL v DwPZ h wePvi K MY f q f xwZ ev c f ve ev c xwZ ev
wel Gi E a _ vwK q v R b ^v_ wVK K vR wU K wi evi R b k c _ MnY
K wi q vQb | K vb wePvi K h w` mi K vi wei vM nBe Ges Z vnvK
A emi hvBevi c i c a vb Dc ` v wnmve wb q vM c ` vb K wi e b v
GB wP vq h _ vh _ i vq ` vb nBZ wei Z _ vK b Z vnv nBj wZ wb k c _
f K wi eb ; Z e Bnv ej v h vBe b v h Z vnvK K n b vq wePvi eva v
47
w` q vQ| myc xg K vUi GK R b wePvi K K A vevwmK c U ei v K wi evi
GL wZ q vi wb evnx wef vMi | Bnv ej v h vBe b v h H GL wZ q vi i
K vi Y wePvi K MYi wePvi K vh c f ve d wj e| A vg i v GB c h vq
` wL e h , wb evnx wef vM ev mi K vi i A vBb wef vM vi v K vb i c
c f ve Qvo vB wePvi K MY ^va xb f ve wePvwi K K g m v` b K wi Z Qb
wK b v| q v` k msk va b xi A vj vK GB c k i Di A ek B
b wZ evPK |

mv c wZ K A Z xZ mswea vb A b ymvi Z vea vq K mi K vi MVb
c w q vi A c eenvi K i v nBq vQ| wK wK Qz A vBb i A c eenvi i
K vi Y K L b B A vBb wU eA vBb x nBq v h vq b v| D A c eenvi i va
K wi evi R b c q vR b xq ee v MnY K wi j B nq |

( 7 ) | R b ve i vK b Dw b g vng y` , wmwb q i
GvW&f vK U, GK wU mZ K evYx D Pvi b K i Z t Z vunvi eI e A vi
K i b GB ewj q v h Z wK Z mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb wU
A veMewR Z f ve weePb v K wi Z nBe|
wZ wb ej b h Z wK Z mswea vb msk va b A vBb wU c q vMi c ~e
19 7 3 mvj nBZ h i vR b wZ K ` j g Z vq _ vK b Z vnvi v K L b I
wb evPb nvi b b vB, Gg b wK Dc - wb evPb I K vi Pzwc nq , h g b g v i v
Dc - wb evPb |
2 0 0 4 mvj GK wU wek l D k mswea vb msk va b K i Z t
myc xg K vUi wePvi K MYi A emi MnYi eq m ew K i v nq | c a vb
Dc ` v c ` wb q vMi R b A vc xj wef vMi A emi c v wePvi K MYi
m ~L GK wU g yj v S zj vBq v i vL v nq |
^xK Z g Z B wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v mswea vb i GK wU basic
structure | c k nBZ Q h Z wK Z mswea vb msk va b A vBb wU wePvi
wef vMi ^va xb Z vK K vb f ve zb K i wK b v|
A vg i v, evsj v` k i R b MY, K _ v wj mswea vb i 7 A b y Q` i
mwnZ c wo Z nBe| mswea vb evsj v` k i mev P A vBb K vi Y Bnv
48
evsj v` k i R b MYi B Qv ( will) K c ~wUZ K i | myc xg K vUB
mswea vb i k Z a vi Y K i K vi Y myc xg K vUB mswea vb i
A wf f veK | mswea vb i 10 2 A b y Q` myc xg K vUi nvBK vUwef vMi
Dc i K wZ c q A v` k I wb ` k c ` vb i g Z v A c b K i |
mswea vb B MYZ wK f ve A b yk xwj Z nBe Z vnv eYb v K i v
nBq vQ| wb evPb i g va vg R b MY Z vnv` i c wZ wb wa wb a vi Y K i b |
g w mf v R vZ xq msm` K c wZ wb wa Z K i |
R vZ xq msm` A _ - A vBb mn mK j c K vi A vBb c Yq b K i |
R vZ xq msm` 14 2 A b y Q` i A a xb 11 A b y Q` I g wj K A wa K vi
ewZ Z mswea vb i h K vb msk va b K wi Z g Z v c v |
Anwar Hossain V. Bangladesh (A g mswea vb msk va b ) g vK v g vq
mswea vb i basic structure c wi eZ b ev msk va b K i v h vq b v ewj q v myc xg
K vUi A vc xj wef vM Nvl Yv K i | mswea vb i A wf f veK wea vq
myc xg K vUmsm` K Z K c YxZ A vBb i ea Z v/ A ea Z v Nvl Yv
K wi Z c vi |
i vc wZ myc xg K vUi wePvi K wb q vM ` vb K wi q v _ vK b wK
myc xg K vUi Dc i wb evnx wef vMi A vi K vb wb q Y _ vK b v|
a yg v A m` vPi Yi R b wePvi K MYK A c mvi Y K i v h vBZ c vi |
myc xg K vUi Judicial Review Gi g Z v i wnq vQ| K vb msm`
m` mi A h vMZ vi c k DwVj xK vi g nv` q wel q wU wb evPb
K wg k b i wb K U c i Y K i b | wb evPb K wg k b b vb x A Z vnv` i
g Z vg Z xK vi g nv` q i wb K U c i Y K i b | GB g Z vg Z I myc xg
K vUPvj K i v h vq |
c a vb wePvi c wZ mvnveyw b A vn&g ` A vq x i vc wZ c ` wb q vM
c v nBq v i vi wb evnx c a vb nBq vwQj b wK K nB Z uvnvi
wb i c Z v m ^ c k D vc b K i b vB|
c a vb Dc ` v c ` c a vb wePvi c wZ i wb q vM c m wZ wb ej b
h i vR b wZ K ` j wj i wb K U c a vb wePvi c wZ ewZ i K A b K vb
ew MnYh vM wQj b v| Bnv mevg mg va vb b v nBj I A vi K vb
49
c ve mK j i vR b wZ K ` j i wb K U MnYh vM wQj b v| H mg q
c a vb wePvi c wZ B GK g v A vk vi A vj v wQj b |
c a vb wePvi c wZ mvnveyw b A vn&g ` A vq x i vc wZ wQj b ,
Z r c i c yb i vq c a vb wePvi c wZ c ` c Z veZ b K i b wK Z vnvZ
myc xg K vUi ` vwq Z c vj b Z uvnvi K vb mg mv nq b vB|
myc xg K vUi wePvi K MYi eq m ewVK mg q ewVK Dc vq
ew K i v nBq vwQj , A ek Z ` vb x b we` vq x c a vb wePvi c wZ R b ve
K , Gg , nvmvb 2 0 0 6 mvj i k l w` K c a vb Dc ` v nBZ Z uvnvi
A c i vMZ v c K vk K i b |
we GvW&f vK U g nv` q ej b h h L vb K g i Z wePvi K MYI
wewf b a i b i Z ` K wi Z m g mL vb GK R b A emi c v c a vb
wePvi c wZ i c a vb Dc ` v nBZ eva v K v_ vq | 19 9 6 mvj i
d eq vi x g vmi wb evPb c i eZ x NUb vej x eYb v K wi q v we
GvW&f vK U g nv` q ej b h h Z R wUj Z vB _ vK zK b v K b GB mg q
wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi ewZ Z A vi K vb MnYh vM mg va vb wQj
b v|
hy i vR Parliament f vwOq v Mj convention A b ymvi wb evPb i c i
b ~Z b c a vb g x hvM` vb b v K i v c h c ~eZ b c a vb g x Queen Gi
A b yi va mi K vi c wi Pvj b v K i b | wK H A wZ wi mg q wZ wb
A wb evwPZ B _ vK b |
c a vb g x c ` Z vM K wi j ev ^ xq c ` envj b v _ vwK j g xMY
c ` Z vM K wi q vQb ewj q v MY nBj I 5 8 ( 4 ) A b y Q` A b ymvi
Z uvnv` i Di vwa K vi xMY K vh f vi MnY b v K i v c h Z uvnvi v ^ ^c `
envj _ vwK eb | BnvZ h w` MYZ j L b b v nq Z vnv nBj 5 8 L
A b y Q` vi v MYZ j L b nBZ c vi b v|

mveR b xb f vUvwa K vi g vi d r msm` 3 0 0 m` m wb evPb
MYZ i wf w| mswea vb i 7 ( 2 ) A b y Q` MYZ wb w Z K wi q vQ
Ges 11 A b y Q` MYZ i a i Y eYb v K wi q vQ| 5 9 I 6 0 A b y Q`
50
vb xq mi K vi mw K wi q vQ| R vZ xq msm` f vwOq v h vBevi mv_ mv_
c a vb g x I msm` m` mMYi Mandate Gi mg vw nq |

mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb Gi D k nBj
K vi Pzwc nxb A eva I my zwb evPb A b y vb |

wb evPb K wg k b g v i v Dc - wb evPb i K vi Pzwc e K wi Z c vi
b vB| 19 9 6 mvj i d eq vi x g vm A b yw Z wb evPb f vU K vi Pzwc
nBq vwQj | mswea vb i A a xb wb evPb K wg k b i wb h yw mwVK f ve
nBj I i vR b wZ K ` j wj i c f ve Bnv f vj f ve I A vBb vb yMf ve
` vwq Z c vj b K wi Z c vi b v|

we GvW&f vK U g nv` q ej b h Z wK Z mswea vb msk va b
A vBb evwZ j K wi j I 2 0 0 6 mvj i k l f vMi Pi g mU Go vb
m e nBZ b v| c K Z c GB a i b i mU Go vBevi R b B l
R vZ xq msm` i wb evPb i c i Z wK Z mswea vb msk va b A vBb c Yq b
K i v nq | Z vnvi c i I mU K vwUZ Q b v| mek l c a vb wePvi c wZ
GK wU i vR b wZ K ` j i wb K U MnYh vM b vI nBZ c vi , A vevi ,
Z vnvi c ~eeZ x c a vb wePvi c wZ A b i vR b wZ K ` j i wb K U MnYh vM
nBe b v| mg mv Pwj Z B _ vwK e|

( 8 ) A vR g vj yj nvmb , wmwb q i GvWf vK U, g nv` q
ej b h , q v` k msk va b xi g vU wZ b wU g ~j wel q K Pvj K wi q v
GB A vc xj wU A vb vq b K i v nBq vQ| A b f ve ej v h vq q v` k
msk va b x mswea vb i wZ b wU g wj K wel q K web K wi q v w` q vQ|
GB wj nBZ Qt MYZ , c R vZ vw K ewk Ges wePvi wef vMxq
^va xb Z v| mswea vb i g wj K K vVvg vi mvwnZ Z wK Z msk va b xwU
GB K vi b mvsNwl K |
nvBK vU wef vM A vi K wU hy wI Z zwj q v a i v nBq vQ h ,
mswea vb i 14 2 A b y Q` A b ymvi GB msk va b xwUi R b g Z h vPvBq i
wb wg MYf vU A vnvb K i v nq b vB wea vq Dnv A | GB c msM
we GvW&f vK U g nv` q i g Z nBj c g msk va b xi i vq i c i
51
MYf vUi A vi A vek K Z v b vB| K vi Y H i vq vi v MYf vUi
wel q wUI mswea vb i mwnZ A mvg mc ~Yg g Nvwl Z nBq vQ|
wZ wb ej b h , q v` k msk va b xi g va g mswea vb i g wj K
K vVvg v web nBq vQ wea vq Dnv evwZ j Nvl Yvi h vM|
MYZ Ges c R vZ vw K ewk c m we GvWf vK U
g nv` q ej b h, MYZ Ges c R vZ vw K ewk A vg v` i
mswea vb i g wj K K vVvg v| A vg v` i mswea vb A b ymvi MYZ i
c q vM nBq v _ vK msm` R b MYi wb evwPZ c wZ wb wa ` i g va g |
mswea vb i c Z veb v, 7 A b y Q` PZ z_ f vMi 1g I 2 q A a vq ` k
K ej B R b c wZ wb wa ` i vi v c wi Pvwj Z nBevi c Z vk v K i v nBq vQ|
me` vB ' A vg i v, evsj v` k i R b MY' B Z vnv` i mi vmwi wb evwPZ
c wZ wb wa i g va g Z vnv` i wel q vw` m K wm v MnY K wi e|
mswea vb i g ~j PZ b v nBj K vb A e vZ B GB c wZ wb wa Z g ~j K
ewk i mwnZ A vc vl b v K i v| 19 7 2 mvj i g ~j mswea vb i web vm
A b ymvi R b MY K Z K wb evwPZ c a vb g x I g x c wi l ` wb evnx
K vh vej x c q vM K wi e| c R vZ i i vc wZ msm` m` m` i vi v
wb evwPZ - mi vmwi R b MYi vi v wb evwPZ b nb - c K Z c ve Z uvnvi
K vb K vh K i x wb evnx K g K v b vB| c K Z c wZ wb wa Z g ~j K ewk b v
_ vK vq Z uvnvK c a vb g xi c i vg k A b ymvi K vh m v` b K wi Z nq |
GK B K vi Y ^va xb K Z Z wZ wb K vh m v` b K wi evi A wa K vi x
b nb | Gg b wK GK wU g yZ i R b I GB c wZ wb wa Z g ~j K ewk
nBZ wePzZ nI q v h vBe b v- BnvB mswea vb i g ~j PZ b v|
GK B f ve i vR Z i wec i xZ evsj v` k GK wU c R vZ |
i vi wZ b wU A i mK j g Z vB A vg i v, evsj v` k i R b MYGi
g vwj K vb va xb | Z vnvi v mvef g Ges me Yi R b B GB mvef g Z
Z vnv` i A wa K vi B _ vK | A Z Ge, i vi mK j wm v Ges K vh g
A ek B mswea vb ewYZ c w q vq mi vmwi R b MYi f vU wb evwPZ
c wZ wb wa ` i g va g B m b nBZ nBe|
52
f vi Z I evsj v` k i b vq GK wU MYc R vZ | f vi Z xq myc xg
K vU R.C. Poudyal v Union of India AIR 1993 SC 1804 g vK g vq
MYc R vZ Gi A _ c ` vb K wi q vQ| hvnv A vg v` i mswea vb eI
MYc R vZ xGi A b yi c |
A vg v` i mswea vb MYc R vZ xewj Z R b MYi g Z v eyS vq
h vnv mswea vb i g wj K K vVvg v|
Z wK Z msk va b x MYZ Ges c R vZ vw K ewk K msK zwPZ
K wi q v d wj q vQ| mswea vb wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi i K vVvg v
A vg ` vb x K i vi c i nBZ mswea vb GK wU c wZ wb wa Z nxb mi K vi
R b c wZ wb wa Z K vi x mi K vi i j veZ x nBq vQ h vnv mswea vb i
MYZ I c R vZ vw K ewk ` yBwUi mwnZ mvsNwl K |
GBL vb Dj L h , nvBK vU wef vM MYZ K
k w k vj xK i Yi j A eva wb evPb i c q vR b xq Z vi wel q wUZ R vi
w` q vQ; wK g wj K K vVvg v Z Z i c m b R i ` q b vB| GB
K vi Y DI i vq evwZ j nBevi h vM|
wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v c m GvW&f vK U g nv` q ej b h
Bnv c wZ w Z h , wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v h K vb mswea vb i g wj K
K vVvg v| weL vZ A g msk va b x g vK g vwUB ( 19 8 9 we. Gj . wW
wek l msL v) A vg v` i ` k i mswea vb i g wj K K vVvg v ms v
c _ g g vK g v|
wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi ee nvq mek l A emi c v c a vb
wePvi c wZ c a vb Dc ` v wb h yw i wea vb A vQ| Z vunvK c vI q v b v
Mj A c i c a vb wePvi c wZ nBeb c a vb Dc ` v| GB ee nv Pvj y
nBevi c i mK j B wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v m K DM c K vk
K wi q v A vwmZ wQj b | A vg v` i A wf Z v nBj GB ee nvi mevwa K
g ` i wk K vi nBq vQ wePvi wef vM| h nZ z c a vb wePvi c wZ B
Z vea vq K mi K vi i c a vb Dc ` v nBeb mnZ z g Z vmxb ` j
Z vnv` i c Q` i ew K c a vb wePvi c wZ wb h y K wi evi Pv K i -
h vnvZ wZ wb B c i c a vb Dc ` v nBZ c vi b | myc xg K vUwePvi K
53
wb q vMi mg q I GK B j wP vq i vwL q v K vR K i v nq , h vnvi
d j k wZ Z wePvi wef vM ^va xb I wb i c wePvi K c vw nBZ ew Z
nBZ Q| c a vb wePvi c wZ i c ` wUI g k weZ wK Z nBq v c wo Z Q|
wek l Z t 2 0 0 6 mvj i A wf Z v nBZ ` L v wMq vQ h , Z L b
wei va x ` j mek l A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ i A a xb wb evPb b v
h vBevi R b A v` vj b - msMvg I we vf K wi q vQ| c i ` yB eQi
mb v mg w_ Z Z ve a vq K mi K vi ` k i A vBb i k vmb Ges g wj K
A wa K vi j sNb K wi q v ` k k vmb K wi q vQ|
k l ` yB eQi i A wf Z vq ` L v h vBZ Q h A emi c v c a vb
wePvi c wZ i A a xb wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi c wZ A vi K vR
K wi Z Q b v| wek l Z wZ wb h L b R b Mb i wb K U MnYh vM b v nb |
BnvB c g vY K i h A eva wb i c wb evPb A b y vb i wb wg
A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ i A a xb wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi
c wZ mevg weK ee nv b n|
we GvW&f vK U g nv` q ej b h GB hywI D vc b K i v
nBq vQ h , evsj v` k A eva wb i c wb evPb A b y vb i j
wb j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi ee nvwU wZ xq mevg mg va vb | GB
c m we GvW&f vK U ej b h , evsj v` k i GK wU Mi eg q
^va xb Z v h y i BwZ nvm i wnq vQ, e vsj v` k i R b MY GK wU Dg
R vwZ wnmve g wj K A wa K vi I mswea vb i c va vb m ^wj Z c w_ exi
g vS GK wU Dg mswea vb c Yq b I MnY K wi q vQ| Z vnv nBj
^va xb Z vi Pwj k er mi c i K b A vg vw` MK wZ xq mevg
MYZ vw K ee nvq h vBZ nBe ? A ek B GB R vwZ i R b me vg
MYZ B c Z vwk Z |
nvBK vUwef vMi d zj e A b yg v` b K wi q vQ h , A eva I
wb i c wb evPb A b y vb i R b wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi B GK g v
mg va vb b q Ges wek i mK j Db Z R vwZ B wb evPb i mb vZ b c w q vB
A b ymi Y K wi q v _ vK | Bnv ej v h vBZ c vi h, g ~j j nBj A eva
I wb i c wb evPb A b y vb K i v- wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi b q |
54
Db Z ` k mg ~n wb evPb A b yw Z nq wb evPb K wg k b i A a xb ; wb ` j xq
Z I vea vq K mi K vi i A a xb b q | mB me ` k K nB wb evPb i
wb i c Z v wb q v c k D vc b K i b v| A vg v` i m yL I UK mB
GK wU weK B i wnq vQ Z vnv nBj wb evPb K wg k b i A a xb B wb evPb
A b yw Z K i v| Bnvi R b c q vR b xq A vBb I wewa c Yq b K i v h vnvZ
wb evPb K wg k b A eva I wb i c wb evPb A b yw Z K wi Z c vi |
myZ i vs mswea vb i g wj K K vVvg vi wZ K vi K q v` k msk va b wU
A vBb Z i Yxq b q |
A vg v` i mswea vb ewYZ c wZ wb wa Z g ~j K MYZ i wea vb wU
wei wZ nxb | wK q v` k msk va b x GB wb t wQ` a vi vevwnK Z vq wei wZ i
mw K i | A t Z ` yBevi A mvswea vwb K c nvq g Z v MnYi wZ
A wf Z v A vg v` i i wnq vQ Ges Df q wUB A v` vj Z K Z K c g I
m g msk va b x g vg j vi i vq vi v eA vBb x Nvwl Z nBq vQ| Bnv
j Yxq h, mswea vb K vb c K vi myh vM b v _ vK v ^Z I
eA vBb xf ve g Z v MnYi g Z NUb v NwUq vQ Ges mB K vi Y
myc xg K vUeA vBb x Nvl Yv K wi Z c vwi q vQ| wK GB a i Yi
myh vM q v` k msk va b xZ we` g vb _ vK vq mB myo c _ a wi q v
A vBb x A vei Yi g va g D Pvwf j vl x` i g Z v MnY K wi evi ee nv
_ vwK q v h vBe| mb vevwnb x mg w_ Z Z vea vq K mi K vi i ` yBwU
er mi i A wf Z v A vg v` i K mB A vk sK vi K _ vB mi Y K i vBq v
` q | A Z Ge, GBme ev Z eZ vi A vj vK B q v` k msk va b x
evwZ j nI q v A vek K |

15 | c v_ wg K weePb v t
19 9 4 mvj g v i v Dc - wb evPb wec yj K vi Pzwc i A wf h vM DwVj
Z ` vb x b wei va x ` j GK wU wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi i g va g
wb evPb A b y vb K wi evi R b c ej A v` vj b A vi K i | evsj v` k i
i vR b xwZ Z GB Bmy GK c P A w i Z v mw K i | ` k i me GB
ee v j Bq v A vj vc - A vj vPb v, Z K - weZ K Pwj Z _ vK | wei va x` j
K Z K A vnvb K Z g vMZ ni Z vj ` k i ^vf vweK R b - R xeb c vq
55
wei nBq v c o | Z vnvi v c i eZ x A Z wZ b wU mva vi Y wb evPb
wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi i Z vea vb A b y vb K wi evi ` vex
R vb vBZ _ vK b | GBi c GK c wi w wZ i g a 19 9 6 mvj i 15 B
d eq vi x evsj v` k l mva vi Y wb evPb A b yw Z nq wK b ` k i
c a vb wei va x ` j wj H wb evPb eR b K i | A Z c i t R vZ xq msm`
wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi ee v m ^wj Z mswea vb ( q v` k
msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 6 , wej MnY K i | Z r c i , i vc wZ 2 8 k g vP
Z vwi L wej wUZ ^v i ` vb K wi j Z vnv A vBb c wi YZ nq |
Dc i v A vBb i A a xb MwVZ wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi
19 9 6 mvj i 12 B R yb Z vwi L m g R vZ xq msm` i wb evPb A b y vb
K i |
wK GB A vBb i c q vR b xq Z v I A vBb MZ ea Z v j Bq v ` k
A vj vc - A vj vPb v Pwj Z B _ vK | GB c vc U Z wK Z A vBb wUi
ea Z v Pvj K wi q v i xU&wc wUk b b s 17 2 9 / 19 9 6 ` vq i nq | Bnv
GK wU msw A v` k L vwi R nq | Z r c i , A i xU&g vK v g vwU ` vq i
nq | nvBK vUwef vM GB i xU&g vK v g vq GK R b c exY mvsevw` K
Ges ` k i ` yB enr i vR b wZ K ` j i g nvmwPeMY c f z nb | Bnv
nBZ c Z xq g vb nq h Z wK Z A vBb wUi ea Z vi c k ` k A b K i B
Dr K v i wnq vQ| A ek A vc xj wef vM Z vnv` i c nBZ K vb
h yw - Z K D vc b K i v nq b vB| Z e Bnv mZ h evsj v` k i
R b MYi GK wU ek eo A sk wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi i
Z vea vb wb evPb A b y vb i c c vwZ | Bnvi c mevc v eo h yw
nBj h MYZ i ^v_ GK wU my yI wb i c wb evPb A b y vb K i Y,
K vi Y, g v i v Dc - wb evPb A b y vb Z ` vb x b wb evPb K wg k b I
mi K vi i Pi g e_ Z vi NUb v GL b I mK j i B g b D j nBq v
i wnq vQ| mK j i f q h ` j xq mi K vi i A a xb my y I wb i c
wb evPb A b y vb A v` m e b n| BnvB mK j weZ K i g ~j | h
i vR b wZ K ` j K ` k i R b MY f vU c ` vb K wi q v mi K vi MVb i
R b K Z Z c ` vb (mandate) K wi j , A _ P c i eZ x mva vi Y wb evPb
56
A b y vb mB mi K vi K B ` k i R b MY, A Z Bnvi GK wU enr
A sk , c i eZ x mva vi Y wb evPb A b y vb i mg q g Z vq ` wL Z Pvn
b v, c vQ g v i v Dc - wb evPb i c yb i vew nq | A ek g v i v Dc -
wb evPb i c i A vi K vb Dc - wb evPb f vU K vi Pzwc i K vb R vi vj
A wf h vM A vi I V b vB|
wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi mwK vi x mswea vb ( q v` k
msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 6 , mvj i ea Z v A i xU&g vK v g vq Pvj
K wi j nvBK vUi Full Bench Bnvi 4 - 8 - 2 0 0 4 Z vwi L i i vq Rule wU
Discharge K i Z t mswea vb i 10 3 A b y Q` i A a xb mvwUwd K U c ` vb
K i vq Bnv mi vmwi A vc xj wnmve b w_ f z nq | Z vnvQvo v, i xU&
` i L v Z K vi x c GK wU c _ K Civil Petition For Leave to Appeal No. 596 of
2005 ` vq i K i v nq |
GB A vc xj g vK v g vq wb t m` n GK wU myK wVb i vR b wZ K
f ve weZ wK Z wel q R wo Z i wnq vQ h vnv GB A v` vj Z i wb wi
wel q A e k B b n| wK nvBK vUwef vMi i xU&A wa i A vI Z vq
(Writ Jurisdiction) Dc i ewYZ Z wK Z A vBb wUi ea Z v Pj K i Z t
` vex K i v nBq vQ h Z wK Z A vBb wUi g va g mswea vb h msk va b
A vb q b K i v nBq vQ Z vnv A mvswea vwb K Z _ v A ea |
G Z wK Z A vBb wU mswea vb i A vj vK weePb v K i v
nvBK vUwef vMi ` vwq Z I K Z e wQj , A b _ vq GK wU A mvswea vwb K
msk va b mvswea vb K K j ywl Z K wi Z c vi | Dj L , GB myc xg
K vUi c wZ wU wePvi K mswea vb I A vBb i i Y, mg _ b I
wb i vc vwea vb K wi Z Z uvnv` i k c _ vi v eva |
Dj L , R b ve wU GBP L vb , GvW&f vK U, Z wK Z wel q wU R vZ xq
msm` i weePb vi Dc i Qvwo q v w` evi R b g Z c K vk K wi q vQb |
R vZ xq msm` i m` mMYi mg M ` k i R b MYi c wZ wb wa Z
K i b | mswea vb mvc mswea vb msk va b K wi evi g Z vI Z uvnv` i
i wnq vQ| wK msm` i K vR i wb R ^A Mvwa K vi i wnq vQ| c v i
mswea vb i evL v I wek l Y K wi evi g Z v GK g v myc xg K vUi
57
Dc i b | mB ` vwq Z I K Z e myc xg K vUK L b B Go vBZ c vi
b v|
2 0 0 4 mvj nvBK vU wef vMi i vq i c i 7 ( mvZ ) er mi
A wZ evwnZ nBq vQ| BwZ g a GK c g vK v g vwU b vb xi c v_ b v
K wi j , wek l K wi q v h L vb R wUj mvswea vwb K evL vi c k R wo Z ,
mB A vc xj b vb x K i v c q vR b nq | i vi A vi GK wU ^va xb
wef vMi R b myc xg K vUGi A c v K i v mg xPxb b n|
h K vb g vK v g vq i vR b wZ K mg mv R wo Z _ vwK j I myc xg
K vUmvswea vwb K c k Dnvi wb w h Go vBZ c vi b v Z vnvi
^c US myc xg K vUi f ~wg K v A vj vPb v K i v h vq |
c _ g Colegrove V. Green 328 US 549(1946) g vK v g v A vj vPb v K i v
c q vR b | Illinois A i vR 5 1wU R j vq wef wQj | c Z K wU R j v
nBZ A i vR i wmb U I i vR c wZ wb wa MY wb evwPZ nBZ b | K vj
K vj k ni wj Z R b msL v e Y ew c vBj I Z vnv` i c wZ wb wa i
msL v ew b v c vI q vq Mvg Gj vK vi mwnZ k ni Gj vK vi c wZ wb wa i
msL v A sk vb yc vZ wef vR b A b vh A mg Z v (unjust congressional
apportionment) c wi j w Z nq | GB A b vh A mg Z v Pvj K wi j myc xg
K vUBnv GK wU i vR b wZ K c k ewj q v c v_ b v L vwi R K i | myc xg
K vUi msL v Mwi wePvi K MYi c Justice Frankfurter ej b h
Z wK Z BmywU of a peculiarly political nature and therefore not meet for judicial
determination.|
wK 16 er mi i g a c a vb wePvi c wZ Earl Warren Gi b Z Z
myc xg K vUBaker V. Carr 369 US 186 (1962) g vK v g vq Bnvi g Z c wi eZ b
K i | c K Z c Bnv b ~Z b h yM mwK vi x GK wU i vq | Justice Warren
wb R I ewj q vQb h GB i vq wU Z vunvi R xeb i mek i vq | Bnv
Tennessee A i vR nBZ A vMZ GK wU g vK v g v| 19 0 1 mvj i GK wU
A vBb A i vR wUi 9 5 wU county Gi g a c wZ wb wa i msL v A sk vb yc vZ
wef vR b K wi q v ` q | 19 6 0 mvj i A v` g g vi xZ ` L v h vq h Mvg
Gj vK vi Z zj b vq k ni Gj vK vi j vK msL v e b ew c v nBj I
58
j vK msL vi A sk vb yc vZ c wZ wb wa i msL v ew K i v nq b vB wea vq
Mvg I k ni Gj vK vi A sk vb yc vZ c wZ wb wa Z A mg Z vi mw nBq vQ|
US myc xg K vUi msL vMwi wePvi K MYi c g ~j i vq wU Justice
Brennan c ` vb K i b t
The question here is the consistency of state action with the Federal
Constitution. We have no question decided, or to be decided, by a political
branch of government coequal with this Court. Nor do we risk embarrassment of
our government abroad, or grave disturbance at home if we take issue with
Tennessee as to the constitutionality of her action here challenged. Nor need the
appellants, in order to succeed in this action, ask the court to enter upon policy
determinations for which judicially manageable standards are lacking. Judicial
standards under the Equal Protection clause are well developed and familiar, and
it has been open to courts since the enactment of the Fourteenth Amendment to
determine, if on the particular facts they must, that a discrimination reflects no
policy, but simply arbitrary and capricious action.........
We conclude that the complaints allegations of a denial of equal
protection present a justiciable constitutional cause of action upon which
appellants are entitled to a trial and a decision. The right asserted is within the
reach of judicial protection under the Fourteenth Amendment.
Dc i v i vq i mwnZ GK g Z c vl Y K wi q v Justice Clark
mswea vb i g ~j a vi YvK c L vc b (project) K i b t
As John Rutledge (later Chief Justice) said 175 years ago in the course
of the Constitutional Convention, a chief function of the Court is to secure the
national rights. Its decision today supports the proposition for which our
forebears fought and many died, namely that to be fully comformable to the
principle of right, the form of government must be representative. That is the
keystone upon which our government was founded and lacking which no
republic can survive. It is well for this Court to practice self-restraint and
discipline in constitutional adjudication, but never in its history have those
principles received sanction where the national rights of so many have been so
59
clearly infringed for so long a time. National respect for the courts is more
enhanced through the forthright enforcement of those rights rather than by
rendering them nugatory through the interposition of subterfuges. In my view
the ultimate decision today is in the greatest tradition of this Court.
c Z xq g vb nq h 19 4 6 mvj unjust congressional apportionment
wel q i vR b wZ K c k R wo Z i wnq vQ GB I R ynvZ myc xg K vUZ wK Z
A ve` b wU b vK P K wi j I 19 6 2 mvj GK B a i b i A ve` b
Dc i v f ve myc xg K vUweePb v K i Z t b vh apportionment K wi evi
A v` k c ` vb K i |
Baker V. Carr g vK g vi i vq m K Professor Keith E. Whittington
wb wj wL Z g e K i b t
The famed legislative apportionment decision of 1962 is an example of
the Court cutting through the political thicket. Chief Justice Warren later
regarded Baker v. Carr as the most important case of my tenure on the Court.
As governor of California, Warren had contributed to the preservation of
malapportioned and gerrymandered legislative districts, which he later admitted
was frankly a matter of political expediency. But I saw the situation in a
different light on the Court. There, you have a different responsibility. From
that perspective, he came to believe that he was just wrong as Governor. The
Courts willingness to intervene in the field was an abrupt departure from the
traditional understanding of apportionment being a legislative and deeply
political prerogative. (Political Foundations of Judicial Supremacy, Page-126).

i vR b wZ K ev R b MYi K Z ~nj v xc K g vK v g vq GK R b
wePvi K i K Z e m K Northern Security Co. V. United States (1903) 193 US
197 g vK v g vq wePvi c wZ Oliver Wendell Holmes Z uvnvi wf b g Z m~PK
i vq i c vi ej b t
Great cases like hard cases make bad law. For great cases are called
great not by reason of their real importance in shaping the law of the future but
because of some accident of immediate over-whelming interest which appeals to
the feelings and distorts the judgment. These immediate interests exercise a kind
of hydraulic pressure which makes what previously was clear seem doubtful,
and before which even well-settled principles of law will bend. What we have to
do in this case is to find the meaning of some not very difficult words. We must
60
try, I have tried, to do it with the same freedom of natural and spontaneous
interpretation that one would be sure of it the same question arose upon an
indictment for a similar act which excited no public attention and was of
importance only to a prisoner before the court. (A a vi L v c ` ) |

Dennis V. United States 341 US 494 (1951) g vK v g vq wePvi c wZ Felix
Frankfurter g vK v g v wb wZ A v` vj Z i f ~wg K v m ^ wb g v g e
K i b t
..........Courts are not representative bodies. They are not designed to be
a good reflex of a democratic society. Their judgment is best informed, and
therefore most dependable, within narrow limits. Their essential quality is
detachment, founded on independence. History teaches that the independence of
the judiciary is jeopardized when courts become embroiled in the passions of the
day and assume primary responsibility in choosing between competing political,
economic and social pressures. ( A a vi L v c ` )

Secretary of State for Education And Science V. Tameside Metropolitan
Borough Council 1977 AC 1014 g vK g vq Tameside Borough Z wk v ee v
b ~Z b c Pwj Z comprehensive c wZ A b ymvi Pwj e b v mb vZ b Grammar
School wj Pvj y _ vwK e Bnv j Bq v wei va | 19 7 5 mvj j evi
K vDw j i MY msL vMwi wQj b | Z vnvi v Tameside Borough Z
Comprehensive c wZ Pvj yK wi evi R b K ` xq wk v g xi wb K U c ve
K i b | Z L b K ` I j evi mi K vi g Z vq wQj | K ` xq wk v g x
Z vnv 19 4 4 mvj i A vBb A b ymvi D c wZ i A b yg v` b c ` vb
K i b | A b yg v` b A b ymvi mva vi Y zj wj I K q K wU Grammar zj
comprehensive zj i c v wi Z nq | wK 19 7 6 mvj A b yw Z Borough
wb evPb Tameside G K b R vi f wUf c vwUmsL vMwi Z v j vf K i |
Z vnvi v A ewk Grammar zj wj K comprehensive zj i c v i K wi Z
A ^xK vi K i | Bnv Z vnv` i A b Z g wb evPb x A xK vi wQj | GB
wel q wU j Bq v msL vMwi K b R vi f wUf K vDw j i vi v MwVZ Borough
Gi mwnZ K ` xq j evi mi K vi i i vR b wZ K g Z Z Z vi mw nq
Ges Borough Council K ` xq mi K vi i wb ` k g vb K wi Z A ^xK wZ
61
R vb vq | h w` I wel q wU K ` xq j evi I Borough Gi K b R vi f wUf
c wvUi i vR b wZ K g Z v` k i wei va wK k l c h Bnv A v` vj Z c h
Mo vq | A vBb MZ wei va wUi mwnZ h ` yBwU i vR b wZ K c wZ c i
g Z v` k i wei va I h R wo Z Z vnv Court of AppealI Dc j w K i | Lord
Denning MR,Z vunvi i vq g e K i b ( c t 10 2 1) t
We, of course, in this court support neither side in this controversy: but we have
to take notice that the political parties are concerned in it. This is shown by the
dispute which is now before the court.
Geoffrey Lane L.J Z uvnvi i vq i GK vsk g e K i b ( 10 3 3 ) t
At the root of the dispute, and there is no advantage in closing ones eyes to the
fact, are the two opposing views as to the better form of secondary education.
Unfortunately the argument has become politically aligned, with the result that
the true issues may sometimes become lost in the dust of political battle.
( A a vi L v c ` )

` yBwU i vR b wZ K c wZ c i g a g ~j Z t i vR b wZ K
g Z v` k i wei va K hy i vR i mev P A v` vj Z House of Lords wK ` w
f xZ wePvi K i Z vnvB mK j wePvi K MYi wk Yxq | Lord Russell of
Killowen Dc i v A vc xj g vK v g vq Z uvnvi i vq A vi K i b GB f ve
( c t 10 7 3 ) t 1977AC p-1073 :
My Lords, I would remark upon some matters introductory to consideration of
this appeal.
1. In my judicial capacity I must have no preference for a particular system of
state supported education, whether mixed or comprehensive. In my personal
capacity I have in fact no preference for any particular system, and this fact,
while it may disable me from arriving at a conclusion that a particular view is
wrong, may assist me in arriving at a correct conclusion as to whether a
proposed course of action, motivated in whole or part by a particular view, is
unreasonable. In this latter respect I may indeed, because of my very
neutrality, or if you please indifference, be in a position of relative advantage in
concluding what may be considered unreasonable , while at the same time
(though not paradoxically) being at a disadvantage in concluding which system
is the better. ( A a vi L v c ` )

62
weZ wK Z wel q j Bq v A v` vj Z I wePvi K ` i A v` k A e vb wK
nI q v DwPr m m ^ S.P. Gupta V. President of India AIR 1982 SC 149
g vK v g vq wePvi c wZ P.N. Bhagwati A vj vK c vZ K i b ( c v- 17 7 ) t
1..................We find, and this is not unusual in cases of this kind, that a
considerable amount of passion has been injected into the arguments on both
sides and sometimes passion may appear to lend strength to an argument, but,
sitting as Judges, we have to be careful to see that passion does not blind us to
logic and predilections pervert proper interpretation of the constitutional
provisions. We have to examine the arguments objectively and dispassionately
without being swayed by populist approach or sentimental appeal. It is very easy
for the human mind to find justification for a conclusion which accords with the
dictates of emotion. Reason is a ready enough advocate for the decision one,
consciously or unconsciously, desires to reach.........
..........We have therefore to rid our mind of any pre-conceived notions or
ideas and interpret the Constitution as it is not as we think it ought to be, We can
always find some reason for bending the language of the Constitution to our
will, if we want, but that would be rewriting the Constitution in the guise of
interpretation. We must also remember that the Constitution is an organic
instrument intended to endure and its provisions must be interpreted having
regard to the constitutional objectives and goals and not in the light of how a
particular Government may be acting at a given point of time, Judicial response
to the problem of constitutional interpretation must not suffer from the fault of
emotionalism or sentimentalism which is likely to cloud the vision when Judges
are confronted with issues of momentous importance........... ( A a vi L v
c ` )
GK B c m Federation of Pakistan V. Haji Muhammed Saifullah Khan,
PLD 1989 SC 166, g vK g vq wePvi c wZ Nasim Hasan Shah Gi g e c Yxa vb
h vM ( c v- 19 0 ) |
The circumstance that the impugned action has political
overtones cannot prevent the Court from interfering therewith, if
it is shown that the action taken is violative of the Constitution.
The superior Courts have an inherent duty, together with the
appurtenant power in any case coming before them, to ascertain
and enforce the provisions of the Costitution and as this duty is
derivable from the express provisions of the Constitution itself
the Court will not be deterred from performing its Constitutional
duty, merely because the action impugned has political
implications. ( A a i L v c ` ) |

63
h mK j g vK v g vq i vR b wZ K weZ wK Z wel q v` x R wo Z _ vK
m mg I GK R b wePvi K a yg v mswea vb I A vBb i c wZ
GK vM ` w wb e i vwL q v Z wK Z wel q wU wb w K wi eb | wePvi K MY
wb evwPZ R b c wZ wb wa b nb wK R b MYB Z vnv` i Dc i R b MYi
mswea vb I A vBb A b ymvi wePvi K vh m b K wi evi ` vwq Z A c b
K wi q vQ| i vR b xwZ we` MY i vR b xwZ K wi eb , wePvi K MY i vR b xwZ
ewR Z wePvi K vh c wi Pvj b v K wi eb | mvg wq K i vR b wZ K DR b v ev
A v` vj b wePvi K MYK A v` vwj Z K wi e b v| Z vunv` i ` w
mvswea vwb K b vq wePvi i Pole star Gi c wZ w i i vwL Z nBe| GB
mva b vq Z vnv` i GK g v nvwZ q vi nBZ Q mswea vb | i vR b wZ K
K zUZ K ev A veM GK R b wePvi K K L b B g ~j A vBb MZ Bmy nBZ
wePzr nBeb b v|
nvBK vUwef vMi Full Bench Gi i vq nBZ c Z xq g vb nq h
evsj v` k i ` yB c a vb i vR b wZ K ` j i g nvmwPeq i xU g vK v g vq
c f y nBq vwQj b | mi K vi c we A vUYx- R b vi j Ges 6 b s
c wZ ev` x c we GvW&f vK U g nv` q wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi
ee v Z _ v Z wK Z mswea vb msk va b A vBb mg _ b K wi q v e e
i vwL q vwQj b | A A v` vj Z I we A vUb xR b vi j mn ek xi f vM
we Amicus Curiae wb ` j xq Z ve a vq K mi K vi ee v mg _ b
K wi q vQb |
A vg i v wePvi K MYi K vb wek l ee vi c wZ K vb i c A b yi vM
ev wei vM K vb UvB b vB| Z e Bnv Z B c Z xq g vb nq , h
i vR b wZ K ` j eZ g vb mi K vi MVb K wi q vQ Z vnvi v Ges c a vb
wei va x ` j Df q B wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi ee v Z _ v Z wK Z
msk va b A vBb K mg _ b K wi Z Qb | Z vnv` i c Z K i ` j xq
A veMi mwnZ GK g Z nBZ c vwi j A vg v` i c wi k g A b K UvB
j vNe nBZ wK A vg v` i wePvi K MYi ` vwq Z I K Z e A Z
myK wVb | wePvi K MY m ~Yi vR b xwZ I A veM ewR Z f ve a yg v
mswea vb i K w c v_ i m ~Yc c vZ nxb f ve Z wK Z wei va wU wb b
64
K wi eb | wePvi K MY MYf vU (plebiscite) g vi d r wePvi K i b b v, Z uvnvi v
wb f R vj h yw I nZ z(reason) Gi Dc i wb f i K i b |
A vg i v eZ g vb mvswea vwb K weZ K A vc xj K vi x c we
GvW&f vK U, A vUb x- R b vi j Ges we amicus curiae MYi e e
A Z g b vhvM mnK vi k eY K wi q vwQ Ges Z uvnv` i DM I
A wb wnZ evYx (message) Dc j w K wi evi Pv K wi q vwQ|
Z wK Z mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 6 , mswea vb i
A vj vK evL v I wek l Y K i Z t Bnvi ea Z v wb i c Y K i v nBe|
16 | c vK - K _ b t ewUk - i vR 19 0 er mi f vi Z el i vR Z
K wi evi c i 19 4 7 mvj Indian Impendence Act, 1947, g vi d r f vi Z I
c vwK vb b vg K ` yBwU ^va xb Dominion mw nq | g vnv ` A vj x
wR b vn 19 4 7 mvj i 11B A Mv Z vwi L c vwK vb i MYc wi l ` i
(Constituent Assembly) c _ g President wb evwPZ nBq v Z uvnvi f vl Y
c vwK vb K GK wU a g wb i c A va ywb K i v wnmve Mwo q v Z zwj evi
A vk vev` e K i b | 19 4 7 mvj i 14 B A Mv c vwK vb Ges 15 B
A Mv Z vwi L f vi Z ^va xb Z v j vf K i |
19 4 8 mvj wR b vn&i g Z zi c i c vwK vb g vb q Bmj vg
a g wf wK i v c wi YZ nBZ _ vK | f vi Z 19 5 0 mvj i R vb yq vi x
g vm Bnvi mswea vb MnY I Nvl Yv K i Z t c R vZ c wi YZ nq |
A b w` K c vwK vb g vMZ c vmv` l o h i wk K vi nBZ _ vK Ge s
Mv xZ ej er nq | MYc wi l ` c ~eevsj vi c wZ wb wa Z 4 4 nBZ
3 8 G K wg q A vb v nq Ges c w g c vwK vb i g vU c wZ wb wa 2 6
nBZ ew K wi q v 3 2 K i v nq | Z vnvQvo v ek K q K R b D` yf vl x
h vnvi v wef vMc ~ef vi Z i wewf b c ` k i A wa evmx wQj b Z vnvw` MK
c ~eevsj vi K vUv nBZ Constituent Assembly Gi c wZ wb wa K i v nq ,
h g b , wj q vK Z A vj x L vb , Mvj vg g vnv ` c g yL | GB f ve
c vwK vb i mwi mg q nBZ B c ~eei c wZ Pi g el g g ~j K A vPi Y
nBZ _ vK | hw` I mg M c vwK vb evsj vf vl x j vK msL vMwi
nBj I D` yK i vf vl v K wi evi wm v c ~eevsj vi Dc i Pvc vBq v
65
` I q v nq , d j 19 4 8 mvj nBZ B evsj vK A b Z g i vf vl v
K wi evi R b ` vex I V| c ~eevsj v c K Z c c w g c vwK vb i
K j vb xZ i c v wi Z nq |
19 5 6 mvj Islamic Republic of Pakistan Gi c _ g mswea vb MnxZ nq
Ges 19 5 9 mvj i d eq vi x g vm c _ g mva vi Y wb evPb A b yw Z
nBevi K _ v _ vK , wK c vwK vb i c wmWU Major General Iskander
Mirza 19 5 8 mvj i 7 B A vei Z vwi L mg M ` k mvg wi K A vBb
R vi x K i b | 2 7 k A vei Z vwi L c a vb mb vc wZ R b vi j A vBq ye
L vb c wmWUK A c mvi Y K wi q v wb R B c wmWU c ` MnY K i b |
A Z t c i , wZ wb wb R K Field Martial c ` c ` vb wZ c ` vb K i b | 19 6 2
mvj mvg wi K A vBb c Z vnvi K i v nq Ge s b ~Z b GK mswe a vb i
A vI Z vq To suit the genius of the people A R ynvZ Basic Democracy ewj q v GK
A yZ a i b i Z _ vK w_ Z MYZ c Pj b K i v nq | A ek GB Basic
Democracy a vi YvK I ` k x I we` k x wK QymsL K c wZ ew A Z
c k smv K i b | 19 6 6 mvj i R yb g vm k L g ywR e yi i ng vb Z vunvi
c L vZ 6 ` d v ` vex c k K wi q v c ~ec vwK vb mn c vwK vb i c vuPwU
c ` k i R b ^vq Z k vmb I mveR b xb f vUvwa K vi i wf wZ mva vi Y
wb evPb ` vex K i b | BnvB c ~ec vwK vb i R b MYi c vYi ` vex nBq v
I V| 19 6 9 mvj c wmWU wd g vk vj A vBDe L vb c vwK vb i
c a vb mb vc wZ R b vi j Bq vwnq v L vb i wb K U mK j g Z v n v i
K i b | 19 6 2 mvj i mswea vb evwZ j nq | ` k A vevi I mvg wi K
k vmb ej er K i v nq | R b vi j Bq vwnq v L vb c vwK vb i c wmWU I
c a vb mvg wi K K g K Z vi ` vwq Z f vi MnY K i b |
A Z t c i Legal Framework Order Gi A vI Z vq 19 7 0 mvj i
k l f vM A L c vwK vb i c _ g I k l mva vi Y wb evPb A b yw Z nq |
GB wb evPb i c _ g I c a vb ` vwq Z wQj c vwK b i R b GK wU
mswea vb c Yq b K i v|
66
K ` xq I c ~ec vwK vb c v` wk K c wi l ` Df q c wi l ` B k L
g ywR e yi i ng vb i b Z A vI q vg x j xM f ~wg a m f vU wb i yk R q j vf
K i |
19 7 1 mvj i 3 i v g vPZ vwi L XvK vq MYc wi l ` i A wa ek b
A vnvb K i v nq | wK R b vi j Bq vwnq v L vb 1j v g vPi GK Nvl Yvq
D A wa ek b A wb w` K vj i R b wMZ K wi j c ~ec vwK vb i
R b MY vf , ` yt L , va , nZ vk vq d vwUq v c o | 7 B g vPZ vwi L
k L g ywR eyi i ng vb Z ` b x b i g b v i mK vmg q ` vb j j
R b Z vi m yL c ` f vl Y _ nxb f vl vq Nvl Yv K i b h Gevi i
msMvg A vg v` i g ywI i msMvg , Gevi i msMvg ^va xb Z vi msMvg |
2 3 k g vP c vwK vb w` em K vUg U wj ewZ i K c ~e
c vwK vb i me ^va xb evsj v` k i c Z vK v k vf v c vq |
2 5 k g vP w` evMZ i v mvg wi K evwnb x XvK v, PMvg I
c ` k i wewf b vb A K mvr wb i evOvj x` i Dc i evc K MYnZ v
A vi K i | GB mg q B 2 6 k g vPi c _ g c ni k L g ywR eyi i ng vb
evsj v` k i ^va xb Z v Nvl Yv K i b |
19 7 1 mvj i 10 B Gwc j Z vwi L evsj v` k i mi K vi MwVZ nq
Ges A vb y vwb K f ve Proclamation of Independence g ywR e b Mi nBZ
Nvl Yv K i v nq | BnvB evsj v` k i c _ g mvswea vwb K ` wj j | GB
` wj j B evsj v` k i c Uf ~wg K v I f wel Z evsj v` k i i c i L v eYb v
K i v nBq vQ| Z vnvQvo v, GB Nvl Yvc ` wj j g vi d r evsj v` k i
R b MYK mK j g Z vi Dr m wnmve ^xK wZ c ` vb K i v nq Ges
GK wU MYc wi l ` mw K i v nq | GK B w` b Laws Continuance Enforcement
Order R vi x nq | GB ` wj j vi v 19 7 1 mvj i 2 6 k g vPZ vwi L ej er
mK j A vBb i ea Z v c ` vb K i v nq |
` xNb q g vm evc x i q x h y Ges GK mvMi i i g a w` q v
19 7 1 mvj i 16 B wWm ^i Z vwi L c vwK vb mb vevwnb x f vi Z I
evsj v` k Gi h _ mb vevwnb xi wb K U A vZ mg c b K i | j
67
g ywh v vi R xeb i wewb g q evsj v` k i c Z vK v Dw q g vb nq |
evsj v` k ^va xb nq |
19 7 2 mvj i 10 B R vb yq vi x Z vwi L c vwK vb i ew` ` k v nBZ
R vwZ i wc Z v i vc wZ k L g ywR eyi i ng vb XvK vq c ` vc Y K i b | 11B
R vb yq vi x Z vwi L Provisional Constitution of Bangladesh Order, 1972, R vi x nq |
mswea vb c Yq b i R b 2 2 k g vP Z vwi L Constituent Assembly of
Bangladesh Order, 1972, R vi x nq | MYc wi l ` ^ Z g mg q i g a
mswea vb i Pb v I wewa e K wi q v MnY K i | GB mswea vb 19 7 2
mvj i 16 B wWm ^i Z vwi L nBZ K vh K i nq |
17 | mvg wi K k vmb t 19 7 5 mvj i 2 0 k A Mv Z vwi L
evsj v` k mvg wi K A vBb R vi x nq | 15 B A Mv Z vwi L nBZ Bnv
K vh K i K i v nq | 19 7 9 mvj i 6 B Gwc j Z vwi L i vZ 8 Uvq c K vwk Z
GK Proclamation vi v mvg wi K A vBb c Z vnvi K i v nq | Bnv c i w` b 7 B
Gwc j Z vwi L i evsj v` k MR U c K vwk Z nq | R i i x A vBb 19 7 9
mvj i 2 7 k b f ^i Z vwi L c Z vnvi K i v nq |
BwZ g a 6 B Gwc j Z vwi L wZ xq msm` , mswea vb ( c g
msk va b ) A vBb 19 7 9 , g vi d r 19 7 5 mvj i 15 B A Mv nBZ
19 7 9 mvj i 9 B Gwc j c h mK j mvg wi K A vBb i ea Z v c ` vb
K i | myc xg K vUA ek A b K wej ^ nBj I mswea vb ( c g
msk va b ) A vBb evwZ j K wi q vQ|
19 8 2 mb i 2 4 k g vPZ vwi L j t R b vi j mvBb g vnvg `
Gi k v` evsj v` k i i vxq g Z v ` L j K i b Ges ` k c yb i vq
mvg wi K k vmb ej er nq | evsj v` k i g vb yl c yb i vq Z vnv` i b vMwi K
^va xb Z v I A wa K vi nvi vq |
19 8 6 mvj i 11B b f ^i Z vwi L c YxZ mswea vb ( m g
msk va b ) A vBb , 19 8 6 g vi d r PZ z_ msm` , 19 8 2 mvj i 2 4 k g vP
Z vwi L nBZ 19 8 6 , mvj i 11B b f ^i c h mK j mvg wi K A vBb i
ea Z v c ` vb K i | myc xg K vUi nvBK vUwef vM A ek A vevi I D
68
mvg wi K k vmb A ea Nvl Yv K wi q v mswea vb ( m g msk va b ) A vBb
evwZ j K wi q vQ|
19 8 8 mb i 9 B R yb Z vwi L mswea vb ( A g msk va b ) A vBb ,
19 8 8 , g vi d r c R vZ i i va g Bmj vg wb a vi Y K i v nq Ges
mswea vb i 10 0 A b y Q` msk va b K i Z t nvBK vUwef vMi vq x
e wj evsj v` k i wewf b k ni vc b K i v nq |
myc xg K vUi A vc xj wef vM Anwar Hossain V. Government of
Bangladesh 1989 BLD ( Special Issue ) g vK v g vq Bnvi 2 - 9 - 19 8 9
Z vwi L i i vq mswea vb i 10 0 A b y Q` i msk va b evwZ j Nvl Yv
K i | A Z t c i , i vR a vb xi evwni A ew Z nvBK vUwef vMi vq x
e wj XvK vq c Z veZ b K i |

18 | MYZ c Z veZ b t mg M evsj v` k c P we vf I
` yevi A v` vj b i g yL j t R b vi j mvBb g vnv ` Gi k v` 19 9 0
mvj i 6 B wWm ^i Z vwi L i v c wZ c ` nBZ c ` Z vM K i b | Bnvi
c ~e ` j g Z wb wek l mK j i vR b wZ K ` j I R vU evsj v` k i
Z ` vb x b c a vb wePvi c wZ mvnveyw b A vn&g ` K GK wU wb ` j xq I
wb i c mi K vi i c a vb wnmve ` vwq Z MnYi A vnvb R vb vb |
BwZ g a Dc - i vc wZ c ` Z vM K i b | D k ~Y c ` Z r K vj xb
i vc wZ c a vb wePvi c wZ mvnveyw b A vn&g ` K Dc - i vc wZ c `
wb q vM c ` vb K wi q v 6 B wWm ^i Z vwi L Z uvnvi wb K U i vc wZ Gi k v`
c ` Z vM K i b | D Z vwi L B ` k i wZ b wU c a vb i vR b wZ K R vU
I ` j i ^Z t yZ A vnvb mvo v w` q v MYZ c ~b i vi i D k
Z ` vb x b c a vb wePvi c wZ mvneyw b A vn&g ` A vq x i vc wZ wnmve
wb i c mi K vi c wi Pvj b vi ` vwq Z f vi MnY K i b |
19 9 1 mvj i 2 7 k d eq vi x Z vwi L evsj v` k GK wU mva vi Y
wb evPb A b yw Z nq | GK wU i vR b wZ K ` j wb i ym msL vMwi Z v j vf
K wi q v 2 0 / 3 / 19 9 1 Z vwi L mi K vi MVb K i |
69
19 9 1 mvj i 10 B A Mvi mswea vb ( GK v` k msk va b ) A vBb ,
19 9 1, ej wePvi c wZ mvnveyw b A vn&g ` c yb i vq evsj v` k i c a vb
wePvi c wZ c ` c Z veZ b K i b |
19 9 1 mvj i 18 B m ^i Z vwi L i vR b wZ K R vU wj i
c ~ewm v A b ymvi mswea vb ( v` k msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 1, wewa e
nq | GB msk va b A vBb evsj v` k mswea vb A Z i Z c ~Y
c wi eZ b A vb q b K i | mswea vb i PZ z_ f vM 1g I 2 q c wi Q` i
c wi eZ 1g , 2 q I 3 q c wi Q` wj c wZ vwc Z nq | BnvZ
i vee vq g wj K c wi eZ b mvwa Z nq | c ~ei Presidential System Gi
c wi eZ msm` xq i vee vq c yb t c Z eZ b K i | Z vnvQvo v, K wZ c q
i vc wZ i eq i K Z Z m ^wj Z mswea vb i 9 2 K A b y Q` wU
wej y K i v nq | Z e 7 0 A b y Q` wU A vi I m mvwi Z K i v nq |
A Z t c i , l msm` 19 9 6 mvj i 2 8 k g vPZ vwi L Z wK Z
mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 6 ( 19 9 6 mb i 1b s A vBb )
wewa e K i | mswea vb i GB msk va b A vBb i ea Z v eZ g vb
g vK v g vi wePvh wel q |

19 | R b ve Gg A vB d vi K x, wmwb q i GvW&f vK U, Gi
e ei mvi g g t R b ve d vi K x, GvW&f vK U g nv` q ej b h
c R vZ , MYZ I wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v evsj v` k mswea vb i g ~j
wf w ev Basic Structure| R vZ xq msm` mswea vb i Dc i v g ~j
wf w wj L eK wi Z c vi b v, A _ P, we GvW&f vK U g nv` q ej b ,
Z wK Z mswea vb msk va b A vBb wU Dc i v c Z K wU Basic Structure L e
K wi q vQ Ges R b MYi mvef g Z a sm K wi q vQ wea vq Z wK Z
msk va b wU A mvswea vwb K I A ea |
wZ xq f vM
A vBb MZ A vj vPb v

A Z c i , mswea vb i Dc i v g ~j wf w wj g vb q A vj vPb v
K i v nBj |
70
2 0 | MYZ t evsj v` k mswea vb i c veb vi wZ xq ` d vq
eYb v K i v nBq vQ h mK j g nvb A v` k evsj v` k i exi R b MYK
R vZ xq g yw msMvg A vZ wb q vM I exi k nx` w` MK c vYvr mMK wi Z
Dz K wi q vwQj Z vnvi A b Z g nBj MYZ |
mswea vb i wZ xq f vMi 8 A b y Q` i v c wi Pvj b vi h mK j
g ~j b xwZ eYb v K i v nBq vQ Z vnvi g a MYZ A b Z g | Z vnvQvo v,
11A b y Q` ej v nBq vQ h ( evsj v` k ) c R vZ nBe GK wU
MYZ | A vc xj K vi x c wb e` b K i v nBq vQ h MYZ mswea vb i
GK wU basic structure ev g ~j e wk ev K vVvg v wK Z vea vq K mi K vi
a vi Yv mswea vb i GB basic structure Gi mwnZ mvsNwl K | c K Z c
mswea vb MYZ j L v _ vwK j I Z vea vq K mi K vi A vg j MYZ
m ~Yf ve wej y _ vK |
c _ g Z t MYZ basic structure wK b v Ges h w` basic structure nBq v
_ vK Z e wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi a vi Yv Bnvi mwnZ mvsNwl K
wK b v Z vnv wek l Y K wi evi c ~eMYZ A _ wK , Bnvi BwZ nvm wK ,
A va ywb K h yM Bnvi weeZ b wK f ve nBj , Z vnv ms c A vj vPb v
K i v c q vR b |
c vPxb wek i c vq mK j ` k c a vb Z i vR Z we` g vb wQj |
K vb K vb ` k i A wa evmxMY i vR vK ` eZ v vb K wi Z | L c ~e
c g k Z vw Z Mxm ` k i Athens b Mi - i vi i vR b wZ K A e vb K
A va ywb K i vR b wZ K wP vwe` I A a vc K MY Democratic ev MYZ vw K
ewj q v A vL vwq Z K i b |
MYZ ev Democracy k wU Dr c w nBq vQ c vPxb Mxm ` k i
demokratia k nBZ | MxK demos A _ R b MY I KratosA _ k vmb |
A _ vr democracy ev demokratia ewj Z R b MYi c Z ev mi vmwi k vmb
evS vBZ |
c vPxb Mxm ` k ^va xb b Mi - i vi A f z` q nq | L c ~ec g
k Z vw Z H mK j b Mi - i vi A wa evmxMY K vb A vBb c Yq b ev
K vb mg mv mg va vb K GK w Z nBq v f vUvwa K vi A vi vc g vi d r
71
A vBb c Yq b K wi Z ev mg mv mg va vb K wi Z | H i c mg vek
(assembly) h K vb wb evnx wm v , wePvwi K K vh Ges c q vR b g vwd K
A vBb c Yq b K i v nBZ |
A ek eZ g vb b Mi wj i Z zj b vq Z ` vb x b b Mi ev i v wj i
b vMwi K R b msL v L ye K g B ` k nvR vi i A wa K nBZ | Z L b
b Mi i v ewj Z b Mi I Dnvi wb K U PZ zc vk Mvg v j evS vBZ |
Dj L , mB mg q g wnj v I xZ ` vmMY b vMwi K wQj b b v| h w` I
mva vi Y mg vek wj Z wk w Z - A wk w Z , a b x- ` wi ` wb wek l mK j i
mg vb f vUvwa K vi _ vwK j I Z L b mveR b xb mg Z vi ( equality) A f ve
wQj |
mg vek (assembly) b vMwi K MY i vi wewf b c ` wb evwPZ nBZ |
A b K mg q j Uvwi g vi d r wewf b c ` weZ i Y K i v nBZ | mK j
K g K Z vMY Z vnv` i K vh vej xi R b R b mg vek i wb K U ` vq e
_ vwK Z |
L c ~ec g k Z vw Z Mxmi G_ b Mi i v GBi c c Z
MYZ we K wk Z nq | G_ i b Z Z Mxmi A b vb MYZ vw K b Mi -
i v wj GK w Z nq | Z e Mxmi mK j b Mi - i v MYZ wQj b v,
h g b , vUv| vUvq Mvw k vmb ( Oligarchy) we` g vb wQj |
c i eZ xZ vUv b Mi - i vi mwnZ h y G_ i c i vR q i c i
Z ` vb x b c Z MYZ g k A e q nBZ nBZ c i v g k vj x
i vg K ` i A v g b i c i m ~Yj vc c vq |
GBi c NUb v L c ~e6 k Z vw Z Di c ~ef vi Z I NwUq vwQj |
` exc mv` Pvc va vq Z vnvi i wPZ j vK vq Z ` k b M ` L vBq vQb
h H mg q i vR vk vwmZ i vR mg ~ni c vk vc vwk MY- k vwmZ e R b c `
we` g vb wQj | k vK ` i g a c Pwj Z A _ K vb i vR v wQj b v,
k vmb ee v wQj MYZ vw K Ges b Z v nBZ b wb evwPZ | k vK ` i
mva vi Y mf vMni b vg wQj g vMvi | mL vb k vmb - c wi Pvj b vi
wel q wj A vj vwPZ nBZ | g j I wj Qvwe` i g a I GBi K g g vMvi
ev j vK mf vi A w Z wQj | wh wb c a vb wZ wb nBZ b wb evwPZ , Z vK
72
i vR v A vL v ` I q v nBj I K vh Z Z vnvi g h v` v wQj MxK A K b Gi
b vq | wK GB UvBevj MYZ i K vVvg v j Bq v R b c ` j x
^va xb f ve wUwK q v _ vwK Z c vi b vB| g Ma I K vk j i i vk w
g vb q Z vnv` i Mvm K wi q vwQj |
A va ywb K h yM A b K i vR b wZ K wP vwe` MY c vPxb Mxmi b Mi -
i v wj i k vmb ee vq Pg r K Z nBq v c Z MYZ wnmve A wf wnZ
K wi j I A b K A vevi BnvK msL vMwi i Pi g ` yt k vmb ev
Mobocracy ewj q vI A wf wnZ K wi q vQb |
c vPxb Mxmi A b Z g k ` vk wb K Plato Z ` vb x b c Pwj Z
c Z MYZ K wb c xo b g ~j K ewj q vB g b K wi Z b Ges Z vnvi
wj wL Z Republic M mBf veB wPw Z K wi q vwQj b | Z uvnvi i
Socrates K GBi c MYmg vek ( Popular Assembly) nBZ B c vY`
` wZ nBZ nBq vwQj | wk w Z , ` vk wb K MYi nvZ B ` k i
k vmb f vi _ vK v DwPZ ewj q v Plato g b K wi Z b | Plato Gi Qv
AristotleI mB hyMi GK R b k ` vk wb K I wP vwe` wQj b | wZ wb
Z uvnvi Politics M MYZ m ^ we vwi Z c he Y c ` vb
K wi q vQb | wZ wb I Z ` vb x b mg q i MYZ PPv m ^ mya vi b v
c vl Y K wi Z b b v| Z e Plato I Aristotle Df q B c Pwj Z MYZ K GK
a i b i mvg vwR K k vmb ee v ewj q v g b K wi Z b |
c vPxb i vg c _ g L c ~e7 5 0 mvj nBZ L c ~e5 10 mvj
c h i vR Z we ` g vb wQj | Z r c i c R vZ vwc Z nq | A ek
A va ywb K h yMi c R vZ i a vi Yvi mwnZ Bnvi mvg vb B wg j c wi j w Z
nq | c K Z c Bnv wQj Oligarchic ev Mv xZ vw K c R vZ | GB
a i b i c R vZ L c ~e3 1 mvj c h i vg we` g vb wQj | GBmg q
Bsj vmn BDi vc i c vq mevsk i vg K Consul` i A a xb
GK b vq K Z c wZ w Z nq | L c ~e3 1 mvj Octavious i vg mvg vR
c wZ v K i b | c vq 6 k Z er mi c i i vg mvg vR i c Z b nq Ge s
D mvg vR i A MZ BDi vc i wewf b ` k c a vb Z t i vR Z
73
( absolute monarchy) c wZ w Z nq | i vR vMY Divine right g Z ev` ev A wa K vi
ej ` k k vmb K wi Z Ges mevsk Z vnv ^i Z wQj |
Z e Bsj v R wg ` vi (barons and knights) wek c (the clergy) I
burgesses ` i GK a i b i g nvmg vek (Great Council of the Realm) nBZ
i vR v c i vg k MnY K wi Z b Ges h y ev A b vb wek l K vi Y Z vnv` i
g Z vg Z j Bq v c q vR b xq K i A vi vc K wi Z b | GB a i b i mg vek
(estates) nBZ Parliament Gi m~ c vZ nq | 12 15 mvj Magna Carta G
^v i K i Z t i vR v John R wg ` vi I A b vb ` i m wZ ewZ i K K i
A vi vc b v K i vi c wZ k wZ c ` vb K wi q vwQj b | 14 k k Z K i k l f vM
nBZ Parliament c wZ wb wa Z g ~~j K c vwZ vwb K i c c vBZ _ vK | 16 4 9
mvj i vR v Charles I Gi wk i Q` i c i Oliver Cromwell Bsj v GK wU
Republican Commonwealth vc b i e_ c q vm c vb wK 16 6 0 mvj
i vR Z c yb t c wZ w Z nq | 16 8 8 mvj i k l f vM i vR v James II
wmsnvmb c wi Z vM K wi j William III I Mary II h_ f ve Bsj vi
wmsnvmb A vi vnb K i b | 16 8 9 mvj i 2 5 k A vei Z vwi L
weL vZ Bill of Rights c YxZ nq | Bnvi g va g Bsj v absolute Monarchy
Gi A emvb nq Ges mvswea vwb K i vR Z c wZ w Z nI q vq
Bsj vevmxi A wa K vi A v` vq I i vR b wZ K weR q mywb w Z nq |
GBi c i vR b wZ K c wi eZ b i vi c K Z g Z v i vR vi c wi eZ
Parliament MnY K i wK BnvZ MYZ c wZ v c vq b v K vi Y Z L b K vi
Parliament Gi ewk i f vM m` m wQj b ` k i R wg ` vi I c f vek vj x
eweM| Z vnvi vB Parliament wb q Y K wi Z b , mva vi Y R b g vb yl i
c K Z K vb c f ve Parliament Gi Dc i Z L b I wQj b v | D i vR b wZ K
A e vK Mv xk vmb ev Oligarchic ej v h vBZ c vi |
GB mg q Bsj v John Locke ( 16 3 2 - 17 0 4 ) b vg GK R b L yeB
b vg K i v wP vwe` i A vwef ve nq | Z ` vb x b mf R MZ Z uvnvi j L vi
c f zZ c f ve c wo q vwQj | Q` b vg ` yBL wj wL Z Z uvnvi Treatises on Civil
Government 16 9 0 mvj c K vwk Z nBj Z vnv mva vi Y R b g vb yl i
g wj K A wa K vi m ^ GK wec e A vb q b K i | Z uvnvi j L b xi
74
g va g mva vi Y g vb yl i mvef g , b vMwi K ^va xb Z v I A wa K vi
m ^ wZ wb B mec _ g mv Pvi nb | wb R i R xeb , ^va xb Z v I m `
h K vb g vb yl i mnR vZ A wa K vi i wnq vQ ( inalienable rights) Ges
mi K vi mB A wa K vi i v K wi Z Pzw e | h mi K vi Z vnv i v
K wi Z e_ nq , R b MY mB mi K vi K g Z vPyr K wi evi A wa K vi x|
mi K vi h vnvZ ^ QvPvi x b v nBq v h vq , m K vi Y wZ wb wb evnx g Z v
I A vBb c Yq Y g Z vi c _ K &K i Y K wi evi K _ v ej b | hw` I Z uvnvi
j L b x i vR Z K B mg _ b K wi Z wK wZ wb B mec _ g ` k I
mi K vi i g a c v_ K wb Yq K i b Ges mi K vi In the consent of the
people A b ymvi MwVZ nBe Z vnvI e j b |
GBf ve John Locke Gi j L b xi g va g MYZ A ywi Z
nBq vwQj |
Bnvi wK QyK vj c i d v Jean Jaques Rousseau ( 17 12 - 17 7 8 ) b vg
A vi GK R b wP vwe` A vwef ~Z nb | Z uvnvi wj wL Z The Social Contract
mB h yMi A b Z g k K xwZ | Z uvnvi g Z ev` wQj h i vi
A wa evmx` i m wZ ewZ i K K vb w wZ k xj i vi A w Z wUwK q v
_ vwK Z c vi b v Ges i vi A wa evmx K Z K c ` g Z vB nBj
i v g Z v| GBf ve k vmK I k vwmZ i m K GK wU Pzwi Dc i
wb f i k xj h vnvK Charter ev mswea vb ej v nq | D PzwZ B k vwmZ i
c wZ mi K vi i ` vwq Z I K Z e wb wnZ _ vwK e| Rousseau GBf ve
g a h yM we` g vb i vR vi ^Mxq A wa K vi i c wi eZ i vi k vwmZ i
m wZ B c k vmb i wf w GB g Z ev` c wZ w Z K i b | GB g Z ev`
A b ymvi i vR v k vwmZ i m wZ A b ymvi B i v c wi Pvj b v K wi evi
g Z v c v nb , Z vnvi K vb H k wi K g Z v b vB| RousseauB mec _ g
i v mva vi Y R b g vb yl i mvef g Z K GK wU mnR vZ A wa K vi
(inalienable right) wnmve c wZ vi c q vm c vb | Z uvnvi j L b xi g va g B
mva vi Y R b g vb yl i vxq K vh Z vnv` i i vR b wZ K A wa K vi i K _ v
mec _ g Dc j w K i | GBf ve e k Z er mi c i MYZ A vevi
b ~Z b f ve Rousseau Gi j L b xi g va g c yb i xweZ nBevi c _ g
75
mvc vb L yuwR q v c vq | The Social Contract g Z ev` A b ymvi memva vi Yi
m wZ ewZ i K K vb A vBb B ea b n, GB g Z ev` mec _ g DwVq v
A vm| wZ wb B mec _ g i vi A vBb c Yq b R b MYi mi vmwi f ~wg K v
_ vwK evi c h vR b xq Z vi Dc i R vi ` b |
m` n b vB h , h yi vi ^va xb Z v msMvg Ges 17 8 9 mvj
A b yw Z d i vmx wec e Rousseau Gi j L b xi vi v Mf xi f ve c f vweZ
nBq vwQj |
Z e Z L b I MYZ ewj Z Athens Gi mva vi Y R b MYi c Z
MYZ K B mK j eywS Z Ges Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau Gi g Z
` vk wb K MY K nB D c Z MYZ K ev e m Z ewj q v ( in positive
terms) MnY K i b b vB| 18 k k Z K Z L b K vi wk w Z wP vwe` MY
MYZ K GK evi B h yMvc h vMx g b K wi Z b b v, ei c vPxb
K vj i GK wU A Pj i vR b wZ K k vmb ee v ewj q v g b K wi Z b |
GK vi YB d i vmx wec e c Z MYZ MnYi c K vnvi I Z g b
K vb Dr mvn wQj b v|
GB mg q Abbe de Sieyes (1748-1836) c wZ wb wa Z g ~j K mi K vi ee v
c wZ vK wec ei c K Z D k ewj q v A ewnZ K i b | wZ wb i vR vi
mvef g Z i c wi eZ mva vi Y R b MYi mvef g Z i (Popular
Sovereignty) Dc i wf w K wi q v c wZ wb wa Z g ~j K mi K vi i g Z ev` i
(Concept) g a GK wU mvg m A vb q b K i b | Sieyes Z ` vwb b mg q i
c Uf ~wg K vq c Z MYZ K A ev e ewj q v g b K wi Z b Ges
c wZ wb wa Z g ~j K i v ee vK A b K ek x K vh K i I d j c m~ewj q v
g b K wi Z b | Z uvnvi g Z ` yBf ve R b MY i v g Z vq A sk MnY
K wi Z c vi , c _ g Z t c Z MYZ vw K i v ee vq mi vmwi A sk
MnY, wZ xq Z t R b MYi c wZ wb wa MYK R b MYi c ` vwq Z c ` vb
g vi d r k vmb ee v | Sieyes Gi g Z wZ xq ee vB GK wU A va ywb K
i v ee vi R b A b K ek x K vh K i I k q | K vi Y, GB c wZ Z
R b MY Z vnvi A wa K vi yb b v K wi q vB Bnvi c wZ wb wa ` i g va g i v
c wi Pvj b vq A sk MnY K wi Z c vi | Z e wZ wb mi vmwi i vR vK
76
wmsnvmb PzZ K wi evi c wQj b b v, ei i vR v wb R I R b MYi
c wZ wb wa Z K wi eb GBi c g Z ev` Sieyes a vi Y K wi Z b | GBi c
mg q 17 9 2 mvj i 2 1 k m ^i Z vwi L d v c R vZ Nvwl Z
nq |
Thomas Paine ( 1737-1809) H h yMi GK R b wewk wP vwe` | wZ wb
17 9 1- 9 2 mvj ` yB L Rights of Man b vg GK wU M i Pb v K i b |
GB M , wek l K wi q v 2 q L mi K vi c wZ m K GK wU m ~Y
b eZ i e e i vL b Ges ew g vb y l i A wa K vi I c vPxb I
g ~j MYZ vw K wP a vi vi Dc i A va ywb K a vi v c eZ b K i b | wZ wb
c wZ wb wa Z g ~j K c wZ K MYZ i mwnZ mymsnZ (compatible) ewj q v
g b K wi Z b | mva vi Y MYZ i mg mv wj c wZ wb wa Z g ~j K c wZ i
g va g ` ~i K wi q v A va ywb K i v ee vi Dc h vMx K i v m e | wZ wb
` L vb h MYZ i mwnZ c wZ wb wa Z g ~j K c wZ GK K wi j GK wU
A va ywb K mi K vi DyZ mK j i ^v_ i v K i v m e| Rights of Man
M MYZ K ev e I MVb g ~j K wnmve wZ wb wPw Z K wi q vQb Ges
c wZ wb wa Z g ~j K c wZ i mwnZ GK BnvK A va ywb K i v ee vi
mwnZ h yMvc h vMx ewj q v ` L vBq vQb |
Maximilien Robespierre ( 1758-1798) d i vwm wec ei GK R b c a vb
b vq K , i vR b xwZ we` I wP vwe` | wZ wb B mec _ g MYZ K wb t k Z f ve
mi K vi c wZ wnmve MY K i b | wZ wb ej b h MYZ Gg b GK
c wZ h L vb R b MY A vBb i A vI Z vq wb R i ` vwq Z c vj b K wi Z
c vi Ges h mK j ` vwq Z Z vnv` i c mi vmwi c vj b K i v m e b q
Z vnv Z vnv` i c wZ wb wa g vi d r m b K wi Z c vi | MYZ A _
c Z k vmb b n, ei , Bnv A vewk K f ve c wZ wb wa Z g ~j K mi K vi
c wZ | GBf ve Robespierre ` yB nvR vi er mi c i MYZ K c _ g
evi i g Z c yb t m~ e K i Z t (reformulated) MYZ vw K i v ee vK B
MnYh vM ej b | c K Z c , H mg q MYZ K mec _ g wZ wb B
c wZ wb wa Z k xj k vmb ee v (representative government) ewj q v g b
K i b |
77
GBf ve ` yB nvR vi er mi c ~ej y MYZ c yb i vq A va ywb K wK
K ej Z vwZ K i c d v A vwef ~Z nBj I mL vb Z L b Bnv g vUI
MnxZ nq b vB, ei Bnvi i vR b wZ K A b yk xj b mxwg Z f ve
msk va xZ A vK vi nBj I mec _ g h y i vA vi nq |
17 7 6 mvj h y i v ^va xb Z v Nvl Yv K i | 17 8 1 mvj Bsi R
mb vc wZ Continental army Gi wb K U A vZ mg c b K i | GB ^va xb Z v h y
wec e wQj b v ev MYZ i R b h y wQj b v| Bnv wQj Bsi R ` i
K Z Z nBZ ^va xb Z vi h y , Z e Bsi R k vmK ` i c vb i c i
h y i vi b Z vb xq b Z eMb ~Z b ` k i k vmb ee v j Bq v wP v-
f veb v A vi K i b | G wel q Z uvnvi v Bsj v I BDi vc xq wP vwe`
h _ v Locke, Rousseau, Montesquieu, Thomas Paine I A b vb ` i j L b xvi v
A b yc vwYZ nb |
A vg wi K vi K j vwb wj c ~enBZ B Royal Chartar vi v k vwmZ
nBZ | K vR B Z ` vb x b 13 wU K j vb x wj K GK wU wj wL Z mswea vb
g vi d r c wi Pvj b vi c ve Z vnvi v mnR B MnY K i b | GB wel q
17 8 7 mvj Philadelphia k ni GK wU mvswea vwb K Convention A vi nq |
^va xb Z vi c ~eA vg wi K vi K j vwb wj Z GK w` K i vR Z A b w` K
A vwf R vZ Z we` g vb wQj | The Federalist Papers G Publius b vg
Z ` vb x b A vg wi K vi wewk i vR b xwZ we` I wP vwe` James Madison,
Alexander Hamilton I John Jay we` g vb mvg vwR K c vc U 17 8 7 mvj i
A vei nBZ 17 8 8 mvj i A Mv g vmi g a b ~Z b i vi wewf b
mvswea vwb K mg mvi Dc i A vj vK c vZ K i b |
R b g vb yl i mvef g Z wb w Z K i Y wQj h yi vi mswea vb i
g ~j j | c R vZ i A vK vi c wZ wb wa Z k xj MYZ K mswea vb i
A wb wnZ b xwZ wnmve MnY K i v nq | wK msL vMwi Z v h b
^i k vmb c wi YZ b v nq mBi c Checks and belances i vL v nq | GB
K vi Y House of representatives Gi m` mMY mi vmwi f vU wb evwPZ
nBj I Senate m` mMY I i vc wZ wb evPb c i v f ve A b y vb
K wi evi wea vb K i v nq | Z vnvQvo v, Congress, wb evnx wef vM I wePvi
78
wef vM c _ K &K i Yi g va g g Z vi c _ K &K i Y (Seperation of Powers)
wb w Z K i v nq | Z e c _ g w` K Bsj vi b vq a yg v vei
m wi g vwj K ` i g a B f vUvwa K vi mxwg Z wQj | Z vnvQvo v, g wnj v
I xZ ` vmi K vb f vUvwa K vi wQj b v| mveR b xb f vUvwa K vi Pvj y
K wi Z e er mi A c v K wi Z nBq vwQj | D` vi b xwZ K MYZ
A vb q b K wi evi R b mswea vb c _ g ` k wU msk va b g vi d r evK -
^va xb Z v, msev` c i ^va xb Z v, mg vek i ^va xb Z v, a g xq ^va xb Z v
BZ vw` wea vb A vb q b K i v nq | xZ ` vm c _ v wej vc K wi Z h yi v
GK wU Mnh y i c q vR b nq | H Mnh y i mg q B 18 6 3 mvj
h yi vi i vc wZ Abraham Lincoln Gettysburg h y i GK wU A sk g Z
h v v` i c wZ Dr mMK wi Z h vBq v Z uvnvi f vl Y ej b t
that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not
perish from the earth.
f vl Yi Dc i v A sk K B A va y wb K MYZ i ms v wnmve
A wf wnZ K i v nq |
A Z t c i 18 6 5 mvj mswea vb i q v` k msk va b xi g vi d r
xZ ` vm c _ v wej y Nvl Yv K i v nq Ges 18 6 8 mvj PZ y` k
msk va b x g vi d r h y i vi mK j b vMwi K MYi g a A vBb i ` wZ
mg Z v A vb q b K i v nq |
GBf ve h yi v mvswea vwb K MYZ (Constitutional democracy) ev
Alexis de Tocqueville Gi f vl vq A democratic republic exists in the United States
(Democracy in America) c vwZ vwb K i c j vf K i |
c ~eB Dj L K i v nBq vQ h , Bsj v 16 8 8 mvj Gi wec e
A b yw Z nBevi c i Ges 16 8 9 mvj Bill of Rights c YxZ nBevi d j
Z _ vq c vj vg Ui k Z vwc Z nq , wK GK w` K House of Lords Gi
c ~Y g Z v we` g vb _ vK A b w` K Commons mf vq I D P k Yxi B c ~Y
c f ve we` g vb _ vK | wK d i vwm wP vwe` MYi j L b x Ges
Bsj vi Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, Thomas Hill Green c f wZ
wP vwe` MY Z uvnv` i j L b xi g va g Bsj vK MYZ vw K I
R b K j vYg ~j K i v wnmve c wZ w Z K wi Z A vc vY Pv K wi q vQb |
79
wek l K wi q v Z L b Z vnv` i m yL h y i vi b vq GK wU mvswea vwb K
MYZ i D` vni Y wQj | d j k wZ Z , 18 3 2 mvj Reforms Act c YxZ
nq | BnvZ f vUvi i msL v wK QyUv we Z nq | Z r c i 18 6 7 I
18 8 4 mvj i Reform Act A b ymvi f vUvi i msL vi c wi wa A vi I we Z
nq | 19 11 mvj i Parliament Act Gi g va g House of Lords Gi g Z v
A b K vsk L enq |
c _ g g nvh y wec yj msL K mwb K c vY nvi vq h vnv` i ek xi
f vMi B vei m w wQj b v| c k I V h Z vnvi v wK a yg v i vR v I
` k i R b B c vY w` Z Q, h ` k Z vnv` i wb R ` i B f vUvwa K vi
b vB| h y i vi i vc wZ Woodraw Wilson Bsj vi c h y
h vM` vb i K vi Y wnmve ej b to save democracy| GB mK j c vc U
19 18 mvj i Representation of People Act vi v mK j c v eq c yi l Ges
19 2 8 mvj i Representation of People Act ` vi v mK j c v eq g wnj v
f vUvwa K vi c v nb | Z vnvQvo v, 19 4 8 mvj i Parliament Act vi v House
of Lords Gi g Z v A vi I L eK i v nq |
GBf ve Bsj v A wZ a xi R b MYi c K Z mvef g Z I A wR Z
nq , h w` I King in Parliament Gi mvef g Z Z vwZ K f ve GL b I
i wnq vQ| Bsj vi GL b mBa i Yi MYZ c Pwj Z h L vb R b MY
mK j g Z vi A wa K vi x wK Z vnvi v Z vnv` i c wZ wb wa g vi d r mB
g Z v c q vM K i b | wb evwPZ c wZ wb wa MY mi K vi i mK j K vR i
R b R b MYi wb K U ` vq x _ vK b | hw` I Bnv Z vwZ K f ve m ~Y
msL vMwi i k vmb Z eyI Z vnvi v mvswea vwb K Convention vi v
msL vj wN R b MYi GK K ev h _ A wa K vi eR vq i vwL Z eva |
msL vMwi mi K vi h K vb A vBb ev c ` c j BZ A vBb MZ f ve
g Z v c v wK K vb A vBb MZ i vK eP ewZ i K B a yg v b wZ K
A wa K vi i (moral rights) A b yc w wZ Z Z vnvi v g wj K A wa K vi c wi c nx
K vb c ` c K L b B MnY K wi e b v, h g b , ew ^va xb Z v (Civil
liberties), g wj K A wa K vi mg ~n, h g b , evK - ^va xb Z v, msev` c i
^va xb Z v, mg vek i ^va xb Z v, a g xq ^va xb Z v BZ vw` | Bsj v GB
80
A wa K vi wj ei L j vc K wi q v K vb A vBb K L b B c Yq b nBe b v |
A b wZ K A vBb c Yq b i GK wU Pi g D` vni Y wnmve Professor A.V.
Dicey wb wj wL Z f ve Leslie Stephen (Science of Ethics,1882) K D Z
K i b t
................... If a legislature decided that all blue eyed babies should be
murdered, the preservation of blue eyed babies would be illegal; but
legislators must go mad before they could pass such a law, and subjects
be idiotic before they could submit to it. (Professor A. V. Dicey :
Introduction To The Study Of The Law Of The Costitution, page-81).

Z vnvQvo v, MYZ vw K i v ee vq R b g vb yl i g a A vw_ K
c v_ K K g vBq v A vwb evi I c Pv _ vK |
GBf ve k Z k Z er mi i c Pvq Bsj v c wZ wb wa Z g ~j K
MYZ , mvswea vwb K MYZ I mvg vwR K MYZ c wZ w Z nq |
Dc i v Yvej x h mK j i vi i vee vq c wZ d wj Z nq
Z vnv` i B A v` k MYZ ej v h vq | hw` I c w_ e xZ e ` k i wnq vQ
h vnvi v wb R ` i MYZ vw K ewj q v ` vex K i | Gg b wK mvg wi K c k vmK
I ^i vk vmK MYI GBi c ` vex K wi q v _ vK b | S.E. Finer Z vnvi The
Man on Horseback ( 19 6 2 ) M Gg b GK wU Z vwj K v c ` vb K wi q vQb t
Nasser : Presidential Democracy
Ayub Khan : Basic Democracy
Sukarno : Guided Democracy
Franco : Organic Democracy
Stroessner : Selective Democracy
Trujillo : Neo-Democracy
(Bernard Crick : Democracy nBZ D Z )

Dc i v i v ee v wj Z R b MYi k Z i K vb vb b vB
wK D ee v wj K MYZ A vL vwq Z K wi Z ` k x we` k x
wP vwe` i A f ve nq b v, h w` I A vg v` i wb R ` i A wf Z vi
A vj vK ej v h vq h Bnvi GK wUI MYZ b q | Finer evuwPq v _ vwK j
Z vnvi GB Z vwj K v A vi I ewa Z nBZ c vwi Z |
81
A va ywb K h yMi c vc U Justice V. R. Krishna Iyer, Z vunvi wj wL Z
Law & Life c y Z K MYZ m ^ wb wj wL Z g e K i b t
There are three different systems of democracy. The U.S. system is
where the President matters most and the Congress cannot, except by
impeachment, override his powers which are large. The Swiss system is where
cantons are territorial subdivisions with State Power and are elected. They
discharge governmental function and differ from the third pattern which is the
Westminster system prevalent in the United Kingdom where the parties with
Parliamentary majority rule with the Cabinet enjoying powers of administration
and have a formal head of the nation like the queen............. Page-34)

2 1| MYc R vZ ( Republic) t evsj v` k mswea vb i
c veb vq MYc R vZ x evsj v` k c wZ vi K _ v ej v nBq vQ|
mswea vb i 1 A b yQ` evsj v` k h GK wU c R vZ Z vnv Nvl Yv K i v
nBq vQ| Z vnvQvo v, mswea vb i c _ g f vM, wZ xq f vM I mswea vb i
me evsj v` k h GK wU c R vZ Z vnv c yb t c yb t ej v nBq vQ|
A vc xj K vi x c wb e` b K i v nq h evsj v` k i v h GK wU
c R vZ h vnv mswea vb i GK wU basic sturcture, wK Z vea vq K mi K vi
A vg j , mswea vb c R vZ j L v mZ I , i vi c R vZ vw K Pwi H
mg q m ~YA b yc w Z _ vK |
mswea vb evsj v` k K MYc R vZ x evsj v` k b vg A wf wnZ
K i v nBq vQ| c _ g Z t c R vZ basic structure wK b v, wZ xq Z t hw` Bnv
mswea vb i basic structure nBq v _ vK Z e Z vea vq K mi K vi a vi Yv
Bnvi mwnZ mvsNwl K wK b v Z vnv wek l Y K wi evi c ~ec R vZ A _
wK , Bnvi BwZ nvm wK , Z vnv ms c A vj vPb v c q vR b |
j vwUb f vl vq res publica A _ public good ev public thing| Bnvi
A _ republic ev c R vZ I eU| c R vZ Gg b GK wU k vmb ee v
h vnvi g ~j D k R b MYi K j vY mva b |
Thomas Paine Gi g Z ev` A b ymvi republicanism ev c R vZ vw K Z v
K vb c k vmb c wZ b q , ei , Bnv R b K j vY g ~j K GK wU mi K vi i
A v` k k vmb ee v| c R vZ vw K Z v mg yb Z nq , Pocock Gi f vl vq a
way of life given over to civic concerns and the ultimately activity of citizenship.|
82
Republic government ev c R vZ w K mi K vi m ^ wZ wb ej b republican
government is no other than government established and conducted for the interest of
the public, as well individually as collectively|
Paine Gi g Z A b ymvi c R vZ K vb wek l a i b i k vmb
c wZ Z mxg ve b q | Bnv c wZ wb wa Z k xj c wZ i mwnZ I c q vM
nBZ c vi |
Z e h c wZ B nDK , c R vZ i vR vi ev K vb Mv xi A w Z
_ vwK e b v Ges Bnv R b K j vY g ~j K nBZ nBe|
A va ywb K H wZ nvwmK MY L c ~e 5 10 mvj i vg K i vR v` i
i vR Z i k l nBZ L c ~e3 1mvj mg vU Octavious Gi mvg vR i
c vi K vj c h republican period ev c R vZ vw K K vj wnmve wPw Z ev
A wf wnZ K wi q vQb | 7 g i vg K i vR v Tarquin A Z A Z vPvi x wQj b |
L c ~e5 10 mvj i vg i A wa evmxMY i vR v Tarquin K i vR nBZ
ewn vi K i | Patrician I Plebian vi v MwVZ Comitia Centuriata ` yBR b
Consul K GK er mi Gi R b wb evwPZ K wi Z | Consul A _ mnK g x|
Z vnv` i i vR vi g Z B g Z v wQj | c vq me mg q B A wf R vZ Patrician
nBZ Consul wb evwPZ nBZ , K vR B c K Z i vR g Z v A wf R vZ
i vg K ` i g a B mxg ve wQj | GK vi Y wb R ` i A wa K vi A v` vq
Plebian ` i K c vq ` yBk Z er mi a wi q v h y K wi Z nBq vwQj | 4 7 9
er mi c i L c ~e3 1 mvj Octavious mvg vR c wZ v K i b I Imperator
Dc vwa MnY K i b | Z vnvi k vmb ee v a yg v b vg B c R vZ wQj
wK c K Z c c yb i vq i vR Z A vi nq | GB f veB i vg K
c R vZ i A emvb NU|
g a h yMi k l f vM BDi vc i b muvi b eR vMi Yi mg q
BUvwj i K q K wU b Mi i v ^ mg q i R b c R vZ i c yb t A vwef ve
NU| b Mi wj i g a wek l K wi q v Venice I Florence c a vb | GBmK j
b Mi - i vi Pwi wb Yq H wZ nvwmK MY D i v wj Z i vR Z ,
Mv xZ , GK b vq K Z BZ vw` i A b yc w wZ c h e Y K i Z t D i v
ee vK c R vZ vw K wnmve wPw Z K i b | H mK j b Mi - i v ^
83
msL K ew mxwg Z f vUvwa K vi i g va g wb evwPZ nBq v i v
c wi Pvj b v K wi Z b | Venice b Mi - i v b vg g v ev L Z vwe ( Titular)
i v- c a vb i Dc vwa wQj Doge|
Bsj v 16 4 9 mvj nBZ 16 6 0 mvj c h GK a i b i
Commonwealth we` g vb wQj | 16 4 9 mvj Charles I Gi wk i Q` K i v
nq | A Z t c i , Oliver Cromwell Bsj v Lord Protector Dc vwa MnY K i Z t
mi K vi c wi Pvj b v K i b | H ^ mg q i vR Z A b yc w Z _ vwK j I
GK K k vmb we` g vb wQj , Z e k vmK eMMYg vb yl i K j vYi Pv
K wi q v wQj b | wek l K wi q v f vUvwa K vi i vei m wi
g vwj K vb v j Bq v Putney debates G mva vi Y mb ` i c nBZ c k
D vc b K i v nBq vwQj h Z vnvi v ` k i R b h y K wi e A _ P
m wi g vwj K vb v b v _ vK vq Z vnv` i f vUvwa K vi _ vwK e b v, Bnv
K b |
18 k k Z vw Z Montesquieu I Rousseau c f wZ wP vwe` MYi
j L b xi c f ~Z c f ve BDi vc xq ` k j vi Dc i c o | g vb q
SwitzerlandG c R vZ mw nq |
k vmb ee vq k vwmZ i A b yg v` b Ges MYg vb yl i A wa K vi GB
` yB g ~j b xwZ A vg wi K vb h y i vI d v Df q ` k i wec eK B wek l
f ve c f vweZ K i |
l vo k k Z v xZ Bsj v Di A vg wi K vq 13 wU K j vb x- i v
vc b K i | K j vb x wj i i v g Z v Bsj vi i vR v I c vj vg U
c wi Pvj b v K wi Z | K j vb xi wj i A wa evmxMY g b K wi Z h ,
Bsj vi i vR v Z vnv` i I i vR v wK Bsj vi c vj vg U K j vb xi
wb R ^K vb evc vi A vBb c Yq b K wi Z ev K i A vi vc K wi Z c vi
b v K vi Y, mL vb Z vnv` i K vb c wZ wb wa wQj b v| BnvB wQj
K j vb x wj i mwnZ Bsj vi wei va i g ~j K vi Y| 17 7 4 mvj
K j vb x wj i c wZ wb wa mg evq c _ g Continental Congress Gi GK mf v
A b yw Z nq | Congress Z vnv` i ` vex- ` vI q v m ^ i vR vi wb K U
A ve` b K i Z t GK wU Declaration of Rights c i Y K i wK mg S vZ vi
84
c wi eZ i vR v George III 17 7 5 mvj i A Mv g vm GK Proclamation vi v
K j vb x wj K we` vnx ewj q v Nvl Yv K i b | 17 7 5 mvj MwVZ
Continental Congress K j vb x wj i K ` xq i v c wi Pvj b vi g Z v MnY
K i Ges MU weUb i wei h y i wm v MnY K i | 17 7 6
mvj i 4 Vv R yj vB Z vwi L Continental Congress A vBb A vK vi ^va xb Z v
Nvl Yvi wej wU c vm K i | GB m k l nq 13 wU K j vb xZ wewUk
A vwa c Z |
^va xb Z v Nvl Yvi g va g GK wU R vZ xq mi K vi vwc Z nq | GB
mi K vi wb R K ^va xb I mvef g weePb v K i | k vmb g Z v
mymsnZ K wi evi j Continental Congress GK wU Articles of Confederation
MnY K i | 17 8 1 mvj wewUk evwnb x Continental army Gi wb K U
A vZ mg c Y K i |
A Z t c i Continental Congress GK wU mswea vb c Yq b i c q vR b xq Z v
A b yf e K i | mB j K j vb xi wb evwPZ c wZ wb wa MY vi v MwVZ
GK wU Constitutional Convention 17 8 7 mvj A vZ nq |
H mg q mvswea vwb K mg mvej x j Bq v ` k i i vR b xwZ K I
wP vwe` MY BDi vc xq wP vwe` MYi f vea vi v I j L b x weePb vq
j q b | Alexander Hamilton, John Jay I James Madison wewf b mvswea vwb K
mg mv j Bq v The Federalist Papers G Z vnv` i we g Z vg Z c K vk
K i b |
GK w` K K ` xq mi K vi i g Z v A b w` K 13 wU A i vi
g Z vi we wZ , Df q c k vmb i g a checks and balances i Y, A v`
MYZ _ vwK e wK b v, _ vwK j Bnvi evw K Z ` ~i nBe Ges
f vUvwa K vi K vb c h c mvwi Z K i v wVK nBe BZ vw` wewf b mg mv
j Bq v Philadelphia Gi Constitutional Convention G weZ K nBZ _ vK |
H mg q Bsj vi c vj vg Ui mvef g Z wQj wK mva vi Y
R b MYi wQj b v| wK h yi vi mswea vb R b MYi mvef g Z K
g ~j b xwZ wnmve MnY K i v nq | mB 18 k k Z v xZ MYZ ewj Z
85
Z L b c vPxb Mxm ` k xq msL vMwi i MYZ evS vBZ wK H i c
msL vMwi i meg q g Z v Convention Gi wb K U MnYh vM wQj b v|
h y i v mi K vi i a i Y wK nBe m m ^ A vj vK c vZ K wi Z
wMq v James Madison 17 8 7 mvj Federalist 10 G ej b t
............ A republic, by which I mean a government in which the scheme
of representation takes place, opens a different prospect, and promises
the cure for which we are seeking. ............... In the extent and proper
structure of the Union, therefore, we behold a republican remedy for the
diseases most incident to republican government. ..............

c i eZ xZ h yi vi mswea vb i PZ z_ A b y Q` i 4 a vi vq GB
i vi a i Y h republican ev c R vZ vw K nBe Z vnv wb w Z K i v nq |
Madison 17 9 1 mvj Government b vg GK wU c e j L b t
A republic involves the idea of popular rights. A representative republic chuses
the wisdom, of which hereditary aristocracy has the chance; whilst it excludes
the oppression of that form....... To secure all the advantages of such a system,
every good citizen will be at once a centinel over the rights of the people; over
the authorities of the confederal government; and over both the rights and the
authorities of the intermediate governments.
( Larry D. Kramer: The People Themselves, c v- 114 nBZ D Z )

GBf ve A va ywb K wek me c _ g GK wU c K Z c R vZ vw K ` k
A vZ c K vk K wi j |
Minor V. Happerse H.88 US (21 Wall) 162(1874) g vK v g vq US Supreme
Court g wnj v` i f vUvwa K vi b vB ewj q v ee c ` vb K vj h yi v h
GK wU c R vZ Z vnv Nvl Yv K i | Morrison R.Waite C.J., Z uvnvi i vq
ej b t
............It is true that the United States guarantees to every State a
republican form of government............. The guaranty is of a republican
form of government........

Duncan V. McCall 139 US 449 (page-219) (1891) g vK v g vq US State
Court Gi GL wZ q vi m K A vj vPb v c m US
Supreme Court h yi v h GK wU c R vZ Ges MYg vb yl B h mK j
86
g Z vi Dr m Z vnv eYb v K i | Melville Weston Fuller, C.J., Z uvnvi i vq
ej b t
By the constitution , a republican form of government is guaranteed to
every state in the Union, and the distinguishing feature of that form is the
right of the people to choose their own officers for governmental
administration, and pass their own laws in virtue of the legislative power
reposed in representative bodies, whose legitimate acts may be said to be
those of the people themselves; but while the people are thus the source
of political power; their governments, national and state , have been
limited by written Constitutions, and they have themselves thereby set
bounds to their own power, as against the sudden impulses of mere
majorities.

GBf ve 17 8 7 mvj c YxZ mswea vb i g va g c w_ exi c _ g
c K Z c R vZ Bnvi h v v A vi K i | g g c w_ exi e` k
c R vZ vw K i vee v MnY K i |
19 7 1 mvj i 10 B Gwc j Z vwi L evsj v` k Bnvi Proclamation of
IndependenceG BnvK MYc R vZ i c Nvl Yv K wi q vQ| c i eZ xZ
Bnvi mswea vb i c veb vq I c _ g A b y Q` B MYc R vZ x evsj v` k
b vg Nvl Yv K wi q vQ|
2 2 | wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v t c i eZ x c k Z vea vq K
mi K vi c wZ Z mek l c a vb wePvi c wZ ev A vc xj wef vMi A b
K vb wePvi c wZ K c a vb Dc ` v c ` wb q vM wePvi wef vMi
^va xb Z vK K vb f ve zb K i wK b v|

Dj L h mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 6 , Gi 3
a vi v ej mswea vb i PZ z_ f vM Gi 2 q c wi Q` Gi c i 2 K
c wi Q` - wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi mwb ewk Z K i v nq |
wePvi c wZ MYi g a nBZ c a vb Dc ` v wb q vM ms v wea vb 5 8 M
A b y Q` i 3 I 4 ` d vq eYb v K i v nBq vQt
5 8 M ( 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
( 2 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
( 3 ) i vc wZ evsj v` k i A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ MYi
g a wh wb mek l A emi c v nBq vQb Ges wh wb GB
87
A b y Q` i A a xb Dc ` v wb h y nBevi h vM Z vunvK c a vb
Dc ` v wb q vM K wi eb t
Z e k Z _ vK h , h w` DI i c A emi c v c a vb
wePvi c wZ K c vI q v b v h vq A _ ev wZ wb c a vb Dc ` vi c `
MnY A m Z nb , Z vnv nBj i vc wZ evsj v` k i mek l
A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ i A eewnZ c ~eA emi c v c a vb
wePvi c wZ K c a vb Dc ` v wb q vM K wi eb |

( 4 ) h w` K vb A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ K c vI q v b v
h vq A _ ev wZ wb c a vb Dc ` vi c ` MnY A m Z nb , Z vnv
nBj i vc wZ A vc xj wef vMi A emi c v wePvi K MYi g a
wh wb mek l A e mi c v nBq vQb Ges wh wb GB A b y Q` i
A a xb Dc ` v wb h y nBevi h vM Z vunvK c a vb Dc ` v
wb q vM K wi eb t
Z e k Z _ vK h , h w` D i c A emi c v wePvi K K
c vI q v b v h vq A _ ev wZ wb c a vb Dc ` vi c ` MnY A mg Z
nb , Z vnv nBj i vc wZ A vc xj wef vMi A emi c v
wePvi K MYi g a mek l A emi c v A b yi c wePvi K i
A eewnZ c ~eA emi c v wePvi K K c a vb Dc ` v wb q vM
K wi eb |


A vc xj K vi x c nBZ R b ve Gg A vB d vi K x I R b ve g nmxb
i k x` g b K i b h Dc i v wea vb A b ymvi A emi c v
wePvi c wZ MYi g a nBZ c a vb Dc ` v wb q vM c ` vb wePvi
wef vMi ^va xb Z vK K vb b v K vb f ve zb K i |
we A vUb x- R b vi j A ek Z vnv g b K i b b v| Z uvnvi ee
h wb i c wb evPb i R b Z vea vq K mi K vi c q vR b Ges c a vb
Dc ` v c ` i R b c v b c a vb wePvi c wZ i K vb weK b vB|
Gwg K vm wK Dwi q vMYi g a R b ve wU GBP L vb , Wt K vg vj
nvmb , wmwb q i GvWf vK Ue` , G c m K vb ee i vL b b vB|
R b ve i wd K - Dj nK , wmwb q i GvW&f vK U, c a vb Dc ` v
c ` i R b A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ wb q vM wePvi wef vMi
va xb Z vK zb K wi e Z vnv A xK vi K i b b vB| wZ wb Z vea vq K
88
mi K vi ee vK necessary evil A vL vwq Z K i Z t Z vea vq K mi K vi i
R b weK c a vb Dc ` v I Dc ` veMm K c ve c ` vb K i b |
Wt Gg . R wni wmwb q i GvW&f vK U, c a vb Dc ` v c `
A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ i wb q vM wePvi wef vMi va xb Z vi
c wi c x ewj q v g b K i b | wZ wb weK ee vi c i vg k c ` vb K i b |
R b ve g vng y` yj Bmj vg , wmwb q i GvW&f vK U, Gi G c m
ee nBj h h nZ z A emi c v wePvi c wZ MYi g a nBZ c a vb
Dc ` v wb q vM K i v nBe, K vR B myc xg K vUnBZ c vb K wi evi
c i Z uvnvi H i c wb q vM wePvi wef vMK K vb f veB c f vweZ K i
b v|
R b ve Gg A vwg i - Dj Bmj vg , wmwb q i GvW&f vK U, c a vb
Dc ` v c ` c vb c a vb wePvi c wZ i wb q vM h wePvi wef vMi
va xb Z vi c wi c x Z vnv A xK vi K wi Z c vi b b vB|
R b ve i vK b Dw b g vng y` , wmwb q i GvW&f vK U, ej b h
c a vb Dc ` v c ` c vb c a vb wePvi c wZ i wb q vMi K vb weK
b vB|
R b ve A vR g vj yj nvmb , wmwb q i GvW&f vK U, _ nxb f vl vq
ej b c v b c a vb wePvi c wZ i c a vb Dc ` v c ` wb q vM wePvi
wef vMi va xb Z vi c wi c x|
wePvi wef vMi va xb Z vi K _ v mevB ewj q v _ vK b , wK
c _ g B Dc j w K i v ` i K vi wePvi wef vMi va xb Z v ewj Z c K Z
c wK evS vq | Z vnvQvo v, Bnvi i wnq vQ my` xNBwZ nvm| wePvi
wef vMi ^va xb Z v A R b K Z g nvg vb y l i K Z Z vM wZ wZ vi d j Z vnv
ms c nBj I A vg v` i R vb v c q vR b | wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z vi
BwZ nvm c K Z c g vb e mf Z vi BwZ nvm|
h wePvi ee vq wePvi K MY mec K vi c j y Z v, Pvc I f q - f xwZ
_ vK v mZ I mi K vi I A b mK j pressure group Gi A wf j vl I
K g c vi Da _ vwK q v wb f xK f ve a yg v ` k i mswea vb I A vBb
89
A b ymvi wePvwi K K vh g wb w Z K i Z vnvK B ^va xb wePvi wef vM
ej v h vq |
GB wePvi wef vMi g ~j K ` we` y nBj b GK R b wePvi K |
A vewk K f veB wZ wb R b Mb i g a nBZ A vMZ GK R b mr I
wk w Z g vb yl nBe b | GK R b wePvi K i R b Z vnvB h _ b q | h L b
wZ wb wePvi K i A vmb A vmxb nBeb Z L b Z vnvK i vM- wei vM ewnf ~Z
c v_ i i b vq A b yf ~wZ nxb nBZ nq (Edmund Burke: cold neutrality of an
impartial judge)| wK GK R b wePvi c wZ I mva vi b i g vsmi g vb yl |
Z vnvi I ew MZ PvI q v- c vI q v, c q vR b I mg mv _ vwK Z c vi |
Z vnvi c i I GK R b wePvi K K mec K vi c j vf b i m yL I m ~Y
wb i c I wb g vn f ve Z vnvi Dc i A wc Z ` vwq Z I K Z e c vj b
K wi Z nq | Z vnvK BnR vMwZ K Gg b wK c vi j wK K R xeb i c wZ I
g vnnxb f ve a yg v b vq wePvi c wZ v K wi Z nBe|
i vi c nBZ I GK R b wePvi K K mec K vi i vxq
c wZ K ~j Z vi nvZ nBZ i v K wi evi R b Z vnvi PvK zi xi g q v` K vj
mvswea vwb K f ve wb w` K wi q v ` I q v nq | Z vnvQvo v, Z vnvi eZ b
f vZ v I mywea v` xI mswea vb myi v c ` vb K i | GB f ve i vi c
nBZ I wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v A zb i vwL evi c ` c j I q v nq |
Z e wePvi wef vMi va xb Z vi eZ g vb A e vb A vb q b K wi Z
k Z k Z YR b v g vb yl i nvR vi er mi i msMvg c q vR b nBq vQ|
A vo vB nvR vi er mi c ~e Mxm ` k i wewf b b Mi - i v vb -
we vb , ` k b , A vBb i A b yk xj b i R b weL vZ wQj | i vg K
K b mvj MYi h yM H ` k A vBb mg w j vf K i | c b wUd &ev i vg K
wePvi K MY wePvi K vh c wi Pvj b v K wi Z b | Z e H mg q K vb wj wL Z
c _ vMZ A vBb wQj b v| wj wL Z A vBb i A b yc w wZ Z c weq vb c R vMY
c vq k B A wePvi i wk K vi nBZ b | A ek l Z vnv` i ` vexi g yL
GK wU K wg k b Mxm ` k i Athens mn wewf b b Mi Z vnv` i A vBb I
c _ v m ^ mg K vb j vf i R b c i Y K i v nq | Z vnvi v wd wi q v
90
A vwmq v L t c ~t 4 5 1 mvj A vBb I c _ v wj 12 wU Table G A vBb
mswnZ v A vK vi c K vk K i | A Z t c i , mK j we` g vb A vBb m ^
g vUvg ywU GK wU a vi Yv c vb |
A wZ c vPxb Bsj vi wePvi ee v A Z yj A e vq wQj |
10 6 6 mvj William the Conquerer Gi Bsj v weR q i c i b i g vb
i vR vMY ` k GK wU mymsnZ c k vmb I wePvi ee v Db Z K wi evi
c q vm c vb | H mg q The king is the fountain of justice GB c ev` A b ymvi
^q s i vR v wePvi vj q ( Kings Bench) Dc ek b K i Z t wePvi K vh
c wi Pvj b v K wi Z b | h y weMn I b vb vb K vi Y i vR K vh ew c vBj
g g i vR v durante bene placito (during good pleasure) ( i vR vi mw` Qvi
Dc i wf w K i Z t ) k Z vb ymvi wePvi K wb q vM c ` vb K wi Z b | Z vnvi v
i vR vi b vg I Z vnvi c nBq v wePvi K vh c wi Pvj b v K wi Z b | Z e
i vR vi g Z zi c i mK j wePvi K MY ^q sw q f ve Z vnv` i c `
nvi vBZ b | b ~Z b i vR v c yb i vq b ~ Z b K wi q v c Q` g Z wePvi K wb q vM
c ` vb K wi Z b | i vR vi A m wi K vi Y nBj wePvi K MY
Z vr wYK f ve ei L v Z nBZ b | Lord Chancellor Sir Thomas More i vR v
Henry VIII Gi A v` k 16 er mi Tower G A i xb wQj b , Z r c i Z uvnvi
wk i Q` K i v nq | c K Z c , wePvi K MY A b i vR K g Pvi x` i b vq
i vR vi GK v emse` me K (servant) _ vwK q v wb R ` i K MweZ g b
K wi Z b | wK mB i K g mg q I 13 k k Z v xZ i vR v Henry III Gi
i vR Z K vj Justice Henry de Bracton Z uvnvi i wPZ M De Legibus G j L b t
Quod Rex non debet esse sub homine, sed sub Deo et Lege (that the
king should not be under man, but under God and the law)
H i c absolute monarchyi h yM i vR vi GBi c vb wb a vi Y
GK w` K Dc i v wePvi K i Pvwi w K ` pZ v A b w` K i vR vi
we` vr mvwnZ v c g vY K i |
i vYx Elizabeth I Gi g Z zi c i 16 0 3 mvj James I Bsj vi
wmsnvmb A vi vnb K i b | wZ wb ^Mxq A wa K vi ej (divine right) i vR
k vmb K wi Z Qb ewj q v g b K wi Z b | wZ wb wb R K A vBb i Da
91
ewj q v g b K wi Z b Ges Parliament ewZ i K i vR K xq Proclamation I
Prerogative A wa K vi vi v A vBb c Yq b K i Z t i vR k vmb K wi evi g Z
c vl Y K wi Z b | GB wel q Court of Common Pleas Gi c a vb wePvi c wZ
Sir Edward Coke Gi g Z vg Z wR vmv K wi j wZ wb wb wj wL Z g Z vg Z
c K vk K i b ( 16 0 8 mvj ) t
The law, he said was the golden metwand and measure to try the causes of
his subjects: and which protected his majesty in safety and peace. The king in
his own person cannot adjudge and case either criminal ......... or betwixt party
and party. The king cannot take any cause out of any of his courts and give
judgment upon it himself. The judgments are always given per curiam; and
the judges are sworn to execute justice according to the law and customs of
England. (Sir William Holdsworth : A History of English Law Vol. V page -
430 Z Z xq g y` Y 19 4 5 , nBZ D Z )

wb R i R xeb wec b K wi q v Pvwi k Z er mi c ~ei vR vi m yL
A vBb i GB f vl c ` vb Sir Edward Coke Gi Pvwi w K ` pZ v, mvnm Ges
wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z vi K _ vB mi Y K i vBq v ` q |
Gg b wK c vj vg U K Z K wewa e A vBb I hw` mva vi Y A vBb i
` wZ A ea c Z xq g vb nq Z vnvI evwZ j K wi evi g Z v A v` vj Z i
i wnq vQ ewj q v Dr. Bonham ( 16 10 ) g vK v g vq Coke Nvl Yv K i b t
Where an Act of Parliament is against right and reason repugnant, or
impossible to be performed, the common law will control and adjudge
that Act to be void ( Lord Denning K Z K wj wL Z What Next In
The Law c v- 3 19 nBZ D Z )
A vBb i GK B a i Yi f vl Day V. Savage ( 16 14 ) g vK g vq
Hobart, C.J. ej b t
................ Even an Act of Parliament made against natural equity, as to
make a man judge in his own cause, is void in itself, for jura natural sunt
immutabilia and they are leges legumes HWR Wade Gi
Administrative Law,c g g y` Y, 19 8 2 , c y K i 4 18 c v
nBZ D Z ) |

92
Common Law Gi k Z memg q Dc vc b K wi q v Coke Gi wewf b
i vq c ` vb i K vi Y i vR v James I wei nBq v 16 13 mvj Z uvnvK Court
of Common Pleas nBZ A c mvi Y K i Z t Kings Bench Gi c a vb wePvi c wZ
wnmve wb q vM c ` vb K i b |
Colt and Glover V. Bishop of Coventry (Case of Commendams)(1616)
g vK v g vq wek c K commendam A vK vi i vR vi g yi x c ` vb i
Prerogative Pvj K i v nq | wei va xq wel q wUi i Z A b ya veb K wi q v
Court of Common Pleas, Kings Bench Ge s Court of Exchequer Gi 12 R b
wePvi K mg b q MwVZ Exchequer Chamber A v` vj Z b vb x A vi nq | H
mg q i vR v j b i evwni Newmarket G A e vb K wi Z wQj b | h nZ z
i vR vi prerogative Gi wel q wUI wePvi a xb mBnZ zi vR v Attorney General
Sir Francis Bacon g vi d r Z vnvi ee b v k vb v c h i vq c ` vb b v
K i vi R b wePvi K MYK wb ` k c ` vb K i b | wK wePvi K MYi wb K U
Bnv A vBb I Z uvnv` i k c _ c wi c x c Z xq g vb nI q vq Z uvnvi v
wePvi K vh wMZ b v K wi q v c wi Pvj b v K wi Z _ vK b | i vR v j b
d i r A vwmq v mK j wePvi K MYK WvwK q v A Z va vwb Z f ve
wR vmv K i b h f wel Z Z vnvi v i vR vi B Qv A b ymvi g vK v g v
nwMZ K wi eb wK b v| Coke ewZ Z mK j wePvi K B i vR vi B Qv
A b ymvi c ` c j Bevi A xK vi c ` vb K i b | wK Coke h Di
c ` vb K i b Z vnv f wel r mK j wePvi K i R b wk Yxq I A b yK i Yxq
nBq v _ vwK e| wZ wb ej b t
When that happens, I will do that which it shall be fit for a
Judge to do.
(Lord Denning wj wL Z What Next In The Law M nBZ D Z )
Sir Edward Coke wb R i R xeb i Dc i S zuwK j Bq v I f wel Z
m veb v R j v wj c ` vb K wi q v wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v mB absolute
monarchyi h yMI GBf ve mg yb Z i vL b | Bnvi wK Qyw` b c i 16 16
93
mvj Sir Edward Coke K c a vb wePvi c wZ c ` nBZ ei L v K i v nq |
c i eZ xK vj wZ wb House of Commons mf vi m` m wb evwPZ nb |
i vR v James I Gi g Z zi c i Z vnvi R c y Charles I 16 2 5 mvj
Bsj vi wmsnvmb A vi vnb K i b | H mg q b i mwnZ hy
Pwj Z wQj | H L i P wg UvBevi R b A wZ wi K i A vi vc K i v Qvo vI
wZ wb R b mva vi YK F Y c ` vb eva K i b Ges h vnvi v F Y c ` vb
A ^xK wZ R vb vBZ wQj Z vnvw` MK K vi v` c ` vb K i v nBZ wQj |
Kings Bench Gi Z ` vb x b c a vb wePvi c wZ H i c K vi ` i ea Z v
c ` vb K wi Z A ^xK wZ R vb vBj Z uvnvK I ei L v Z K i v nq |
wK mK j wePvi c wZ Coke Gi b vq g h v` vc ~YwQj b b v| Darnel
Gi g vK v g vq ( 16 2 7 ) Darnel I A b K q K R b Habeas Corpus i xU&Gi
g va g Z vnv` i A i xY A v` k Pvj K i b | F Y c ` vb A ^xK wZ i
K vi Y Z vnvw` K A i xY K i v nBq vwQj wK c a vb wePvi c wZ Sir
Nichols Hyde i vR vi g Z vi GBi c A c eenvi n c b v K wi q v
g vK v g v L vwi R K i b | d j k wZ Z Prerogative of arbitrary commitment Gi
g va g GK R b c R vK A wb w` K vj A i xY i vwL Z i vR vi GBi c
^ QvPvi g ~j K A wa K vi i wePvwi K ^xK wZ c ` vb K i v nq |
i vR vi GBi c ^ QvPvi x A vPi Y mva vi Y R b MY A Z y
nBq v I V| Commons mf vq Coke Gi b Z Z wewf b A wa K vi m ^wj Z
Petition of Right wej A vK vi D vc b K i v nq | D wej eA vBb x f ve
UvK v A v` vq , ^ QvPvi g ~j K A i xY, emvg wi K j vK K mvg wi K
A vBb k vw c ` vb BZ vw` wb wl K i v nq | i vR v c _ g c ej A vc w
K wi j I c i Commons mf vi c P Pvc i g yL i vR K xq m w c ` vb
K wi Z eva nb | 16 2 8 mvj ^v wi Z GB Petition of Right Bsj vi
2 q weL vZ mvswea vwb K ` wj j |
16 4 9 mvj Charles I Gi wk i Q` nq | 16 6 0 mvj Charles II
wmsnvmb A vi vnb K i b (restoration)| Charles II Z vnvi i vR Z i
k l f vM A Z ^ QvPvi x nBq v I Vb Ges wePvi wef vMK Z vnvi
94
^ QvPvi K vh eenvi K wi Z _ vK b | 16 8 5 mvj Z vnvi g Z zi c i
i vR v James II GK B f ve wb R i ^ QvPvwi Z vi K vh wePvi wef vMK
eenvi K i b | Kings Bench Gi c a vb wePvi c wZ Scrogg, George Jeffreys I
Robert Wright mB h yM wePvwi K ^ QvPvwi Z v I A Z vPvi i c Z xK
wQj b | Z vnvi v A vBb i c K Z D k mwVK c vc U A b ymi Y
K wi evi c wi eZ i vR vi ^ QvPvi x D k K A Mva xK vi c ` vb I b vh
c g vY K i vUvB h b Z vnv` i ` vwq Z g b K wi Z b | Lord Chancellor c `
wb q vM c vBq v Lord George Jeffreys i vR vi wei va xq ` j i c wZ Z vnvi
A c Q` A vi I c K U nBq v c o |
Godden V. Hales (1686) g vK v g v g a h yMxq i vR v` i dispensing
g Z vi ea Z v m ^ wQj | GB Prerogative g Z v ej i vR v K vb
wek l ew ev A c i va xi Dc i mswk A vBb i c q vM e i vwL Z
c vwi Z b | Common Pleas A v` vj Z i c a vb wePvi c wZ Sir Thomas Jones
i vR vi D g Z vK ea g b K wi Z b b v| wK Z uvnvK c wi vi
f ve R vb vBq v ` I q v nq h , Z uvnvi g Z c wi eZ b K wi Z nBe A _ ev
Z uvnvK c ` Z vM K wi Z nBe| wePvi c wZ Jones ej b t
For my place, I care but little. I am old and worn out in the service of
the crown; but I am mortified to find that your Majesty thinks me
capable of giving a judgment which none but an ignorant or a dishonest
man could give.
(Thomas Pitt Taswell-Langmead: English Constitutional History, Tenth
Edition, page-402,note-h)
Gi c i Exchequer A v` vj Z i Chief Baron mn wZ wb Ges A vi I
` yBR b we Pvi K ei L v nb |
A Z t c i , i vR vi Dc i v g Z vi c i vq nq |
i vR vJames II Gi wmsnvmb c wi Z vMi (abdication) c i 16 8 9 mvj
myweL vZ Bill of Rights A vBb A vK vi c YxZ nq | GB A vBb vi v absolute
Monarchy Gi A emvb nq , mvswea vwb K i vR Z c wZ w Z nq Ges King in
95
Parliament Gi mvef g Z A wR Z nq | Lord Chatham GB c m h _ v_
f veB ej b t
The Magna Carta (1215), the Petition of Right(1628) and the
Bill of Rights (1689), together constitute the Bible of the English
Constitution.
i vR v William III I i vYx Mary II 16 8 9 mvj wmsnvmb A vi vnYi
c i wePvi K MYK quamdiu se bene gesserint ( during his good behaviour) k Z
wb q vM c ` vb K wi Z b | A _ vr wePvi K K vb i Z i A c i va b v K wi j
A vg Z z Z vnvi c ` envj _ vwK Z c vwi eb | d j A nZ zK ei L v
nBevi m veb v b v _ vK vq wePvi K MY wb weNZ vnv` i wePvi K vh K wi Z
c vwi Z b | Z eyGB wb q vM i vR vi mw` Qvi Dc i B wb f i K wi Z |
A Z t c i , 17 0 1 mvj Act of Settlement c YxZ nq | D A vBb i 7
a vi vq wePvi K ` i PvK zi xi g q v` I eZ b v` x wb w Z K i v nq | D
a vi v wb i c t
(7) ................. Judges commissions be made quamdiu se bene gesserint
and their salaries ascertained and established but upon the address of
both Houses of Parliament it may be lawful to remove them ( Thomas
Pitt Taswell-Langmead: English Constitutional History,1946, page-518
Dc i v A vBb ej D P A v` vj Z i wePvi K ` i wb q vM,
PvK zi xi g q v` BZ vw` i vR v` i m QvPvwi Z vi A emvb NU Ges
Z vnv` i ^va xb Z v Z _ v wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v A b K vsk wb w Z K i v
nq |
16 8 8 mvj i wec ei c i Bsj vi wePvi wef vMI c wi eZ b
A vm| Lord John Holt 16 8 9 mvj Kings Bench Gi c a vb wePvi c wZ c `
wb q vMc v nb | Sir Edward Coke Gi c i wZ wb B A vBb i k vmb c wZ vq
wb i wew Qb f ve Pv K wi q v wMq vwQj b | Coke K i vR vi wei A vBb x
j o vB K wi Z nBq vwQj A vi Lord Holt K House of Lords I House of
96
Commons Gi wek l vwa K vi (Privilege) ` vexi wei A vBb i k vmb
c wZ vq A wei vg msMvg K wi Z nBq vQ|
Rex V. Knollys (1695) g vK g vq House of Lords Gi wek l vwa K vi
(Privilege) Gi wei A v` vj Z i GL wZ q vi i wel q wU weeP wQj | GB
g vK v g vq Kings Bench wm v MnY K i h Knollys GK R b peer we a vq
commoner wnmve Z vnvi wei A vb xZ A wf h vM L vwi R h vM| wK
House of Lords c ~eB wm v MnY K wi q vwQj h Knollys K vb Peer b b |
G c m Kings Bench A wf g Z c vl Y K i h h nZ zi vR v Knollys Gi
c ` g h v` vi wel q wU wb i c b K wi evi R b House of Lords G c i Y K i b
b vB mnZ zH wel q wm v c ` vb K wi evi K vb GL wZ q vi House of
Lords Gi wQj b v | ^vf vweK f veB House of Lords Gi Peer MY A Z
z nBq v Lord John Holt K ewMZ f ve House of Lords G Dc w Z
nBq v Z uvnvi H i c wm v i K vi Y ` k vBZ wb ` k ` b | Dj L h
House of Lords GK w` K Parliament Gi D P K A b w` K mev P
A v` vj Z | wK Lord John Holt Z vnv Mvn b v K wi q v h yw ` L vb h writ of
error g vi d r House of Lords Gi m yL wel q wU A vb y vwb K f ve D vc b
K i v b v nBj K vb A v` vj Z i wm v mi vmwi n c K wi evi K vb
g Z v House of Lords Gi I b vB | A v` vj Z i GL wZ q vi m wZ wb
ej b t
If there was any such law and custom of Parliament ................. yet
when this comes incidentally in question before them (the judges), they
ought to adjudge, and inter-meddle with it, and they adjudge things of as
high nature every day; for they construe and expound Acts of
Parliament.............
House of Lords Gi wb ` k mZ I K vi Y c ` k b b v K wi evi
h wK Z v m ^ wZ wb ej b t
.............if the record was removed before the peers by error, so that it
came judicially before them, he would give his reasons very willingly;
but he gave them in this case, it would be of very ill consequence to all
97
judges hereafter in all cases.( Sir William Holdsworth: The History of
English Law, vol.V1, page-271)
GBf ve Lord John Holt i vi mev P c wZ vb i Dc i I
A v` vj Z i k Z Z _ v A vBb i k Z c wZ w Z K i b | K vh wewa
ewnf ~Z f ve mev P A v` vj Z I h A b K vb A v` vj Z i K vh g
n c K wi Z c vi b v Z vnv c wZ w Z nq | House of Lords Gi Peer MY
Lord Holt Gi Dc i A Z y nBj I c i eZ xZ mK j B Z uvnvi
wm v i h K Z v Dc j w K i b |
Ashby V. White (1704) g vK v g vq GK w` K House of Commons Gi
wek l vwa K vi (Privilege) A b w` K A v` vj Z i GL wZ q vi i wel q wU
weeP wQj | GB g vK v g vq Aylesbury Gi GK R b burgess Ashby K
Aylesburyi g q i f vU c ` vb K wi Z b v w` j Ashby wb evPb x K g K Z v
White Gi wei g vK v g v K i b | Kings Bench A v` vj Z i c a vb
wePvi c wZ Lord John Holt Z uvnvi dissenting ev wf b g Z m~PK i vq ej b h
Parliament Gi wek l vwa K vi A vQ wK b vB Z vnv h nZ zGK wU A vBb i
c k mnZ z BnvK A vBb vb ymvi wePvi K wi evi GL wZ q vi nBj
A v` vj Z i | Lord John Holt ej b t
But they say that this is a matter out of our jurisdiction and we ought
not to enlarge it. I agree we ought not to encroach or enlarge our
jurisdiction; by so doing we usurp both on the right of the Queen and the
people: but sure we may determine on a charter granted by the King or
on a matter of custom or prescription, when it comes before us without
encroaching on the Parliament. And if it be a matter within our
jurisdiction, we are bound by our oaths to judge of it We do not
deny them their right of examining elections, but we must not be
frighted, when a matter of property comes before us, by saying it belongs
to the Parliament, we must exert the Queens jurisdiction. My opinion is
founded on the law of England. (Sir William Holdsworth: The History
of English Law, Vol.V1, note-6, Page no. 271 )
Kings Bench Gi msL vMwi wePvi c wZ MY Lord Holt Gi Dc i v
g Z i mwnZ GK g Z b v nBj I House of Lords, Writ of error Gi g va g
b vb x A Lord John Holt Gi wb v g Z vg Z MnY K i b t
98
. there is a great difference between the right of the electors and
the right of elected: the one is a temporary right to a place in parliament,
pro hac vice; the other is a freehold or a franchise. Who has a right to sit
in the House of Commons may be properly cognisable there ; but who
has a right to choose is a matter originally established, even before there
is a parliament. . The same law that gives him his right must
defend it for him,
(Thomas Pitt Taswell Langmead: English Constitutional History, Tenth
Edition, 1946, page-650)
Parliament A vBb c Yq b K wi Z mev P g Z v c v nBj I
A vBb i evL v I c q vM m ^ P~ o v wm v c ` vb K i v A v` vj Z i
GL wZ q vi , GB i vq Z vnv c wZ w Z K i |
Reg. V. Paty (1705) g vK v g vwU Bsj vi mvswea vwb K BwZ nvmi
A vi I GK Pg K c ` NUb v|
Ashby V. White g vK v g vi i vq i c i Paty mn Aylesburyi c uvP R b
burgess GK B a i b i g vK v g v Z vnv` i Gj vK vi c ywj k i wei
` vq i K i | wK House of Commons Bnvi A eg vb b vi (Contempt)
A wf h vM ev` x I Z vnv` i A vBb R xwe mK j K B A i xY K i |
Z vnv` i g yw i R b Kings Bench A v` vj Z Writ of habeas ` vq i K i v
nBj msL vMwi wePvi c wZ MY House of Commons Gi wek l vwa K vi i
evc vi Z vnvi v wb R i vB wm v j Bevi R b g Z vevb GB i vq c ` vb
K wi q v i xU&L vwi R K i b | GK g v c a vb wePvi c wZ Lord John Holt Z uvnvi
wf b g Z m~PK (dissenting) i vq House of Commons Gi wek l vwa K vi m ^
g Z c K vk K i b h GB a yg v House of Commons Gi wm v
(resolution) h_ b q , Bnv A vBb A vK vi wewa e nBj B a yeva K i
nBe, b Pr b q | wZ wb ej b t
I will suppose, that the bringing of such actions was declared by the
House Commons to be a breach of their privilege; that that declaration
will not make that a breach of privilege that was not so before. But if
they have any such privilege, they ought to shew precedent of it. The
privileges of the House of Commons are well known, and are founded
upon the law of the land, and are nothing but the law... And if they
99
declare themselves to have privileges, which they have no legal claim to,
the people of England will not be estopped by that declaration. This
privilege of theirs concerns the liberty of the people in a high degree, by
subjecting them to imprisonment for the infringement of them, which is
what the people cannot be subjected to without an Act of Parliament
Hillaire Barnett: Constitutional And Administrative Law, Fourth Edition,
2002, page-563)|
ev` x I Z vnv` i A vBb R xweMYi A i xY Gi A vBb MZ A e vb
m ^ Lord John Holt ej b h House of Commons mywb w` K vi Y Dj L
c ~eK ev` x I Z vnv` i A vBb R xweMYK A i xYe K wi q vQ| h nZ z
A i xY K wi evi K vi Y wj i ea Z v c i x v K i v A v` vj Z i
GL wZ q vi f z Ges hw` D K vi Y wj ea b v nq Z vnv nBj
A i xY` i g yw c ` vb K wi evi A v` k w` Z c vi | wZ wb ej b t
the legality of the commitment depended upon the vote recited in the
warrant . That this was not such an imprisonment as the freemen of
England ought to be bound by; for that this, which was only doing a
legal act, could not be made illegal by the vote of the House of
Commons; for that neither House of Parliament, nor both Houses jointly,
could dispose of the liberty or property of the subject; for to this purpose
the Queen must join.(Sir William Holdsworth : A History of English
Law, Vol.-V1, page-272, note-2, Second Edition, 1966)
Kings Bench Gi msL vMwi wePvi c wZ MYi g Z vg Z i wf wZ
ev` xc i Writ of habeas Corpus g vK v g v L vwi R nBj Z vnvi v Writ of
error g vi d r House of Lords Gi m yL A vc xj ` vq i K wi evi R b
A ve` b R vb vb | wK House of Commons c yb i vq wm v MnY K i h
G Writ of error ` vq i h vM b q Ges i vYxi wb K U Writ of error MnY
b v K wi evi R b A ve` b R vb vb | A b w` K House of Lords i vYxK
R vb vb h Writ of error GK wU Writ of right ev ex debito justitiae (as a matter of
right) ev A wa K vi wea vq D Writ A vBb vb yM f ve MnYh vM|
i vYx Anne Z r c i House of Commons Gi A wa ek b wMZ
(prorogation) Nvl Yv K i b | d j House of Commons Gi wek l vwa K vi
` vexI wMZ nBq v h vq | GB f ve wZ wb ` yB c i g a GB A k vf b
100
A vBb x h y e K i b | d j k wZ Z ev` x I Z vnv` i A vBb R xweMY
A i xb nBZ g y nb Ges House of Lords Gi c ~eeZ xi vq i c w Z
wb evPb ms v g vK v g vq Z vnv` i c i vq nq |
Dc i A vj vwPZ g vK g v wj Z GK w` K A vBb i k Z
A b w` K Parliament Gi Df q K i k Z i ` c K vk c vq |
House of Commons g b K i h Z vnv` i wek l vwa K vi (Privilege)
Gi A e vb A vBb i I Dc i | h K vb A wa K vi K Z vnvi v Z vnv` i
wek l vwa K vi Nvl Yv K wi q v wm v j Bj Z vnv A v` vj Z i Dc i
eva K i nBe| 17 k k Z K i c vi nBZ Stuart i vR vMY GK B f ve
Z vnv` i PrerogativeK Common Law nBZ k Z i (arcana imperii) ( State
Secret) Ges A v` vj Z i GL wZ q vi ewnf ~Z g b K wi Z b | 16 8 8 mvj
Parliament Gi mvef g Z c wZ w Z nBj Parliament Gi Df q K B
Z vnv` i wek l vwa K vi K ` k i A vBb nBZ I k Z i weePb v
K wi Z b Ges GK B f ve wel q wUK A v` vj Z i GL wZ q vi ewnf ~Z g b
K wi Z b |
Rex V. Knollys g vK v g vq House of Lords Gi wek l vwa K vi i ` vexi
K _ v ewj Z h vBq v Attorney General GK B f ve Stuart i vR v` i b vq arcana
imperii k wU eenvi K i b |
Sir Edward Coke K h f ve i vR v James I Gi ` vexK Z Prerogative
Gi k Z i wei A vBb x h y K wi Z nBq vwQj Lord John Holt K I
GK B f ve Rex V. Knollys (16 9 5 ) g vK v g vq House of Lords Gi wei
Ges Ashby V. White (17 0 4 ) I Reg. V. Paty ( 17 0 5 ) g vK v g vq House of
Commons Gi wei A vBb x h y K wi q v A vBb i k Z I h K vb
wei va xq wel q A v` vj Z i P~o v wm v c ` vb i GL wZ q vi c wZ v
K wi Z nBq vwQj |
17 0 1 mvj i Act of Settlement vi v D P A v` vj Z mg ~ni ^va xb Z v
i vi c ` c MnY K i v nBj I i vR v ev i vYxi g Z zi m m Privy
Council mn mK j i vR K g K Z v I we Pvi K MYi PvK zi xi g q v` mg v
101
nBZ Ges b ~Z b i vR v b ~Z b K wi q v Z vnvw` MK wb q vM c ` vb K wi Z b |
GB a i b i c w q v wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z vi mwnZ h _ vc h y I
mwVK wQj b v| 17 6 0 mvj i vR v George III Bsj vi wmsnvmb
A vi vnY K wi q v Commissions and Salaries of Judges Act, 1760 (George III c. 23)
A vBb vi v Dc i v c _ v evwZ j K i Z t wePvi K MYi PvK zi xi g q v`
A vg Z z envj i vwL evi c ` c MnY K i b | d j i vR v ev i vYxi g Z z
wePvi K MYi PvK zi xi g q v` K A vi K vb f veB c f vweZ K wi Z b v|
GB f ve i vR v Henry II Gi mg q nBZ h wePvi ee v mymsnZ
K wi evi c q vm j I q v nBq vwQj Z vnv g g i vR vi c f ve ej q I
Z r c i i vR b wZ K c f ve ej q nBZ m ~Yg y nq | a yg v K vb
i Z i A wf h vMi K vi Y Parliament Gi Df q K i wm v
ewZ i K wePvi K ` i PvK zi xi A emvb m e wQj b v |
GB f ve Bsj vi mek ew eMi k Z k Z er mi i mva b v
I Pvi g va g Bsj vi wePvi wef vM ^va xb nq Ges Rule of Law ev
A vBb i k vmb c wZ w Z nBevi c _ myMg nq |
g a h yM nBZ B Bsj v A vBb Bnvi k Z c K vk K wi Z
_ vK | mB mg q ` yB a i b i A vBb , mwK Z vi A vBb (Divine Law) I
g vb yl i mw A vBb (Man made Law), GB ` yB a i b i A vBb B c Pwj Z
wQj | Z e k vmK I k vwmZ mK j B GK B A vBb vi v eva MZ wQj |
GB K vi Y 12 5 0 mvj wj wL Z De Legibus G Justice Henry de Bracton
ewj Z c vwi q v wQj b t
In justitia recipienda minimo de regno suo (rex) comparatur, ( The
law bound all the members of the State, whether rulers or subjects, and
Justice according to law was due to all ) ( Sir William Holdsworth: A
History of English law vol. X page 647)|
` k i A vBb i c wZ mK j i k v eva i K vi YB A vR nBZ
c vq Qq k Z er mi c ~eI 14 4 1 mvj i Year Book G wj wc e nBq vwQj t
The law is the highest inheritance which the King has; for by the
law he and all his subjects are ruled, and if there was no law there
would be no King and no inheritance.
102
(Sir William Holdsworth: A History of English law, Vol. X Page-648)
16 k k Z v xZ i vR v Henry VIII hw` I A Z ` ywe b xZ i vR v wQj b
wK K vb A vBb wewa e K wi evi c ~ewZ wb I Parliament G ^va xb f ve
A vj vPb v K wi Z myh vM w` Z b h vnvZ mswk A vBb i vi v c R v` i
K j vY mva b nq | Sir William Holdsworth Gi f vl vq t
In 1536 Henry VIII came in among the burgesses in the Parliament
and delivered them a bill which he desired them to weigh in conscience,
and not to pass it because he gave it in, but to see if it be for the common
weal of his subjects ; ( A History of English Law Vol. IV, page- 91)
i vR v wb R I A vBb g vb K wi q v Pwj Z b | 15 3 8 mvj Lord Lisle
GK c R b K Hussee K ej b t
It had never been seen that the King would stop the course of his
common law. (Sir William Holdsworth: A History of English Law, vol.
IV, page- 201, note-7)|
H h yM A vBb i A e vb m K Starkey Z vnvi M j L b t
that the laws must rule and govern the State, and not the prynce after
his own lyberty and Wyle.
(Sir William Holdsworth: A History of English Law, Vol. IV , Page-
201, note-7)|
i vR f Attorney General Sir Francis Bacon 16 0 9 mvj i vR v James I Gi
Divine Right Gi ` vexi mg q I Calvin Gi g vK v g vq e e Dc vc b
K wi Z wMq v ej b t
Law is the great organ by which the sovereign power doth
move;
wZ wb i vR vi g Z v m ^ ej b t
although the King , in his person, be solutus legibus, yet his
acts and grants are limited by law, and we argue them every
day
( Sir William Holdsworth : A History of English Law
Vol. IV, Page-201)|
103
GB f ve a xi a xi nBj I Bsj v wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v
Z _ v wePvi K MYi ^va xb Z v w wZ j vf K wi Z _ vK |
17 6 1 mvj i vR v George III wePvi K MYi ^va xb Z v m ^ ej b t
he looked upon the independence and uprightness of the Judges as essential
to the impartial administration of justice; as one of the best securities of the
rights and liberties of his subjects; and as most conducive to the honour of the
Crown ( House of Commons Journals, March,3, 1761, Sir William Holdsworth
: A History of English Law, Vol. X , 1938 , page 644).
h yM h yM Bsj vi ek xi f vM i vR v` i A vBb g b Z v I
mnvq Z vq Ges Parliament K Z K mg q vc h vMx A vBb c Yq Yi g va g
Bsj v wePvi K MY i vR vi c vPxb wePvwi K g Z vq g Z vevb nBq v
i vR vi c wePvi K vh c wi Pvj b vi g va g A vBb i k Z i vi
` vwq Z c v nb Ges i vR mev P g hv` vc ~YA e vb c wZ w Z nb |
i vR vi wePvwi K g Z vi GB a xi wK wb w Z c wi eZ b I i c v i
m ^ Sir William Blackstone ej b t
In this distinct and separate existence of the judicial power in a
peculiar body of men, nominated indeed, but not removable at pleasure,
by the crown, consists one main preservation of the public liberty: which
cannot subsist long in any state, unless the administration of common
justice be in some degree separated both from the legislative and also
from the executive power. Were it joined with the legislative, the life,
liberty, and property of the subject would be in the hands of arbitrary
judges, whose decisions would be then regulated only by their own
opinions, and not by any fundamental principles of law; which, though
legislators may depart from, yet judges are bound to observe. Were it
joined with the executive, this union might soon be an overbalance for
the legislative. For which reason by the statute 16 Car. I c. 10 , which
abolished the court of star chamber , effectual care is taken to remove all
judicial power out of the hands of the kings privy council; who, as then
as evident from recent instances, might soon be inclined to pronounces
that for law, which was most agreeable to the prince or his officers.
Nothing therefore is more to be avoided, in a free constitution, than
uniting the provinces of a judge and a minister of state.
(Sir William Holdsworth : A History of English Law, Vol. X, Page -417, 1938).
104
Blackstone g e K i b h i c v wi Z wePvi ee vq Z vwZ K f ve
i vR v h b is always present in all his Courts (page-415) Ges wePvi K MY
c K Z c i vR vi mK j wePvwi K g Z vi A uva vi wnmve A vZ c K vk
K i b t
At present, by the long and uniform usage of many ages, our kings
have delegated their whole judicial power to the judges of their several
courts; which are the grand depositaries of fundamental laws of the
kingdom, and have gained a known and stated jurisdiction, regulated by
certain and established rules, which the crown itself cannot now
alter. ( Sir William Holdsworth : A History of English Law, Vol.X,
c _ g g y` Yt 19 3 8 , 6 4 5 - 6 , d zU b vU 10 nBZ D Z ) |
wesk k Z v xi c _ g f vM Holdsworth Bsj vi wePvi ee v
m K ej b t
The courts are thus the main preservation of public liberty to a
much greater extent than they were in the balanced eighteenth-century
constitution. Any curtailment of their jurisdiction means the curtailment
of the one security which the subject has against the arbitrary use of the
great powers which all parties in the House of Commons vie with one
another in conferring upon their leaders, the ministers.
(Sir William Holdsworth : A History of English Law, Vol. X, page- 417.
1938)|
i vR v, House of Lords I House of Commons Gi Z i d _ K wewf b
mg q Bsj vi wePvi ee vi Dc i b vb va i Yi Pvc A vwmq vQ h vnv
Dc i eYb v K i v nBq vQ| Bnv ewZ i K wePvi wef vMK A b b vb v
vb nBZ I wewf b a i Yi Pvc i m yL xb nBZ nBq vQ| A b K
mg q D QL j R b Z v nBZ I c ej Pvc A vwmZ |
John Wilkes GK mg q House of Commons Gi m` m wQj b | wK
c i eZ xK vj wZ wb House of Commons nBZ weZ vwo Z nb | wZ wb wb R B
Z vnvi wb R i GK g v D` vni Y wQj b | g vb nvwb K i GK wU i Pb vi
K vi Y Z vnvi wei GK wU d R ` vi x g vK v g v nq | mB g vK v g v
nI q vq ` k evc K wek L j vi mw nq Ges wec i vq nBj
wek L j v A vi I evc K I Z xe i vq U A vK vi j BZ c vi ewj q v Rex V.
105
Wilkes (1770) g vK v g vq A vk v c K vk K wi q v Kings Bench Gi m yL
Z vnvi A vBb R xex wb e` b i vL b | c a vb wePvi c wZ Lord Mansfield Z uvnvi
i vq h vnv ej b Z vnv meK vj i mK j ` k i wePvi K MYi R b
wk Yxq t
The constitution does not allow reasons of State to influence our
judgments: God forbid it should! We must not regard political
consequences; how formidable soever they might be: if rebellion was the
certain consequence, we are bound to say fiat justitia, ruat caelum. The
constitution trusts the King with reasons of State and policy: he may stop
prosecutions; he may pardon offences; it is his, to judge whether the law
or the criminal should yield. We have no election. None of us
encouraged or approved the commission of either of the crimes of which
the defendant is convicted: none of us had any hand in his being
prosecuted. As to myself, I took no part, ( in another place) in the
addresses for that prosecution . We did not advise or assist the defendant
to fly from justice: it was his own act; and he must take the
consequences. None of us have been consulted or had any thing to do
with the present prosecution. It is not in our power to stop it: it was not
in our power bring it on. We cannot pardon. We are to say, what we take
the law to be: if we do not speak our real opinions, we prevaricate with
God and our own consciences.
I pass over many anonymous letters I have received. Those in print are
public: and some of them have been brought judicially before the court.
Whoever the writers are, they take the wrong way. I will do my duty,
unawed. What am I to fear? That mendax infamia from the press, which
daily coins false facts and false motives? The lies of calumny carry no
terror to me. I trust, that my temper of mind, and the colour and conduct
of my life, have given me a suit of armour against these arrows. If,
during this Kings reign, I have ever supported his government and
assisted his measures; I have done it without any other reward, than the
consciousness of doing what I thought right. If I have ever opposed, I
have done it upon the points themselves; without mixing in party or
faction, and without my collateral views. I honour the King; and respect
the people: but, many things acquired by the favour of either, are, in my
account, objects not worth ambition, I wish popularity: but, it is that
popularity which follows; not that which is run after. It is that popularity
which, sooner or later, never fails to do justice to the pursuit of noble
ends, by noble means. I will not do that which my conscience tells me is
106
wrong, upon this occasion, to gain the huzzas of thousands, or the daily
praise of all the papers which come from the press : I will not avoid
doing what I think is right; though it should draw on me the whole
artillery of libels; all that falsehood and malice can invent, or the
credulity of a deluded populace can swallow. I can say, with a great
magistrate, upon an occasion and under circumstances not unlike, Ego
hoc animo semper fui, ut invidiam virtute partam, gloriam, non invidiam,
putarem.
The threats go further than abuse: personal violence is denounced . I do
not believe it: is not the genius of the worst men of this country, in the
worst of times. But I have set my mind at rest. The last end that can
happen to any man, never comes too soon, if he falls in support of the
law and liberty of his country: (for liberty is synonymous to law and
Government). Such a shock, too, might be productive of public good: it
might awake the better part of the kingdom out of that lethargy which
seems to have benumbed them; and bring the mad part back to their
senses, as men intoxicated are sometimes stunned into sobriety.
Once for all, let it be understood, that no endeavors of this kind will
influence any man who at present sits here. If they had any effect, it
would be contrary to their intent: leaning against their impression, might
give a bias the other way. But I hope, and I know, that I have fortitude
enough to resist even that weakness. No libels, no threats, nothing that
has happened, nothing that can happen, will weigh a feather against
allowing the defendant, upon this and every other question, not only the
whole advantage he is intitled to from substantial law and justice; but
every benefit from the most critical nicety of form, which any other
defendant could claim under the like objection.
(Brian Harris: The Literature of the Law, 2003, page-6-7)
b vb x A Wilkes K 2 2 g vmi K vi v` I 1, 0 0 0 / = c vD
R wi g vb v K i v nq | c i eZ xZ Lord Mansfield Gi evmf eb I ew MZ
j vBei x c vo vBq v ` I q v nq wK wZ wb wPi K vj A vBb I b vq wePvi
mg yb Z i vwL q v wMq vQb |
A b K mg q Print I Electronic media wek l K vb wePvh wel q i
c I wec b vb vb a i b i c Pvi c Pvi Yv Pvj vBq v _ vK |
wePvi K MY wePvi K nBj I Z vnvi vI g vb e m vb | ei x c Pvi
107
c Pvi Yvi K vi Y Z uvnvi vI c P g vb wmK Pvc i wk K vi nBZ c vi b |
d j h b vq wePvi evnZ nBZ c vi Z vnv c vq k t B media wemZ nq |
h y i vi Boston k ni Louise Woodward b vg xq GK R b Bsi R au
pair K A vUg vmi GK Qj K nZ v K wi evi A wf h vM R ywi Z vnvK
h ve xeb K vi v` c ` vb K i | GB k vw i wei Louise Gi c
c ej R b g Z Mwo q v I V Ges Z vnvi v R yi xi wm v evwZ j K wi evi
c A v` vj b K wi Z _ vK | A c i c A vi GK ` j R yi xi wm v
K ^vMZ R vb vBZ _ vK | Electronic I print media Gi K j vY h y i v
I hy i vR GB i vq j Bq v mBmg q 19 9 8 mvj Z zg yj nP mw nq |
Massachusetts Superior Court Gi GK R b Associate Justice, Judge Hiller B.
Zobel Z uvnvi i vq GB f ve A vi K i b t
The law, John Adams told a Massachusetts jury while defending British
citizens on trial for murder, is inflexible and deaf: inexorable to the cries of the
defendant; deaf as an adder to the clamours of the populace. His words ring
true, 227 years later.
Elected officials may consider popular urging and sway to public opinion polls.
Judges must follow their oaths and do their duty, heedless of editorials, letters,
telegrams, picketers, threats, petitions, panelists and talk shows. In this country,
we do not administer justice by plebiscite.
A judge, in short, is a public servant who must follow his conscience, whether or
not he counters the manifest wishes of those he serves; whether or not his
decision seems a surrender to the prevalent demands.
(Brian Harris : The Literature of the Law, Page 20-21, 2003) ( A a vi L v
c ` )
2 2 7 er mi c ~eA vBb i h b xwZ John Adams Z uvnvi e e
ewj q vwQj b Z vnv h g b A vR I a e mZ Z g wb mZ Judge Zobel Gi
e e|
c vPxb K vj wek i vR v, ev` k vn ev mg vU A Z Z vwZ K f ve
b vq wePvi i c Z xK wQj b | c vPxb H wZ n A b ymvi Z vnvi v Z vnv` i
i vR vwf l K A b y vb B (coronation) c R vMYi c wZ b vq wePvi i A xK vi
K wi Z b | vb xq wePvi K MYi i vq i wei mek l b vq wePvi i
108
c v_ b v c R vMY ` k i i vR vi wb K UB K wi Z | GB K vi Y Bsj v
i vR vK Fountain of Justice ej v nBZ | g vNj mg vU R vnvxi 16 0 5
mvj Z vnvi c vmv` GK wU ^Yi k L j Gi mwnZ l vU&wU NUv S zj vBq v
w` q vwQj b h vnvZ Z vnvi h K vb A Z vPvwi Z c R v Z vnvi wb K U
mi vmwi b vq wePvi c v_ b v K wi Z c vi |
mf Z vi m~` xNBwZ nvm c wi g K wi j c Z xq g vb nBe h h L b B
wePvi wef vMi c ` j b NwUq vQ Z L b B ` k A i vR K Z v Gg b wK
wec ei mw nBq vQ|
16 6 0 mvj Bsj v i vR Z c yb envj (Restoration) nBj Charles II
Bsj vi wmsnvmb A vi vnY K i b | wZ wb Z vnvi i vR Z i c _ g w` K
h vM ew ` i during good behaviour k Z wePvi K c ` wb q vM c ` vb
K i b Ges wePvi wef vM Bnvi nZ m vb wd wi q v c vBZ A vi K i |
wK Z vnvi i vR Z i k l f vM Sir William Scrogg ( 16 7 8 ) K Court of
Common Pleas Gi c a vb wePvi c wZ Ges Lord George Jeffrey ( 16 8 3 ) K
Kings Bench Gi c a vb wePvi c wZ wnmve wb q vM c ` vb K i v nq | GB
` yB c a vb wePvi c wZ i g q v` K vj wePvi wef vMi Pi g A e q mvwa Z
nq |
Lord Jeffrey Gi c i vg k i vR v 16 8 4 mvj Robert Wright Gi b vq
GK R b A c ` v_ A vBb R xweK Kings Bench G wePvi K wnmve wb q vM
c ` vb K i b | Z vnvi m ^ Z ` vb x b Lord Chancellor Guildford g e
K wi q vwQj b t
the most unfit person in England to be made a judge a dunce , and no
lawyer , who is not worth a groat ..
( David Pannick: Judges, 1988 , page -65)
16 8 5 mvj James II Bsj vi wmsnvmb A vi vnY K i b | GB
mg q Duke of Monmouth i vR vi wei we` vn K wi j K Vvi n Z vnv
` g b K i v nq | Lord Jeffrey K zL vZ Bloody Assizes G we` vnx` i K wb g g
f ve k vw c ` vb K wi q v i vR vi wc q c v nb | 16 8 5 mvj i vR v
109
Z vnvK Lord Chancellor c ` wb q vM c ` vb K i b | H mg q i vR vi g b g Z
g Z vg Z b v nBj wePvi K MYK mi vmwi ei L v K i v nBZ | h vMZ v
ewnf ~Z f ve i vR v Z vnvi c Q` g Z eweMK m ~Yi vR b wZ K
weePb vq wePvi K c ` wb q vM c ` vb K wi Z b | Lord Chancellor wnmve
wePvi K ` i c wZ Lord Jeffrey Gi Dc ` k wQj b Mf ve ` j xq t
Be sure, he said, to execute the law to the utmost of its vengeance
upon those that are now knowne, and we have reason to remember them, by the
name of Whigs; and you are likewise to remember the sniveling trimmer; for
you know that our Saviour Jesus Christ says in the Gospell, that they that are
not for us are against us. (Sir William Holdsworth: A History of English Law
Vol.VI Second Edition, 1937 Page-509)
hw` I Robert Wright wePvwi K A b wZ K Z vi c Z xK wQj b wK i vR v
16 8 7 mvj Z vnvK Kings Bench Gi c a vb wePvi c wZ c ` wb q vM
c ` vb K i b | GB mg q wePvi ee vi mvg wMK Pi g A e q Ges
wek l K wi q v Robert Wright Gi A weePK i vq i K vi Y Bsj v 16 8 8
mvj i wec e Z i vwb Z nq ewj q v A b K H wZ nvwmK g b K i b |
hy i vi ^va xb Z v Nvl Yvq hw` I all men are created equal Nvl Yv
K i v nBq vwQj wK Dred Scott V. Sanford ( 1857) g vK v g vq c a vb
wePvi c wZ Roger Brooke Taney i b Z Z 7 - 2 msL vMwi wePvi c wZ MYi
g Z vb ymvi US Supreme Court Nvl Yv K i h wb Mvi v ` k i b vMwi K
b b wea vq Z vnvi v K vb g vK v g v K wi Z c vi b b v Ges xZ ` vm c _ v
evwZ j K wi evi K vb g Z v Congress Gi I b vB | Supreme Court Gi GB
i vq Di i A i v wj Z b wZ evPK ` w f wZ ` L v nBj I
` w Yi i v wj Z i vq wU Z vnv` i weR q wnmve A wf b w` Z nq |
f wel Z President c v_ xAbraham Lincoln GK eZ vq c m g i vq wU
m ^ ej b t But we think the Dred Scott decision is erroneous| c i eZ x
wb evPb x c Pvi Yvq ` vmc _ vi b wZ K Z v I ea Z v c m evi evi DwVq v
A vm Ges Abraham Lincoln President wb evwPZ nb | A b K k l vZ K f ve
ej b h , It may fairly be said that Chief Justice Taney elected Abraham Lincoln to
the Presidency ( Charles Warren: The Supreme Court in United States History)|
110
c K Z c Abraham Lincoln President wnmve 18 6 1 mvj ` vwq Z MnY
K wi evi K q K g vmi g a B ` w Yv j i Confederate MY we` vn
Nvl Yv K i Ges GK i q x Mnh y Union K c vq a smi g yL
j Bq v h vq | A ek h y i GB Wvg vWvj i g a B Lincoln 18 6 3 mvj i
1j v R vb yq vi x Z vwi L hy i vi K vj v g vb yl ` i R b Emancipation
Proclamation G ^v i K i b |
Emeritus Professor Henry J. Abraham Z vnvi The Judicial Process, Seventh
Edition, 1998 ,M Dred Scott i vq m ^ ej b t
Chief Justice Taney delivered the 7:2 opinion of the Court , which , as
history would prove all too soon, did anything but settle the problem .
Indeed, it acted as a catalyst in bringing on the Civil War ( Page-239).
A b wZ wb e j b t
.. Taney, then in his eightieth year , lonely and frustrated, met
his and the Courts judicial Waterloo in 1857 with his monumentally
aberrant opinion in Dred Scott V. Sand ford,. Dred Scott..
dragged the Supreme Court of the United States into its lowest depths,
and hastened the dawn of the Civil War and with it the Emancipation
Proclamation and the Civil War Amendments ( XIII,XIV, and XV).
( Page- 377) .
wesk k Z v xi w k ` k K R vg vb xi wePvi ee v A Z k vPb xq
c hvq A vwmq v ` uvo vBq vwQj | wK H i c ` yi e v nBevi K _ v wQj b v |
K vi Y eni R vg vb xi myc vPxb wePvi ee v i vg K wePvi ee vi Dc i
wf w K wi q v Mwo q v DwVq vwQj Ges Z vnv Bsj vi Common Law Gi
b vq A Z Db Z I mg wQj | b vr mx k vmb A vg j A vBb i A a vc K
I wePvi K MY mg evq c ~ei b vq b xwZ i Dc i c wZ w Z A vBb ee v
m ~Ywe mZ nBq v A yZ GK b vr mx Jurisprudence ms wZ Mwo q v Z zwj q v
wQj b h vnvi GK g v D k wQj me b vr mx b xwZ ev evq b | h
mK j A a vc K I wePvi K MYi g a GB A c ms wZ MnY mvg vb Z g
K zv c wi j w Z nBZ Z vnv` i a yg v mi vmwi ei L v K i v b q
c vq k t B Z vnv` i k vw f vM K wi Z nBZ |
111
Professor Ingo Mller wj wL Z Hitlars Justice : The Courts of the Third Reich,
1987 I Deborah Lucas Schneider K Z K A b yw` Z M GB A e v m ^
A vj vK c vZ K i v nq t
The law for Restoration of the Professional Civil Service had already
done away with judges security of tenure, since it allowed the
government to dismiss from office all judges who were politically
undesirably, or not Aryan or who would not undertake to support the
national state at all times and without reservation. (c v- 7 2 )
Edward Kern (1933-34) I A b vb ` i D Z K wi q v wZ wb j L b t
German law professors now informed them that in the interest of
consistent government, certain limits must be imposed on the autonomy
of the courts. ( c v7 2 ) .
wePvi K ` i K i Yxq m ^ Professor Georg Dahm ( 1934) ej b t
A Judge should therefore approach a case with healthy prejudice
and make value judgments which correspond to the National Socialist
legal order and the will of the political leadership. ( c v- 7 3 )
wePvi K ` i mvea vb K wi q v A vBb A b yl ` i Dean Professor Erik Wall
ej b t
In the everyday practice of law, genuine National Socialism is
certainly best represented where the idea of the Fiihrer is silently but
loyally followed.
Fhrer Gi mi K vi i b xwZ i c wZ wePvi K ` i c K Z eva eva K Z v
mi Y K i vBq v w` q v Rohling (1935) ej b t
Judges were liberated from their obligation to the law only to be
constrained by an incomparably more restrictive obligation to the main
principles of the Fhrers government.
mg M wek h L b A vBb wesk k Z vw Z A v` k I b wZ K Z vi
wb wi L A Mmi g vb Z L b GK w` K wb evwPZ mi K vi i d i g vq k g Z
R vg vb xi msm` A vBb c Yq b K wi q vQ , A b w` K R vg vb xi ey w R xex
m ` vq i GBi c b wZ K A e q mf Z vi BwZ nvm GK wU K j g q
A a vq | Z vnvi vB b vr mx mi K vi i mK j c K vi A Z vPvi , A wePvi ,
^ QvPvi I g vb eZ v wei va x K g K vi Z _ vK w_ Z Z vwZ K wf w c ` vb
112
K i Z t Dc i v A b wZ K K vh K j vc i A vBb x I R i c ` vb i c q vm
c vb | d j k wZ Z wZ xq g nvh y i m~ c vZ , K vwU K vwU g vb yl i
c vYb vk Ges A ek l g nvb R vg vb R vwZ i k L j ve A e v|
BwZ nvm A vg v` i GB wk v ` q h K vb i v h L b B Supreme
Court Z _ v wePvi wef vM i vi wb evnx wef vM I A vBb mf vK mswea vb
I A vBb i A vI Z vq i vwL Z e_ nq Ges wb evnx wef vMi A v ven
nBq v ` vuo vq Z L b B i v I b vMwi K ` i R xeb Pi g wec w ` L v
` q |
R vg vb ` k Qvo vI A vi I A b K ` k i wnq vQ h L vb myc xg
K vUi mg q c vh vMx c ` c MnYi e_ Z vi g v j mg M R vwZ K
g g vw K f ve c ` vb K wi Z nBq vQ|
19 5 4 mvj c vwK vb d Wvi j K vUi c a vb wePvi c wZ i wk `
A emi Mg b K wi j Z L b meR wQj b wePvi c wZ A vey mvj n
g vnv ` A vK i vg | wK wZ wb evOvj x wQj b | A Z c i t d Wvi j
K vUi mK j wePvi c wZ K A wZ v K wi q v j vnvi nvBK vUGi c a vb
wePvi c wZ Muhammad Munir K d Wvi j K vUi c a vb wePvi c wZ c `
mi vmwi wb q vM c ` vb K i v nq |
H mg q c vwK vb i Mf b i R b vi j Mvj vg g vnv `
MYc wi l ` i msL vMwi m` mMYi A v vf vR b L vR v b vwR g Dw b K
c a vb g x c ` nBZ ei L v K i b Ges 19 5 4 mvj L mo v mswe a vb
MYc wi l ` ` vwL j K wi evi c v vj MYc wi l ` f vwq v ` b |
Z r c i , MYc wi l ` i w K vi g j f x Z wg R Dw b L vb wmzwPd &
K vU( nvBK vU) D A v` k i ea Z v Pvj K wi q v g vK v g v
` vq i K wi j wPd &K vUMYc wi l ` f vwq v w` evi A v` k A ea Nvl Yv
K i | c a vb wePvi c wZ Munir Gi b Z Z d Wvi j K vUA vc xj MnY
K i Ges MYc wi l ` f vwq v w` evi A v` k i ea Z v c ` vb K i b | a y
Z vnvB b n, Bnvi c i Z ` vb x b c vwK vb mi K vi i i vc a vb c `
h vnvi vB A vwmq vQb Z vnv` i c Z K i mec K vi A ea I A b wZ K
113
K vh vej x I c ` c i ea Z v wZ wb c ` vb K i b | wePvi c wZ Munir Gi
GB a i b i wePvwi K K vh K j vc GK g v wesk k Z vw i 3 0 ` k K i
R vg vb wePvi K ` i K vh K j vc i mwnZ Z zj b xq |
Dj L h i vR v James II 16 8 8 mvj PZ yw` K A m vl i K vi Y
Bsj v g vk vj j R vi xi g va g ` k k vmb K wi evi c wi K b v
K wi q vwQj b wK H mg q wePvi wef vMi Pi g A e q i c i I G
evc vi Z vnvK mg _ b K wi evi g Z GK R b wePvi K I mg M Bsj v
c vI q v h vq b vB|
A _ P mvo wZ b k Z er mi c i State V. Dosso 1958 PLD SC 533
g vK v g vq c a vb wePvi c wZ g ywb i Gi b Z Z Pakistan Supreme Court
mvg wi K k vmb K ea Z v c ` vb K i | wK Munir C.J. f ywj q v wMq vwQj b
h Government of India Act, 1935 ev Indian Independence Act, 1947 , ^va xb Z v
c v Dorminion wj K mvg wi K A vBb vi v k vmb K wi evi K vb wea vb
K i b vB|
14 e r mi c i Asma Jilani V. Government of Punjab, PLD 1972 SC 139
g vK v g vq Dosso Gi i vq over-rule ( evwZ j ) nq | Yaqub Ali, J. e vsj v` k
^va xb nBevi wc Qb i K vi Yvej x eYb v K wi Z h vBq v ej b t
A National Assembly was yet to be elected under the 1956-
Constitution when Mr. Iskander Mirza who had become the first
President by a Proclamation issued on the 7
th
October 1958, abrogated
the Constitution; dissolved the National and Provincial Assemblies and
imposed Martial Law throughout the country: General Muhammed Ayub
Khan Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army, was appointed as the
Chief Administrator of Martial Law......
The judgment in State V. Dosso set the seal of legitimacy on the
Government of Iskander Mirza though he himself was deposed from
office by Muhammad Ayub Khan, a day after the judgment was
delivered on the 23
rd
October 1958, and he assumed to himself the office
of the President. The judgments in the cases Maulvi Tamizuddin Khan;
Governor-General Reference 1of 1955 and The State V. Dosso had
profound effect on the constitutional development in Pakistan. As a
commentator has remarked, a perfectly good country was made into a
laughing stock(page-219)
114

GB f ve c vwK vb myc xg K vUi Pi g e_ Z vi K vi Y evOvj xi
m c vwK vb K c wi Z vM K wi Z nq Ges 19 7 1 mb i 2 5 k g vPi
w` evMZ i v k L g ywR eyi i ng vb evsj v` k i ^va xb Z v Nvl Yv
K i b |
c vwK vb A vg j i wZ A wf Z vi A vj vK A vg v` i mswea vb
c YZ vMY mvswea vwb K k Z mn i vi c R vZ vw K I MYZ vw K Pwi
Ges A b vb g ~j b xwZ hZ i mwnZ mwb ewk Z K i b | wK Z vnvi
c i I k l i v m e nq b vB| mvg wi K evwnb xi wK Qy msL K
wec _ Mvg x mwb K 19 7 5 mvj i 15 B A Mv Z vwi L R vwZ i R b K k L
g ywR eyi i ng vb K ^c wi evi nZ v K i | L ` K vi g yk Z vK A vng `
mswea vb f K i Z t i vc wZ i c ` A ea f ve ` L j K i b | 2 0 k
A Mv Z vwi L wZ wb mvg wi K A vBb R vi x K i b | 8 2 w` b wZ wb g Z vq
_ vK b | b f ^i g vmi c _ g m vn coup I counter coup nq | 8 B
b f ^i Gi Proclamation ` c Z xq g vb nq h evsj v` k i c a vb
wePvi c wZ Justice Abu Sadat Moahammad Sayem evsj v` k i i vc wZ I
c a vb mvg wi K c k vmK c ` A wa w Z nBq vQb | GBi c wb q vMI
mswea vb f K wi q vB K i v nBq vwQj |
mvo wZ b k Z er mi A vM i vR v James I Gi Proclamation vi v A vBb
c Yq b i ` vexi g yL c a vb wePvi c wZ Sir Edward Coke ewj Z
c vwi q vwQj b t
the king cannot change any part of the common law nor create any
offence by his proclamation which was not an offence before , without
Parliament; ( the case of Proclamations ,1611)
(Sir William Holdsworth: A History of English law vol.1V, Page 296)|
A _ P wesk k Z v xi k l f vM A vwmq v evsj v` k i GK R b c a vb
wePvi c wZ mswea vb I A vBb i i Y, mg _ b I wb i vc vwea vb
K wi evi c wi eZ mswea vb f K wi q v a yg v i vc wZ i c ` b n c a vb
mvg wi K c k vmK i c ` I MnY K i b | Z r c i wZ wb i vi msm`
115
evwZ j K i b | c i eZ x c vq mvo wZ b er mi evsj v` k msm` we nxb
A e vq wQj | GL vb B k l b q , ^i Z vw K mvg wi K c k vmK MY
Z vnv` i c Q` I c q vR b g Z A vg v` i g nvb mswea vb wb weev`
h _ Qv K uvUv Quo v K i b |
GB c m 19 4 4 mvj GK mf vq c ` US Circuit Court of Appeals
Gi c a vb wePvi c wZ Justice Billing Learned Hand Gi g e c Yxa vb h vMt
I often wonder whether we do not rest our hopes too much upon
constitutions, upon laws and upon courts. These are false hopes; believe
me, these are false hopes. Liberty lies in the hearts of men and women.
When it dies there, no constitution, no law, no court can save it. No
constitutions, no law, no court, can even do much to help it. While it lies
there, it needs no constitution, no law, no court to save it.
(Brian Harris: The Literature of the Law, 1998, page -330-40) ( A a vi L v
c ` )
wesk k Z vw i w k ` k K i R vg vb xi wePvi ee vq mi c
A e q nBq vwQj , c vwK vb myc xg K vUi hi c A e q nBq vwQj ,
wesk k Z vw i mi ` k K i k l f vM I A vwk ` k K i c _ g f vM
A Z t mvswea vwb K c k evsj v` k i mev P A v` vj Z I Z g wb
A e q c wi j w Z nq |
Dc i i GB A vj vPb vi K vi Y nBj h Bsj v 16 k , 17 k I
18 k k Z v xZ wePvi wef vM i vR vi wei , House of Lords Gi
wei , House of Commons Gi wei g vMZ msMvg K wi q v
A vBb i h k Z c wZ w Z K wi Z m g nBq vwQj wek A vi
K vb ` k Z vnv A R b K wi Z c vi b vB, Gg b wK h yi vI
b n|
17 0 1 mvj Smith V. Browne g vK v g vq Lord Holt ej b t
as soon as a Negro comes to England he is free; one may be a villein in
England but not a slave .
wK GB K _ v ewj Z US Supreme Court Gi A vo vBk er mi
j vwMq vwQj | Bnvi g a xZ ` vm c _ v c k Pvi er mi evc x Mnh y
116
BDwb q b c vq a sm c v nBZ ewmq vwQj | mswea vb i 13 Z g I
14 Z g msk va b x K wi evi c i I xZ ` vm c _ vi A c Qvq v h yi v
we` g vb _ vK | 19 5 4 mvj Brown V. Board of Education g vK v g vq US
Supreme Court c _ g evi i g Z mv` v g vb yl I K vj v g vb yl i g a
Segregation wb wl Nvl Yv K i |
K L b K L b I wePvi K ` i mZ i c GK K f ve ` uvo vBZ
nq | 17 k k Z v xZ Sir Edward Coke, 18 k k Z v xZ Lord John Holt I
Lord Mansfield Gi b vg mi Yxq | wesk k Z v xi g a f vM Lord James
Richard Atkin I Z r c i Lord Alfred Thompson Denning Gi b vg wek l f ve
Dj L h vM|
Liversidge V. Sir John Anderson, 1942 AC 206, g vK v g vq wZ xq
g nvh y i c vi Bsj vi Defence ( General) Regulation , 1939 Gi 18B
i j k vb i A vI Z vq Liversidge K wb eZ b g ~j K A vUK v` k c ` vb
K i v nq , K vi Y ^i vg x g b K wi q vwQj b h Liversidge k Z vf vevc b
GK R b ew nBZ c vi b | Liversidge Gi A vUK v` k i ea Z v
A v` vj Z Pvj K i v nBj | wel q wU k l c h House of Lords G
wm v i R b j I q v nq | 3 / 11/ 19 4 1 Z vwi L g vK v g vwUi i vq nq |
H mg q wewf b i Yvb wg k w c h y` | Gg b wK j b k ni evg vi
A vNvZ Z we Z | wewUk c i vk w Pi g ` yh vMi m yL xb | Gg Z
A e vZ I House of Lords Gi msL vMwi wePvi K MYi mwnZ wg Z
c vl Y K wi q v Lord Atkin ej b ( c v- 2 4 4 ) t
I view with apprehension the attitude of judges who on a mere question
of construction when face to face with claims involving the liberty of the
subject show themselves more executive minded than the executive.
Z r c i wZ wb ej b t
In this country, amid the clash of arms, the laws are not silent. They
may be changed, but they speak the same language in war as in peace. It
has always been one of the pillars of freedom, one of the principles of
liberty for which on recent authority we are now fighting, that the judges
are no respecters of persons and stand between the subject and any
117
attempted encroachments of his liberty by the executive, alert to see that
any coercive action is justified in law. In this case I have listened to
arguments which might have been addressed acceptably to the Court of
Kings Bench in the time of Charles I. ( A a vi L v c ` )
Dc msnvi wZ wb ej b t
I protest, even if I do it alone, against a strained construction put on
words with the effect of giving an uncontrolled power of imprisonment
to the minister. ( A a vi L v c ` )
A Z t c i , wZ wb Z uvnvi i vq Lewis Carroll wj wL Z Alice Through the
Looking Glass nBZ D Z K wi q v K Z zK K i b ( c v- 2 4 5 ) t
When I use a word,
Humpty Dumpty said in rather a scornful tone, it means just what I
choose it to mean, neither more nor less. The question is said Alice,
whether you can make words mean so many different things. The
question is said Humpty Dumpty, which is to be master - thats all.
Lord Chancellor Lord Simon i vq nBZ Lewis Carroll nBZ D Z
A sk UzK zeR b K wi evi R b Lord Atkin K A b yi va K wi j wZ wb Di
` b t
The present cases as I see them do not merely involve questions of the
liberty of the particular persons concerned but involve the duty of the
courts to stand impartially between the subject and the executive.........
But I did mean to hit the proposed construction as hard as I could and to
ridicule the method by which it is reached. I consider that I have
destroyed it on every legal ground : and it seems to me fair to conclude
with a dose of ridicule. I cannot think therefore that there are sufficient
grounds for altering this prepared opinion.(Geoffrey Lewis : Lord
Atkin, page-139)
Z e GB i vq c K vwk Z nBevi c i Lord Atkin Z uvnvi mnK g x Law
Lords` i g a GK i K g GK Ni nBq v h vb | Z vnvi K b v Mrs. Robson
R vb vb h i vq Nvl Yvi c i Lord Atkin Z vnvi K b vK j Bq v House of
Lords Gi Dining Room G Lunch Gi R b h vb wK Z uvnv` i Uwej A vi
K nB emb b vB | Lord Macmillan I Lord Romer Z uvnvK b v ` wL evi f vb
K i b | Lord Wright Z uvnvi wc Z vi ez wQj b Ges c vq B Z uvnv` i
118
evmf eb Mg b K wi Z b | wK mBw` b wZ wb Z uvnv` i wb K U w` q v Mg b
K wi j I K vb K _ vB ej b b vB ei Lord Atkin K Dc v K i b |
GB wel q Lord Maugham Gi GK c i Di Lord Atkin
Bsj vi wePvi wef vMi g nvb H wZ n mg yb Z i vwL q v Di ` b t
........I had not and have not any intention publicly to discuss any
judgment once it has been delivered.(Geoffrey Lewis : Lord Atkin,
page-145)
Z e A b K g b K i b h 19 4 4 mvj g Z zi c ~ec h Lord
Atkin Z vnvi c wZ GB A c g vb R b K eenvi i K _ v f zwj Z c vi b b vB|
( Professor Robert Stevens : Law and Politics . The House of Lords as a Judicial Body,
1978, page-287)
wb f xK f ve mZ K _ b i R b Lord Atkin Gi b vq GZ eo
g vc i GK R b vb x I Yx ew K I GBi c A c g vb mn K wi Z
nBq vwQj | A _ P 4 0 er mi c i IRC V. Rossministy Ltd. 1980 AC 952
g vK g vq House of Lords GBevi Liversidge V. Anderson g vK v g vq Lord
Atkin Gi wf b g Z B mwVK wQj ewj q v g e K i |
GK R b wePvi K K GBf veB wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v mg yb Z
i vwL Z mvg vwR K f veI nq i vb x I A c g vb mn K wi Z nq |
Z e GK R b wePvi K i R b wc q Z vi c wZ A vK vL v _ vwK j
Pwj e b v| ew MZ j vf - j vK mvb , f q - f xwZ i Da DwVq v a yg v
b vq wePvi i w` K w i _ vwK Z nBe| Z vnvK A vBb k v eyr c w
ewZ i K mr I Pvwi w K ` pZ vi A wa K vi x nBZ nBe, mec K vi
c wZ K ~j Z vi g yL I wb wf K f ve b vq wePvi i c Z xK nBZ nBe|
Alexis de Tocqueville Z vnvi Democracy in America ( 18 3 5 ) M ej b t
The Federal judges must not only be good citizens, and men possessed
of that information and integrity which are indispensable to magistrates,
but they must be statesmen-politicians, not unread in the signs of the
times, not afraid to brave the obstacles which can be subdued, not slow
to turn aside such encroaching elements as may threaten the supremacy
of the Union and the obedience which is due to the laws
119
wZ wb A vi I ej b t
........of the Supreme Court is ever composed of imprudent men or bad
citizens, the Union may be plunged into anarchy or civil war.
(K.C. Wheare : Modern Constitutions nBZ D Z )
18 2 9 mvj Virginia State Gi mswea vb ms vi K wi evi Convention
G Marshall, C.J. K A sk MnY K wi Z nBq vwQj | mB Convention G
wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v c m wZ wb GK R b vb Z vc mi b vq ej b t
The argument of the gentleman, he said, goes to prove not only that
there is no such thing as judicial independence , but that there ought to
be no such thing:- that it is unwise and improvident to make the tenure of
the judges office to continue during good behaviour. I have grown old
in the opinion that there is nothing more dear to Virginia, or ought to be
more dear to her statesmen, and that the best interests of our country are
secured by it. Advert, sir, to the duties of a judge. He has to pass between
the government, and the man whom that government is prosecuting,-
between the most powerful individual in the community, and the poorest
and most unpopular. It is of the last importance, that in the performance
of these duties, he should observe the utmost fairness. Need I press the
necessity of this? Does not every man feel that his own personal security,
and the security of his property, depends upon that fairness. The judicial
department comes home in its effects to every mans fire side;- it passes
on his property , his reputation, his life, his all. Is it not to the last degree
important, that he should be rendered perfectly and completely
independent, with nothing to control him but God and his conscience.
I acknowledge that in my judgment , the whole good which may grow
out of this convention, be it what it may will never compensate for the
evil of changing the judicial tenure of office. I have always thought
from my earliest youth till now, that the greatest scourge an angry
heaven ever inflicted upon ungrateful and a sinning people, was an
ignorant, a corrupt, or a dependent judiciary.
(Horace Binney: An Eulogy on the Life and Character of John Marshall, 1853)|
( A a vi L v c ` )
wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v m ^ John Marshall Gi GB A wf ew
A vR I mZ |
120
wK c _ g B weePb v K i v c q vR b h wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v
ewj Z c K Z c wK evS vq |
wePvi vj q ev A v` vj Z i c i wnZ K i b wePvi K | K vR B
Z vnvi g vb wmK ^va xb Z vB wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v mg yb Z K i |
b vq wePvi K wi Z wePvi K K GK w` K eR mg K Vvi A b w` K K zmyg i
g Z K vg j nBZ nq | Z vnvi g vb wmK k w wePvi wef vMi k w |
wewUk f vi Z el h L b mevB c i va xb wQj Z L b I wK wePvi wef vM
^va xb wQj K vi Y wePvi K MY g vb wmK f ve ^va xb wQj b | wePvi K MY
b vb vw` K nBZ g vb wmK ev mi vmwi Pvc i ^xK vi nBZ c vi b |
h vnvi v g vb wmK k w ev ^va xb Z vi A wa K vi x, Z vnvi v GB mK j Pvc
A enj v K wi Z c vi b | Thomas More, Sir Edward Coke, Lord John Holt c P
A Z vPvi , f q f xwZ I g vb wmK Pvc i g a I A vBb K mg yb Z
i vwL q vQb | Lord Chancellor Thomas More K 16 er mi Tower G A i xY
i vwL evi c i wk i Q` K i v nBq vwQj wK i vR v Henry VIII Z uvnvK
b xwZ K wi Z c vi b b vB| Sir Edward Coke K mZ K _ b i R b Kings
Bench Gi c a vb wePvi c wZ c ` nBZ c _ g ei L v , Z r c i Tower G
mvZ g vm A i xY _ vwK Z nq | c a vb wePvi c wZ Lord John Holt K House
of Commons I House of Lords nBZ c P ei x eenvi mn K wi Z nq |
D QL j R b Z v c a vb wePvi c wZ Lord Mansfield Gi evmf eb I Z uvnvi
ew MZ j vBei x c vo vBq v ` q | c a vb wePvi c wZ John Marshall I
wePvi c wZ Samuel Chase A wf msk b (Impeachment) Gi m eb v mZ I
judicial review I mswea vb i k Z A K zZ f q Nvl Yv K wi q v wMq vQb |
GB mK j wePvi K MY Z uvnv` i g vb wmK k w I ^va xb Z v vi vB
mZ K , A vBb K myc wZ w Z K wi Z c vwi q vwQj b | wesk k Z vw Z
Lord Atkin GK Ni nBq vI g vb wmK k w Z D xweZ nBq v e wj Z
c vwi q vwQj b I protest even if I do it alone|
wewUk f vi Z el h L b mevB c i va xb wQj Z L b I wePvi wef vM
^va xb wQj K vi Y wePvi K MY g vb wmK f ve ^va xb wQj b | c K Z c
121
wePvi K MYi g vb wmK k w B Z uvnv` i K ^va xb i vwL q vwQj | h uvnvi v
g vb wmK f ve ` yej Z uvnvi vB K ej b vb vg ywL Pvc i ^xK vi nb |
wk v, mZ Z v, mvnm GK R b wePvi K K g vb wmK k w h vMvq |
wZ wb c q vR b eR i b vq K wVb nBeb , c q vR b K zmyg i b vq
K vg j nBeb | Z vnvi _ vwK e cold neutrality of an impartial Judge (Edmand
Burke)| mec wi c q vR b mZ K memg q mg yb Z i vL v| m K vi YB To
say truth, although it is not necessary for counsel to know what the history of a point is,
but to know how it now stands resolved, yet it is a wonderful accomplishment, and,
without it, a lawyer cannot be accounted learned in the law (Roger North,1651-1734)|
Dc i v e e wePvi K MYi c wZ I GK B f ve c h vR |
h L b B A vg i v ^va xb wePvi ee vi K _ v ewj e Z L b B A vg v` i
g b i vwL Z nBet Justice without power is unavailing; power without justice is
tyrannical. Justice without power is gainsaid, because the wicked always exist; power
without justice is condemned. We must therefore combine justice and power, making
what is just strong, and what is strong just (Blaise Pascal, 1623-1662)| GK wU
K j vYa g x i vBnvB me c _ g c q vR b |
Oliver Wendell Holmes The Common Law Gi Dc i Z vun vi e I Z vq e j b :
The life of the law has not been logic; it has been experience. The
felt necessities of the time, the prevalent normal and political theories,
intuitions of public policy, avowed or unconscious, even the prejudices
which judges share with their fellowmen, have had a good deal more to
do than syllogism in determining the rules by which men should be
governed. The law embodies the story of a nations development through
many centuries, and it cannot be dealt with as if it contained only the
axioms and corollaries of a book of mathematics. In order to know what
it is, we must know what it has been, and what it tends to become..........
The very considerations which judges most rarely mention, and always
with an apology, are the secret root from which the law draws all the
juices of life. I mean, of course, considerations of what is expedient for
the community concerned.
(Henry J Abraham: The Judicial Process, c v 1 1 n BZ D Z )


122
c vq wZ b h yM c i Gompers v. United States (1914) g vK v g vi i vq
wePvi c wZ Holmes e j b :

The provisions of the Constitution are not mathematical formulas having
their essence in their form; they are organic living institutions transplanted from
English soil. Their significance is vital not formal; it is to be gathered not simply
by taking the words and a dictionary, but by considering their origin and the line
of their growth. (Henry J. Abraham : The Judicial Process c v 1 1 n BZ
D Z )|

wePvi K ` i ` vwq Z I K Z e m K 16 10 mvj Sir Francis
Bacaon ej b t
It shall appear from time to time ..........where the Kings acts have been
indeed against law, the course of law hath run, and the Judges have worthily
done their duty. (Philip Hamburger: Law and Judicial Duty).

Professor Philip Hamburger wePvi K MYi ` vwq Z I K Z e m K
ej b t
English judges had a duty to decide in accord with the law of the land,
including their constitution. This duty was part of the office of a judge, to which
judges were bound by their oaths, and with their high ideal of this office and a
sworn obligation to adhere to it, judges could find the strength to do their duty,
even when it required them to hold unconstitutional acts void. ................The
duty of the judges when holding government acts unconstitutional had the
functional benefit of allowing them to enforce the constitution and thus preserve
constitutional liberty. ....................................................................................
Americans inherited the common law ideals of law and judicial duty. If
constitutions willed by the people were part of the law of the land, and if judges
had a duty to decide in accord with the law of the land, American judges, like
their English predecessors, had no choice but to decide the constitutionality of
government acts. As put by the judges in Bayard v. Singleton, this was required
by the obligations of their oaths, and the duty of their office...................By
virtue of their office, judges had a distinctive authority in their cases not only to
give judgment but also to expound law. The exposition of law had traditionally
been recognized as pert of the office of judgment, and although the resolution of
cases had always been the core of judicial office, this focus of judicial authority
became more pronounced already in England under the pressure of ideals of
123
lawmaking authority. After American statues spelled out the jurisdiction of the
courts in terms of various actions, suits, causes, cases, or controversies,
Americans grew especially accustomed to thinking about judicial office in such
terms, and this tight conception of judicial office was all the more appealing
when it came to seem a concrete manifestation of the separation of powers.
(Philip Hamburger: Law and Judicial Duty Page. 609,610, 612, 614).

Bnv ej vi A c v i vL b v h GK R b wePvi K K m ~Ywb g vn
f ve Z vnvi wePvwi K K vh K wi Z nq | GB j Z vnvi wb R ^
m Z v I eva eva K Z vi Da DwVZ nBe| g b b k xj ew wnme
GK R b wePvi K i i vR b wZ K wP va vi v _ vK v A ^vf vweK b q wK
Z vnv h b K L b B Z vnvi wePvi K vh K K vb f ve c f vweZ K wi Z b v
c vi mw` K Z vnvK memg q mZ K _ vwK Z nBe| ew MZ c Q` -
A c Q` K Z vnvi wePvwi K ` vwq Z I K Z e nBZ m ~Ywew Qb K i v
wk wL Z nBe|
Z vnvQvo v, GK R b wePvi K K ` k i mev P A vBb mswea vb i
c wZ k vk xj nBZ nBe| A vBb , b wR i Ges Z _ I NUb vej xi
A vj vK wePvi K wi Z nBe| GL vb ew MZ A wf g Z , c Q` ev
A c Q` i K vb vb b vB| i vR b wZ K c wi w wZ Z msm` wewf b A vBb
c vm K wi Z c vi wK mB A vBb mswea vb i K wc v_ i m ~Y
wb ` j xq I i vR b xwZ ewnf ~Z f ve weePb v K wi evi ` vwq Z I K Z e
myc xg K vUi | ev e mg mvi K vi Y wb evnx wef vMK I nq Z v wewf b
wm v j BZ nq wK Z vnvi A vBb x wek l Y K wi evi ` vwq Z I wePvi
wef vMi | mB ` vwq Z I K Z e mswea vb myc xg K vU Z _ v
mvg wMK f ve wePvi wef vMi Dc i A c b K wi q vQ| K vb wePvi K
Z vnvi Dc i A wc Z D i c ` vwq Z ev K Z e c vj b K wi Z e_ nBj
wZ wb mswea vb I A vBb f K wi eb |
Gf veB GK R b wePvi K K mec K vi j vf I mewea c j y Z vi
Da DwVZ nq | Z vnvK c v_ i i b vq A b yf ~wZ nxb nBZ nq |
b vq wePvi c wZ vK Z vnvK mewea R vMwZ K I Gg b wK c vi j wK K
R xeb i c wZ I g vnnxb _ vwK Z nBe| GBi c myK wVb g vb A R b
124
K wi evi R b GK R b wePvi K K mvi v R xeb wb R i mwnZ I mg vR i
mwnZ hy K wi Z nq |
Z e wePvi K I GK R b mva vi Y g vb yl , wZ wb I mg vR emevm
K i b | Z vnvi I PvI q v- c vI q v i wnq vQ| Z vnvK I wPi b mva I
mva i g a mg b q K wi q v Pwj Z hvBq v c vq k B e_ nBZ nq |
Justice Benjamin Cardozo Gi f vl vq t
Judges cannot escape that current any more than other mortals. All their
lives, forces which they do not recognise and cannot name, have been
tugging at them inherited instincts, traditional beliefs, acquired
convictions, and the resultant is an outlook on life,a conception of social
needs, a sense, in James phrase, of the total push and pressure of the
cosmos which, when reasons are nicely balanced, must determine where
the choice shall fall. ( The Nature of the Judicial Process).
Gw` K w` q v myc xg K vUi wePvi K e` i ` vwq Z I K Z e A vi I
K mva | GK w` K Z vnvw` MK mswea vb I g xg vswmZ b wR i A b ymvi
A vBb i k Z K mg yb Z I c evng vb i vwL Z nq | A b w` K m` v
weeZ b k xj mg vR A vBb h b e R j vk q A eva I g ~j eva nxb
K Z wj A _ nxb g c wi YZ b v nq mB w` K I mR vM _ vwK Z nq |
Pj g vb R xeb I m` v c wi eZ b k xj mg vR i g ~j eva i c wZ mZ Z
` w i vwL q v A vBb i b ~Z b b ~Z b evL v vi v A va ywb K h yMi m
mvg m mva b K wi evi ` ~i n ` vwq Z I K Z e GK R b wePvi K i |
GB c m Lord Denning ej b t
Law does not stand still. It moves continually. Once this is recognised,
then the task of the Judge is put on a higher plane. He must consciously
seek to mould the law so as to serve the needs of the time. He must not
be a mere mechanic, a mere working mason, laying brick on brick
without thought to the overall design. He must be an architect-thinking
of the structure as a whole- building for society a system of law which is
strong, durable and just. It is on his work that civilised society itself
deppends. Union of India V. Sankalchand AIR 1977 SC 2328
g vK v g vq K Iyer J, Gi i vq nBZ D Z ) |
125
GL vb g b i vL v c q vR b h BwZ nvmi c wZ wU i BUi Dc i
BU w` q v wek vj ma wb g vY K wi evi b vq wePvi K MY h yM h yM A vBb i
Dr K l mva b i ` ~i n K vh mva b K wi q v _ vK b | c K Z c mf Z vi
A b Z g k ` vb nBZ Q A vBb |
c vq ` yBk Z er mi c ~e18 2 8 mvj Lord Chancellor, Lord Henry
Brougham, House of Commons G Qq NUv evwc Z uvnvi e Z vi GK vsk
ej b t
It was the boast of Augustus....... that he found Rome of brick, and left
it of marble; a praise not unworthy of a great prince, and to which the
present reign also has its claims. But how much nobler will be the
Sovereigns boast, when he shall have it to say, that he found law dear,
and left it cheap; found it a sealed bookleft it a living letter; found it the
patrimony of the richleft it the inheritance of the poor; found it the two-
edged sword of craft and oppressionleft it the staff of honesty and the
shield of innocence (Professor Robert Stevens: Law and Politics, 1978,
page-24, note-93)

hy i vR , hy i v I wewUk f vi Z el i D P I wb A v` vj Z i
wePvi K MY A Z K Vvi Z v, ` pZ v I weP YZ vi mwnZ wePvi K vh
c wi Pvj b v K wi q v A vBb K GK wU MwZ k xj R xeb a vi vq c wi YZ
K wi q vwQj b | wePvi K MY wb R i vB mg vR i mK j i A v` k wnmve
wPw Z nBZ b | wePvi K g v B nb GK wek l m vb i c v |
wK mg q i c wi eZ b NwUq vQ| mB m c wi eZ b nBq vQ
g vb yl i g ~j eva i | eZ g vb A e q c v g ~j eva nxb g vb yl i wq y
mg vR i wP c ywUZ K wi Z c vuPk Z er mi c ~ei g b xwl K exi Gi
mvnvh j BZ nq t
evg &nb Xvg b g yi L f q m~` c p MxZ v|
VM VMi e` A v Qv L ve ` yt L c ve c wZ v \
muvPvK v g vi j vVv S zUv R Mr wc Z vi |
Mvi m Mwj Mwj d i myi v eV eK vq \
mZ xK v b v g j a vwZ M vb c ni L vmv|
126
K n K exi v ` L f vB ` ywb q vK v Z vg vmv \
ev Y g yL nq , A _ P k ~` MxZ v c vV K i | k V I c Z vi K i v
Dr K A b f Y K i , A _ P c wZ i v K ej K c vq | j vK b vq K
` vNvZ K i , A _ P A b vq K wc Z er k v K wi q v _ vK | c _ c _
c h Ub K wi q v ` y we q K wi Z nq , A _ P myi v GK vb A ew Z
_ vwK q vB wew Z nBq v h vq | c wZ eZ v mZ x xi GK L vwb a yZ x wg j b v,
A _ P ` y vwi Yx K vwg b xi v c K c wi Q` c wi a vb K i | A Z Ge K exi
K nb , f vB! R MZ i K g b K Z zK , ` L | ( A q K zg vi ` t
K exi c xq m ` vq )
Pvwi k Z er mi c ~ei wePvi K MY i vR vi wei , House of Lords I
House of Commons wei msMvg K wi q v A vBb i k vmb K vq g
K wi q vwQj b | wesk k Z vw i A vwk ` k K A vg v` i ` k I mvg wi K
k vmb A vg j GK R b mvnmx wePvi K K ei L v K i v nBq vwQj | GL b
A vi mB a i b i msMvg i c q vR b nq b v, GL b wePvi K MY mZ
K _ b i R b ei L v nb b v, A i xY nBZ nq b v, Z e msMvg
A evnZ i wnq vQ, K ej a i Y c wi eZ b nBq vQ|
c ~eB A vj vPb v K i v nBq vQ h GK R b wePvi K i g vb wmK
k w B nBj wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z vi g ~j wf wI Ges mB k w i wf w
nBj Z vnvi mZ Z v, Z vnvi wk v, Pi g I c i g GK wb wb i c Z v|
wK mg q i c wi eZ b nBq vQ| c ~eR b wc q wePvi K i K _ v k vb v h vq
b vB| g vb yl K Vvi wePvi K i K _ v m vb i mwnZ mi Y K wi Z | A b K
wePvi K A vR Z vnv` i g vb wmK k w I ^va xb Z v nvi vBq v
d wj Z Qb | mB mv_ wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z vI b ~Z b K wi q v zb
nBZ ewmq vQ| wePvi K MY GK mg q mg vR i A v` k i g vc K vwV
wQj b wK eZ g vb wq y mg vR g ~j eva nxb g vb yl i wf o
wePvi K MYK A vi A vj v` v K wi q v Pb v h vq b v|
A b w` K eZ g vb h yMi Edmand Burke, Sir Tej Bahadur Shopru, Sir
Rashbihari Ghose, M. C. Sitalvad, S.R. Pal, Hamidul Haque Chowdhury, Asrarul
Hossain c g yL i k vwb Z h yw h b c _ nvi vBq vQ| GL b K vi A b K
127
c exY GvW&f vK U g nv` q forum shopping G j v eva K i b b v|
A ek we Pvi K MYB Bnvi R b ` vq x| GL b hb The most indifferent
arguments are good when one has a majority of bayonets (Bismarck)|
GB c vc U wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z vi wel q wU b ~Z b A vwK
wP v K i v A c wi nvh nBq v c wo q vQ|
Z e A vk vi K _ v nBj GB h GB wq yg ~j eva nxb mg vR i
b i vk e K c wi w wZ i g a I ewk i f vM wePvi K I A vBb R xwe
GL b I A v` k I g ~j eva K a wi q v i vwL evi R b c vYc Y Pv
K wi Z Qb | Z uvnvi vB f wel Z i c w_ K Z |
Z vnvi vB A vBb i k Z I A vBb i k vmb vc b Ges b vq wePvi
c wZ v K wi Z A MYx f ~wg K v c vj b K wi eb | BnvB nBe i vi
A b Z g c a vb g ~j vc b v| GB K vi YB wePvi wef vM c K Z ^va xb Z v
c q vR b | R b wc q Z v b q , ` yi ` g b I wk i c vj b I i vi wewf b
wef vMi ^ QvPvwi Z vi nvZ nBZ mva vi Y g vb yl K i v K i v Ges
Z vnv` i mvswea vwb K A wa K vi c wZ v K wi evi R b B wePvi wef vMi
mZ K vi ^va xb Z vi GZ c q vR b | m ^va xb Z vi c vi B i wnq vQ
g vb wmK ^va xb Z v, g b b Dr K l Z v|
2 3 | mvswea vwb K A vBb t k Z er mi c ~enBZ Bnv a e
mZ wnmve c wZ w Z , h K vb i v Bnvi mswea vb B mev P A vBb |
mswea vb B i vi mK j c wZ vb I c ` mw K i | A va ywb K i v
R b MYB mvef g | mB mvef g R b MYi A wf c vq , A vK vL v I
wb ` k Gi d j k wZ B nBZ Q mswea vb | GL vb B mswea vb i k Z |
evsj v` k i Supreme Court evsj v` k i mswea vb i A wef veK | A _ P
GB Supreme CourtI wesk k Z v xi mi ` k K i k l f vM I A vwk
` k K i c _ g f vM Bnvi GK wUi c i GK wU i vq vi v mswea vb K Pi g
f ve A eb wg Z K wi q vQ|
wK c _ g mswea vb m ^ R vb v c q vR b |
h yi vi mswea vb i 6 A b y Q` wb i c t
128
..
This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made
in pursuance there of;. shall be the supreme law of the land;
and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby , anything in the
Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary not with standing.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the member of
the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both
of the United Sates and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or
affirmation, to support this Constitution;..

h y i vi mswea vb i c vc U wePvi c wZ St. George Tucker 17 9 3
mvj (Kamper V. Hawkins) ej b h mswea vb nBZ Q t
the voice of the people themselves, proclaiming to the world their
resolution ......... to institute such a government, as, in their own opinion,
was most likely to produce peace, happiness, and safety to the individual,
as well as to the community.

wZ wb ej b h mswea vb nBj the first law of the land Ges t
a rule to all the departments of the government, to the judiciary as well
as to the legislature.
mswea vb m ^ wZ wb A vi I ej b t whatsoever is contradictory
thereto, is not the law of the land.

i vi wewf b wef vM wek l K wi q v wePvi wef vM m ^ wZ wb
ej b t
Now since it is the province of the legislature to make, and of the
executive to enforce obedience to laws, the duty of expounding must be
exclusively vested in the judiciary. But how can any just exposition be
made, if that which is the supreme law of the land be withheld from their
view.
(Larry D. Kramer: The People Themselves, c v- 10 1 nBZ D Z )

mvq v ` yBk Z er mi c ~eUS Circuit Court, Pennsylvania Z Vanhornes
Lessee V. Dorrance (1795) g vK g vq myc xg K vUi Justice William Paterson
mswk A vBb i mvswea vwb K ea Z v c m mswea vb i k Z m K
R yi x` i c wZ c ` eZ vq ej b t
.. What is Constitution? It is the form of government, delineated
by the mighty hand of the people, in which certain first principles of
129
fundamental laws are established. The Constitution is certain and fixed;
it contains the permanent will of the people, and is the supreme law of
the land; it is paramount to the power of the Legislature, and can be
revoked or altered only by the authority that made it. The life-giving
principle and the death-doing stroke must proceed from the same hand.
What are Legislatures? Creatures of the Constitution; they owe their
existence to the Constitution: they derive their powers from the
Constitution: It is their commission; and, therefore, all their acts must be
conformable to it, or else they will be void. The Constitution is the work
or will of the People themselves, in their original, sovereign, and
unlimited capacity. Law is the work or will of the Legislature in their
derivative and subordinate capacity. The one is the work of the Creator,
and the other of the Creature. The Constitution fixes limits to the
exercise of legislative authority, and prescribes the orbit within which it
must move. In short, gentlemen, the Constitution is the sun of the
political system, around which all Legislative, Executive and Judicial
bodies must revolve. Whatever may be the case in other countries, yet in
this there can be no doubt, that every act of the Legislature, repugnant to
the Constitution, is absolutely void. ( A a vi L v c ` )

Justice Paterson Z vnvi e ei k l f vM ej b t
The Constitution encircles, and renders it an holy thing........It is
sacred; for, it is further declared, that the Legislature shall have no power
to add to, alter, abolish, or infringe any part of, the Constitution. The
Constitution is the origin and measure of legislative authority. It says to
legislators, thus far ye shall go and no further. Not a particle of it should
be shaken; not a pebble of it should be removed.
( Professor John B. Sholley : Cases on Constitutional Law, 1951, page 27,30
nBZ D Z ) | ( A a vi L v c ` )

Bnvi I c ~eThe Federalist G Alexander Hamilton wj wc e K i b t
No legislative act, therefore, contrary to the constitution can be
valid. To deny this would be to affirm than the deputy is greater that his
principal; that the servant is above his master, that the representatives of
the people are superior to the people themselves; that man acting by
virtue of powers may do not only what their powers do not authorize, but
what they forbid.......... the Constitutions ought to be preferred to the
Statute, the intention of the people to the intention of their agents.
(Quoted from K.C. Wheare on Modern Constitutions c v- 6 0 )
(A a vi L v c ` )
130
Justice Thomas M. Cooley Z vnvi wj wL Z A Treatise on The Constitutional
Limitations M mswea vb m ^ ej b t ( c v- 2 )
A constitution is sometimes defined as the fundamental law of a state,
containing the principle upon which the government is founded,
regarding the division of the sovereign powers, and directing to what
persons each of these powers is to be confided, and the manner in which
it is to be exercised.

mvswea vwb K Z v m K Martin Loughlin I Walker Gi wb v e I e
c wb a vb h vM t
Modern constitutionalism is underpinned by two fundamental though
antagonistic imperatives : that governmental power ultimately is generated from
the consent of the people and that, to be sustained and effective, such power
must be divided, constrained, and exercised through distinctive institutional
forms. The people, in Maistres words, are a sovereign that cannot exercise
sovereignty; the power they possess, it would appear, can only be exercised
through constitutional forms already established or in the process of being
established..............................(Martin Loughlin and Nail Walker : The
Paradox of Constitutionalism, page-1).


Marbury V. Madison (1803) g vK v g vq c a vb wePvi c wZ John Marshall
mswea vb m ^ ej b t
Thus, the particular phraseology of the Constitution of the United States
confirms and strengthens the principle, supposed to be essential to all
written constitutions, that a law repugnant to the constitution is void; and
that courts, as well as other departments, are bound by that instrument.
(Professor John B. Sholley : Cases on Constitutional Law, 1951, Page-39,50
nBZ D Z ) ( A a vi L v c ` )

Fazlul Quader Chowdhury V. Mohammad Abdul Hoque PLD 1963
SC 486 g vK g vq Hamoodur Rahman J. (as his Lordsihip then was) mswea vb
m ^ ej b ( c v- 5 3 5 ) t
Thus the written Constitution is the source from which all governmental
power emanates and it defines its scope and ambit so that each
functionary should act within his respective sphere. No power can,
therefore, be claimed by any functionary which is not to be found within
131
the four corners of the Constitution nor can anyone transgress the limits
therein specified. ( A a vi L v c ` )

Asma Jilani V. Government of Punjab, PLD 1972 SC 139 g vK g vq
The Jurisdiction of Courts (Removal of Doubts) Order , 1969 (Presidents Order No. 3
of 1969) A Wvi Gi K vi Y A vmg v wR j vb xi wc Z v g vwj K Mvj vg
wR j vb xi A i xY m K K vb A v` k c ` vb GL &wZ q vi wenxb ewj q v
j vnvi nvBK vUi vq c ` vb K wi j c vwK vb myc xg K vUmvg wi K
A vBb A ea ewj q v Nvl Yv K i |
c vwK vb i c a vb wePvi c wZ Hamoodur Rahman GB c m ej b
( c v- 19 9 ) t
.........General Agha Mohammad Yahia Khan had according to me, no
authority to pass such legislation taking away the powers of the Courts in
his capacity as President under the Provisional Constitution Order. The
Martial Law introduced by him was illegal and, therefore, even as Chief
Martial Law Administrator he was not competent to validly pass such
laws ...


Dc msnvi Yaqub Ali, J. R b vi j Bq vwnq v L vb K Z K ej er
mvg wi K A vBb , i vc wZ i g Z v MnY BZ vw` A ea Nvl Yv K i b
( c v- 2 3 8 - 3 9 ) t
The Martial Law imposed by Yahia Khan was, therefore, in itself illegal
and all Martial Law Regulations and Martial Law Orders issued by him
were on this simple ground void ab initio and of no legal
effect..........Yahia Khan, therefore, assumed the office in violation of
Article 16 of the Constitution to which he had taken oath of allegiance
as Commander in Chief. It could not, therefore, be postulated that Yahia
Khan had become the lawful President of Pakistan and was competent to
promulgate orders and Ordinances in exercise of the legislative function
conferred by the Constitution on the President. All Presidential Orders
and Ordinances which were issued by him were, therefore, equally void
and of no legal effect.

j j k nx` i GK mvMi i i wewb g q evsj v` k ^va xb Z v
j vf K i | GK er mi i I K g mg q i g a Bnvi mswea vb MnxZ nq |
mswea vb i 7 A b y Q` mswea vb i c va vb Nvl Yv K i |
132
7 A b y Q` wb i c t
7 ( 1) c R vZ i mK j g Z vi g vwj K R b MY; Ges
R b MYi c mB g Z vi c q vM K ej GB mswea vb i A a xb
I K Z Z K vh K i nBe|
( 2 ) R b MYi A wf c vq i c i g A wf ew i c GB mswea vb
c R vZ i mev P A vBb Ges A b K vb A vBb h w` GB
mswea vb i mwnZ A mg m nq , Z vnv nBj mB A vBb i
h Z L vwb A mvg mc ~Y, Z Z L vwb evwZ j nBe|

19 7 3 mb i A.T. Mridha V. State 25 DLR (1973) 335 g vK v g vq
myc xg K vUi nvBK vUwef vM mswea vb i k Z Nvl Yv K i | D
g vK v g vq Badrul Haider Chowdhury, J. (as his Lordship then was) _ nxb f ve
ej b ( c v- 3 4 4 ) t
10. .............. The Constitution is the supreme law and all laws are to be
tested in the touch stone of the Constitution ( vide article 7). It is the
supreme law because it exists, it exits because the Will of people is
reflected in it. (A a vi L v c ` )

GK B f ve Md. Shoib V. Government of Bangladesh, 27 DLR (1975) 315
g vK v g vq D.C. Bhattacharya, J. ej b ( c v- 3 2 5 ) t
In a country run under a written Constitution, the Constitution is the
source of all powers of the executive organs, of the State as well as of the
other organs, the Constitution having manifested the sovereign will of
the people. As it has been made clear in Article 7 of the constitution of
the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh that the Constitution being the
solemn expression of the will of the people , is the Supreme law of the
Republic and all powers of the Republic and their exercise shall be
effected only under, and by the authority of, the Constitution . This is a
basic concept on which the modern states have been built up.
( A a vi L v c ` )

wb t m` n BnvB mswea vb i mZ K vi A vBb vb yM A e vb | wK
g v K q K er mi i eea vb A vg v` i mev P A v` vj Z Bnvi GK wUi
c i GK wU i vq A vg v` i mev P A vBb g nvb mswea vb K mvg wi K
A vBb i A a t b (subordinate) wnmve Nvl Yv K i | GB i vq wj
A vg v` i i vR b wZ K , mvg vwR K , b wZ K I we Pvwi K g ~j eva i Pi g
A e q i mv enb K i | A _ P myc xg K vUmeA e vq mswea vb K
133
mg yb Z i vwL evi c we ` vwq Z enb K wi evi K _ v wQj | GB i vq wj
A vg v` i g b i vL v c q vR b h b A Z f wel Z A vg v` i GBi c
c ` j b A vi b v nq |

Halima Khatun V. Bangladesh, 30 DLR (SC) 207 g vK v g vwUi i vq nq
4 . 1. 19 7 8 Z vwi L | Z L b ` k mvg wi K A vBb ej er wQj | c wi Z
m w Nvl Yvi ea Z v j Bq v i xU&g vK v g v ` vq i K i v nBq vwQj |
wel q wU Martial Law Regulation VII of 1977 Gi A vI Z vf ~ wea vq A v` vj Z i
GL &wZ q vi ewnf ~Z t ewj q v i v c ` vex K i v nBq vwQj | evsj v` k
myc xg K vUi c Fazle Munim , J. (as his Lordship then was) Z uvnvi i vq
ej b ( c v- 2 18 ) t
18............ by clause (d) and (e) of the Proclamation made the
Constitution of Bangladesh , which was allowed to remain in force,
subordinate to the Proclamation and any Regulation or order as may be
made by the President in pursuance thereof . .................. Under the
Proclamation which contains the aforesaid clauses the Constitution has
lost its character as the Supreme Law of the country. There is no doubt,
an express declaration in Article 7(2) of the Constitution. .............
Ironically enough, this Article, though still exists, must be taken to have
lost some of its importance and efficacy. In view of clauses (d), (e) and
(g) of the Proclamation the supremacy of the Constitution as declared in
that Article is no longer unqualified. In spite of this Article, no
Constitutional provision can claim to be sacrosanct and immutable. The
present Constitutional provision may, however, claim superiority to any
law other than a Regulation or Order made under the Proclamation.

State V. Haji Joynal Abedin 32 DLR AD (1980) 110 g vK v g vwUZ
2 0 / 12 / 19 7 8 Z vwi L i vq nq | Z L b I ` k mvg wi K A vBb ej er
wQj | GK wU Special Martial Law Court K Z K c ` ` v` k i ea Z v D
i xU&g vK v g vq Pvj K i v nBq vwQj | nvBK vUwef vM ` v` k
evwZ j K wi j I A vc xj wef vM wel q wU A v` vj Z i GL &wZ q vi ewnf ~Z
ewj q v Nvl Yv K i | A vc xj wef vMi c Ruhul Islam ,J. ej b ( c -
12 2 ) t
134
18. From a consideration of the features noted above it leaves no room
for doubt that the Constitution though not abrogated, was reduced to a
position subordinate to the Proclamation, in as much as the unamended
and unsuspended constitutional provisions were kept in force and
allowed to continue subject to the Proclamation and Martial Law
Regulation or orders and other orders; and the Constitution was amended
from time to time by issuing Proclamation. In the face of the facts stated
above I find it difficult to accept the arguments advanced in support of
the view that the Constitution as such is still in force as the supreme law
of the country, untrammelled by the Proclamation and Martial Law
Regulation.

Kh. Ehteshamuddin Ahmed V. Bangladesh 33 DLR (AD) (1981) 154 i xU&
g vK v g vwUZ 17 / 3 / 19 8 0 Z vwi L i vq nq | ` k Z L b mvg wi K
k vmb c Z vnvi K i v nBq vQ | D g vK v g vq Special Martial Law Court
K Z K c ` i vq I ` v` k i ea Z v Pvj K i v nBq vwQj | nvBK vU
wef vM Bnv Z vnv` i GL &wZ q vi ewnf ~Z ewj q v i xU&wU msw A v` k
L vwi R K i | A vc xj wef vM mB A v` k envj i vL | Ruhul Islam, J.
mswea vb i 7 A b y Q` mZ I ej b ( c v- 16 3 ) t
16. ......... the supremacy of the Constitution cannot by any means
compete with proclamation issued by the Chief Martial Law.........

nvR x R q b vj A vew` b g vK v g vq c ` i vq i D wZ c ` vb
K wi q v Ruhul Islam, J. A vi I ej b t
18. ......... this Division has given the answer that the High Courts being
creature under the Constitution with the Proclamation of Martial Law and the
Constitution allowed to remain operative subject to the Proclamation and
Martial Law Regulation, it loses its superior power to issue writ against the
Martial Law Authority or Martial Law Courts.

evsj v` k i mev P A v` vj Z i Dc i v i vq c wo q v g b nBe
h mvg wi K c k vmK ` i b nvZ A b yMn evsj v` k i mev P A vBb
Bnvi c we mswea vb I mev P A v` vj Z K vb i K g we` g vb |
mvg wi K k vmK ` i c wZ evsj v` k i mev P A v` vj Z i GBi c b M
A e vb Pvwi k Z er mi c ~ei Batess Cases G ( The Case of Impositions,
1606) i vR vi c i vq c ` vb wePvi K Chief Baron Fleming I Baron Clarke
135
K I j v w` Z | Stuart i vR v` i mg q Z vnv` i c i wePvi K MYI
GZ Uv b MnBZ c vi b b vB| ei James II Z vnvi i vR Z i k l f vM
Martial Law c q vM K wi evi wP v K wi q vwQj b wK Z ` vb x b wePvi
wef vMi Pi g A e q mZ I Z vnvK mg _ b K wi evi g Z GK R b
wePvi K I Bsj v c vI q v h vq b vB| A vg v` i mf vM h c g
msk va b x g vK v g vq myc xg K vUA b K wej ^ nBj I c wi vi
f vl vq Nvl Yv K wi q vQ h mvg wi K A vBb ewj q v K vb A vBb b vB Ges
mvg wi K A vBb K Z c ewj q v K vb K Z c i A w Z b vB | ei s
mswea vb ` k i mev P A vBb | i vi mK j wef vM I c ` mswea vb i
mw | h K vb A vBb Z vnv wh wb B c Yq b K i b b v K b , mswea vb i
mwnZ mvsNwl K nBj Z vnvi K vb A w Z B _ vwK e b v | GB i v
Government of laws, government of men b q |
Anwar Hossian Chowdhury V. Bangladesh 1989 BLD ( Special Issue)
g vK v g vq A vg v` i mev P A v` vj Z A vc xj wef vM GB c _ g evi i
g Z ^i vPvi x k vmK ` i c wZ Bnvi R o Z v c wi Z vM K wi Z mg _ nq
Ges mv` vK mv` v I K vj vK K vj v ewj Z mg _ nq | GB i vq
mswea vb K mg yb Z K wi Z I Bnvi h vM mev P vb A wa vb K i |
wK Z vnvi c i I GB i vq mvg wi K A vBb i wec wi Z mswea vb i
c K Z vb wb Yq K wi Z e_ nq | Shahabuddin Ahmed , J. (as his Lordship
then was) Z vnvi i vq nvwj g v L vZ zb , nvR x R q b vj A vew` b ,
GnZ &l vg yw b BZ vw` g vK v g vq c ` i vq i c wZ a wb K wi q v ej b
( c v- 118 ) t
272............Bangladesh which got independence from Pakistan through
a costly War of independence, which was fought with the avowed
declaration to establish a democratic polity, under a highly democratic
Constitution, met the same fate as Pakistan. Two Martial Laws covered a
period of 9 years Out of her 18 years of existence. During these Martial
Law periods the constitution was not abrogated but was either suspended
or retained as a statute subordinate to the Martial Law Proclamations.
Orders and Regulation.


136
A vc xj wef vM mswea vb i k Z mg yb Z i vwL Z A vevi I e_
nq | Bnv wb w Z f ve Nvl Yv K i v nBZ Q h g nvb mswea vb
evsj v` k i mev P A vBb | Martial Law ewj q v K vb A vBb i A w Z
evsj v` k b vB|

2 4 | myc xg K vUi f ~wg K v I wePvwi K c yb t weePb vi g Z v
(Power of Judicial Review):

mswea vb i A a xb mswea vb msk va b mn h K vb A vBb c Yq b i
A b b g Z v R vZ xq msm` i i wnq vQ| eZ g vb i xU&g vK v g vq i xU&-
` i L v K vi x mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 6 , Gi ea Z v
mswea vb i 10 2 A b y Q` i A a xb nvBK vU wef vM Pvj
K wi q vQb | GB c vc U myc xg K vUi nvBK vUwef vMi Judicial
Review Gi g Z vi Mvo vi K _ v Ges D g Z vi ew m ^
A vj vK c vZ K i v c q vR b |
evsj v` k mswea vb i l f vM wePvi wef vM m ^ eYb v K i v
nBq vQ| 1g c wi Q` myc xg K vU, 2 q c wi Q` A a b A v` vj Z I
3 q c wi Q` c k vmwb K UvBeyb vj m ^ eYb v K i v nBq vQ|
9 4 ( 1) A b y Q` evsj v` k myc xg K vUmw K wi q vQ| 9 4 ( 1)
A b y Q` wb i c t
9 4 | ( 1) evsj v` k myc xg K vU b vg evsj v` k i
GK wU mev P A v` vj Z _ vwK e Ges A vc xj wef vM I nvBK vU
wef vM j Bq v Z vnv MwVZ nBe|
10 1 A b y Q` nvBK vUwef vMi GL wZ q vi I 10 2 A b y Q`
g wj K A wa K vi ej er K i Ymn wewf b A v` k I wb ` k c ` vb
nvBK vUwef vMi g Z v eYb v K i v nBq vQ|
A vc xj wef vM evsj v` k i mev P A v` vj Z |
137
mswea vb i 10 3 , 10 4 I 10 5 A b y Q` A vc xj wef vMi
GL wZ q vi I wewf b g Z v eYb v K i v nBq vQ| BnvQvo v, 10 6
A b y Q` A vc xj wef vMi Dc ` vg ~j K GL wZ q vi c ` vb K wi q vQ|
hy i vB mec _ g mswea vb i g va g wePvi wef vM vc b K i |
h y i vi mswea vb i Z Z xq A b y Q` i c _ g ` d v h y i vi myc xg
K vUI A b vb A v` vj Z vc b K i | c _ g ` d v wb i c t
Section 1. The judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in
one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may
from time to time ordain and establish.
..............................................................................
A v` vj Z i GL wZ q vi m ^ wZ xq ` d vq eYb v K i v nq | wZ xq
` d v wb i c t
Section 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and
equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United
States,..........................
mswea vb i GB Z Z xq A b y Q` myc xg K vUK wePvwi K
GL wZ q vi I g Z v c ` vb K i |
mswea vb i l A b y Q` mswea vb i k Z Nvl Yv K i Z t A -
i vmg yni wePvi K MYi Dc i Z vnv` i mvswea vwb K ` vwq Z A c b
K i | l A b y Q` i mswk A sk wb i c t
This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be
made in pursuance thereof;.................... shall be the supreme law of the land;
and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the
Constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding..............
Z e mswea vb mva vi Y K vb A vBb b q | Bnv i vi mev P
A vBb | GB mev P A vBb i vi wewf b wef vM I mK j mvswea vwb K
c ` mw Ges Bnvi c a vb ` vwq Z I K Z e wb w` K wi q vQ| Z vnvQvo v,
i vi mev P A vBb GB mswea vb i evL v, wek l Y I mg yb Z i vwL evi
` vwq Z A wc Z nBq vQ wePvi wef vMi Dc i |
138
United States V. Morrison (2000) g vK v g vq h y i vi c a vb
wePvi c wZ Rehnquist ej b t
[T]he Framers crafted the federal system of government so that the
peoples rights would be secured by the division of power. Departing from their
parliamentary past, the Framers adopted a written Constitution that further
divided authority at the federal level so that the Constitutions provisions would
not be defined solely by the political branches nor the scope of legislative power
limited only by public opinion and the legislatures self-restraint. It is thus a
permanent and indispensable feature of our constitutional system that the
federal judiciary is supreme in the exposition of the law of the Constitution.
No doubt the political branches have a role in interpreting and applying
the Constitution, but ever since Marbury this Court has remained the ultimate
expositor of the constitutional text
( Larry D. Kramer: The People Themselves, Popular Constitutionalism And
Judicial Review, page-225 nBZ D Z )

Judicial Review m ^ Professor Philip Hamburger ej b :
Almost every day a judge in the United States holds a statute
unconstitutional. This is judicial review, and it often seems the central feature
of American constitutional law.

American constitutions, however, are almost silent about judicial re-
view. Even today, they scarcely mention the power of judges to decide
constitutional questions. The power of judges to hold statutes unlawful and void
is therefore a puzzle. Where does this power come from? and what is its
character and scope?

The familiar answer to these questions comes in the form of a history of
judicial review. According to the conventional version of this history, the
American people in the 1770s and 1780s discovered the principle of popular
power and thereby invented written constitutions. The people, however,
apparently did not foresee how their constitutions should be enforced.
Fortunately---- so the story goes---- the judges discerned the possibility of
enforcing constitutions in their cases, and they made some fitful experiments in
this direction in the 1780s and then more confidently in the 1790s. Although
they could draw upon earlier, English and colonial traditions, they had to
develop the mechanism of reviewing enactments for their unconstitutionality,
and they most decisively settled the authority of this new power in 1803 in
Marbury v. Madison. (Philip Hamburger: Law and Judicial Duty, page-1)
139
17 8 7 mvj h y i vi mswea vb c Yq b i convention G mswea vb
c YZ vMY h y i vi Congress K h y i vR i Parliament Gi b vq meg q
g Z v m b K wi Z Pvn b vB| K j vb x wj i c wZ h y i vR i
Parliament Gi eenvi Z vnvi v g vUB wemZ nb b vB| Parliament h
K j vb x wj i Dc i wewf b mg q Stamp Act I A b vb K i vi vc K wi Z
Ges b vb v f ve Z vnv` i Dc i K Z Z c ` k b K wi Z mswea vb i Pb vq
Z vnv Z vnv` i weePb v I wP vi c vZ wQj | Gg b wK Five Intolerable
Act R vi x K wi evi c i I mK j c K vi ` vex j Bq v Continental Congress Gi
c nBZ GK wU A ve` b c mi vmwi h y i vR i i vR vi wb K U c i Y
K i v nq K vi Y K j vb x wj i R b MY Z vnv` i K g K v Parliament Gi
g vMZ n c Z wei nBq v DwVq vwQj A _ P Z L b I
msL vMwi R b MY h y i vR i i vR vK Z vnv` i i vR v ewj q v MY
K wi Z wK hy i vR i Parliament Z vnv` i Dc i A vBb wewa e K wi e
Z vnv mn K wi Z PvwnZ b v|
GB mK j b vb vwea K vi Y mswea vb c YZ vMY Congress K
memg q g Z v- m b K wi evi c wi eZ Charles Louis de Montesquieu Gi
Z Z A b ymvi g Z vi c _ K &K i Y (separation of powers) Gi Dc i g b vhvM
w` q vwQj b |
18 k k Z v xi A g ` k K judicial review m ^ mva vi Y R b MYi
Z g b K vb a vi Yv wQj b v | H mg q K j vb x wj i wb R ^GK a i Yi
PvUvi ev mswea vb wQj | mK j i GK wU mva vi Y a vi Yv wQj h msm`
K vb A b wZ K ev A mvswea vwb K A vBb wewa e K wi j c i eZ x wb evPb
R b MY Z vnv` i f vUvwa K vi c q vM K wi q v Z vnvi R eve w` e| wK
A v` vj Z i I h A mvswea vwb K A vBb K A ea Nvl Yv K wi evi myh vM
i wnq vQ m m ^ L ye K g msL K j vK i a vi Yv wQj , m a vi YvI
wQj A |
h vnvi v judicial review Gi c e v wQj b Z vnv` i e e wQj h
mswea vb a y A vBb b q Bnv mevP A vBb , wK msm` c YxZ K vb
140
A vBb hw` mswea vb ewnf ~Z nq ev mvsNwl K nq Z e D A vBb A ea
nBe Ge s A v` vj Z Bnvi judicial review Gi g Z v ej Z vnv Nvl Yv
K wi Z c vi | Z e GB Z Z I mB mg q a vq vmvc ~YwQj | msm`
K Z K wewa e K vb A vBb mswea vb c wi c w , K vR B D A vBb
A b ymi Y K i v h vq b v, Gg b wb e` b i c i I mB h yM A v` vj Z K vb
A vBb i mvswea vwb K Z vi c k mva vi YZ Go vBq v hvBZ | K ` vwPr K vb
A - i vi A v` vj Z K vb A vBb A mvswea vwb K ewj j c vq mB BnvK
msm` I ^v_ m ew eMi Z xe mg vj vPb vi m yL xb nBZ
nBZ | Gg b wK mswk wePvi K MYi A wf k smb (impeachment) nBe vi
m eb v ` L v w` Z | A b K mg q e r mi v Z vnv` i A vi wePvi K
wb evPb K i v nBZ b v|
wK GB i K g a i Yi c wi w wZ Z I A b K mvnmx wePvi K
wQj b h vnvi v mei K g A e vZ I A vBb i f vl vZ B i vq w` Z b |
Commonwealth V. Caton (1782) g vK v g vq wePvi K George Wythe
ej b t
I shall not hesitate, sitting in this place, to say, to the general court, Fiat
Justitia, ruat coelum; and, to the usurping branch of the legislature, you
attempt worse than a vain thing; for, although, you cannot succeed, you
set an example, which may convulse society to its centre. Nay more, if
the whole legislature, an event to be deprecated, should attempt to
overleap the bounds, prescribed to them by the people, I, in
administering the public justice of the country, will meet the united
powers, at my seat in this tribunal; and, pointing to constitution, will say,
to them, here is the limit of your authority; and, hither, shall you go but
no further. ( A a vi L v c ` )
(Larry D. Kramer: The People Themselves, Popular Constitutionalism
and judicial Review, Oxford University Press, c v- 6 4 nBZ D Z )
Dc i v g vK v g vwU Virginia A i vR DyZ nBq vwQj |
wek vmNvZ K Z vi A c i va wZ b R b A vmvg xi g Z z` nBj Z vnv` i
A ve` b i c w Z House of Delegates Z vnv` i g v K i wK Senate
g v K wi Z A ^xK vi K i | Treason Act Gi A vI Z vq Df q K B g vi
A ve` b g yi K wi j A vmvg xi g v c vBevi wea vb i wnq vQ, wK D
141
A - i vi mswea vb g v K wi evi g Z v A - i vi Governor A _ ev
House of Delegates K c ` vb K wi q vQ|
GB c wi w wZ Z wePvi K George Wythe I James Mercer A vBb wUi
mvswea vwb K Z v evL v K wi Z Pvwnj I wePvi K Peter Lyons Bnvi
wei vwa Z v K i b | A b c vuPR b we Pvi K I GB c k Go vBq v h vb |
c i eZ xZ House of Delegates Gi mwnZ Senate GK g Z nBj wel q wU
A vmvg x` i c wb w nq |
Trevett V. Weeden (1786) g vK v g vwUZ Rhode Island A - i vi
GK wU A vBb eemvq x` i K vMR i b vU MnY K wi evi eva eva K Z v
mw K i | BnvK A mvswea vwb K ` vex K i v nq K vi Y D b vUi Dc i
D vwc Z ` vexi wePvi R yi x ewZ i K mva vi Y g vK v g vq nBZ
c vi |
ev` xc i K wj James Varnum Z vnvi h yw Z K Dc vc b K wi Z
wMq v ej b t
But as the legislative is the supreme power in government, who is to
judge whether they have violated the constitutional rights of the people?-
I answer........ the people themselves will judge, as the only resort in the
last stages of oppression. But when [legislators] proceed no further than
merely to enact what they may call laws, and refer those to the Judiciary
Courts for determination, then, (in discharge of the great trust reposed in
them, and to prevent the horrors of a civil war, as in the present case) the
Judges can, and we trust your Honours will, decide upon them.
(Larry D. Kramer i wPZ M The People Themselves nBZ D Z , c v-
6 3 ) |
( A a vi L v c ` )
Dc i v g vK v g vq D vwc Z mvswea vwb K c k Go vBq v h vBq v
GL wZ q vi i c k A v` vj Z g vK v g vwU L vwi R K i | wK GZ ` mZ I
A - i vwUi Governor GB c k msm` i wek l A wa ek b A vnevb K i
Ges msm` wePvi K ` i wb K U evL v ` vex K i | wePvi K MY c _ g
Z vnvi v accountable only to God and (their) own conscience ewj q v i nvB c vb
142
b vB| ei msm` Z vnv` i A m w wj wc e K wi q v mg M Bench wU
ei L v K wi evi c ve weePb vi R b MnY K i | A Z t c i , wePvi K MY
wj wL Z f ve disclaim(ing) and totally disavow(ing) any the least power or
authority, or the appearance thereof, to contravene or control the constitutional laws of
the state. ewj q v A vc vZ Z t i nvB c vb | Z e wePvi K ` i c i eZ x
wb evPb i mg q GK R b ewZ Z A b K nB wb evwPZ nb b vB|
Bnv A ek mK j i ^xK vhwQj mswea vb mK j i R b mg f ve
c h vR Ges i vi mK j wef vM mswea vb vi v eva wK Z vnvi A _
Bnv b q h wePvi wef vM A b K vb wef vMi Dc i K Z Z K wi Z c vi ,
K vi Y K vb wef vMB A b K vb wef vM nBZ k Z i b q | i vi mK j
wef vMi mvswea vwb K A e vb nBj h GB wef vM wj mK j B R b MYi
A a xb I Z vnv` i meK | h w` msm` mswea vb ewnf ~Z K vR K i Z e
Z vnv Z Z vea vb K wi evi ` vwq Z R b MYi | R b MY wb evPb i g va g
msm` m` m` i R evew` wnZ v wb w Z K i | h w` wePvi wef vM msm` i
wewa e K vb A vBb m ^ e e c ` vb K i Z e mva vi Yf ve Z vnv
nBe i vi A b GK wU mg i Z m b wef vMi K vh g n c
K i v| A b K i g Z h nZ z A - i vi msm` A vBb c Yq Y
g Z vc v mnZ z Bnvi B A vBb i ea Z v c i x v K wi evi GL wZ q vi
i wnq vQ| A vevi A b K i g Z c K Z c h K vb A vBb ev h K vb
wel q wek l Y K wi evi Pzo v g Z v R b MYi Ges R b MY wb evPb i
mg q B mK j i R eve` vwnZ v wb w Z K i |
Thomas Jefferson mswea vb j Nb NUb vej x wek l Y K wi evi R b
R b MYi Convention A vn&evb i c ve K wi q vwQj b | A b K council of
censors Gi c ve K wi q vwQj b h vnvi v mvZ er mi A i A i
mswea vb i A e vb c i x v K wi e|
Z L b I A b K R b wc q mvef g Z i R b judicial review c q vR b
ewj q v g b K wi Z b | h nZ zmswea vb mev P A vBb , mnZ zmswea vb
ewnf ~Z h K vb A vBb A ea | c K Z c Z vnv A vBb B b n|
143
Gi K g a i b i K vb A vBb h w` A v` vj Z i m yL c k nq Z e
A v` vj Z D A vBb i mvswea vwb K A e vb Dc v K wi Z c vi b v |
hw` Dnv ea nq Z e Z vnv D vwc Z NUb vej x ev wei va xq wel q i
Dc i c q vM K wi e, h w` A ea nq , Z e Z vnvI Nvl Yv K wi Z
mvswea vwb K f ve eva |
mswea vb Ges mswea vb mg yb Z i vwL Z A v` vj Z i GBi c f zwg K v
17 8 0 - 9 0 ` k K c vq m ~YA c wi wPZ wQj | Dc i v Z vwZ K
A e vb L yeB ^ msL K A vBb i g a a vq vmv A vK vi mxg ve
wQj | Gi K g B GK R b wQj b James Iredell | 17 8 6 mvj Z vnvi g j
Bayard 17 7 7 mvj h y i vi ^va xbZ v h y K vj xb mg q evR q v K Z
Z vnvi m w d i r c vBevi R b g vK v g v K wi j weev` xc Z vnv
L vwi R K wi evi R b GB K vi Y c v_ b v R vb vq h c ~eeZ x er mi A vBb
K wi q v D i c evR q v K i v m w d i r c ` vb wb wl nBq vwQj |
Iredell D A vBb i mvswea vwb K ea Z v A v` vj Z i weePb vi R b
D vc b K wi Z PvwnZ wQj b |
wZ wb An Elector GB Qb vg c w K vq A mvswea vwb K A vBb A ea
Nvl Yv K wi Z A v` vj Z i g Z v c m GK wU c e j L b | Iredell
j L b t
[T]hat though the Assembly have not a right to violate the constitution,
yet if they in fact do so, the only remedy is, either by a humble petition that the
law may be repealed, or a universal resistance of the people. But that in the
mean time, their act, whatever it is, is to be obeyed as a law [by the judges]; for
the judicial power is not to presume to question the power of an act of
Assembly.
(Kramer : The People Themselves, page-61)
A b mK j c wZ K vi A c h v ` vex K wi q v Iredell ej b h mswea vb
R b MYi mvef g Z Nvl Yv K i Ges Z vnv nBZ A v` vj Z i judicial
review Gi g Z v DyZ nBq vQt
For that reason, an act of Assembly, inconsistent with the constitution,
is void, and cannot be obeyed, without disobeying the superior law to which we
144
were previously and irrevocably bound. The judges, therefore, must take care at
their peril, that every act of Assembly they presume to enforce is warranted by
the constitution, since if it is not, they act without lawful authority. This is not a
usurped or a discretionary power, but one inevitably resulting from the
constitution of their office, they being judges for the benefit of the whole people,
not mere servants of the Assembly.
(Kramer : The People Themselves, page-61-62)
Iredell Gi h yw wQj h i vi mev P ev g ~j A vBb R b MY K Z K
i wPZ | Bnv msm` K Z K c YxZ A b A vBb nBZ m ~Yc _ K Ges
judicial review Gi g Z v A v` vj Z D R b MYi A vBb x c wZ wb wa wnmve
c q vM K wi Z g Z vc v | Z vnvQvo v A mvswea vwb K A vBb c q vM K i v
nBZ A ^xK vi K wi q v A v` vj Z ei R b MYi mvswea vwb K wb ` k
c vj b K wi e| R b MYi c judicial review Gi g Z v c q vM K wi q v
A v` vj Z c vw_ Z c wZ K vi k vw c ~Yf ve mswea vb i A vI Z vq c ` vb
K wi Z c vi | A Z t c i , K vb A vBb i c wZ ev` R b MYi c wZ i va ev
A b K vb wec ei c q vR b nq b v|
Iredell Gi GB mK j hyw Bayard V. Singleton (1786) g vK v g vq we
wePvi K MY MnY K i b Ges Z vnvi c i vq c ` vb K i b |
Dj L , James Iredell c i eZ x K vj h y i vi myc xg K vUi
wePvi K wb h y nBq vwQj b |
Bayard V. Singleton (1786) g vK v g vwU North Carolina A i v DyZ
nBq vwQj | 17 7 7 mvj Bayard Gi m w evR q v nBq vwQj | 17 8 5
mvj wewa e GK wU A vBb H i c evR q v m w d i r c ` vb wb wl
K i v nq | 17 8 6 mvj H m w wd wi q v c vBevi R b Bayard
g vK v g vwU K wi j weev` xc Dnv L vwi R K wi evi c v_ b v K i v nq |
wK L vwi R i c v_ Yv ` Z g yi b v K i vq msm` wePvi K ` i WvwK q v
c vVvq Ges Z vnv` i wei A wf h vM c wZ w Z nq | A ek Z vnv` i
k vw c ` vb K i v nBZ A evnwZ ` I q v nq |
BwZ g a g vK v g vwU L vwi R K wi evi R b wZ xq evi A ve` b
K i v nBj wePvi K MY wel q wUZ wm v c ` vb Go vBevi Pv K i b ,
145
wK Z vnv m e b v nI q vq 17 8 7 mvj i g g vm h L b Philadelphia
k ni mswea vb ms v Convention A wa ek b A vi nq Z L b A b K Uv
A wb QyK f ve wb g v A v` k c ` vb K wi q v weev` x c i ` vwL j K Z
g vK v g v L vwi R i ` i L v L vwi R K i b t
............. that notwithstanding the great reluctance they might feel
against involving themselves in a dispute with the Legislature of the State, yet
no object of concern or respect could come in competition or authorize them to
dispense with the duty they owed the public, in consequence of the trust they
were invested with under the solemnity of their oaths..........
That by the Constitution every citizen had undoubtedly a right to a
decision of his property by a trial by jury. For that if the Legislature could take
away this right, and require him to stand condemned in his property without a
trial, it might with as much authority require his life to be taken away without a
trial by jury, and that he should stand condemned to die, without the formality of
any trial at all: that if the members of the General Assembly could do this, they
might with equal authority, not only render themselves the Legislators of the
State for life, without further election of the people, from thence transmit the
dignity and authority of the legislation down to their heirs male forever.
But that it was clear, that no act they could pass, could by any means
repeal or alter the constitution, because if they could do this, they would at the
same instant of time, destroy their own existence as a Legislature, and dissolve
the government thereby established. Consequently the Constitution (which the
judicial power was bound to take notice of as much as of any other whatever,)
standing in full force as the fundamental law of the land, notwithstanding the act
on which the present motion was grounded, the same act must of course, in that
instance, stand as abrogated and without any effect.
(Noel T. Dowling : Cases on Constitutional Law, 1954, c v- 7 2 - 7 3 )
( A a vi L v c ` )
wK Dc i v i vq c ` vb i c i A - i vwUZ c P c wZ ev`
D vwc Z nq Ges msm` wePvi K ` i eZ b ew e K i | Z e g ~j
g vK v g vwUZ R yi x ev` xc g Z vg Z c K vk K wi j A e v ^vf vweK
nBq v A vm|
146
GBi c A wb q Z v I b vb v i K g Uvb vc vo b i g a judicial review
Z Z a xi a xi ` vb v evuwa Z A vi K i | Larry D. Kramer Gi f vl vq
( c v- 5 7 - 5 8 ) t
This combination of factors- more active government, more explicit
constitutions, more constitutional conflict and arguably unconstitutional laws,
and, above all, a heightened sense of popular sovereignty- could be interpreted
in different ways, and it pulled people in different directions as they confronted
the new experience of managing a constitutional republic. The resulting tensions
shaped the first concept of judicial review. (The People Themselves)
Dc i v A b y Q` nBZ c Z xq g vb nq h h y i vi mswea vb
mev P A vBb Ges A i vR i mswea vb ev A vBb h vnvB _ vK zK b v
K b D A i vR i wePvi K MY h y i vi mswea vb vi v eva |
h y i vi mswea vb i Z Z xq I l A b y Q` Bnv wb wnZ (Implicit)
i wnq vQ h myc xg K vUi wePvi K MY mswea vb msk va b A vBb , Congress
K Z K wewa e A vBb Ges A i vi mswea vb I wewa e A vBb i
mvswea vwb K ea Z v weePb v I c i x v, judicial review Gi g va g K wi Z
c vwi eb | A b w` K , A i vi wePvi K MY A i vi mswea vb I
wewa e A vBb i mvswea vwb K ea Z v c i x v I weePb v GK Bi c
GL wZ q vi PPvi g va g K wi Z c vwi eb | Z vnvQvo v, myc xg K vU
A i vR nBZ A vb xZ A vc xj wj I weePb v K wi Z c vwi e|
17 8 7 mvj Federal Convention mswea vb i Pb v K wi evi c i Dnv
A i vmg ~n K Z K A b yg v` b c hvq _ vwK evi mg q PUBLIUS Q` b vg
Alexander Hamilton, 17 8 8 mvj i 2 8 k g Z vwi L Federalist No. 78 G
wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v I g Z v m ^ j L b t
..............................................................................
The complete independence of the courts of justice is peculiarly essential
in a limited Constitution. By a limited Constitution, I understand one which
contains certain specified exceptions to the legislative authority; such, for
instance, as that it shall pass no bills of attainder, no ex post facto laws, and the
like. Limitations of this kind can be preserved in practice not other way than
through the medium of courts of justice, whose duty it must be to declare all acts
147
contrary to the manifest tenor of the Constitution void. Without this, all the
reservations of particular rights or privileges would amount to nothing.
.....................................................................................
It is far more rational to suppose, that the courts were designed to be an
intermediate body between the people and the legislature, in order, among other
things, to keep the latter within the limits assigned to their authority. The
interpretation of the laws is the proper and peculiar province of the courts. A
constitution is, in fact, and must be regarded by the judges, as a fundamental
law. It therefore belongs to them to ascertain its meaning, as well as the meaning
of any particular act proceeding from the legislative body. If there should
happen to be an irreconcilable variance between the two, that which has the
superior obligation and validity ought, of course, to be preferred; or, in other
words the Constitution ought to be preferred to the statute, the intention of the
people to the intention of their agents.
..................................................................................................
The independence of the judges is equally requisite to guard the
Constitution and the rights of individuals from the effects of those ill humors,
which the arts of designing men, or the influence of particular conjunctures,
sometimes disseminate among the people themselves, and which, though they
speedily give place to better information, and more deliberate reflection, have a
tendency, in the meantime, to occasion dangerous innovations in the
government, and serious oppressions of the minor party in the community.
.................................................................................................................................
..........
But it is not with a view to infractions of the Constitution only, that the
independence of the judges may be an essential safeguard against the effects of
occasional ill humors in the society.
....................................................................................................
Dj L , 17 8 7 mvj h L b h y i vi mswea vb i Pb v K i v nq
Z L b A v` vj Z i judicial review Gi a vi Yv A c wi wPZ wQj | h y i vR
16 8 9 mvj Bill of Rights c YxZ nBevi c i King in Parliament Gi
mvef g Z c wZ v nq | A Z c i , Parliament K Z K c YxZ A vBb i vR vi
^v i i c i mva vi Y f ve A v` vj Z c q vM K wi Z eva wQj |
h y i vR A vBb i GB a vb a vi Yv g vUvg ywU me c Pwj Z wQj |
Parliament G wewa e A vBb i ea Z v A v` vj Z D vc b i a vi YvI mB
148
h yM wQj b v| mB mg q h y i vi vR b xwZ we` I c wZ ew MY wePvi
wef vMi ^va xb Z v I judicial review m ^ h Mf xi wP v f veb v K wi Z b
Z vnv mswea vb I Dc i ewYZ Federalist No. 78 _ K c Z xq g vb nq |
A Z c i , Federalist No. 81 G Alexander Hamilton judicial review m ^
ej b t
This doctrine is not deducible from any circumstance peculiar to the
plan of the convention, but from the general theory of a limited Constitution;
and as far as it is true, is equally applicable to most, if not to all the State
government...............................................................
These considerations teach us to applaud the wisdom of those State who
have committed the judicial power, in the last resort, not to a part of the
legislature, but to distinct and independent bodies of
men......................................
To avoid all inconveniencies, it will be safest to declare generally, that
the Supreme Court shall possess appellate jurisdiction both as to law and fact,
and that this jurisdiction shall be subject to such exceptions and regulations as
the national legislature may prescribe. This will enable the government to
modify it in such a manner as will best answer the ends of public justice and
security.
A i v K Z K mswea vb A b yg v` b K vj Gg b a i b i D j I
ev e A vBb x A vj vPb v h y i vi wewf b k ni Z L b Pwj Z wQj |
Gg b wK Federalist wei va x ` j I judicial review K mg _ b K wi q vwQj |
Brutus Qb vg Robert Yates j L b t
[T]he judges under this constitution will control the legislature, for the
supreme court are authorised in the last resort, to determine what is the extent of
the powers of the Congress. They are to give the constitution an explanation,
and there is no power above them to set aside their judgment......... The supreme
court then have a right, independent of the legislature, to give a construction to
the constitution and every part of it, and there is no power provided in this
system to correct their construction or do it away. If therefore, the legislature
pass any laws, inconsistent with the sense the judges put upon the constitution,
they will declare it void.
18 k k Z v xZ h y i v ^va xb nBevi c ~ec vq mK j K j vb x
i v wj i wb R ^mswea vb wQj | mswea vb i mwnZ mvsNwl K K vb A vBb
149
K j vb x i vi A v` vj Z D vwc Z nBj Z vnv A ea weewPZ nBZ |
A b K mg q D i vq i wei h y i vR i Privy Council G A vc xj
` vq i K i v nBZ |
c _ g Congress Bnvi Judiciary Act, 1789, wewa e K i | Bnvi 2 5
a vi vq A i vR mg ~ni A v` vj Z i mvswea vwb K Z v m K i vq i
wei myc xg K vUA vc xj i wea vb K i Z t D A v` vj Z judicial
review Gi g Z v wb w Z K i |
Professor William Treanor Mel Yv K wi q v ` L vBq vQb h 17 8 8
mvj nBZ 18 0 3 mvj c h A i vR mg ~n 3 8 wU g vK v g vq A vBb i
ea Z v D vwc Z nBq vwQj |
Hayburns case (1792) G wZ b wU Federal Circuit Court Congress K Z K
wewa e GK wU A vBb mswea vb i Z Z xq A b y Q` i mwnZ mvsNwl K
wea vq Z wK Z A vBb wU A mvswea vwb K ewj q v wm v MnY K i | K vi Y
D A vBb i A vI Z vq wePvi K MYK c b k b A ve` b c i Dc i
wm v MnY K wi evi ` vwq Z A c b K i v nBq vwQj h vnv wePvwi K K vh
wQj b v Ges Separation of Powers Z Z i mwnZ mvsNwl K wQj | myc xg
K vUA vc xj wePvi va xb _ vK v K vj xb mg q Congress A vBb wU evwZ j
K i wea vq myc xg K vUPzo v wm v nq b vB|
United States V. Yale Todd g vK v g vq Hayburns caseG D vwc Z
Z wK Z A vBb i A vI Z vq c b k b c ` vb K i v nBq vwQj wea vq myc xg
K vUZ vnv evwZ j K i |
Hylton V. United States (1796) g vK v g vq mec _ g myc xg K vU
Congress K Z K wewa e GK wU A vBb i ea Z v D vwc Z nq Z e myc xg
K vUA vBb wU ea Nvl Yv K i |
Z vnvQvo v, Ware V. Hylton (1796) g vK v g vq me c _ g A i vi
wewa e GK wU A vBb K myc xg K vUA ea Nvl Yv K i |
Calder V. Bull (1798) g vK g vq Justice Samuel Chase ej b t
150
If any act of congress, or of a legislature of a state, violates those
constitutional provisions, it is unquestionably void............

Cooper V. Telfair (1800) g vK g vq Justice Chase ej b t
It is indeed a general opinion-it is expressly admitted by all this bar and
some of the judges have, individually in the circuits decided, that the Supreme
Court can declare an act of Congress to be unconstitutional, and therefore
invalid, but there is no adjudication of the Supreme Court itself upon the point.

17 9 1 mvj Georgia A i vi Grand Jury K wb ` k c ` vb K vj
(Charging the jury) Circuit Court Gi wePvi c wZ James Iredell K vb A vBb h w`
mswea vb c wi c x nq Z vnv evL v K wi Z h vBq v ej b t
The courts of Justice, in any such instance coming under their
cognizance, are bound to resist them, they having no authority to carry
into execution any acts but such as the constitution warrants.
(Kramer : The People Themselves, c v- 10 4 )
GK B f ve 17 9 5 mvj Vanhornes Lessee V. Dorrance g vK v g vq
Grand Jury K wb ` k c ` vb K vj wePvi c wZ Paterson ej b t
I take it to be a clear position; that if a legislative act oppugns a
constitutional principle, the former must give way, and be rejected on the score
of repugnance. I hold it to be a position equally clear and sound, that, in such
case, it will be the duty of the Court to adhere to the Constitution, and to declare
the act null and void. The Constitution is the basis of legislative authority; it lies
at the foundation of all law, and is a rule and commission by which both
Legislators and Judges are to proceed. It is an important principle, which, in the
discussion of questions of the present kind, ought never to be lost sight of, that
the Judiciary in this country is not a subordinate, but co-ordinate, branch of the
government.
(Kramer : The People Themselves, c v- 10 4 )
wePvi c wZ Samuel Chase 18 0 0 mvj Pennsylvania Grand Jury K
wb ` k c ` vb K vj Judicial Power m ^ ej b t
is co-existent, co-extensive, and co-ordinate with, and altogether
independent of, the Legislature & the Executive; and the Judges of the
Supreme, and District Courts are bound by their Oath of Office, to
regulate their Decisions agreeably to the Constitution. The Judicial
151
power, therefore, are the only proper and competent authority to decide
whether any Law made by Congress; or any of the State Legislatures is
contrary to or in Violation of the federal Constitution.
(Kramer : The People themselves, c v- 13 4 - 3 5 )

GB c Uf ~wg K vq 18 0 3 mvj myc xg K vUMarbury V. Madison
g vK v g vi b vb x nq |
President John Adams Z vnvi A emi MnYi A K vj c ~ejustice of the
peace c ` ek wK QymsL K ew eMK wb q vM c ` vb K i b | wb q vMi
mK j A vb y vwb K Z v m b K i Z t wb q vMc c vq mK j i wb K U c i Y
K i v nBj I mg q vf ve William Marbury Gi wb K U c i Y K i v m e
nBq vwQj b v| BwZ g a Thomas Jeferson i vc wZ c ` ` vwq Z f vi MnY
K i b | Z r c i Marbury Gi wb q vMc A vi c i Y K i v nq b vB| GB
c wi w wZ Z Marbury wb A v` vj Z g vK v g v ` vq i b v K wi q v mi vmwi
myc xg K vUg vK v g v ` vq i K wi q v Z vnvi wb q vMc c i Y K wi evi
R b h y i vi Z ` vwb b Secretary of State, James Madison Gi Dc i GK wU
writ of mandamus c v_ Yv K i b |
The Judiciary Act, 1789 Gi 13 a vi v myc xg K vUK writ of mandamus
mn original g vK v g v b vb x K wi evi GL wZ q vi c ` vb K i | myZ i vs GB
A vBb i A vI Z vq myc xg K vUMarbury Gi g vK v g v b vb x K wi Z
c vwi Z wK h y i vi mswea vb i Z Z xq A b y Q` i 2 q ` d vi
A vI Z vq i v` ~Z ms v g vK v g v Ges Gg b g vK g v hL vb GK wU
A i v c i wnq vQ, mB a i Yi g vK v g v ` vq i K i v h vq |
Z vnvQvo v, A b h a i b i g vK v g vi K _ v ej v nBq vQ Z vnvi g a
mandamus ms v A vc xj g vK g vq GL &wZ q vi _ vwK j I original
g vK v g vq b vb x K wi evi GL &wZ q vi wQj b v| Gg Z A e vq Z B
c Z xq g vb nq h mswea vb i Z Z xq A b y Q` h g Z v myc xg K vUK
c ` vb K wi q vQ Judiciary Act, 1789 Gi 13 a vi v BnvK Z vnvi A wZ wi
g Z v c ` vb K wi q vQ|
152
GB c vc U myc xg K vUi c c a vb wePvi c wZ John Marshall
ej b t
The authority, therefore, given to the Supreme Court, by the act
establishing the judicial courts of the United States, to issue writs of mandamus
to public officers, appears not to be warranted by the constitution; and it
becomes necessary to inquire whether a jurisdiction so conferred can be
exercised.
The question, whether an act, repugnant to the constitution, can become
the law of the land, is a question deeply interesting to the United States; but,
happily, not of an intricacy proportioned to its interest. It seems only necessary
to recognize certain principles, supposed to have been long and well established,
to decide it.
It is a proposition too plain to be contested, that the constitution controls
any legislative act repugnant to it; or, that the legislature may alter the
constitution by an ordinary act.
Between these alternatives there is no middle ground. The constitution is
either a superior paramount law, unchangeable by ordinary means, or it is on a
level with ordinary legislative acts, and like other acts, is alterable when the
legislature shall please to alter it.
If the former part of the alternative be true, then a legislative act contrary
to the constitution is not law: if the latter part be true, then written constitutions
are absurd attempts, on the part of the people, to limit a power in its own nature
illimitable.
Certainly all those who have frame written constitutions contemplate
them as forming the fundamental and paramount law of the nation, and
consequently, the theory of every such government must be, that an act of the
legislature, repugnant to the constitution, is void.
This theory is essentially attached to a written constitution, and is,
consequently, to be considered, by this court, as one of the fundamental
principles of our society. It is not therefore to be lost sight of in the further
consideration of this subject.
If an act of the legislature, repugnant to the Constitution, is void, does it,
notwithstanding its invalidity, bind the courts, and oblige then to give it effect?
Or, in other words, though it be not law, does it constitute a rule as operative as
if it was a law?
It is emphatically the province and duty of the judicial department to say
what the law is.
153
....................The judicial power of the United States is extended to all
cases arising under the Constitution.
Could it be the intention of those who gave this power, to say that in
using it the constitution should not be looked into? That a case arising under the
constitution should be decided without examining the instrument under which it
rises?
This is too extravagant to be maintained. ....... Thus, the particular
phraseology of the constitution of the United States confirms and strengthens the
principle, supposed to be essential to all written constitution, that a law
repugnant to the constitution is void; and that courts, as well as other
departments, are bound by that instrument. (Professor Noel T. Dowling on the
Cases on Constitutional Law Fifth Edition, 1954, at pages-95-97).
( A a vi L v c ` )
Dc msnvi Marshall, C.J. ej b t
It is also not entirely unworthy of observation, that in declaring what
shall be the supreme law of the land, the constitution itself is first mentioned;
and not the laws of the United States generally, but those only which shall be
made in pursuance of the constitution, have that rank.
Thus, the particular phraseology of the constitution of the United States
confirms and strengthens the principle, supposed to be essential to all written
constitutions, that a law repugnant to the constitution is void; and that courts, as
well as other departments, are bound by that instrument.
(Professor Noel T. Dowling : Cases on Constitutional Law, page-275)
( A a vi L v c ` )
Dj L h William Marbury h y i vi mswea vb i k Z A _ ev
myc xg K vUi Judicial review Gi g Z v m ^ g vUI Dr mvnx wQj b
b v, wZ wb a yg v Z vnvi wb q vM c wU c i Y K wi evi R b Secretary of
State Gi Dc i GK wU mandamus ev myc xg K vUi wb ` k c v_ b v
K wi q vwQj b | wK myc xg K vUZ vnvi vf weePb v K wi Z h vBq v
A Z mPZ b f ve Congress Gi GK wU A vBb evwZ j Nvl Yv K i |
Congress Gi wewa e A vBb i ea Z v m K myc xg K vUi judicial
review Gi g Z v c q vMi BnvB mZ K vi c vi wQj | A vBb i
BwZ nvm Bnv wQj GK wU g vBj d j K NUb v| wb t m` n Bnv GK wU
154
A vBb x g nvwec e| Judicial review Gi g Z v g vb q wek i mK j
A v` vj Z c q vM K wi Z A vi K i |
Professor Alexander Bickel h_ vZ B Z vnvi The least Dangerous Branch
M ewj q vQb t
T[]he institution of the judiciary needed to be summoned up out of the
constitutional vapors, shaped and maintained; and the Great Chief
Justice, John Marshall,not singlehanded, but first and foremost was
there to do it and did. If any social process can be said to have been
done at a given time and by a given act, it is Marshalls achievement.
The time was 1803; the act the decision in the case of Marbury v.
Madison.
Professor William E. Nelson Z vnvi Marbury V. Madison M i Introduction
G ej b t
Marbury v. Madison will long remain a foundational case for
understanding the work and jurisprudence of the Supreme Court of the
United States. In an 1803 opinion by Chief Justice John Marshall, the
Court explicitly ruled for the first time that it possessed what we now
call the power of judicial review, or jurisdiction to examine whether
legislation enacted by Congress is consistent with the Constitution.
..........Thus, Marbury v. Madison was a truly seminal case, which
ultimately has conferred vast power on the Supreme Court of the United
States and on other constitutional courts throughout the world. What
makes the case even more important is the absence of any clear plan on
the part of the Constitutions framers to provide the Court with this
power.
Marbury V. Madison g vK v g vi i vq m K Professor Charles G. Haines
ej b t
........Marshall, who was an ardent Federalist, was aware of a rising
opposition to the theory of judicial control over legislation, and he no doubt
concluded that the wavering opinions on federal judicial supremacy needed to
be replaced by a positive and unmistakable assertion of authority.
(Rabert K. Carr: The Supreme Court and Judicial Review nBZ DZ , c v-
7 0 )
155
Marbury V. Madison g vK v g v wek l Y K wi q v Professor Robert K.
Carr ej b t
.........Marshall chose to base his decision upon the much broader
ground that the Court must refuse to enforce any act of Congress which it
considers contrary to the Constitution, regardless of whether the act is one
pertaining to the work of the judiciary or dealing with some other matter
altogether................... ( c v- 6 8 )
..........It refrained from exercising a power which Congress had granted
to it and which in the case at hand it might have used in partisan fashion to
accomplish an act of judicial interference with the conduct of administrative
affairs of the government by the President of the United States and his first
assistant, the Secretary of State. In other words, the Court might have tried to
force Jefferson and Madison to give Marbury his commission, and Federalists
the country over would have applauded. But instead, in an act of seeming self-
abnegation, the Court said No and dismissed the case for want of jurisdiction.
..................................................( c v- 6 9 )
............ In other words, Marshall was invoking that power for the first
time at just such a moment when the Fathers probably intended it should be
exercised. Jefferson had become president and his party had won control of
Congress. The opposition had obtained complete control of the political
branches of the government. Is it not obvious that from the point of view of the
Founding Fathers and the Federalist party the time had come to point out that the
Constitution as a higher law did place restraints upon Congress and that the
Supreme Court as guardian of the Constitution had power to enforce those
restraints.
In Marbury v. Madison we see Chief Justice Marshall suggesting that the
Supreme Court was duty-bound as a matter of unescapable principle to enforce
thee Constitution as a symbol of restraint upon congressional authority through
the exercise of its power of judicial review. ( c v- 7 1)
(Supreme Court and Judicial Review, Publisher: Rinehart de Company INC.
New York)
( A a vi L v c ` )
myc xg K vUi GL &wZ q vi c m Cohens V. Virginia (1821)
g vK v g vq c a vb wePvi c wZ John Marshall ej b t
It is most true that this Court will not take jurisdiction if it should not:
but it is equally true, that it must take jurisdiction if it should. The judiciary
156
cannot, as the legislature may, avoid a measure because it approaches the
confines of the constitution. We cannot pass it by because it is doubtful. With
whatever doubts, with whatever difficulties, a case may be attended, we must
decide it, if it be brought before us. We have no more right to decline the
exercise of jurisdiction which is given, than to usurp that which is not given. The
one or the other would be treason to the constitution.
( A a vi L v c ` )
Justice Robert H. Jackson myc xg K vUi K Z Z ev A wa K vi m ^
Harvard wek we` vj q 19 5 4 mvj The Supreme Court as a Unit of
Government wk i vb vg Godkin e Z v c ` vb K wi evi R b c wZ MnY
K wi q vwQj b wK D e Z v c ` vb K wi evi c ~eB Z uvnvi g Z z nq |
c i eZ xZ wek we` vj q K Z c e Z vi L mo vwU g yw` Z K wi q v c K vk
K i b | Dnvi A sk wek l wb i c t
What authority does the Court possess which generates this influence?
The answer is its power to hold unconstitutional and judicially unenforceable an
act of the President, of Congress, or of a constituent state of the Federation. That
power is not expressly granted or hinted at in the Article defining judicial power,
but rests on logical implication. It is an incident of jurisdiction to determine
what really is the law governing a particular case or controversy. In the
hierarchy of legal values, If the higher law of he Constitution prohibits what the
lower law of the legislature attempts, the latter is a nullity; otherwise, the
Constitution would exist only at the option of Congress. Thus it comes about
that in a private litigation the Court may decide a question of power that will be
of great moment to the nation or to state. (Justice Robert H. Jackson of U.S.
Supreme Court, published by Harverd University Press, 1955, at page-22)
( A a vi L v c ` )
A v` vj Z A vBb i ea Z v wePvi K wi e, A vBb i weP YZ v b q |
Noble State Bank V. Haskell 219 US 575, 580 (1911) g vK v g vq wePvi c wZ
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. ej b t
We fully understand....the powerful argument that can be made against
the wisdom of this legislation, but on that point we have no concern.
Terminiello V. City of Chicago 337 US 1, 11(1949) g vK v g vq wf b g Z
c vl Y K wi q v wePvi c wZ Felix Frankfurter ej b t
157
We do not sit like kadi under a tree, dispensing justice according to
consideration of individual expediency.
wePvi c w q v ev judicial process m ^ wePvi c wZ Benjamin N. Cordozo
Z vnvi wj wL Z The Nature of the Judicial Process c y K ej b ( c v- 112 -
113 ) t
My analysis of the judicial process comes then to this, and little more:
logic, and history, and custom, and utility, and the accepted standards of right
conduct, are the forces which singly or in combination shape the progress of the
law. Which of these forces shall dominate in any case must depend largely upon
the comparative importance or value of the social interests that will be thereby
promoted or impaired. One of the most fundamental social interests is that law
shall be uniform and impartial. There must be nothing in its action that savors of
prejudice or favor or even arbitrary whim or fitfulness.
g vK v g vq wm v MnY GK R b wePvi K i ` vwq Z I K Z e
m K wePvi c wZ Cordozo ej b ( c v- 14 1) t
The judge, even when he is free, is still not wholly free. He is not to
innovate at pleasure. He is not a knight-errant roaming at will in pursuit of his
own ideal of beauty or of goodness. He is to draw his inspiration from
consecrated principles. He is not to yield to spasmodic sentiment, to vague and
unregulated benevolence. He is to exercise a discretion informed by tradition,
methodized by analogy, disciplined by system, and subordinated to the
primordial necessity of order in the social life. Wide enough in all conscience is
the field of discretion that remains.
A vBb c q vM f zj vw I wePvi K i A e vb m K wePvi c wZ
Cordozo Dc msnvi ej b ( c v- 17 8 - 7 9 ) t
The work of a judge is in one sense enduring and in another sense
ephemeral. What is good in it endures. What is erroneous is pretty sure to perish.
The good remains the foundation on which new structures will be built. The bad
will be rejected and cast off in the laboratory of the years. Little by little the old
doctrine is undermined. Often the encroachments are so gradual that their
significance is at first obscured. Finally we discover that the contour of the
landscape has been changed, that the old maps must be cast aside, and the
ground charted anew.
P~o v wePvi c Z xq g vb nq , h K vb ` k i A v` vj Z i g Z vi
c K Z Dr m mswea vb Z _ v R b MY K vi Y mswea vb i c veb v We, the
158
people of the United States A _ ev A vg i v evsj v` k i R b MY(We the people
of Bangladesh ) R b MYi c GB wb i sK zk K Z Z myj f I mk
A wf ew eYb v K i Z t hy i v I evsj v` k i mswea vb i c vi |
R b MYi b vg c veb vi GBi c c vi c g vY K i h R b MYB
mvef g | mswea vb i g va g R b MYB Pvwnq vQ h i v Gg b GK wU
^va xb wePvi ee v _ vwK e h vnv Congress ev R vZ xq msm` Ges wb evnx
K Z c vi v K vb f veB c f vevwb Z nBe b v| R b MY GL b I wek vm
K i h mK j mxg ve Z v mZ I myc xg K vU, mswea vb K Z K wb w Z ,
Z vnv` i A wa K vi I ^va xb Z v mg yb Z i vwL evi R b me vc v
wek vmf vR b I c c vZ nxb i K Ges mvweK f ve wePvi wef vM
R b MYi k l f i mv|
GB K vi YB h y i vi i vc wZ MY h g b Thomas Jefferson, Andrew
Jackson, Abraham Lincoln, Roosevelt, Dweight D. Eisenhour A Z c f vek vj x
nI q v mZ I myc xg K vUi g Z v K vb f ve nvm K i b b vB h w` I
Bnvi i vq vi v Z uvnvi v A b K mg q B weeZ nBq vQb | Z vnvQvo v,
Scarecly any political question arises in the United States that is not resolved sooner or
later into a judicial question(Alexis de Tocqueville, 1848) | wK me c K vi
i vR b wZ K mU mZ I h y i v i myc xg K vUc c vZ nxb f ve
mswea vb mg yb Z i vwL q v R b g vb yl i A wa K vi i vq f ~ wg K v i vwL q vQ|
mva vi Y f ve msm` K Z K wewa e K vb A vBb i c wZ myc xg K vUi
K vb A b xnv _ vK b v| h w` K vb ew z nBq v K vb A vBb i
ea Z v A v` vj Z D vc b K i a yg v m B mswea vb i A vj vK
myc xg K vUZ wK Z A vBb i ea Z v wePvi weePb v K wi q v _ vK | wK
mec K vi i vR b wZ K mU mZ I myc xg K vU c c vZ nxb f ve
mswea vb mg yb Z i vwL q v R b g vb yl i A wa K vi i vq wb wf K I ` p
f ~wg K v i vwL q vQ| GB L vb B myc xg K vUi ^vZ Z v | It is living voice
of the Constitution (Bryce) | R b MYi mswea vb m myc xg K vUR b MYi B
c wZ vb |
159
mswea vb i c va vb I mswea vb wePvi wef vMK wK ` vwq Z I
K Z e A c b K wi q vQ m m ^ Special Reference No. 1 of 1964 (AIR 1965 SC
745) g vK v g vq f vi Z xq myc xg K vUweePb v K i | c a vb wePvi c wZ
P.B. Gajendragadkar ej b ( c v- 7 6 2 - 6 3 ) t
39.......... The supremacy of the constitution is fundamental to the
existence of a federal State in order to prevent either the legislature of the
federal unit or those of the member States from destroying or impairing that
delicate balance of power which satisfies the particular requirements of States
which are desirous of union, but not prepared to merge their individuality in a
unity. This supremacy of the constitution is protected by the authority of an
independent judicial body to act as the interpreter of a scheme of distribution of
powers...........................
41. In a democratic country governed by a written Constitution, it is the
Constitution which is supreme and sovereign. It is no doubt true that the
Constitution itself can be amended by the Parliament, but that is possible
because Art.368 of the Constitution itself makes a provision in that behalf, and
the amendment of the Constitution can be validly made only by following
procedure prescribed by the said article. That shows that even when the
Parliament purports to amend the Constitution, it has to comply with the
relevant mandate of the Constitution itself. Legislators, Ministers, and Judges all
take oathe of allegiance to the Constitution, for it is by the relevant provisions of
the Constitution that they derive their authority and jurisdiction and it is to the
provisions of the Constitution that they owe allegiance. Therefore, there can be
no doubt that the sovereignty which can be claimed by the Parliament in
England, cannot be claimed by any Legislature in India in the literal absolute
sense.
42. There is another aspect of this matter which must also be mentioned;
whether or not there is distinct and rigid separation of powers under the Indian
Constitution, there is no doubt that the Constitution has entrusted to the
Judicature in this country the task of construing the provisions of the
Constitution and of safeguarding the fundamental rights of the citizens. When a
statute is challenged on the ground that it has been passed by a Legislature
without authority, or has otherwise unconstitutionally trespassed on fundamental
rights, it is for the courts to determine the dispute and decide whether the law
passed by the legislature is valid or not. Just as the legislatures are conferred
legislative authority and their functions are normally confined to legislative
functions, and the functions and authority of the executive lie within the domain
160
of executive authority, so the jurisdiction and authority of the Judicature in this
country lie within the domain of adjudication. If the validly of any law is
challenged before the courts, it is never suggested that the material question as
to whether legislative authority has been exceeded or fundamental rights have
been contravened, can be decided by the legislatures themselves. Adjudication
of such a dispute is entrusted solely and exclusively to the Judicature of this
country; ......................................
.......................................................................................
..........................................................................................
129. If the power of the High Courts under Art. 226 and the authority of
this Court under Art. 32 are not subject to any exceptions, then it would be futile
to content that a citizen cannot move the High Courts or this Court to invoke
their jurisdiction even in cases where his fundamental rights have been violated.
The existence of judicial power in that behalf must necessarily and inevitably
postulate the existence of a right in the citizen to move the Court in that behalf;
otherwise the power conferred on the High Courts and this Court would be
rendered virtually meaningless. Let it not be forgotten that the judicial power
conferred on the High Courts and this Court is meant for the protection of the
citizens fundamental right, and so, in the existence of the said judicial power
itself is necessarily involved the right of the citizens to appeal to the said power
in a proper case. ( A a vi L v c ` )
Professor O. Hood Phillips Z vnvi M Constitutional and Administrative
Law, Seventh Edition (1987) wK c wZ Z GK wU A vBb i ea Z v weePb v
K i v nq Z vnv eYb v K wi q vQb t
.................the federal courts have jurisdiction to declare provisions of
state constitutions, state legislation and federal legislation repugnant to the
Federal Constitution. It is not strictly accurate to say that the Courts declare
legislation void: when cases are brought before them judicially, they may
declare that an alleged right or power does not exist or that an alleged wrong has
been committed because a certain statue relied on is unconstitutional.
( A a vi L v c ` )
Asma Jilani V. Government of Punjab, PLD 1972 SC 139 g vK v g vwU
GK wU habeas corpus g vK v g v nBZ DyZ nq | g vwj K Mvj vg
R xj vb xK 19 7 1 mvj i Martial Law Regulation 78 Gi A vI Z vq A i xY
K i v nq | nvBK vUThe Jurisdiction of Courts (Removal of Doubts) Order, 1969
161
(Presidents Order No. 3 of 1969) Gi K vi Y A i xY A v` k n c
K wi Z A ^xK vi K i | A vc xj g vK v g vq myc xg K vUPresidents Order
No. 3 of 1969 I Martial Law Regulation 78 Df q K B A ea Nvl Yv K i |
c a vb wePvi c wZ Hamoodur Rahman ej b ( c v- 19 7 ) t
This provision, as very appropriately pointed out by Mr. Brohi, strikes at the very root
of the judicial power of the Court to hear and determine a matter, even though it may
relate to its own jurisdiction. The Courts undoubtedly have the power to hear and
determine any matter or controversy which is brought before them, even if it be to
decide whether they have the jurisdiction to determine such a matter or not. The
superior Courts are, as is now well settled, the Judges of their own jurisdiction. This is a
right which has consistently been claimed by this and other Courts of superior
jurisdiction in all civilised countries......... ( A a vi L v c ` )

f vi Z xq myc xg K vUK vb ms z ew i c K I f vi Z xq
mswea vb i 3 2 A b y Q` i A vI Z vq A ve` b c wnmve MY K i Z t
A vBb A b ymvi b vq wePvi K wi evi R b c ` c MnY K wi q vQ|
Amnesty International Gi wb K U nBZ GK wU telegram c v nBq v c vwK vb
myc xg K vUg vb eZ vwei va x I A m vb R b K wea vq c K vk d uvwm w` evi
A v` k wMZ K i |
wePvi c wZ Robert H. Jackson GK B g Z c vl Y K wi Z b | wZ wb
Dc i ewYZ Z uvnvi Godkin e Z vq ej b |
.............Thus it comes about that in a private litigation the Court may
decide a question of power that will be of great moment to the nation or to a
State.
Fazlul Quader Chowdhury V. Muhammad Abdul Haque, PLD 1963 SC 486
g vK v g vq c a vb wePvi c wZ A.R. Cornelius GK B a i Yi g e K i b
( c v- 5 0 3 ) t
The duty of interpreting the Constitution is, in fact a duty of enforcing
the provisions of the Constitution in any particular case brought before the
courts in the form of litigation.
c Z xq g vb nq , h K vb g vK v g vq b vb x c m K vb A vBb i
mvswea vwb K Z vi c k D vwc Z nBj myc xg K vUm m ^ wb wj
162
_ vwK Z c vi b v| h nZ z mvswea vwb K c k wUI A vBb i c k mnZ z
mK j c K b vwUk c ` vb c ~eK Z vnv wb i mb K i vUvB ev b xq | A ek
eZ g vb g vK v g vwU R b ^v_ g ~j K , G I D vwc Z mK j A vBb i
c k A vj vPb v K i vB k q |
Dj L , ms z ew ev Z vnvi c h w` mwVK A vBb i c k
D vc b K i v m e b vI nq Z eyI D vwc Z NUb vej xi Dc i mwVK
A vBb A vj vPb v I Z vnv c q vM K i v wePvi K i ` vwq Z I K Z e| Z vnv
K wi Z h vBq v h w` K vb A vBb i ea Z vi c k D vwc Z nq Z e Z vnv
Go vBq v b v h vBq v Df q c K mB c k m ^ I q vwK envj K i Z t
A vBb i c k wU wb i mb K i v ev b xq | GB c wZ h y i v I f vi Z xq
myc xg K vU A b ymi Y K wi q v _ vK | h y i vR Gg b wK GK wU
g vK v g vq GK wU wej A vBb c wi YZ nBevi c ~eB A v` vj Z Z vnvi
ea Z v weePb v K i |
R V. H.M. Treasury ex parte Smedley, (1985)1 All ER 589 g vK v g vq
Parliament Gi c Z A b yg v` b ewZ i K mshy Z nwej nBZ A _
c ` vb wel q wU Court of Appeal G D vwc Z nBj Sir John Donaldson MR
ej b t
.............Before considering Mr. Smedleys objections........I think that I
should say a word about the respective roles of Parliament and the
courts. Although the United Kingdom has no written constitution, it is a
constitutional convention of the highest importance that the legislature
and the judicature are separate and independent of one another, subject to
certain ultimate rights of Parliament over the judicature which are
immaterial for present purpose. It therefore behoves the courts to be over
sensitive to the paramount need to refrain form trespassing on the
province of Parliament or, so far as this can be avoided, even appearing
to do so. Although it is not a matter for me, I would hope and expect that
Parliament would be similarly sensitive to the need to refrain from
trespassing on the province of the courts..............It is the function of
Parliament to legislation is necessarily in written form. It is the function
of the courts to construe and interpret that legislation. Putting it in
popular language, it is for Parliament to make the laws and for the courts
to tell the nation, including members, of both Houses of Parliament, what
163
those laws mean........... At the present moment, there is no Order in
Council to which Mr. Smedley can object as being unauthorized...........In
many, and possibly most, circumstance the proper course would
undoubtedly be for the courts to invite the applicant to renew has
application if and when an order was made, but in some circumstances
an expressions of view on questions of law which would arise for
decision if Parliament were to approve a draft may be of service not only
to the parties, but also to each House of Parliament itself. This course
was adopted in R v Electricity Comrs, ex P London Electricity Joint
Committee Co (1920) Ltd. (1924) 1 KB 171, (1923) All ER Rep 150. In
that case an inquiry was in progress, the cost of which would have been
wholly wasted if , thereafter, the minister and Parliament had approved
the scheme only to be told at that late stage that the scheme was ultra
vires.
( A a vi L v c ` )
A v` vj Z b vq wePvi K wi evi R b Bnvi mnR vZ DM nBZ
Gg b f ve A vBb wek l Y K wi Z c q vm c vq h vnv Parliament wb R I
mwVK g b K wi q v _ vK | HWR Wade Gi f vl vq ( c v- 4 18 ) t
The Courts may presume the Parliament, when it grants powers, intends
them to be exercised in a right and proper way. Since Parliament is very
unlikely to make provision to the contrary, this allows considerable
scope for the courts to devise a set of canons of fair administrative
procedure , suitable to the needs of the time. (The underlining are
mine).( Quoted from H.W.R. Wade: Administrative Law Fifth Edition,
1982).
(A a vi L v c ` )
Dj L , nvR vi er mi c ~eBsj vi i vR vK fountain of justice ej v
nBZ Ges wZ wb B i vR i mev P wePvi c wZ wQj b | g g wePvi
K vh i ` vwq Z f vi i vR vi wb q vMc v wePvi K MYi Dc i b nBZ
_ vK Ges wePvi K MYB i vR i wePvi K vh c wi Pvj b v K wi Z _ vK b |
16 0 3 mvj i vYx Elizabeth I Gi g Z zi c i Scotland Gi i vR v James
I wnmve Bsj vi wmsnvmb A vi vnY K i b | c ~ei Plantagenet I
Tudor i vR v` i A vg j Bsj v A vBb A v` vj Z i c f ~Z Db wZ nq |
Z vnvi vI ^ QvPvi x wQj b eU wK g vUvg ywU A vBb g vb K wi q v
164
Pwj Z b | wK i vR v James I ^Mxq A wa K vi wmsnvmb A vi vnY
K wi q vQb ewj q v g b K wi Z b | wZ wb wePvi K ` i i vR K g Pvi x ewj q v
g b K wi Z b , Gg b wK wePvwi K wel q I wePvi K ` i wm v i Dc i
i vR vi wm v P~o v ewj q v g b K wi Z b | i vR vi K vh g A vBb vi v
wb q w Z nBe GB c K vi e e wZ wb i vR ` vn ewj q v g b K wi Z b |
GB mK j wel q Court of Common Pleas A v` vj Z i c a vb wePvi c wZ Sir
Edward Coke Gi mwnZ Z vnvi g vMZ g Z Z Z v nBZ | wePvwi K
evc vi i vR vi g Z v m ^ Prohibitions del Roy (1608) g vK v g vq Coke
ej b t
The king cannot adjudge any case, either criminal, as treason, felony,
etc., or betwixt party and party.......but these matters ought to be determined and
adjudged in some court of justice according to the law and custom of
England..................
God has endowed your Majesty with excellent science as well as great
gifts of nature, you are not learned in the laws of this your realm of England.
That legal causes which concern the life or inheritance, or goods or fortunes, of
your subjects are not to be decided by natural reason but by the artificial reason
and judgment of law, which law is an art which requires long study and
experience before a man can attain to the cognizance of it.
( John Hostettler : Sir Edward Coke, c v- 6 9 - 7 0 )
i vR v wb R K mev P wePvi K ` vex K wi q v ej b t
inferior Judges were his shadows and ministers.... and the King may, if
he please, sit and judge in Westminster Hall in any court there, and call their
judgments in question. The King being the author of the Lawe is the interpreter
of the Lawe (Sir William Holdsworth : A History of English Law, Vol. V, Page
-428 note-5).
i vR v Henry III Gi A vg j Kings Bench Gi wePvi c wZ Bracton K
D Z K wi q v Coke Di K i b t
the King is below no man, but he is below God and the law; ...the King
is bound to obey the law, though if he breaks it his punishment must be left to
God.(John Hostettler: Sir Edward Coke, page-69-71)
165
Sir Edward Coke GB f ve Pvwi k Z er mi c ~ewePvi wef vMK
i vR vi ^ QvPvwi Z vi nvZ nBZ i v K i b |
wePvi c wZ Yaqub Ali GB c m ej b ( c v- 2 3 7 )
As both Presidents Order No. 3 of 1969 and Martial Law Regulation
78 were intended to deny to the Courts the performance of their judicial
functions, an object opposed to the concept of law. Neither would be recognized
by Courts as law.
Marbury V. Madison (1803) g vK v g vq H wZ nvwmK i vq i c i
h y i vi myc xg K vU mswea vb K evL v wek l Y K i Z t mg yb Z
i vwL q vQ| President Woodrow Wilson mswea vb K a vigorous taproot wnmve
A vL vwq Z K wi q vQb | h y i v mvswea vwb K K vh g wK f ve Db q b
nBj Z vnv Lord Denning Gi GK wU g e nBZ Dc j w K i v h vq | wZ wb
Z vnvi What Next In The Law c y K h y i vi A vBb I Bnvi ` k g
c a vb wePvi c wZ Charles Evans Hughes m ^ ej b t
The rule in the United States is not contained in their Constitution itself.
It is a judge-made rule. It was stated by Chief Justice Marshall in 1803 in the
Marbury case. Later on Charles Evans Hughes, the tenth Chief Justice, in 1908
firmly declared:
We are under a Constitution, but the Constitution is what the judges say
it is and the judiciary is the safeguard of our liberty and our property under the
Constitution.
Their Constitution nowhere provides that it shall be what the judges say it is.
Yet it has become the most fundamental and far reaching principle of American
constitutional law.(Lord Denning: What Next In The Law at page-318 of First
Indian Reprint, 1993).
( A a vi L v c ` )
wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v I wePvi K ` i A e vb m ^ S.P. Gupta
V. President of India AIR 1982 SC 149 g vK v g vq wePvi c wZ P. N. Bhagwati
Z vunvi A b yc g q i Pb vk j xZ ej b ( c v- 19 7 ) t
.................The concept of independence of the judiciary is a noble
concept which inspires the constitutional scheme and constitutes the foundation
on which rests the edifice of our democratic polity. If there is one principle
166
which runs through the entire fabric of the Constitution, it is the principle of the
rule of law and under the Constitution, it is the judiciary which is entrusted with
the task of keeping every organ of the State within the limits of the law and
thereby making the rule of law meaningful and effective. It is to aid the judiciary
in this task that the power of judicial review has been conferred upon the
judiciary and it is by exercising this power which constitutes one of the most
potent weapons in armory of the law, that the judiciary seeks to protect the
citizen against violation of his constitutional or legal rights or misuse of abuse of
power by the State or its officers. The Judiciary stands between the citizen and
the State as a bulwark against executive excesses and misuse or abuse of power
by the executive and therefore it is absolutely essential that the judiciary must be
free from executive pressure or influence and this has been secured by the
Constitution makers by making elaborate provisions in the Constitution to which
detailed reference has been made in the judgments in Sankalchand Sheths case
(AIR 1977 SC 2328) (supra). But it is necessary to remind ourselves that the
concept of independence of the judiciary is not limited only to independence
from executive pressure to independence from executive pressure or influence
but it is a much wider concept which takes within its sweep independence from
many other pressures and prejudices. It has many dimensions, namely
fearlessness of other power centres, economic or political, and freedom from
prejudices acquired and nourished by the class to which the Judges belong. It we
may again quote the eloquent words of Justices Krishna Iyer:
Independences of the Judiciary is not genuflexion; nor is it opposition
to every proposition of Government. It is neither judiciary made to opposition
measure nor Governments pleasure.....................
.......... Judges should be of stern stuff and tough fibre, unbending before
power, economic or political and they must uphold the core principle of the rule
of law which says Be you ever so high, the law is above you. This is the
principle of independence of the judiciary which is vital for the establishment of
real participatory democracy, maintenance of the rule of law as a dynamic
concept and delivery of social justice to the vulnerable sections of the
community. It is this principle of independence of the judiciary which we must
keep in mind while interpreting the relevant provisions of the Constitution.
( A a vi L v c ` )
GBf ve mvZ k Z er mi c ~enBZ Bracton Z r c i Coke, Holt,
Mansfield b vq i K _ v, A vBb i K _ v, A vBb i k vmb i K _ v ewj q v
wMq vQb | Z vnvi v ewj q v wMq vQb h Sovereign kingI A vBb i Da
167
b b | Z vnvi v mB c vPxb K vj I wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v mg yb Z
i vwL q v wMq vQb |
nvBK vUI myc xg K vUi Judicial review Gi g Z v m K L.
Chandra Kumar V. Union of India, AIR 1997 SC 1125 g vK v g vq c a vb
wePvi c wZ Ahmadi C.J. I A vj vPb v K vj ej b ( c v- 114 8 ) t
73. We may now analyse certain other authorities for the proposition
that the jurisdiction conferred upon the High Courts and Supreme Court under
Articles 226 and 32 of the Constitution respectively, is part of the basic structure
of the Constitution. While expressing his views on the significance of draft
Article 25, which corresponds to the present Article 32 of the Constitution, Dr.
B. R. Ambedkar, the chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constituent
Assembly stated as follows (CAD, Vol. VII, p. 953):
If I was asked to name any particular Article in this Constitution as the
most important an Article without this Constitution would be a nullity- I could
not refer to any other Article except this one. It is the very soul of the
Constitution and the very heart of it and I am glad that the House has realised its
impotence.
78. The legitimacy of the power of Courts within constitutional
democracies to review legislative action has been questioned since the time it
was first conceived. The Constitution of India, being alive to such criticism, has,
while conferring such power upon the higher judiciary, incorporated important
safeguards. An analysis of the manner in which the Framers of our Constitution
incorporated provisions relating to the judiciary would indicate that they were
very greatly concerned with securing the independence of the judiciary. (#)
These attempts were directed at ensuring that the judiciary would be capable of
effectively discharging its wide powers of judicial review...
The judges of the superior Courts have been entrusted with the task of
upholding the Constitution and to this end, have been conferred the power to
interpret it. It is they who have to ensure that the balance of power envisaged by
the Constitution maintained and that the legislature and the executive do not, in
the discharge of their functions, transgress constitutional limitations.................
We, therefore, hold that the power of judicial review over legislative
action vested in the High Courts under Article 226 and in this court under
Article 32 of the Constitution is an integral and essential feature of the
Constitution, constituting part of its basic structure. Ordinarily, therefore, the
168
power of High Courts and the Supreme Court to test the constitutional validity
of legislations can never be ousted or excluded.
( A a vi L v c ` )
Kesavananda Bharati V. State of Kerala, AIR 1973 SC 1461 g vK v g vq
wePvi c wZ H.R. Khanna myc xg K vUi wePvwi K c yb weePb v ev judicial
review Gi g Z v m ^ ej b ( c v- 18 9 9 ) t
1541..........The machinery for the resolving of disputes as to whether
the Central Legislature has trespassed upon the legislative field of the State
Legislature have encroached upon the legislative domain of the Central
Legislature is furnished by the courts and they are vested with the powers of
judicial review to determine the validity of the Acts passed by the legislatures.
The power of judicial review is, however, confined not merely to deciding
whether in making the impugned laws the Central or State Legislatures have
acted within the four corners of the legislative lists earmarked for them; the
courts also deal with the question as to whether the laws are made in conformity
with and not in violation of the other provisions of the Constitution. Our
Constitution-makers have provided for fundamental rights in Part III and made
them justiciable. As long some fundamental rights exits and are a part of the
Constitution, the power of judicial review has also to be exercise with a view to
see that the guarantees afforded by those rights are not contravened.
( A a vi L v c ` )
Smt. Indira Nehru Gandhi V. Shri Raj Narain, AIR 1975 SC 2299 g vK v g vq
mswea vb I myc xg K vUi g Z v Ges basic structure m ^ wePvi c wZ
M.H. Beg ej b ( c v- 2 4 5 5 ) t
622. If the constituent bodies, taken separately or together, could be
legally sovereign, in the same way as the British Parliament is, the
Constitutional validity of no amendment could be called in question before us.
But, as it is well established that it is the Constitution and not the constituent
power which is supreme here, in the sense that the Constitutionality of
Constitution cannot be called in question before us, but the exercise of the
constituent power can be we have to judge the validity of exercise of constituent
power by testing it on the anvil of constitutional provisions. According to the
majority view in Kesavanadas case (supra), we can find the test primarily in the
Preamble to our Constitution.
169
623. A point emphasized by J. C. Gray (See: Nature & Sources of Law
p. 96) is that unless and until Courts have declared and recognised a law as
enforcible it is not law at all. Kelsen (See: General Theory of Law & State p.
150) finds Grays views to be extreme. Courts, however, have to test the legality
of laws, whether purporting to be ordinary or constitutional, by the norms laid
down in the constitution. This follows from the Supremacy of the Constitution. I
mention this here in answer to one of the questions set out much earlier: Does
the basic structure of the constitution test only the validity of a constitutional
amendment or also ordinary laws? I think it does both because ordinary law
making itself cannot go beyond the range of constituent power. At this stage, we
are only concerned with a purported constitutional amendment. According to the
majority view in Kesavanda Bharatis case (AIR 1973 SC 1461) the preamble
furnishes the yard-stick to be applied even to constitutional amendments.
( A a vi L v c ` )
Minerva Mills Ltd. V. Union of India, AIR 1980 SC 1789 g vK v g vq c a vb
wePvi c wZ Y.V. Chandrachud A vBb i ea Z v wb Yq myc xg K vUi g Z v
A vj vPb v c m ej b ( c v- 17 9 9 ) t
Our Constitution is founded on a nice balance of power among the three
wings of State, namely, the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary. It is the
function of the Judges, nay their duty, to pronounce upon the validity of laws.
( A a vi L v c ` )
Minerva Mills Ltd. V. Union of India, AIR 1980 SC 1789 g vK v g vq
wePvi c wZ P.N. Bhagwati Z vnvi wf b g Z myc xg K vUi mvswea vwb K
A e vb I judicial review Gi g Z v I c K wZ m ^ g e K i b ( c v-
18 2 5 - 2 6 ) t
...........if the legislature makes a law and a dispute arises whether in
making the law the legislature has acted outside the area of its legislative
competence or the law is violative of the fundamental rights or of any other
provisions of the Constitution, its resolution cannot, for the same reasons, be left
to the determination of the legislature. The Constitution has, therefore, created
an independent machinery for resolving these disputes and this independent
machinery is the judiciary which is vested with the power of judicial review to
determine the legality of executive action and the validity of legislation passed
by the legislature. It is the solemn duty of the judiciary under the Constitution to
keep the different organs of the State such as the executive and the legislature
170
within the limits of the power conferred upon them by the Constitution. This
power of judicial renew is conferred on the judiciary by Arts. 32 and 226 of the
Constitution.........
........The judiciary is the interpreter of the Constitution and to the
judiciary is assigned the delicate task to determine what is the power conferred
on each branch of Government, whether it is limited. and if so, what are the
limits and whether any action of that branch transgresses such limits. It is for the
judiciary to uphold the constitutional values and to enforce the constitutional
limitations. That is the essence of the rule of law, which inter alia requires that
the exercise of powers by the Government whether it be the legislature or the
executive or any other authority, be conditioned by the Constitution and the
law. The power of judicial review is an integral part of our constitutional
system and without it, there will be no Government of laws and the rule of law
would become a teasing illusion and a promise of unreality. I am of the view
that if there is one feature of our Constitution which, more than any other, is
basic and fundamental to the maintenance of democracy and the rule of law, it is
the power of judicial review and it is unquestionably, to my mind, part of the
basic structure of the Constitution. Of course, when I say this I should not be
taken to suggest that effective alternative institutional mechanisms or
arrangements for judicial review cannot be made by Parliament. But what I wish
to emphasise is that judicial review is a vital principle of our Constitution and it
cannot be abrogated without affecting the basic structure of the Constitution. If
by a constitutional amendment, the power of judicial review is taken away and it
is provided that the validity of any law made by Legislature shall not be liable to
called in question on any ground, even if it is outside the legislative competence
of the legislature or is violative of any fundamental rights, it would be nothing
short of subversion of the Constitution, for it would make a mockery of the
distribution of legislative powers between the Union and the States and render
the fundamental rights meaningless and futile. So also if a constitutional
amendment is made which has the effect of taking away the power of judicial
review and providing that no amendment made in the Constitution shall be liable
to be questioned no any ground, even if such amendment is violative of the basic
structure and, therefore, outside the amendatory power of Parliament, it would
be making Parliament sole Judges of the constitutional validity of what it has
done and that would, in effect and substance, nullify the limitation on the
amending power of Parliament and affect the basic structure of the Constitution.
The conclusion must therfore inevitable follow that clause (4) of Art. 368 is
unconstitutional and void as damaging the basic structure of the Constitution.
( A a vi L v c ` )
171
Fertilizer Corporation Kamgar Union (Regd.) V. Union of India (1981) 1 SCC
568 g vK v g vq c a vb wePvi c wZ Y.V. Chandrachud myc xg K vUi g Z v
m K A vj vK c vZ K i b ( c v- 5 7 4 ) t
11............The jurisdiction conferred on the Supreme Court by Article
32 is an important and integral part of the basic structure of the Constitution
because it is meaningless to confer fundamental rights without providing an
effective remedy for their enforcement, if and when they are violatied. A right
without remedy is a legal conundrum of a most grotesque kind...............
( A a vi L v c ` )
Raja Ram Pal V. Honble Speaker, Lok Sabha (2007) 3 SCC 184 g vK v g vq
mswea vb I judicial review m ^ A vj vPb v K i v nq | wePvi c wZ C.K.
Thakker G c msM ej b ( c v- 4 2 9 ) t
651. We have written Constitution which confers power of judicial
review on this Court and on all High Courts. In exercising power and
discharging duty assigned by the Constitution, this Court has to play the role of
a sentinel on the qui vive and it is the solemn duty of this Court to protect the
fundamental rights guaranteed by Part III of the Constitution zealously and
vigilantly.
652. It may be stated that initially it was contended by the respondents
that this Court has no power to consider a complaint against any action taken by
Parliament and no such complaint can ever be entertained by the Court. Mr
Gopal Subramanium. appearing for the Attorney General, however, at a later
stage conceded (and I may say, rightly) the jurisdiction of this Court to consider
such compliant, but submitted that the Court must always keep in mind the fact
that the power has been exercised by a coordinate organ of the State which has
the jurisdiction to regulate its own proceedings within the four walls of the
House. Unless, therefore, this Court is convinced that the action of the House is
unconstitutional or wholly unlawful, it may not exercise its extraordinary
jurisdiction by reappreciating the evidence and material before Parliament and
substitute its own conclusions for the conclusions arrived at by the House.
653. In my opinion, the submission is well founded. This Court cannot
be oblivious or unmindful of the fact that the legislature is one of the three
organs of the State and is exercising the powers under the same Constitution
under which this Court is exercising the power of judicial review. It is, therefore,
the duty of this Court to ensure that there is no abuse or misuse of power by the
legislature without overlooking another equally important consideration that the
172
Court is not a superior organ or an appellate forum over the other constitutional
functionary. This Court, therefore, should exercise its power of judicial review
with utmost care, caution and circumspection.
( A a vi L v c ` )
BwZ c ~eAsma Jillani V. Government of Punjab g vK v g vwU c h vj vPb v
K i v nBq vQ| G Y c vwK vb myc xg K vUi A b K q K wU g vK v g v
c h vj vPb v K i v nBj |
State V. Zia-ur-Rahman, PLD 1973 SC 49 g vK v g vq c a vb wePvi c wZ
Hamoodur Rahman myc xg K vUi mvswea vwb K A e vb evL v K i b ( c v-
6 9 ) t
This is a right which it acquires not de hors the Constitution but by
virtue of the fact that it is a superior Court set up by the Constitution itself. It is
not necessary for this purpose to invoke any divine or super-natural right but this
judicial power is inherent in the Court itself. It flows from the fact that it is a
Constitutional Court and it can only be taken away by abolishing the Court
itself.
(A a vi L v c ` )
myc xg K vUi ` vwq Z i a i Y m K wZ wb ej b ( c v- 7 0 ) t
The exercising this power, the judiciary claims no supremacy over other
organs of the Government but acts only as the administrator of the public will.
Even when it declares a legislative measure unconstitutional and void, it does
not do so, because, the judicial power is superior in degree or dignity to the
legislative power, but because the Constitution has vested it with the power to
declare what the law is in the cases which come before it. It thus merely
enforces the Constitution as a paramount law whenever a legislative enactment
comes into conflict with it because, it is its duty to see that the Constitution
prevails. It is only when the Legislature fails to keep within its own
Constitutional limits, the judiciary steps in to enforce compliance with the
Constitution. This is no dubt a delicate task as pointed out in the case of Fazlul
Quader Chowdhury v. Shah Nawaz, which has to be performed with great
circumspection but it has nevertheless to be performed as a sacred Constitutional
duty when other State functionaries disregard the limitations imposed upon them
or claim to exercise power which the people have been careful to withhold from
them. ( A a vi L v c ` )

173
A Z c i , Hamoodur Rahman, C.J. mswea vb i c c U myc xg K vUi
A e vb Z ywj q v a i b ( c v- 7 1) t
I for my part cannot conceive of a situation, in which, after a formal
written Constitution has been lawfully adopted by a competent body and has
been generally accepted by the people including the judiciary as the Constitution
of the country, the judiciary can claim to declare any of its provisions ultra vires
or void. This well be no part of its function of interpretation. Therefore, in may
view, however solemn or sacrosanct a document, if it is not incorporated in the
Constitution or does not form a part thereof it cannot control the Constitution. At
any rate, the Courts created under the Constitution will not have the power to
declare any provision of the constitutor itself as being the violation of such a
document. If in fact that document contains the expression of the will of the vast
majority of the people, then the remedy for correcting such a violation will lie
with the people and not with the judiciary...................................If it appears only
as a preamble to the Constitution, then it will serve the same purpose as any
other preamble serves, namely, that in the case of any doubt as to the intent of
the law-maker, it may be looked at to ascertain the true intent, but it cannot the
substantive provisions thereof. This does not, however, mean that the validity of
no Constitutional measure can be tested in the Courts. If a Constitutional
measure is adopted in a manner different to that prescribed in the Constitution
itself or is passed by a lesser number of votes than those specified in the
Constitution then the validity of such a measure may well be questioned and
adjudicated upon. This, however, will be possible only in the case of a
Constitutional amendment but generally not in the case a first or a new
Constitution, unless the powers of the Constitution-making body itself are
limited by some supra-Constitutional document.
( A a vi L v c ` )
h w` I mswea vb I A vBb i Dc i v c v j wek l Y c vwK vb i
19 7 2 mvj i Interim Constitution Gi c Uf ~wg K vq K i v nBq vwQj Z e yI
Bnvi we Z v I h _ v_ Z v m ^ A vg v` i K vb m` n b vB|
Sindh High Court Bar Association V. Federation of Pakistan, PLD 2009 SC 879
g vK v g vq c vwK vb myc xg K vUi 14 R b g vb b xq wePvi K mg b q
MwVZ e mvg wi K k vmb i c vc U judicial review Z Z c h vj vPb v
K i b | c a vb wePvi c wZ Iftikhar Muhammad Chowdhury ej b ( c v-
118 0 ) t
174
169.........it is the clear that the power of judicial review is a cardinal
principle of the Constitution. The Judges, to keep the power of judicial review
strictly judicial, in its exercise, do take care not to intrude upon domain of the
other branches of the Government. It is the duty of the judiciary to determine the
legality of executive action and the validity of legislation passed by the
Legislature.
( A a vi L v c ` )
ek K q K wU g vK v g vi i vq c h e Y K wi q v wZ wb ej b
( c v- 119 8 ) t
171........it is a fundamental principle of our jurisprudence that
Courts must always endeavour to exercise their jurisdiction so that the rights of
the people are guarded against arbitrary violations by the executive. This
expansion of jurisdiction is for securing and safeguarding the rights of people
against the violations of the law by the executive and not for personal
aggrandizement of the courts and Judges. It is this end that the power of judicial
review was being exercised by the judiciary before 3
rd
November, 2007. Indeed
the power of judicial review was, and would continue to be, exercised with strict
adherence governing such exercise of power, reaming within the sphere allotted
to the judiciary by the Constitution.
( A a vi L v c ` )
Secretary, Ministry of Finance V. Masdar Hossain (2000) (VIII) BLT (AD) 234,
g vK v g vq evsj v` k myc xg K vUi c a vb wePvi c wZ Mustafa Kamal
wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v m ^ _ nxb f vl vq ej b ( c v- 2 5 7 -
2 5 8 ) t
44.........The independence of the judiciary, as affirmed and declared by
Articles 94(4) and 116A, is one of the basic pillars of the Constitution and
cannot be demolished, whittled down, curtailed or diminished in any manner
whatsoever, except under the existing provisions of the Constitution. It is true
that this independence, as emphasised by the learned Attorney General, is
subject to the provisions of the Constitution, but we find no provision in the
Constitution which curtails, diminishes or otherwise abridges this
independence.........
( A a vi L v c ` )
wZ wb A b ej b ( c v- 2 6 3 - 6 4 ) t
175
60.......When Parliament and the executive, instead of Chapter II of Part
VI follow a different course not sanctioned by the Constitution, the higher
Judiciary is within its jurisdiction to bring back the Parliament and the executive
from constitutional derailment and give necessary directions to follow the
constitutional course. This exercise was made by this Court in the case of
Kudrat-E-Elahi Panir Vs. Bangladesh , 44 DLR (AD) 319. We do not see why
the High Court Division or this Court cannot repeat that exercise when a
constitutional deviation is detected and when there is a constitutional mandate to
implement certain provisions of the Constitution.
( A a vi L v c ` )
GK B c m wePvi c wZ Latifur Rahman (as his Lordship then was) ej b
( c v- 2 7 1) t
76. The written Constitution of Bangladesh has placed the Supreme
Court in the place of the guardian of the Constitution itself. It will not
countenance to any inroad upon the Constitution. A reference to Articles 94, 95
and 147 of the Constitution clearly reveal the independent character of the
Supreme Court.
( A a vi L v c ` )
mswea vb Ges A mvswea vwb K A vBb K A ea Nvl Yv K wi Z
myc xg K vUi g Z v c m nvBK vUwef vM, Bangladesh Italian Marble
Works Limited V. Government of Bangladesh 14 BLT (Special Issue) 2006
g vK v g vq Nvl Yv K i ( c v- 18 9 - 19 0 ) t
In this part of the world we generally follow the common law principles
but Bangladesh has got a written Constitution. This Constitution may be termed
as controlled or rigid but incontradistinetion to a Federal form of Government,
as in the Untied States, it has a Parliamentary form of Government within limits
set by the Constitution. Like the United States, its three grand Departments, the
Legislature makes, the Executive executes and judiciary construes the law
(Chief Justice Marshall), constituting a trichotomy of power in the Republic
under the Constitution. But the Bangladesh Parliament lacks the omnipotence of
the British Parliament while the President is not the executive head like the U.S.
President but the Prime Minister is, like British Prime Minister. However, all the
functionaries of the Republic owe their existence, powers and functions to the
Constitution. We, the people of Bangladesh, gave themselves this Constitution
which is conceived of as a fundamental or an organic or a Supreme Law rising
loftly high above all other laws in the country and Article 7(2) expressly spelt
176
out that any law which is inconsistent with this Constitution, to that extent of the
inconsistency, is void. As such, the provisions of the Constitution is the basis on
which the vires of all other existing laws and those passed by the Legislature as
well as the actions of the Executive, are to be judged by the Supreme Court,
under its power of judicial review. This power of judicial review of the Supreme
Court of Bangladesh is, similar to those in the United States and in India.
This is how the Legislature, the Executive and the Judiciary functions
under the Constitutional scheme in Bangladesh. The Constitution is the
undoubted source of all powers and functions of all three grand Departments of
the Republic, just like the United States and India.
It is true that like the Supreme Courts in the United States or in India, the
Supreme Court of Bangladesh has got the power of review of both legislative
and executive actions but such power of review would not place the Supreme
Court with any higher position to those of the other two branches of the
Republic. The Supreme Court is the creation of the Constitution just like the
Legislature and the Executive. But the Constitution endowed the Supreme Court
with such power of judicial review and since the Judges of the Supreme Court
have taken oath to preserve, protect and defend the Constitution, they are
obliged and duty bound to declare and strike down any provision of law which is
inconsistent with the Constitution without any fear or favour to any body. This
includes the power to declare any provision seeking to oust the jurisdiction of
the Court, as ultra vires to Constitution. ( A a vi L v c ` )
GB c m wb DwR j vi Wellington G A ew Z Victoria University
Z c ` Lord Johan Steyn Gi e Z v c wYa vb h vM| wZ wb House of Lords
Gi GK R b wePvi K | wZ wb Z uvnvi e Z vq ej b t
In Britain the press frequently criticise the power exercised by
unelected Judges. It is suggested that it is anti-democratic. This is a fundamental
misconception. The democratic ideal involves two strands. First, the people
entrust power to the government in accordance with the principle of majority
rule. the second is that in a democracy there must be an effective and fair means
of achieving practical justice through law between individuals and between the
state and individuals. Where a tension develops between the views of the
majority and individual rights a decision must be made and sometimes a balance
has to be struck. The best way of achieving this purpose is for a democracy to
delegate to an impartial and independent judiciary this adjudicative function.
Only such a judiciary acting in accordance with principles of institutional
integrity, and aided by a free and courageous legal profession, practicing and
177
academic, can carry out this task, notably in the field of fundamental rights and
freedoms. Only such a judiciary has democratic legitimacy. The judiciary owes
allegiance to nothing except the constitutional duty of reaching through reasoned
debate the best attainable judgments in accordance with justice and law. This is
their role in the democratic governance of our countries. At the root of it is the
struggle by fallible judges with imperfect insights for government under law and
not under men and women.
( A a vi L v c ` )

K j vwb q vj h yM A vg wi K vi R b MY h y i vR i i vR v I Parliament
Gi k vmb i wei h y K wi q vwQj | K vR B mswea vb i Pb v K wi evi
mg q Z vnvi v H a i b i ^i k vmb i K _ vB g b i vwL q vwQj | Stamp Act
BZ vw` i wei c wZ ev` K wi evi mg q Z vnvi v mi K vi i wei B
c wZ ev` K wi q vQ, A vBb wU Pvj K wi evi K _ v wP v K i b vB|
^va xb Z vi c i wewf b A i vR mswea vb A b yg v` b K wi evi mg q I
msm` mswea vb c wi c x A vBb h A v` c Yq b K wi Z c vi b v Z vnv
Z vnvi v wP vI K i b vB|
mswea vb wQj R b MYi Z i x g ~j A vBb (fundamental law) | Bnv
wQj c k vmK MYK ev i vi wb evnx wef vMK wb q b i vwL evi A vBb |
18 k k Z v xi A vwk ` k K ek xi f vM j vK ` i B wP va vi v wQj h
Congress h w` mswea vb c wi c x K vb A vBb c Yq b K i , Z vi R b
Z vnvi v R b MYi wb K U ` vq x _ vwK e, A v` vj Z i wb K U b q | wK
17 9 0 ` k K i g a f vM nBZ a vi Yv e` j vBZ _ vK | A v` vj Z
R b MYi c wZ wb wa wnmve mswea vb wek l b K wi Z A vi K i |
mswea vb f K wi q v msm` h w` K vb A vBb c Yq b K i Z e Bnv
eA vBb x K vR nBe Ges wePvi K MY hw` mB A vBb c q vM K i Z e
Z vnvi vI eA vBb x K vR K wi e|
K vb g vK v g vq h L b B K vb A mvswea vwb K A vBb i Dc i wb f i
K i v nq Z L b B mvswea vwb K mxg vb v wb a vi Y A v` vj Z i wePvh wel q
nBq v ` vuo vq |
178
mswea vb f K wi evi h K vb c Pv e K wi evi ` vwq Z
wePvi K MYi , Gg b wK h w` R b MYi GK wU enr A sk I Z vnv K wi Z
Dr mvwnZ eva K i |
Dc i ewYZ b vwZ ` xNA vj vPb vq Judicial Review Gi Mvo vi K _ v
Ges wK f ve GB g Z v h yI i vi jurisprudence Gi A sk nBj Ges
Z r c i mg M wek i wewf b D P A v` vj Z GB g Z v c q vM K wi Z
_ vK Ges Bnvi mxg ve Z v wK Z vnv eYb v K i v nBq vQ|
Commonwealth v. Caton (1782) nBZ wewf b g vK v g vi g va g
Judicial Review Z Z i g weK vk Marbury v. Madison (1803) g vK v g vq
c ~b Z v j vf K wi q vQ h L vb c a vb wePvi c wZ John Marshall _ nxb
f vl vq ej b It is emphatically the province and duty of the judicial department to
say what the law is| McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) g vK v g vq c a vb
wePvi c wZ Marshall ej b , we must never forget, that it is a constitution we are
expounding.| Cohens V. Virginia (1821) g vK g vq Marshall myc xg K vUi
` vwq Z m ^ ej b , We have no more right to decline the exercise of jurisdiction
which is given, than to usurp that which is not given. The one or the other would be
treason to the constitution.
Judicial Review Gi h y i vi myc xg K vUi GB A v` wk K
g Z v wek i c vq mK j ` k i A v` vj Z MnY K i Z t b vq wePvi
wb w Z K wi Z Q| f vi Z , evsj v` k I c vwK vb i myc xg K vUGK B
f vea vi vq A b yc vwb Z | Dc i wewf b i vq i g va g Z vnv A vj vPb v K i v
nBq vQ|
wb t m` n ej v h vq , evsj v` k i v GK wU c R vZ , Bnvi i v
ee nv MYZ vw K , GB i vi g vwj K mvef g R b MY| mswea vb i
GBi c c Z K wU Pvwi w K ewk nBj mswea vb i Basic structure| Bnv
wb w Z | Z vnvQvo v, wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v nBj A vi GK wU Basic
structure h vnv zb K wi evi A wa K vi K vnvi I b vBR vZ xq msm` I
mswea vb i GB Basic structure zb K wi Z c vi b v|
179
GB Dc g nv` k f vi Z , evsj v` k I c vwK vb i wePvi ee vq
mva vi YZ Common Law Z Z A b ymi Y K i v nq | evsj v` k GK wU wj wL Z
I M f ~ mswea vb i wnq vQ| Bnv controlled ev rigid A _ vr
` y wi eZ b xq | wek l c wZ A b ymi Y mvc GB mswea vb msk va b
K i v nq | h y i vFederal a i b i i vee v we` g vb | evsj v` k Bnvi
mswea vb i A vI Z vq msm` xq MYZ we` g vb | Z e h y i vi b vq
evsj v` k i vi I wZ b wU g wng vwb Z i wnq vQ, h g b , R vZ xq
msm` , wb evnx wef vM I wePvi wef vM| i vi GB wZ b wU wef vM GK
A c i i f vi mvg eR vq i vL | R vZ xq msm` A vBb c Yq b K i , wb evnx
wef vM Z vnv K vh K i K i Ges wePvi wef vM Z _ v myc xg K vU
mswea vb i A vI Z vq A vBb wU c Yq b K i v nBq vQ wK b v I wb evnx wef vM
A vBb A b ymvi mwVK f ve K vh K i K wi q vQ wK b v Z vnv c h e Y ev
wb i x Y K wi Z c vi , Z e, myc xg K vUmva vi YZ K vb ms z ew i
A ve` b weePb v K wi q v H i c c ` c MnY K wi q v _ vK |
16 8 9 mvj nBZ h y i vR King in Parliament mvef g | wK
h y i vR BDi vwc q vb BDwb q b c ek K wi evi c i Z vnv ej v h vq
wK b v Z vnvZ m` n A vQ| Lord Johan steyn Gi g Z There was a clash
between community law and a later Act of the United Kingdom Parliament. Within the
Community legal order, the Queen in Parliament is not sovereign. Community law is
supreme.
evsj v` k i mswea vb mvc h y i vR i Parliament Gi a vb
a vi Yv I b xwZ A b ymi Y K wi evi GK wU c q vm i wnq vQ| h y i vR i
c a vb g xi b vq evsj v` k i c a vb g xI mi K vi c a vb | i vc wZ
nBZ Qb i v c a vb | wZ wb h y i vi President Gi b vq wb evwPZ b b |
wZ wb msm` m` mMY` vi v wb evwPZ nBq v _ vK b |
evsj v` k i R b MYB mve f g | A b mK j c ` vwa K vi x ew
R b MYi c wZ wb wa eU| A vg i v, evsj v` k i R b MY h mswea vb
i Pb v K wi q vQb I MnY K wi q vQb Z vnv wb w Z f ve evsj v` k i
180
mev P A vBb | BnvB evsj v` k i g wj K I Organic A vBb | A b mK j
A vBb mswea vb mvc we` g vb I Z vnv` i A e vb | mswea vb i 7
A b y Q` c wi vi I wb w Z f ve Nvl Yv K wi q vQ, A b h K vb
A vBb mswea vb i mwnZ A mvg mc ~YnBj Z vnv mi vmwi evwZ j
nBe|
GB c vc U msm` K Z K wewa e A vBb I wb evnx K Z c i
h K vb c ` c hw` mswea vb i mwnZ A mvg mc ~Ynq mB A vBb
ev A v` k ev c ` c myc xg K vUBnvi judicial review Gi g Z vej
evwZ j ev ultra vires Nvl Yv K wi Z c vi | judicial review Gi GB g Z v
h y i v I f vi Z i myc xg K vUi b vq evsj v` k i myc xg K vUi I
we` g vb i wnq vQ|
GB myc xg K vU R vZ xq msm` I wb evnx K Z c i b vq
mswea vb i mw| i vi g wng vwb Z GB wZ b wU wef vMB GK A b i
c wi c ~i K Ges K vb GK wU wef vMB A b wef vM nBZ k Z i b q |
K vb wef vMi B wb R ^ K vb g Z v b vB| R b MYB mK j g Z vi
Dr m| R b MYi m mswea vb i g va g I mvc Z vnvi v g Z vevb |
mswea vb nBZ Dr mvwi Z myc xg K vUmswea vb K Z K c `
g Z vq g Z vevb | myc xg K vUi wePvi K MY Z vnv` i wb h yw i mg q
evsj v` k i mswea vb I A vBb i i Y, mg _ b I wb i vc v wea vb
K wi e ewj q v k c _ MnY K i b | mswea vb i 7 , 2 6 , 10 1 I 10 2 ,
10 3 , 10 4 I 10 5 A b y Q` I Dc i v k c _ i K vi Y myc xg K vUi
Df q wef vM mswea vb c wi c w h K vb A vBb Bnvi judicial review Gi
g Z vej evwZ j K wi Z c vi | GB g Z v myc xg K vUi g Z v
mxwg Z K i Y I mswea vb msk va b i I GK B f ve c h vR |
MYZ i ^v_ I c q vR b wePvi wef vMi GBi c g Z v
MYZ vw K wek ^xK Z | i v msL vMwi i ^ QvPvi g Z v c q vMi
nvZ nBZ msL vj wN R b MYK i v K wi evi R b B mswea vb I
^va xb wePvi wef vM c q vR b | c K Z c mi K vi I R b MYi g a L vb
181
wePvi wef vMi A e vb h vnvZ wePvi wef vM R b MYi A wa K vi I ^v_
mswea vb I A vBb A b ymvi i v K wi Z c vi |
GB c m Professor Keith E. Whittington Gi eI e c wb a vb h vM t
The most basic normative question to be asked is whether judicial
supremacy is essential to constitutionalism. Many scholars and judges have
assumed that it is. The Rehnquist Court was clear in identifying the judicial
authority as the ultimate interpreter of the Constitution with the capacity of a
constitution to constrain political actors, who could otherwise alter or ignore the
terms of the Constitution at will as it suited their immediate needs. Likewise, the
Warren Court asserted that judicial supremacy was an indispensable feature of
our constitutional system. Challenges to judicial supremacy thus appear to be
attacks on constitutionalism itself. Without judicial supremacy, the civilizing
hand of a uniform interpretation of the Constitution crumbles and the balance
wheel in the American system would be lost. Many scholars have therefore
been distressed to find that judicial supremacy has not been more widely
accepted and more politically effective. The rejection of judicial supremacy is
tantamount to the rejection of judicial independence. Gerald Rosenberg, for
example, has argued that the judiciary is least likely to resist political initiatives
precisely when it is the most necessary to do so, when the Courts
interpretations are being challenged. The prior assumptions of the judicial
supremacy model of constitutionalism render political pressure on the judiciary
deeply problematic and the supposed foundations of constitutional values quite
insecure. (Keith E. Whittington: Political Foundations of Judicial Review, Page-
13).
2 5 | wb evPb K wg k b t ` k wb evPb A b y vb K wi evi
GK K ` vwq Z wb evPb K wg k b i | mswea vb i m g f vM wb evPb
ms v wea vb vej x wj wc e i wnq vQ| mswea vb i 119 A b y Q`
wb evPb K wg k b i ` vwq Z eYb v K i v nBq vQ| 119 A b y Q` wb i c t
119 | ( 1) i vc wZ c ` i I msm` i wb evPb i R b
f vUvi - Z vwj K v c Z K i Yi Z vea vb , wb ` k I wb q Y Ges
A b yi c wb evPb c wi Pvj b vi ` vwq Z wb evPb K wg k b i Dc i b
_ vwK e Ges wb evPb K wg k b GB mswea vb I A vBb vb yh vq x
( K ) i vc wZ c ` i wb evPb A b y vb K wi eb ;
( L ) msm` - m` m` i wb evPb A b y vb K wi eb ;
182
( M) msm` wb evPb i R b wb evPb x Gj vK vi mxg vb v
wb a vi Y K wi eb ; Ges
( N) i vc wZ i c ` i Ges msm` i wb evPb i R b f vUvi -
Z vwj K v c Z K wi eb |
( 2 ) Dc wi - D ` d vmg ~n wb a vwi Z ` vwq Z mg ~ni A wZ wi
h i c ` vwq Z GB mswea vb ev A b K vb A vBb i vi v wb a vwi Z
nBe, wb evPb K wg k b mBi c ` vwq Z c vj b K wi eb |

Z vnvQvo v, 12 6 A b y Q` A b ymvi mK j wb evnx K Z c i K Z e
wb evPb K wg k b K Bnvi K Z e c vj b mei K g mnvq Z v c ` vb K i v|
evsj v` k mswea vb i c vi B ej v nBq vQ h Bnv GK wU
MYc R vZ v xK evsj v` k A _ vr evsj v` k i vi evc vi evsj v` k i
R b MY mvef g | Z vnvi vB G ` k i GK g v g vwj K | Z e Z vnvi v
Z vnv` i GB mvef g Z mi vmwi c q vM K wi Z c vi b b v, Z vnv` i
c wZ wb wa msm` - m` mMY g vi d r c K vk K wi q v _ vK b | msm` - m` m
evwQq v j Bevi c K c v nBj wb evPb |
A vg v` i ` k GB wb evPb c vi c Pj b GK k Z er mi i I
A wa K |

Lord Ripon f vi Z el i Governor-General nBq v A vwmevi c i
Resolution of 1882 MnY K i Z t vb xq mi K vi c wZ vb wj i Db wZ i
c ` c MnY K i b | Bengal Local Self-Government Act, 1885 g vi d r wZ b
Z i wewk vb xq mi K vi vc b K wi evi c ` c j I q v nq | R j vi
R b R j v evW, g nvK zg vi R b j vK vj evWGes BDwb q b i R b
BDwb q b K wg wU | R j v evWi ewk i f vM m` m mi K vi K Z K
g b vb xZ nBj I wK Qy msL K m` m wb evwPZ nBZ | j vK vj evW
A ek wK QyK vj c i wej y nBq v h vq | | BDwb q b K wg wUi m` mMY
wb evwPZ nBZ | 19 19 mvj i Bengal Village Self Government Act vi v
BDwb q b K wg wUi b vg c wi eZ b K wi q v BDwb q b evWK i v nq Ges 9
R b m` mi g a 3 R b mi K vi K Z K g b vb xZ nBZ , A ewk 6 R b
m` m BDwb q b i Uv c ` vb K vi x A wa evmx K Z K wb evwPZ nBZ | GB
183
f ve GB` k i A wa evmxMY 18 8 5 mvj nBZ Z Yg ~j c h vq
wb evPb i mwnZ c wi wPZ wQj |
Z vnvQvo v, Government of India Act , 1935 , Gi A vI Z vq 19 3 7 mvj
f vi Z el i wewf b c ` k wb evPb g vi d Z c v` wk K mi K vi c wZ w Z
nq | G. K . d R j yj nK evsj vi c a vb g x wb evwPZ nb | A vevi 19 4 6
mvj i wb evPb g ymwj g j xM f ~wg a m weR q A R b K i | 19 5 4 mvj
Z ` vb x b c ~e c vwK vb wb evPb nq | 19 7 0 mvj Z ` vb x b
c vwK vb i c _ g I k l mva vi Y wb evPb nq | K vR B evsj v` k i
g vb yl wb evPb i m f vj f ve c wi wPZ |
wK Qy wK Qy wb evPb ms v wei va D vc b nBj wb evPb x
UvBeyb vj B Z vnv wb w K wi evi R b h_ wQj | wK mg mvwU Z xe
A vK vi a vi Y K i g v i v Dc - wb evPb K K ` K wi q v| D Dc - wb evPb
mwVK f ve c wi Pvj b v K wi Z wb evPb K wg k b i g g vw K e_ Z vB wQj
mg mvi g ~j K vi Y| wK mB mg mv mg va vb K wi evi c wi eZ ` yB
er mi hveZ ` k e vc x c ej MYA v` vj b i g yL mswea vb ( q v` k
msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 6 , wU MnxZ nq |
D A vBb i D k m K K vb m` n b vB h msm` mr
D k B D A vBb c Yq b K wi q v GK wU wb i c I my y wb evPb
A b y vb K wi Z Z ` vb x b wb evPb K wg k b I mi K vi i Pi g e_ Z v
c wZ wea vb K GK wU wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi MVb i wea vb Z i x
K wi q vwQj |
2 6 | mswea vb msk va b - K vnvK ej t mswea vb h L b
i Pb v K i v nq Z L b B Bnv a vi Yv K wi q v j I q v nq h mswea vb wU
wPi K vj A veng vb K vj Z K we` g vb _ vwK e| K vi Y mswea vb i vi
g ~j ev fundamental ev basic A vBb | Bnv i vi mev P A vBb I eU| Z e
h yM I mg q i mv_ c wi eZ b nq g vb yl i A vk v A vK vL v, c q vR b
Gg b wK mg mvi I | mB wee Z b k xj mg vR i c q vR b K L b I K L b I
184
mswea vb msk va b i c q vR b nBZ c vi | Z e mswea vb i g ~j I
g wj K A sk K L b B c wi eZ b h vM b q |
mswea vb mva vi Y A vBb nBZ m ~Yc _ K , K vi Y Bnv nBZ
i vi mK j g Z v Dr mvwi Z , Gg b wK msk va b K wi evi wea vb I |
mva vi Y A vBb msk va b K wi Z K vb wek l wea vb b v _ vwK j I
mswea vb msk va b K wi Z wek l K vh wewa _ vK , Z e A wj wL Z
mswea vb I wj wL Z nBj I h w` flexible nq , Z e h K vb mva vi Y
A vBb i b vq R vZ xq msm` ev Parliament Gi mva vi Y f vUvf zwUZ
msL vMwi g Z vg Z Z vnv msk va b K i v h vq | GB wj myc wi eZ b xq |
wK h mswea vb rigid Z vnvi K vb wea vb msk va b ev c wi eZ b K wi Z
wek l c ` c MnYi c q vR b nq , m R vZ xq msm` mva vi Y
msL vMwi i g Z vg Z i wf wZ c wi eZ b K wi Z c vi b v, ` yB
Z Z xq vsk msL vMwi i g Z vg Z c q vR b nq | m wj ` y wi eZ b xq
mswea vb |
evsj v` k mswea vb mswea vb - msk va b i wea vb mswea vb i ` k g
f vM A ew Z | mswea vb i wea vb msk va b i g Z v 14 2 A b yQ`
eYb v K i v nBh vQ| myc xg K vUK Z K mswea vb c g msk va b
g vK v g vi i vq i c i 14 2 A b y Q` wb i c t
[14 2 | GB mswea vb h vnv ej v nBq vQ, Z vnv mI -

( K ) msm` i A vBb - vi v GB mswea vb i K vb wea vb msh vR b ,
c wi eZ b , c wZ vc b ev i wnZ K i Yi vi v msk vwa Z nBZ c vwi e;
Z e k Z _ vK h ,

( A ) A b yi c msk va b xi R b A vb xZ K vb wej i m ~Y
wk i b vg vq GB mswea vb i K vb wea vb msk va b K i v nBe
ewj q v i c Dj L b v _ vwK j wej wU weePb vi R b
MnY K i v h vBe b v;

( A v) msm` i g vU m` m- msL vi A b ~b ` yB- Z Z xq vsk
f vU MnxZ b v nBj A b yi c K vb wej m wZ ` vb i R b
Z vnv i vc wZ i wb K U Dc vwc Z nBe b v;

185
( L ) Dc wi - D Dc vq K vb wej MnxZ nBevi c i m wZ i R b
i vc wZ i wb K U Z vnv Dc vwc Z nBj Dc vc b i mvZ w` b i g a
wZ wb wej wUZ m wZ ` vb K wi eb , Ges wZ wb Z vnv K wi Z A mg _
nBj D g q v` i A emvb wZ wb wej wUZ m wZ ` vb K wi q vQb
ewj q v MY nBe| ]
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GL b msk va b I msk vwa Z k i A _ weePb v K i v h vDK |

evsj v GK vWg x nBZ c K vwk Z eenvwi K evsj v A wf a vb
Dwj wL Z k ` ywUi wb wj wL Z A _ eYb v K i v nBq vQ t
msk va b t we wK i Y, c we K i Y, ms vi ( Pwi
msk va b ) , f ~j vw ` i xK i Y ( j L v
msk va b )
msk vwa Z t we w K Z , wb f ~j xK Z , msk va b K i v nq Q
Gg b |
Pj w K v evsj v A wf a vb msk va b A _ c wi k va b , we w -
m v` b v|

Blacks Law Dictionary ( Eighth Edition) G amendment A _ wb wj wL Z
f ve K i v nBq vQ t
amendment : A formal revision or addition proposed or made to a statute,
constitution, pleading, order, or other instrument; specif, a change
made by addition, deletion, or correction; esp., an alteration in
wording,amendment by implication. A rule of construction that
allows a person to interpret a repugnant provision in a statute as
an implicit modification or abrogation of a provision that appears
before it. US v. Walden377 US 95, 102. n. 12 (1964)

Chambers Dictionary Z amendment I amend k q i wb wj wL Z A _
K i v nq t Amendment:
Correction; improvement an alteration or addition to a document,
agreement etc.; an alteration proposed on a bill under consideration; a
counter-proposal or counter motion put before a meeting.
Amend:
to free from fault or error; to correct, to improve, to alter in detail, with
view to improvement (eg a bill before parliament); to rectify, to cure, to
mend, to grow or become better; to reform; to recover.

186
Oxford Dictionary and Thesaurus, Edited By Sara Tulloch, 1997 Z
amendment I amend k q i wb wj wL Z A _ K i v nq t
Amendment:
A minor improvement in a document (esp. a legal or statutory one), an
article added to the US Constitution.
Amend:
Make minor improvements in (a text or a written proposal), correct an
error or errors in (a document), make better, improve.

The Corpus Juris Secundum. G amendment I amended k wj i A _
wb wj wL Z f ve K i v nq t
Amendment:
In general use, the word has different meanings which are determined by
the connection in which it is employed, but it necessarily connotes a
change of some kind, ordinarily for the better, but always a change or
alteration. It has been said that the word implies somethig upon which
the correction, alteration, improvement, or reformation can operate,
something to be reformed, corrected, rectified altred or improved; a
reference to the matter amended; usually a proposal by persons interested
in a change, and a purpose to add something to or withdraw something
so as to perfect that which is or may be deficient, or correct that which
has been incorrectly stated by the party making the amendment; and may
include several propositions, all tending to effect and carry out one
general object or purpose, and all connected with one subject. The word
has been defined or employed as meaning a change of something; a
change or alteration for the better; a continuance in a changed form; a
correction of detail, not altering the essential form or nature of the
matters amended, nor resulting in complete destruction; a correction of
errors or faults; a material change; an addition, alteration or subtraction;
an addition or change within the lines of the original instrument as will
effect an improvement or better carry out the purpose for which it was
framed ; an alteration or change; an improvement; a reformation; a
revision; a substitution; the act of freeing form faults; the act of making
better , or of changing for the better; the supplying of a deficiency.
Amended:
The term implies the existence of an original, a defect therein, and of
certain new facts to be added thereto, or a restatement in a more accurate
and legal manner, so that it is no longer indentical with the original text:
but also it involves the superseding of the original and in this respect is
187
to be distinguished from supplemental which ordinarily implies only
something added to and to be read with the original.

Z wK Z q v` k msk va b A vBb 5 8 K Ges mswea vb i PZ z_
f vMi b ~Z b 2 K c wi Q` 5 8 L , 5 8 M, 5 8 N I 5 8 O A b y Q` wj
mwb ewk Z K i v nBq vQ| Z vnvQvo v 6 1, 9 9 I 12 3 A b y Q` msk va b
K i v nBq vQ|

c Z xq g vb nq h ^xK Z f veB Dc i v 5 8 K nBZ 5 8 O c h
A b y Q` wj b ~Z b f ve msh y nBq vQ Ges A ewk 6 1 I 9 9
A b y Q` wj A vswk K msk va b K i v nBq vQ, A vi 12 3 A b y Q` i
( 3 ) ` d v b ~Z b f ve c wZ vwc Z nBq vQ|

5 8 K A b y Q` wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi g q v` g a
5 5 ( 1) , ( 2 ) I ( 3 ) A b y Q` i K vh K vwi Z v wMZ K wi q vQ| Z vnvQvo v,
4 8 ( 3 ) A b y Q` A b ymvi c a vb g xi c i vg k I 14 1K ( 1) I
14 1M( 1) A b y Q` A b ymvi Z uvnvi c wZ ^v i MnYv K vh K i vi
wea vb mg ~nI A K vh K i K i v nBq vQ|
R b ve Gg A vB d vi K x wb e ` b K i b h Dc i v ^xK Z
mswea vb msk va b i ^vf vweK c wi YwZ wnmve i vi g ~j wf w
c R vZ I MYZ Z vea vq K mi K vi g q v` g a j vc c vBq vQ|
Z vnvQvo v, wZ wb ej b Z vea vq K mi K vi i c a vb Dc ` v c `
A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ / wePvi c wZ MYi wb q vMi h wea vb Z wK Z
msk va b xi g va g Pvj yK i v nBq vQ, Z vnvi K vi b K ej g v ` j xq
A vb yMZ weePb vq j Bq v D P A v` vj Z c Z K wePvi K wb q vMi
Pv K i v nBZ Q h vnvZ f wel Z wh wb B c a vb wePvi c wZ nDb b v
K b A _ ev wh wb B A vc xj wef vMi wePvi K wnmve wb q vM c vb b v
K b , wZ wb h b wb q vMK vj xb g Z vmxb i vR b wZ K ` j i c wZ
A b yMZ ew nq b | BnvQvo v, wei va x i vR b wZ K ` j I Z vnv` i
A b yMZ eyw R xexMY ev msev` c mg ~n c i eZ x m ve c a vb
Dc ` vK K w Z c wZ c f vweq v Gg b K zi wPc ~b eI e c ` vb
K wi Z Qb Ges Gg b msev` c wi ek b K wi Z Qb , h vnvZ wePvi
188
wef vMi m vb I g h v` v f zj ywZ nBZ Q Ges GK B K vi b wePvi
wef vMi ^va xb Z vI wZ M nBZ Q|

2 7 | mswea vb msk va b - mva vi Y A vj vPb v t eZ g vb
g vK v g vq mswea vb i q v` k msk va b i ea Z v D vwc Z nBq vQ|
nvBK vUwef vMi Full Bench mswea vb i 8 , 4 8 , 5 6 I 5 7 A b y Q` i
K vb msk va b (amendment) nq b vB ewj q v A wf g Z c K vk K wi q vQ,
wK 5 8 K nBZ 5 8 O A b y Q` mg ~n h mswea vb msk va b i g va g
mswea vb mwb ewk Z nBq vQ I mswea vb i Dc i mwb ewk Z GB
A b y Q` wj i c f ve wK Ges GB A b y Q` wj mswea vb i K vb basic
structure Gi mwnZ mvsNwl K wK b v, h vnv GB g vK v g vi g ~j wePvh
wel q , m m ^ c q vR b xq evL v- wek l Y c ` vb K i b vB| GK vi Y
D i vq i Dc i wm v c ` vb K wi evi c ~e A vBb I mswea vb
msk va b c m GK wU mva vi Y A vj vPb v c q vR b |

GK wU c wZ vb ev msMVb i D k , wewf b wef vM I Bnvi
K g Pvi x` i ` vwq Z I K Z e, GK A c i i mwnZ c vi c wi K m K
Ges mvweK f ve c wZ vb wU c wi Pvj b vi R b c q vR b xq wewf b
K vh c Yvj x I b xwZ g vj vi mg wK mva vi Y A _ Dnvi mswea vb ej |
Bnv ` k i A vc vg i R b MYi g wj K I MYZ vw K A wa K vi mg ~ni
i vK eP|

i vI GK wU c wZ vb ev e c wZ vb i mg w| Bnvi ` k xq
I A v R wZ K wewf b g yL x K g K v c wi Pvj b v K wi Z c q vR b xq g wj K
b xwZ g vj vi mg wK i vi mswea vb ej |

wePvi c wZ g ynv ` nvweeyi i ng vb I A a vc K A vwb my vg vb
K Z K msK wj Z I m vw` Z A vBb - k K vl G mswea vb K
wb wj wL Z f ve ms vwq Z K i v nBq vQ ( c v- 2 2 8 ) t

mswea vb we. mva vi Y A _ mswea vb nBj K vb v c wZ vb
ev msMVb c wi Pvj b vi g j b xwZ g vj v| i vR b wZ K
c wi f vl vq mswea vb nBj i vi g j I mev P A vBb |
189
mswea vb i vi wewf b msMVb c wi Pvj b vi g wj K
b xwZ g vj v wj wc e _ vK | mi K vi i g Z v I ` vwq Z ,
R b MYi g wj K A wa K vi , mi K vi - c wZ , wewf b mi K vwi
c wZ vb K xf ve c wi Pvwj Z nBe, Z vnv mswea vb wj wc e
_ vK | mswea vb K i vi mev P A vBb ewj q v g vb K i v
nq | mswea vb i g j b xwZ g vj vi c wi c x K vb v A vBb
c YxZ nBZ c vi b v| wj wL Z b v A wj wL Z GBw` K
weePb vq mswea vb K ` yB k Yxf y K i v nq | A wa K vsk
` k i mswea vb B wj wL Z I M f z | A vevi mswea vb
A wj wL Z I nq | wK Qy g wj K A vBb , c _ v, c ~e- A wf Z v
mswea vb i g Z v MY nq | h me mswea vb mva vi Y
A vBb i g Z v A vBb mf v c wi eZ b K wi Z c vi , m wj
myc wi eZ b xq | A vi h me mswea vb msk va b K wi Z wek l
ee v MnYi c q vR b nq , A vBb mf v mva vi Y
msL vMwi i g Z vg Z i wf wZ c wi eZ b K wi Z c vi b v,
m wj ` ywi eZ b xq mswea vb |

Professor O. Hood Phillips wj wL Z Constitutional and Administrative Law
M mswea vb K wb wj wL Z f ve wPw Z K wi q vQb ( c v- 5 ) t
The word constitution is used in two different senses, the abstract and
the concrete. The constitution of a state in the abstract sense is the system of
laws, customs and conventions which define the composition and powers of
organs of the state, and regulate the relations of the various state organs to one
another and to the private citizen. A constitution in the concrete sense is the
document in which the most important laws of the constitution are
authoritatively ordained.

c K Z c h y i vR i K vb wj wL Z mswea vb b vB | Bnv g ~j Z
A wj wL Z nBj I Bnvi I K Z K g wj K mvswea vwb K ` wj j i wnq vQ,
h g b , Magna Carta (1215). Petition of Right (1628) I Bill of Rights (1689)| Lord
Chatham Gi g Z D mvswea vwb K ` wj j wj together constitute the Bible of
the English Constitution | Z vnvQvo v, i vi c q vR b A b ymvi wewf b
mg q Bnvi mvef g King in Parliament A vBb c Yq b K wi q v _ vK |
Z vnvQvo v, Bnvi c vPxb Custom ( c _ v) I mg Convention ( mvswea vwb K
i xwZ ev H wZ n) i wnq vQ|

G m ^ Professor K.C. Wheare ej b t
190
The British Constitution is the collection of legal rules and non-legal
rules which govern the government in Britain. The legal rules are embodied in
statutes like the Acts of Settlement ............... the various Representation of the
People Acts.............the Judicature Acts, and the Parliament Acts of 1911 and
1949........orders and regulations issued under the prerogative or under statutory
authority; and they may be embodied in the decisions of courts. The non-legal
rules find expression in such customs or conventions as that the Queen does not
refuse her assent to a bill duly passed by Lords and commons or that a Prime
Minister holds office because and for so long as he retains the confidence of a
majority in the House of Commons. All there rules are part of the British
Constitution. ( Modern Constitutions page-1-2)|

GK B f ve New Zealand I Israel i vi I K vb wj wL Z mswea vb
b vB|

A b w` K wj wL Z I M f y mswea vb m ^ Professor Wheare
ej b t

The Constitution then, for most countries in the world, is a selection of the
legal rules which govern the government of that country and which have been
embodied in a document. (Mordern Constitutions, page-2)|

h mK j mswea vb i A sk wj mva vi Y A vBb i b vq msm` K Z K
mnR c wi eZ b xq Ges mswea vb ewYZ wek l ee v MnYi g va g
h mK j mswea vb c wi eZ b h vM mB wf wZ I mswea vb K flexible I
rigid GB ` yB k YxZ wef K i v h vq | Dc i v i c K b vg wj Lord
Bryce Z uvnvi Studies in History and Jurisprudence M c ` vb K wi q vQb |

A.V. Dicey Z vnvi Law of the Constitution (10
th
edition) M flexible
mswea vb m ^ ej b t
one under which every law of every description can legally be changed with
the same ease and in the same manner by one and the same body.

rigid mswea vb m ^ wZ wb ej b t
one under which certain laws generally known as constitutional or fundamental
laws cannot be changed in the same manner as ordinary laws.

mswea vb i k Yxf wz m ^ Professor K.C. Wheare ej b t
Constitutions may be classified according to the method by which they may be
amended. We may place in one category those constitutions which may be
amended by the legislature through the same process as any other law and we
191
may place in another category those constitutions which require a special
process for their amendment. (Modern Constitutions, page-15)|

mswea vb msk va b m wK Z A vj vPb vq h y i vi D` vni Y
L yeB c vmswMK |

c ~eB Dj L K i v nBq vQ h h y i v i ^va xb Z v h y i mg q
Continental Congress Bnvi Articles of Confederation g vi d r K j vb x i v wj i
` vwq Z , K Z e I m K wb Yq K i v nBq vwQj | c i eZ xZ h y i vi
mswea vb i Pb v K i v nBj | GB mswea vb m ^ US Supreme Court Nvl Yv
K i t

The Government of the United States was born of the Constitution, and
all powers which it enjoys or may exercise must be either derived expressly or
by implication from that instrument (Downes V. Bidwell,1901, 182 US 244,
288) (Quoted from Cases on Constitutional Law by Professor Noel T. Dowling,
Fifth Edition 1954, page-398).

Bnv GK wU rigid mswea vb A _ vr msk va b ev c wi eZ b K wi Z
wek l ee vi c q vR b | msk va b i D wek l ee v mswea vb i
c g A b y Q` eYb v K i v nBq vQ| BnvZ ` yBwU a vc i g va g
mswea vb msk va b i K _ v ej v nBq vQ| Z vnvQvo v, mswk State Gi
A m wZ Z Senate K State c wZ wb wa Z Z K vb Z vi Z g msk va b xi
g va g I A vb q b K i v h vq b v| Congress Gi g Z vi GB mxg ve Z v
h y i vi mswea vb B wj wc e i wnq vQ|

c _ g g nvh y I wZ xq g nvh y i A eZ xK vj xb mg q BDi vc
e msL K b ~Z b i v R b j vf K i | GB ` k wj i c Z K wUi B
wj wL Z mswea vb i wnq vQ|

mva vi YZ A wj wL Z mswea vb wj flexible Ges wj wL Z I M f z
mswea vb wj rigid nBq v _ vK | Z e Bnvi ewZ g I i wnq vQ|
Singapore Gi mswea vb wj wL Z nBj I Bnv m ~Yf ve flexible|
Australiai c Z K wU State Gi wj wL Z mswea vb _ vwK j I Bnvi ek xi
f vM wea vb wj flexible|

192
German Federal Republic Gi mswea vb i K Z K A b y Q` Ges Republic
of Cyprus Gi K Z K g ~j A b y Q` A c wi eZ b xq |

h w` I mswea vb c wi eZ b i wewa ee vi Dc i wf w K wi q v
BnvK b vb v f ve k Yxf z K wi evi c q vm j I q v nBq vQ wK
c q vMi A b K mg q B Bnv mswk i vi c K Z MYZ PPvi
Dc i B Z vnv g ~j Z t wb f i K i | GK wU mZ K vi MYZ vw K i vGK wU
mva vi Y A vBb wewa e K wi evi c ~eA b K mg q B R b g Z h vPvB Gi
ee v j I q v nq Ges msm` Z vnv Pzj Pi v wePvi weePb v K i v nBq v
_ vK wK wj wL Z mswea vb _ vK v mZ I A b K i v Bnvi mswea vb
c wi eZ b Z g b K vb MYZ vw K PPv c wi j w Z nq b v| G c m O.
Hood Phillips Gi g et

.............. for it depends on political and psychological factors . It may
be more difficult to pass a British statute amending the law relating to
the sale of intoxicating liquors or the opening of shops on Sunday than to
pass a French statute reducing the period of office of the President of the
Republic from seven to five years. (Constitutional and Administrative
Law, Seventh Edition, page-7)

G evc vi evsj v` k i A wf Z v A vi I g g vw K | Bnvi GK wU
rigid mswea vb i wnq vQ| wK GL vb mvg wi K k vmK MY c vq mB ` k
i v K wi evi Z vwM` mswea vb ewnf ~Z I A ea f ve i vxq g Z v
` L j K i b Ges m ~YGL &wZ q vi wenxb I eA vBb x f ve wb R ` i
c q vR b wg UvBevi D k c Q` g Z mswea vb K uvUvQo v K wi q v
_ vK b | nuv/ b v f vU c vq k Z f vM f vU Z vnv` i c c o | Z vnvi v
wb w Z f ve i vc wZ wb evwPZ nb | msm` I Z vnvi i vR b wZ K ` j
ewZ g nxb f ve wec yj Z g msL vMwi A vmb j vf K i | Z r c i ,
msm` i c _ g A wa ek b i c _ g w` b B K q K wg wb Ui g a v
mswea vb i msk va b wj A ej xj v g mswea vb i A sk nBq v h vq |
GB NUb vej x A vg i v mswea vb ( c g msk va b ) A vBb I mswea vb
( m g msk va b ) A vBb Gi c Z K wi q vwQ|
193
hvnv nDK , mK j rigid mswea vb i mswea vb msk va b i
wea vb mswea vb B c h y i vL v nq | h y i vi mswea vb i c g
A b y Q` mswea vb msk va b K wi evi wea vb mwb ewk Z K i v nBq vQ
Z vnv Dc i A vj vPb v K i v nBq vQ|
mswea vb i mva vi Y Pwi m Professor K.C. Wheare ej b t

Constitutions, when they are framed and adopted, tend to reflect the
dominant beliefs and interests, or some compromise between conflicting beliefs
and interests, which are characteristic of the society at that time. Moreover they
do not necessarily reflect political or legal beliefs and interests only. They may
embody conclusions or compromises upon economic and social matters which
the framers of the Constitution have wished to guarantee or to proclaim. A
Constitution is indeed the resultant of a parallelogram of forces-political,
economic, and social-which operate at the time of its adoption.
(Modern Constitutions, page-67)

mswea vb c YZ vMY, m h ` k i B nDb , wb t m` n Z vunvi v
vb x, Yx I c wZ ew | wK BnvI A ^xK vi K i v h vq b v h
Z uvnvi v Z uvnv` i h yMi c wZ wb wa Z K i b | Z uvnvi v Z uvnv` i h yMi
` k b , wP va vi v I Z L b K vi c wi w wZ Z i vi c vq vR b K A Mvwa K vi
c ` vb K i Z t mswea vb i Pb v K wi q vwQj b | mg q i mwnZ wP va vi v I
c q vR b i c wi eZ b nBZ c vi | mB ev eZ vi wb wi L A b K mg q B
mswea vb msk va b mg q i ` vex nBq v ` uvo vBZ c vi | mB m veZ vi
K _ v mi Y i vwL q vB mswea vb c YZ vMY mswea vb B Bnv msk va b
K wi evi wea vb I c wZ wj wc e K i b |

GB c m Professor Carl J. Friedrich ej b t
No countervailing power or other amorphous influence, no matter
how effective, satisfies the requirements which the concept of a constitution is
meant to denote. The ideological justifications for such a system, as well as the
thoughts associated with its practice, embody the meaning of constitutionalism.
Although some of these ideological and behavioral projections have treated a
constitution as a static given, as something which never or very rarely changes, a
constitution is, on the contrary, a living system. To be sure, the basic structure or
pattern may remain even though the different component parts may undergo
significant alterations. How very different is the American Congress today than
it was after 1787; how profound are the alterations which the British Parliament
194
has undergone during the same period! And yet, both still constitute vital parts
of the evolving constitution.
(Carl J. Friedrich : Constitutional Government And Democracy, page-29 nBZ
D Z )
Professor K.C. Wheare mswea vb msk va b j Bq v GB f ve c k
D vc b K i b t
If it is almost a platitude that Constitutions are the product of their
times, it is also true that times change. Do Constitutions change with them? How
rapidly do they change, and by what processes? Does it happen often that there
is grave disharmony between a Constitution and the society whose political
processes it is intended to regulate.?
(Modern Constitutions, page-70)

h K vb msk va b x A vBb i ea Z v wePvi K wi Z Mj A vBb wUi
g ~j D k ev Pith and substance weePb v K i v R i i x| Pith and substance
Gi ea Z vi Dc i B A vBb wUi ea Z v A b K vsk B wb f i K i |

Attorney General for Canada V. Attorney General for Ontario 1937 AC 355
g vK v g vq Employment and Social Insurance Act, 1935, Gi g va g b vMwi K
A wa K vi yb K i v nq ewj q v ` vex K i v nBj Privy Council A vBb wUK
A ea Nvl Yv K i | Lord Atkin Z uvnvi i vq ej b ( c v- 3 6 7 ) t
................... Dominion legislation, even though it deals with
Dominion property, may yet be so framed as to invade civil rights within
the province, or encroach upon the classes of subjects which are reserved
to Provincial competence. It is not necessary that it should be a colorable
device, or a pretence. If on the true view of the legislation it is found
that in reality in pith and substance the legislation invades civil rights
within the province, or in respect of other classes of subjects otherwise
encroaches upon the provincial field, the legislation will be invalid
( A a vi L v c ` )

Dc i v g vK v g vq Z wK Z A vBb wU weePb vq ` L v h vq h
Bnvi c K Z pith and substance wQj c ` k i b vMwi K A wa K vi i c wi c x|
GB K vi YB Z wK Z A vBb wU A ea Nvl Yv K i v nq |

195
Gallagher V. Lynn 1937 AC 863 g vK v g vq wm v nq h A vBb mf v
K vb A ea wel q e Z zj Bq v K vb A vBb wewa e K wi Z c vi b v|
Lord Atkin ej b ( c v- 8 6 9 - 7 0 ) t
It is well established that you are to look at the true nature and
character of the legislation Russell v. The Queen (I) the pith and substance of
the legislation. If, on the view of the statute as whole, you find that the
substance of the legislation is within the express powers, then it is not
invalidated if incidentally it affects matters which are outside the authorized
field. The legislation must not under the guise of dealing with one matter in fact
encroach upon the forbidden field. Nor are you to look only at the object of
legislature. An Act may have a perfectly lawful object, e.g. to promote the
health of the inhabitants, but may seek to achieve that object by invalid methods,
e.g., a direct prohibition of any trade with a foreign country. In other words, you
may certainly consider the clauses of an Act to see whether they are passed in
respect of the forbidden subject. ( A a vi L v c ` )

c ~eB Dj L K i v nBq vQ h h y i vi mswea vb wj wL Z I rigid|
Dnvi c g A b y Q` mswea vb msk va b ms v | g ~j mswea vb wUZ
g vU 7 ( mvZ ) wU A b y Q` i wnq vQ| mswea vb i wPZ I MnxZ nq
17 8 7 mvj i 17 B m ^i Z vwi L | A Z t c i , GK GK K wi q v
c v b 13 wU K j vb x- A i v wj mswea vb A b yg v` b (Ratification) K i |
mswea vb i g ~j 7 wU A b y Q` K L b I msk va b nq b vB | msk va b x
g vi d r c _ g 10 wU A b y Q` i msh yw K i Y A b yg vw` Z nBq v
mswea vb i A sk nq 17 9 1 mvj i 15 B wWm ^i Z vwi L | GB
msk va b x wj K g vb yl i g wj K A wa K vi i v_ A vb q b K i v
nBq vwQj | GB K vi YB GB ` k wU A b y Q` K ej v nq The Bill of Rights|
A Z t c i , MZ mvq v ` yBk Z er mi g v 17 wU msk va b x A vb v nq |
A i v wj A b yg v` b i c i msk va b x wj I mswea vb i A sk nBq v
h vq |

MZ mvq v ` yBk Z er mi i BwZ nvm h y i vK xZ ` vm mg mv,
Mnh y , A _ b wZ K mg mv, wZ xq g nvh y BZ vw` A b K eo eo
msUK vj A wZ evwnZ K wi Z nBq vQ wK g ~j mswea vb m ~YA Z
i wnq vQ| ei msk va b x wj mswea vb K A vi I g wng vwb Z K wi q vQ|
196
GB K vi Y K vb K vb msk va b xi A b yg v` b i c wZ MZ wel q j Bq v
g vK v g v nBj I msk va b xi wel q e yj Bq v K L b I K vb g vK v g v
nq b vB | GB K vi Y K vb msk va b xi vires ev ea Z v j Bq v US Supreme
Court Gi K vb i vq ` L v h vq b v |

h y i vi mswea vb i c vc U McCulloch V. Maryland (1819)
g vK v g vq c a vb wePvi c wZ John Marshall mswea vb m ^ ej b t
A Constitution, to contain an accurate detail of all the subdivisions of
which its great powers will admit, and of all the means by which they may be
carried into execution, would partake of the prolixity of a legal code, and could
scarcely be embraced by the human mind. It would probably never be under
stood by the public. Its nature, therefore, requires, that only its great outlines
should be marked, its important objects designated, and the minor ingredients
which compose those object be deduced from the nature of the objects
themselves. (Robert E. Cushman: Leading Constitutional Decisions, 13
th

Edition, Page-10)

mswea vb i K Z Z m K Professor K.C. Wheare ej b t
If we ask what moral basis a Constitution can claim as law the answer
would seem to be that it can command the authority which all law commands in
a community. Whatever theory of morals may be invoked to determine and
define obedience to the law will apply also to the law of the Constitution. But
we may go further than this and say that there is an argument for asserting that a
Constitution can command obligation on an additional ground. It is, by its
nature, not just an ordinary law. It is fundamental law, it provides the basis upon
which law is made and enforce. It is a prerequisite of law and order. There is
indeed a moral argument for saying that a Constitution commands obedience
because it is by its nature a superior or supreme law. This argument represents,
in the moral field, the logical argument adopted in the legal filed by Chief
Justice Marshall in Marbury V. Madison. A Constitution cannot be disobeyed
with same degree of lightheartedness as Dog Act. It lies at the basis of political
order; if it is brought into contempt, disorder and chaos may soon follow.

Just as, in the legal sphere, the logical argument for a Constitutions
being supreme law supplemented by the argument that the people, either directly
or through a constituent assembly, is a supreme law-giver, so also in the moral
sphere it is sometimes argued that a Constitution commands obligation because
it expresses the will of the people. What the people has laid down is binding
upon every individual.
197
(Modern Constitutions, page-62-63) ( A a vi L v c ` )

mswea vb msk va b m K Professor K.C. Wheare A vi I ej b t
Constitutions are influenced by what people think of them, by their
attitude to them. If a Constitution is regarded with veneration, if what it
embodies is thought to be prima facie right and good, then there exists a force to
preserve the Constitution against lighthearted attempts to change it. Though the
formal process of amendment is there, it will be seldom and hesitatingly
invoked. The Constitution of the Untied States occupies some such position in
the eyes of the citizens. They regard it with great respect, if not with veneration.
In natural reaction to this attitude, those who wish to see the Constitution
amended are led to speak with exasperation of the Myth of the Constitution
which opposes so strong a resistance to attempts to carry through even minor
reforms. (Modern Constitutions, page-77) ( A a vi L v c ` )

mswea vb msk va b c m K vb vWvi A wf Z vI eYb v K i v h vBZ
c vi | wesk k Z vw i w k ` k K mg M c w_ ex evc x A _ b wZ K g ` v
A vi nq | K vb vWv GB g ` vi wk K vi nq Ges K vb vWv mi K vi g ` v
g vK vej vq b vb vi c c ` c j BZ eva nq | ` k i A _ b wZ K
A e vi Db wZ K c v` wk K mi K vi wj K I A vw_ K mnvq Z v c ` vb i
c q vR b nq | wK K vb vWv mi K vi i mvswea vwb K g Z vi g a _ vwK q v
H i c A _ b wZ K c ` c MnYi myh vM wQj b v| Gg Z A e vq
19 4 0 mvj K vb vWv mi K vi Bnvi mswea vb msk va b K wi Z eva nq |

GB f ve mva vi YZ t c q vR b i Z vwM` mswea vb msk va b K i v
nq | Z e K vb A vBb c YxZ nBj ev mswea vb msk va b K wi q v K vb
A vBb c YxZ nBj Z vnv g ~j mswea vb i mwnZ mvsNwl K wK b v, mB
wePvwi K ` vwq Z myc xg K vUi Dc i b | Marbury V. Madison (1803)
g vK v g vq c a vb wePvi c wZ John Marshall ej b t
It is emphatically the province and duty of the judicial department to
say what the law is. Those who apply the rule to particular cases, must of
necessity expound and interpret that rule. If two laws conflict with each other,
the courts must decide on the operation of each.
So if a law be in opposition to the Constitution; if both the law and the
Constitution apply to a particular case, so that the court must either decide that
case conformably to the law, disregarding the Constitution; or conformably to
198
the Constitution, disregarding the law; the court must determine which of these
confliction rules governs the case. This is of the very essence of judicial duty.
If then the courts are to regard the Constitution; and the Constitution is
superior to any ordinary act of the legislature; the Constitution, and not such
ordinary act, must govern the case to which they both apply. (Professor John B.
Sholley : Cases on Constitutional Law, page-39, 48) ( A a vi L v c ` )

19 5 0 mvj f vi Z i mswea vb K vh K i x nq | f vi Z i ^va xb Z vi
c i c i B K l K I c R vmva vi b i K j vb v_ R wg ` vi x c _ v wej yw mn
K wl - f ~wg m ^xq wewf b A vBb c Yq b K i v nq | H A vBb wj i
mvswea vwb K ea Z v j Bq v wewf b i vR i nvBK vU e msL K
g vK v g v nBj mi K vi i f ~wg ms vi c wi K b v eva vM nBq v c o |
f ~wg ms vi ` Z A vMvBq v j Bevi D k 19 5 1 mvj f vi Z i
mswea vb i c _ g msk va b x The Constitution ( First Amendment ) Act, 1951
g vi d r Article 31A, Article 31B I Schedule IX mswea vb msh y K i v nq |
GL vb Dj L , mswea vb i 3 6 8 A b y Q` ewYZ wek l K vh wewa
mvc f vi Z xq Parliament Gi Dc i mswea vb msk va b i g Z v
(constituent power) A wc Z i wnq vQ| Shankri Prasad Singh Deo V. Union of India
AIR 1951 SC 458 g vK g vwUZ f vi Z i myc xg K vUmswea vb i Dc i v
msk va b x wj i mvswea vwb K ea Z v mec _ g weePb v K i | wei va wU
f vi Z xq mswea vb i 13 ( 2 ) A b y Q` ewYZ law k wUi A vI Z vq
mvswea vwb K A vBb I A f z wK b v Z vnvB g ~j weeP wel q wQj | b vb x
A myc xg K vUmvswea vwb K A vBb D law k wUi A f z b q
ewj q v Z wK Z mvswea vwb K msk va b xwU ea ewj q v i vq c ` vb K i |
c Z xq g vb nq h g wj K A wa K vi I mswea vb i 3 6 8 A b y Q` mn D
A b y Q` ewYZ wek l K vhwewa mvc Parliament mswea vb i h K vb
A sk ev wea vb msk va b K wi Z g Z vc v |

2 8 | mswea vb msk va b I Basic Structure Z Z t
c vwK vb i c _ g mswea vb 19 5 6 mvj i 2 3 k g vPZ vwi L
K vh K i x nq |
199
c v` wk K msm` Pj vK vj xb mg q Mf Yi Z vnv f vwq v w` Z
g Z vc v wK b v GB mvswea vwb K c k j Bq v c vwK vb i i vc wZ
c vwK vb myc xg K vUi g Z vg Z R vwb Z Pvwnq v GK wU Reference c i Y
K wi j Mf Yi Gi mBi c K vb g Z v b vB ewj q v myc xg K vUg Z
c K vk K i | c a vb wePvi c wZ Muhammad Munir Z uvnvi g Z vg Z c ` vb
K vj wb vI g e K i b (Reference by the President PLD 1957 SC219=9
DLR SC178) ( c v- 19 0 DLR) t
33. .....................The Constitution defines the qualifications which a
candidate for election to the Provincial Assembly, or a voter in a constituency
for such Assembly, must possess; but Mr. Manzur Qadir would give to the
President under Article 234 the power to destroy, though for a temporary period,
the very basis of the new Constitution by claiming for him the power to form the
constituencies and to order the preparation of electoral rolls in direct violation of
the Constitution merely to implement the decision of a Governor.
( A a vi L v c ` )

Dc i v e e the power to destroy...... the very basis of the new
Constitution K _ v wj wek l c wYa vb h vM| mswea vb i h wK Qyg wj K
wel q _ vwK Z c vi Z vnvi B GK wU BwZ Dc i v g e nBZ c vI q v
h vq |

Muhammad Abdul Haque V. Fazlul Quader Chowdhury PLD 1963 Dhaka 669
g vK v g vq wePvi c wZ Syed Mahbub Murshed mswea vb i k Z m ^
wb v g e K i b ( c v- 6 9 5 ) t
53.................A Constitution is a solemn and sacred document of
seminal and supremel consequence, partaking the nature of almost scriptura
sanctity, embodying, as it usually does, the final will and testament of the
sovereign authority that resides in the people and providing the manner and
norms of the Government of a nation. It therefore, assumes something of the
immutability of the laws of the Medes and the Persians. It is not subject to easy
change which is usually effected by a special and somewhat difficult process. In
the present Constitution the provisions with regard to amendment of the
Constitution have been enumerated in Articles 208 to 210. We may note that it
requires a two-thirds majority of the Legislature to effect an amendment in the
constitution. ( A a vi L v c ` )

200
c vwK vb i i vc wZ K Z K c wi Z Reference G c a vb wePvi c wZ
Muhammad Munir Gi Dc i ewYZ g e Dj L K wi q v wePvi c wZ Syed
Mahbub Murshed e e i vL b ( c v- 6 9 8 M) t
62.............. The aforesaid dictum of the Supreme Court of Pakistan is a
pointer that in the case before us the power of adaptation does not extend to
the wiping out of vital provision of the Constitution to implement a decision of
the members of the Assembly who were invited to be Ministers. (A a vi L v
c ` )

Dc i v e e .......a vital provision of the Constitution K _ v wj
i Z c ~Y| mswea vb i I h vital provision i wnq vQ Z vnv wePvi c wZ
Murshed Gi Dc i v g e nBZ c Z xq g vb nq |

Z vnvQvo v, i vR b wZ K mg mv mg va vb i R b mswea vb msk va b
K i v h vq b v BnvI wZ wb Z vnvi i vq Dj L K i b ( c v- 7 0 4 )
78. The text of Article 224 (3) is very clear and unambiguous. It does
not permit alterations of the provisions of the Constitution for a solution of a
political situation brought about by some members of the National Assembly
who refused to accept appointments as Ministers, if such appointments entailed
cessation of their membership of the Assembly. ( A a vi L v c ` )

Dc i v i vq i wei c vwK vb myc xg K vUA vc xj nq |
A vc xj i i vq (PLD 1963 SC486) c a vb wePvi c wZ A.R. Cornelius ej b
( c v- 5 12 ) t
The impression is clear and unavoidable that the ground of expediency
was based on a desire to accede to the wishes of certain persons, probably a
fairly small number of persons, but the Constitution was not intended to be
varied according to the wishes of any person or persons. Anything in the nature
of respecting of person, unless provided by the Constitution itself, would be a
violation of the Constitution, and if the Constitution were itself altered for some
such reason, and that in a substantial, and not merely a machinery aspect, there
would clearly be an erosion, a whittling away of its provisions, which it would
be the duty of the superior Courts to resist in defence of the Constitution. The
aspect of the franchise, and of the form of Government are fundamental features
of a Constitution and to alter them, in limine in order to placate or secure the
support of a few persons, would appear to be equivalent not to bringing the
201
given Constitution into force, but to bringing into effect an altered or different
Constitution. ( A a vi L v c ` )

Dc i v e e The aspect of the franchise, and of the form of,
Government are fundamental features of a Constitution g e mvswea vwb K f ve
A Z i Z c ~Y| mswea vb i h fundamental feature i wnq vQ Z vnvB
Dc i v g e nBZ c K vk c vq |

i vc wZ K Z K c wi Z 19 5 7 mvj i Reference g vK v g vq Dc i
D Z c a vb wePvi c wZ Muhammad Munir Gi g e Dj L K wi q v Cornelius
C.J. ej b ( c v- 5 12 ) t
In that passage, there clearly appears a determination on the part of the
Court to resist any attempt to manipulate the constitution in order to suit a
particular person, and at the same time to insist that nothing should be permitted
which derogates from the very basis of the Constitution or is in direct
violation of the Constitution. ( A a vi L v c ` )

c a vb wePvi c wZ i Dc i v e e the very basis of the
Constitution K _ v wj DwVq v A vwmq vQ h vnv mvswea vwb K f ve A Z
i Z c ~Y|

GK B A vc xj g vK v g vq wePvi c wZ Fazle-Akbar c a vb wePvi c wZ i
mwnZ GK g Z c vl Y K wi q v ej b ( c v- 5 2 4 )
From the language of the Article it is abundantly clear that this Article
was never meant to bestow power on the President to change the fundamentals
of the Constitution. Our Constitution has provided for a Presidential form of
government and the President by the impugned order has introduced a semi-
Parliamentary form of Government. As already stated, this Article 224(3) was
never meant to bestow power on the President to change the fundamentals of the
Constitution. However wholesome the intention and however noble the motive
may be the extra-constitutional action could not be supported because the
President was not entitled to go beyond the Constitution and touch any of the
fundamental of Constitution. ( A a vi L v c ` )

Dc i v e e the fundamentals of the Constitution k wj 3 ( wZ b )
evi DwVq v A vwmq vQ| mswea vb i h g wj K wK Qywel q e yi wnq vQ
Z vnv Dc i v e e nBZ c wZ f vZ nBZ Q|

202
wePvi c wZ Hamoodur Rahman Z uvnvi i vq mswea vb I mswea vb
c ` mvef g g Z v m ^ ej b ( c v- 5 3 5 ) t
................The fundamental principle underlying a written Constitution
is that it not only specifies the persons or authorities in whom the sovereign
powers of the State are to be vested but also lays down fundamental rule for the
selection or appointment of such persons or authorities and above all fixes the
limits of the exercise of those powers. Thus the written Constitution is the
source from which all governmental power emanates and it defines its scope and
ambit so that each functionary should act within his respective sphere. No power
can, therefore, be claimed by any functionary which is not be found within the
four corners of the Constitution nor can anyone transgress the limits therein
specified. ( A a vi L v c ` )

i vc wZ K Z K difficulties A c mvi Y c m wePvi c wZ Hamoodur
Rahman ej b ( c v- 5 3 6 ) t
It could, in may view , have no possible relation to a difficulty which
arose de hors the Constitution, as for example, a political difficulty which
necessitated an alteration in the basic structure of Government as originally
contemplated by the constitution.( A a vi L v c ` )

Dc i v e e GB mec _ g basic structure K _ vwU eenZ nq
h vnv mvswea vwb K f ve L yeB i Z c ~Y|
wZ wb mswea vb i g ~j wel q e y (main feature) m ^ ej b ( c v-
5 3 8 ) t
The main feature of the Constitution, therefore, is that a Minister should
not be a member of the House, he should have no right to vote therein, nor
should his tenure of office be dependent upon the support of the majority of the
members of the Assembly nor should he be responsible to the Assembly. This is
an essential characteristic of a Presidential form of Government and Mr. Brohi
appearing on behalf of the respondent has called it the main fabric of the
system of government sought to be set up by the present Constitution. An
alternation of this main fabric, therefore, so as to destroy it altogether cannot,
in my view, be called an adaptation of the Constitution for purpose of
implementing it. ( A a vi L v c ` )

Dc i v e e mswea vb c m main feature I main fabric
k wj eenZ nBq vQ h vnv mvswea vwb K i Z enb K i |

203
c Z xq g vb nq , mswea vb i h K vb g wj K wel q _ vwK Z c vi
m m ^ mec _ g c vwK vb i XvK v nvBK vUI c i eZ xZ myc xg K vU
Dj L K i |

Sajjan Singh V. State of Rajasthan AIR 1965 SC 845 g vK g vq f vi Z xq
myc xg K vUConstitution (Seventeenth Amendment) Act, 1964 K ea Nvl Yv
K i | wK wePvi c wZ M. Hidayatullah I J.R. Mudhalkar Z vnv` i c _ K
c _ K i vq mswea vb i basic feature msk va b K i v h vq wK b v Z vnv j Bq v
msk q c K vk K i b | wePvi c wZ Hidayatullah mswea vb i 3 6 8 A b y Q` i
c wi mi ev ew A vj vPb v K i b |

GK B c m c vwK vb myc xg K vUi Dc i ewYZ i vq Dj L
K wi q v wePvi c wZ Mudhalkar ej b ( c v- 8 6 4 ) t
(59) The Constitution has enjoined on every member of Parliament
before entering upon his office to take an oath or make an affirmation to the
effect that he will bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution. On the other
hand under Art. 368 a procedure is prescribed for amending the Constitution. If
upon a literal interpretation of this provision an amendment even of the basic
features of the Constitution would be possible it will be a question for
consideration as to how to harmonies the duty of allegiance to the Constitution
with the power to make an amendment to it. Could the two be harmonised by
excluding from the procedure for amendment, alteration of a basic feature of the
Constitution?
.....................................................................................................................
..........................................................
(66) Before I part with this case I wish to make it clear that what I have
said in this judgment is not an expression of my final opinion but only an
expression of certain doubts which have assailed me regarding a question of
paramount importance to the citizens of our country: to know whether the basic
features of Constitution under which we live and to which we owe allegiance are
to endure for all time or at least for the foreseeable future or whether they
are no more enduring than the implemental and subordinate provisions of the
Constitution. ( A a vi L v c ` )

Golak Nath V. State of Punjab AIR 1967 SC 1643 g vK v g vwU 11( GMvi )
R b wePvi c wZ mg b q myc xg K vUi GK wU eni e b vb x K i |
Golak Nath g vK v g vi c ~emyc xg K vUi A wf g Z wQj h Parliament
204
mswea vb i 3 6 8 A b y Q` i k Z mvc g wj K A wa K vi I 3 6 8
A b y Q` mn mswea vb i h K vb A b y Q` msk va b K wi Z g Z vevb ,
wK Golak Nath g vK v g vi i vq GB A wf g Z i c wi eZ b A vb | D
g vK v g vq wePvi K MYi 6 - 5 Mwi Z vq mswea vb msk va b i c k
c ~ei mK j i vq wj A wZ w` (overrule) nq | Nvl Yv K i v nq h
mswea vb i Z Z xq f vM ewYZ g wj K A wa K vi mg ~n 3 6 8 A b y Q` i
A vI Z vq msk va b K i v h vq b v, K wi Z nBj MYc wi l ` A vnevb
K wi q v b ~Z b mswea vb c Yq b i c q vR b nBe|

A ek The Constitution (24
th
Amendment) Act, 1971, Gi g va g 13
A b y Q` ( 4 ) Dc - A b y Q` Ges 3 6 8 A b y Q` i mwnZ ( 1) Dc -
A b y Q` msh y K i Z t Golak Nath g vK v g vi i vq wb eZ b (supersession)
K i v nq |

His Holiness Kesavananda Bharati Sripadagalvaru V.State of Kerala AIR 1973
SC 1461 g vK v g vq wePvi K MYi 7 - 6 Mwi Z vq h w` I Dc i v
mswea vb msk va b x ea Nvl Yv K i v nq Ges Golak Nath g vK v g vi i vq
A wZ w` (over-rule) K i v nq wK myc xg K vUConstitution (25
th
Amendment )
Act, 1971, A ea Nvl Yv K wi q v 3 1 wm A b y Q` i wZ xq A sk K evwZ j
K i | K vi Y D msk va b x g vi d r A v` vj Z i ePvwi K c yYweePb v
(judicial review) Gi g Z v hvnv mswea vb i GK wU Basic structure Z vnv ni Y
K i v nBq vwQj |

D g vK v g vq f vi Z xq myc xg K vUwb ` k ` vb K i h
mswea vb i basic structure ev fundamental feature ewZ i K Parliament 3 6 8
A b y Q` i A vI Z vq A b h K vb wea vb msk va b K wi Z c vi wVK B
wK Z vnv Gg b f ve K wi Z nBe h vnvZ g ~j mswea vb i c wi Pq
(identity) zb b v nq |

Golak Nath g vK v g vq mK j g wj K A wa K vi mswea vb i basic
structure Nvl Yv K wi q v Z vnvi K vb UvB msk va b h vM b n ej v
nBq vwQj wK Kesavananda g vK v g vq H i c evc K Nvl Yv c wi nvi
205
K wi q v c wZ wU g vK v g vq D vwc Z wel q wU basic structure Gi A vI Z vq
A vm wK b v Z vnv weePb v K wi evi g Z v msi Y K i | h g b g wj K
A wa K vi A MZ m wi A wa K vi Golak Nath g vK g vq basic structure
wnmve MY K i v nq wK Kesavananda g vK g vq Z vnv K i v nq b vB,
ei , m wi A wa K vi ms v wel q mvswea vwb K msk va b x A vwb evi
g Z vi ^xK wZ c ` vb K i v nq |

Kesavananda Bharati V. State of Kerala etc AIR 1973 SC 1461 g vK v g vq
mswea vb i 3 6 8 A b y Q` i A vI Z vq mswea vb msk va b m K c a vb
wePvi c wZ S.M. Sikri ej b ( c v- 15 3 4 ) t
291. What is the necessary implication from all the provision of the
Constitution?
292. It seems to me that reading the Preamble , the fundamental
importance of the freedom of the individual, indeed its inalienability, and the
importance of the econmic, social and political justice mentioned in the
Preamble , the importance of directive principles, the non-inclusion in Article
368 of provisions like Arts. 52, 53 and various other provisions to which
reference has already been made an irresistible conclusion emerges that it was
not the intention to use the word amendment in the widest sense.
293. It was the common understanding that fundamental rights would
remain in substance as they are and they would not be amended out of existence.
It seems also to have been a common understanding that the fundamental
features of the Constitution, namely, secularism, democracy and the freedom of
the individual would always subsist in the welfare state.
294. In view of the above reasons, a necessary implication arises that
there are implied limitations on the power of Parliament that the expression
amendment of this Constitution has consequently a limited meaning in our
Constitution and not the meaning suggested by the respondents.
295. This conclusion is reinforced if I consider the consequences of the
contentions of both sides. The respondents, who appeal fervently to democratic
principles, urge that there is no limit to the powers of Parliament to amend the
Constitution. Article 368 can itself be amended to make the Constitution
completely flexible or extremely rigid and unamendable. If this is so, a political
party with a two-third majority in Parliament for a few years could so amend the
Constitution as to debar any other party from functioning, establish
totalitarianism, enslave the people, and after having effected these purpose make
the Constitution unamedable or extremely rigid. This would no doubt invite
206
extra-constitutional revolution. Thereafter, the appeal by the respondents to
democratic principles and the necessity of having absolute amending power to
prevent a revolution to buttress their contention is rather fruitless, because if
their contention is accepted the very democratic principles, which they appeal
to, would disappear and a revolution would also become a possibility.
..................................................................................................................
297. For the aforesaid reasons, I am driven to the conclusion that the
expression amendment of this Constitution in Art. 368 means any addition or
change in any of the provisions of the Constitution within the broad contours of
the Preamble and the Constitution to carry out the objectives in the Preamble
and the Directive Principles. Applied to fundamental rights, it would mean that
while fundamental rights cannot be abrogated reasonable abridgments of
fundamental rights can be effected in the public interest.
.....................................................................................................................
.......
299. If this meaning is given it would enable Parliament to adjust
fundamental rights in order to secure what the Directive Principles direct to be
accomplished, while maintaining the freedom and dignity of every citizen.
( A a vi L v c ` )
mswea vb i basic structure m ^ Sikri C.J. ej b ( c v- 15 3 5 ) t
302. The learned Attorney General said that every provision of the
Constitution is essential; other wise it would not have been put in the
Constitution. This is true. But this does not place every provision of the
Constitution in the same position. The true position is that every provision of the
Constitution can be amended provided in the result the basic foundation and
structure of the constitution remains the same. The basic structure may be said to
consist of the following features:
(1) Supremacy of the Constitution;
(2) Republican and Democratic forms of Government;
(3) Secular character of the Constitution;
(4) Separation of powers between the legislature, the
executive and the judiciary;
(5) Federal character of the Constitution.
303. The above structure is built on the basic foundation, i.e., the dignity
and freedom of the individual. This is of supreme importance. This cannot by
any form of amendment be destroyed.
304. The above foundation and the above basic features are easily
discernible not only from the preamble but the whole scheme of the
Constitution, which I have already discussed.
( A a vi L v c ` )
207
3 6 8 A b y Q` I Bnvi Proviso evL v K wi Z wMq v Sikri,C.J. ej b
( c v- 15 5 2 ) t
408....................The meaning of the expression Amendment of the
Constitution does not change when one reads the proviso. If the meaning is the
same, Article 368 can only be amended so as not to change its identity
completely. Parliament, for instance, could not make the Constitution
uncontrolled by changing the prescribed two thirds majority to simple majority.
Similarly it cannot get rid of the true meaning of the expression Amendment of
the Constitution so as to derive power to abrogate fundamental
rights.( A a vi L v c ` )

Dc msnvi Sikri,C.J. ej b ( c v 15 6 5 ) t
492. To summarise, I hold that :
(a)..........................
(b)............................
(c) The expression amendment of this Constitution does not
enable Parliament to abrogate or take away fundamental rights or
to completely change the fundamental features of the
Constitution so as to destroy its identity. Within these limits
Parliament can amend every article.
(d)..............................................
.....................................
( A a vi L v c ` )

3 6 8 A b y Q` i A vI Z vq mswea vb msk va b I basic structure
m ^ wePvi c wZ J.M. Shelat I A.N. Grover ej b ( c v- 16 0 3 ) t
599. The basic structure of the Constitution is not a vague concept and
the apprehensions expressed on behalf of the respondents that neither the citizen
nor the Parliament would be able to understand it are unfounded. If the historical
background, the Preamble, the entire scheme of the Constitution, the relevant
provisions thereof including Article 368 are kept in mind there can be no
difficulty in discerning that the following can be regarded as the basic elements
of the constitutional structure. ( These cannot be catalogued but can only be
illustrated).
1. The supremacy of the Constitution.
2. Republican and Democratic form of Government and
sovereignty of the country.
3. Secular and federal character of the Constitution.
208
4. Demarcation of power between the legislature, the executive
and the judiciary.
5. The dignity of the individual secured by the various freedoms
and basic rights in Part III and the mandate to build a welfare
State contained in Part IV.
6. The unity and the integrity of the nation.
600. The entire discussion from the point of view of the meaning of the
expression amendment as employed in Article 368 and the limitations which
arise by implications leads to the result that amending power under Art. 368 is
neither narrow nor unlimited. On the footing on which we have proceeded the
validity of the 24
th
Amendment can be sustained if Article 368, as it originally
stood and after the amendment, is read in the way we have read it. The insertion
of Articles 13(4) and 368(3) and the other amendments made will not affect the
result, namely, that the power in Article 368 is wide enough to permit
amendment of each and every Article of the Constitution by way of addition,
variation or repeal so long as its basic elements are not abrogated or denuded of
their identity. ( A a vi L v c ` )


mswea vb msk va b i D k I Bnvi mxg v m ^ we
wePvi c wZ K.S. Hegde I A.K. Mukherjea ej b ( c v- 16 2 8 - 16 2 9 ) t
681. There is a further fallacy in the contention that whenever
Constitution is amended, we should presume that the amendment in question
was made in order to adopt the Constitution to respond to the growing needs of
the people. We have earlier seen that by using the amending power, it is
theoretically possible for Parliament to extend its own life indefinitely and also,
amend the Constitution in such a manner as to make it either legally or
practically unamendable ever afterwards. A power which is capable of being
used against the people themselves cannot be considered as a power exercised
on behalf of the people or in their interest.
682. On a careful consideration of the various aspects of the case, we are
convinced that the Parliament has no power to abrogate or emasculate the basic
elements or Fundamental features of the Constitution such as the sovereignty of
India, the democratic character of our policy, the unity of the country, the
essential features of the individual freedoms secured to the citizens.
.....................................................................................................................
....
683. In the result we uphold the contention of Mr. Palkhivala that the
word amendment in Article 368 carries with it certain limitation and further,
209
that the power conferred under Article 368 is subject to certain implied
limitations though that power is quite large. ( A a vi L v c ` )
Dc msnvi we wePvi c wZ q ej b ( c v- 16 4 8 ) t
759. In the result we hold :
(1) ...........................
..............................
(3) Though the power to amend this Constitution under Article 386 is a
very wide power, it does not yet include this power to destroy or
emasculate the basic elements or the fundamental features of the
Constitution.
.......................................
.......................................
( A a vi L v c ` )

mswea vb i msk va b xi mxg v evL v K wi q v wePvi c wZ P.Jaganmohan
Reddy Z vnvi i vq i Dc msnvi ej b ( c v- 17 7 6 ) t
1222. I now state my conclusions which are as follows:
(1) .............................
(2) Twenty-fourth Amendment: The word amendment in
Art 368 does not include repeal. Parliament could amend
Art. 368 and Art. 13 and also all the fundamental rights
and though the power of amendment is wide, it is not
wide enough to totally abrogate or emasculate or damage
any of the fundamental rights or the essential elements in
the basic structure of the Constitution or of destroying the
identity of the Constitution. Within these limits,
Parliament can amend every article of the Constitution.
Parliament cannot under Art. 368 expand its power of
amendment so as to confer on itself the power to repeal,
abrogate the Constitution or damage emasculate or
destroy any of the fundamental rights or essential
elements of the basic structure of the Constitution or of
destroying the identity of the Constitution and on the
Constitution placed by me, the Twenty-fourth
Amendment is valid, for it has not changed the nature and
scope of the amending power as it existed before the
Amendment.
.................................
.................................
( A a vi L v c ` )
210

3 6 8 A b y Q` i A vI Z vq mswea vb msk va b I Bnvi evw
j Bq v A vj vPb v K vj wePvi c wZ H.R. Khanna ej b ( c v- 18 5 9 ) t
1437. We may now deal with the question as to what is the scope of the
power of amendment under Article 368. This would depend upon the
connotation of the word amendment. Question has been posed during
arguments as to whether the power to amend under the above article includes the
power to completely abrogate the constitution and replace it by an entirely new
constitution. The answer to the above question, in my opinion, should be in the
negative. I am further of the opinion that amendment of the constitution
necessarily contemplates that the constitution has not to be abrogated but only
changes have to be made in it. The word amendment postulates that the old
constitution survives without loss of its identity despite the change and
continues even though it has been subjected to alterations. As a result of the
amendment , the old constitution cannot be destroyed and done away with; it is
retained though in the amended form. What then is meant by the retention of the
old constitution? It means the retention of the basic structure or framework of
the old constitution. A mere retention of some provisions of the old constitution
even though the basic structure or framework of the constitution has been
destroyed would not amount to the retention of the old constitutions. Although
it is permissible under the power of amendment to effect changes, howsoever
important, and to adapt the system to the requirements of changing conditions, it
is not permissible to touch the foundation or to alter the basic institutional
pattern. The words amendment of the constitution with all their wide sweep
and amplitude cannot have the effect of destroying or abrogating the basic
structure or framework of the constitution. It would not be competent under the
grab of amendment , for instance, to change the democratic government into
dictatorship or hereditary monarchy nor would it be permissible to abolish the
Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. The secular character of the state according to
which the state shall not discriminate against any citizen on the ground of
religion only cannot likewise be done away with. Provision regarding the
amendment of the constitution does not furnish a pretence for subverting the
structure of the constitution nor can Article 368 be so construed as to embody
the death wish of the Constitution or provide sanction for what may perhaps be
called its lawful harakiri. Such subversion or destruction cannot be described to
be amendment of the Constitution as contemplated by Article 368.
1438. The words amendment of this Constitution and the Constitution
shall stand amended in Article 368 show that what is amended is the existing
Constitution and what emerges as a result of amendment is not a new and
different Constitution but the existing Constitution though in an amended form.
211
The language of Article 368 thus lends support to the conclusion that one cannot
while acting under that article, repeal the existing Constitution and replace it by
a new Constitution.

1439. The connotation of the brought out clearly by Pt. Nehru in the
course of his speech in support of the First Amendment wherein he said that a
Constitution which is responsive to the peoples will, which is responsive to
their ideas , in that it can be varied here and there, they will respect it all the
more and they will not fight against, when we want to change it. It is, therefore,
plain that what Pt. Nehru contemplated by amendment was the varying of the
Constitution here and there and not the elimination of its basic structure for
that would necessarily result in the Constitution losing its identity.
...............................................
1445. Subject to the retention of the basic structure or framework of the
Constitution, I have no doubt that the power of amendment is plenary and would
include within itself the power to add, alter or repeal the various articles
including those relating to fundamental rights. During the course of years after
the constitution comes into force, difficulties can be experienced in the working
of the constitution. It is to overcome those difficulties that the constitution is
amended. The amendment can take different forms. It may some times be
necessary to repeal a particular provision of the constitution without substituting
another provision in its place. It may in respect of a different article become
necessary to replace it by a new provision. Necessity may also be felt in respect
of a third article to add some further clauses in it. The addition of the new
clauses can be either after repealing some of the earlier clauses or by adding new
clauses without repealing any of the existing clauses. Experience of the working
of the constitution may also make it necessary to insert some new and additional
articles in the constitution. Likewise, experience might reveal the necessity of
deleting some existing articles. All these measures, in my opinion, would lie
within the ambit of the power of amendment. The denial of such a broad and
comprehensive power would introduce a rigidity in the constitution as might
break the constitution. Such a rigidity is open to serious objection in the same
way as an unamendable constitution. ( A a vi L v c ` )
Dc msnvi wZ wb ej b ( c v- 19 0 3 ) t
1550. I may now sum up my conclusions relating to power of
amendment under Art. 368 of the Constitution...........
(i).......................
.......................
........................
212
(iv) Provision for amendment of the Constitution is made with a view to
overcome the difficulties which may be encountered in future in the
working of the Constitution. No generation has a monopoly of wisdom
nor has it a right to place fetters on future generations to mould the
machinery of governments. If no provision were made for amendment of
the Constitution, the people would have recourse to extra-constitutional
method like revolution to change the Constitution.
.................................
..................................
(vii) The power of amendment under Art. 368 does not include the
power to abrogate the Constitution nor does it include the power to alter
the basic structure or framework of the Constitution. Subject to the
retention of the basic structure or framework of the Constitution, the
power of amendment is plenary and includes within itself the power to
amend the various articles of the Constitution, including those relating to
fundamental rights as well as those which may be said to relate to
essential features. No part of a fundamental right can claim immunity
from amendatory process by being described as the essence or core of
that right. The power of amendment would also include within itself the
power to add, alter or repeal the various articles.
....................................
.......................................
(x) Apart from the part of the Preamble which relates to the basic
structure or framework of the Constitution, the Preamble does not restrict
the power of amendment.
..........................
.......................... ( A a vi L v c ` )

Kesavananda Bharati g vK v g vq mswea vb c Yq b MYc wi l ` i
g Z v Ges c YxZ mswea vb i A vI Z vq c ` Parliament Gi mswea vb
msk va b xi g Z vi g a c v_ K wb Yq K i v nBq vQ| MYc wi l ` b ~Z b
GK wU mswea vb i Pb v K wi Z c vwi j I Parliament Gi mBi c K vb
g Z v b vB| Parliament mswea vb i A vI Z vq _ vwK q v mswea vb msk va b
K wi Z c vi eU wK mva vi Yf ve mswea vb i K vb basic structure
c wi eZ b ev msk va b K wi Z c vi b v| Z vnvQvo v, 3 6 8 A b y Q` I
A c Z mxg ve Z v i wnq vQ|

213
Kesavananda Bharati Gi g vK v g vi ratio decidendi ev wm v i
nZ zSmt. Indira Nehru Gandhi V. Shri Raj Narayan AIR 1975 SC 2299 g vK v g vq
msL vMwi ( 3 - 2 ) wePvi c wZ MYi i vq MnxZ nq | The Constitution
(Thirty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1975, g vi d r 3 2 9 - G A b y Q` mswe a vb
msh y K i v nq | Dc i v g vK v g vq 3 2 9 - G A b y Q` i 4 I 5
` d vi ea Z v D vc b K i v nq | 3 2 9 - G A b y Q` c a vb g x I xK vi
Gi wb evPb ms v | 4 ` d v vi v c a vb g xi wb evPb i ea Z v K vb
A v` vj Z D vc b K i v nBZ g y i vL v c m, my yI wb i c wb evPb
Ges A vBb i k vmb K basic structure w i K i Z t msL vMwi
wePvi c wZ MYi A wf g Z i mwnZ GK g Z nBq v wePvi c wZ H.R. Khanna
ej b ( c v- 2 3 5 1) t
....................................................................................
......................................................................................
210.................................. The question to be decided is that if the
impugned amendment of the Constitution violates a principle which is part of
the basic structure of the Constitution, can it enjoy immunity from an attack on
its validity because of the fact that for the future, the basic structure of the
Constitution remains unaffected. The answer to the above question, in my
opinion, should be in the negative. What has to be seen in such a matter is
whether the amendment contravenes or runs counter to an imperative rule or
postulate which is an integral part of the basic structure of the Constitution. If
so, it would be an impermissible amendment and it would make no difference
whether it relates to one case or a large number of cases........................................
What is prohibited cannot become permissible because of its being confined to
one matter.
wePvi c wZ Khanna 329A A b y Q` i 4 ` d v evwZ j K wi Z wMq v
ej b ( c v- 2 3 5 5 ) t
213. As a result of the above. I strike down clause (4) of Article 329A
on the ground that it violates the principle of free and fair elections which is an
essential postulate of democracy and which in its turn is a part of the basic
structure of the Constitution.....................

mswea vb i evL v c ` vb myc xg K vUi f ~wg K v Ges mswea vb i
k Z m K wePvi c wZ M.H. Beg ej b ( c v- 2 3 9 4 - 9 5 ) t
214
394. Citizens of our country take considerable pride in being able to
challenge before superior Courts even an exercise of constituent power, resting
on the combined strength and authority of Parliament and the State legislatures.
This Court when properly called upon by the humblest citizen, in a proceeding
before it, to test the Constitutional validity of either an ordinary statute or of
Constitutional amendment, has to do so by applying the criteria of basic
constitutional purpose and constitutionally prescribed procedure. The
assumption underlying the theory of judicial review of all law making, including
fundamental law making is that Courts, acting as interpreters of what has been
described by some political philosophers (See. Bosanquts Philosophical
Theory of the State Chap. V. p. 96-115) as the Real Will of the people,
embodied in their Constitution and assumed to be more lasting and just and
rational and less liable to err than their General Will reflected by the opinions
of the majorities in Parliament and the State Legislatures for the time being, can
discover for the people the not always easily perceived purposed of their
Constitution. The Courts thus act as agents and mouthpieces of the Real Will
of the people themselves. ........................ Neither of the three constitutionally
separate organs of State can, according to the basic scheme of our Constitution
today, leap out side the boundaries of its own constitutionally assigned sphere or
orbit of authority into that of the other. This is the logical and natural meaning of
the principle of Supremacy of the Constitution. ( A a vi L v c ` )

Basic structure evL v K wi Z wMq v wePvi c wZ Y.V. Chandrachud ej b
( c v- 2 4 6 5 ) t
665. I consider it beyond the pale of reasonable controversy that if there
be any unamendable features of the Constitution on the score that they form a
part of the basic structure of the Constitution, they are that : (i) India is a
Sovereign Democratic Republic; (ii) Equality of status and opportunity shall be
secured to all its citizens; (iii) The State shall have no religion of its own and all
persons shall be equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right freely to
profess, practise and propagate religion and that (iv) the Nation shall be
governed by a Government of laws, not of men. These, in my opinion, are the
pillars of our constitutional philosophy, the pillars, therefore, of the basic
structure of the Constitution.
( A a vi L v c ` )
3 3 9 - G ( 4 ) A b y Q` m K wZ wb g e K i b ( c v- 2 4 6 9 ) t
679.............. The plain intendment and meaning of clause (4) is that the
election of the two personages will be beyond the reach of any law, past or
present. What follows is a neat logical corollary. The election of the Prime
Minister could not be declared void as there was no law to apply to that election;
215
the judgment of the Allahabad High Court declaring the election void is itself
void; and the election continues to be valid as it was before the High Court
pronounced its judgment.
.....................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................
682. It follows that clause (4) and (5) of Article 329-A are arbitrary and
are calculated to damage or destroy the Rule of Law.

mswea vb i basic structure evL v K wi q v wePvi c wZ Y.V. Chandrachud
ej b ( c v- 2 4 6 5 ) t
664. ................. For determining whether a particular feature of the
Constitution is a part of its basic structure, one has perforce to examine in each
individual case the place of the particular feature in the scheme of our
Constitution, its object and purpose, and the consequences of its denial on the
integrity of the Constitution as a fundamental instrument of countrys
governance..........................
.....................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................
692. .................Ordinary laws have to answer two tests for their validity:
(1) The law must be within the legislative competence of the legislature as
defined and specified in Chapter 1, Part X1 of the Constitution and (2) it must
not offend against the provisions of Article 13(1) and (2) of the Constitution.
Basic structure, by the majority judgment, is not a part the fundamental rights
nor indeed a provision of the Constitution. The theory of basic structure is
woven out of the conspectus of the Constitution and the amending power is
subjected to it because it is a constituent power. The power to amend the
fundamental instrument cannot carry with it the power to destroy its essential
features- this, in brief, is the arch of the theory of basic structure. It is wholly
out of place in matters relating to the validity of ordinary laws made under the
Constitution. ( c v- 2 4 7 2 )
( A a vi L v c ` )
Minerva Mills Ltd. V. Union of India AIR 1980 SC 1789,g vK v g vq
Constitution (42
nd
Amendment) Act, 1976 Gi 4 I 5 a vi vi mvswea vwb K
ea Z v D vwc Z nq | D msk va b x vi v mswea vb i 3 6 8 A b y Q` 4
I 5 ` d v mshy K i v nq | D wea vb vi v A v` vj Z i ePvwi K
c yb t weePb v ev Judicial review Gi g Z v i wnZ K wi evi c q vm c vI q v nq
216
wea vq f vi Z i myc xg K vU4 - 1 msL vMwi Z vq D msk va b x evwZ j
K i |

msL vMwi wePvi c wZ MYi c c a vb wePvi c wZ Y.V.
Chandrachud mswea vb i c veb v Ges 3 6 8 A b y Q` i evw A vj vPb v
c m ej b ( c v- 17 9 8 ) t
21, In the context of the constitutional history of Article 368, the true
object of the declaration contained in Article 368 is the removal of those
limitations. Clause (5) confers upon the Parliament a vast and undefined power
to amend the Constitution, even so as to distort it out of recognition. The theme
song of the majority decision in Kesavananda Bharati is:
Amend as you may even the solemn document which the founding
fathers have committed to your care, for you know best the needs of your
generation. But, the Constitution is precious heritage; therefore, you cannot
destroy its identity.
The majority conceded to the Parliament the right to make alterations in
the Constitution so long as they are within its basic framework. And what fears
can that judgment raise or misgivings generate if it only means this and no more.
The Preamble assures to the people of India a polity whose basic structure is
described therein as a Sovereign Democratic Republic; Parliament may make
any amendments to the Constitution as it deems expedient so long as they do not
damage or destroy Indias sovereignty and its democratic, republican character.
Democracy is not an empty dream. It is a meaningful concept whose essential
attributes are recited in the preamble itself: Justice, social, economic and
political; Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; and Equality
of status and opportunity. Its aim, again as set out in the preamble, is to promote
among the people an abiding sense of Fraternity assuring the dignity of the
individual and the unity of the Nation. The newly introduced clause (5) of
Article 368 demolishes the very pillars on which the preamble rests by
empowering the Parliament to exercise its constituent power without any
limitation whatever. No constituent power can conceivably go higher than the
sky high power conferred by cl. (5), for it even empowers the Parliament to
repeal the provisions of this Constitution, that is to say, to abrogate the
democracy and substitute for it a totally antithetical form of Government. That
can most effectively be achieved, without calling a democracy by any other
name, by a total denial of social, economic and political justice to the people, by
emasculating liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship and by
abjuring commitment to the magnificent ideal of a society of equals. The power
to destroy is not a power to amend.
217
( A a vi L v c ` )
3 6 8 A b y Q` i mxg ve Z v m K wZ wb ej b t
22. Since the Constitution had conferred a limited amending power on
the Parliament, the Parliament cannot under the exercise of that limited power
enlarge that very power into an absolute power. Indeed, a limited amending
power is one of the basic features of our Constitution and therefore, the
limitations on that power cannot be destroyed. In other words, Parliament
cannot, under Article 368, expand its amending power so as to acquire for itself
the right to repeal or abrogate the Constitution or to destroy its basic and
essential features. The donee of a limited power cannot by the exercise of that
power convert the limited power into an unlimited one. (A a vi L v c ` )

mswea vb msk va b g vi d r 3 6 8 A b y Q` i mwnZ msh y 4 I 5
` d vi g va g A v` vj Z i judicial review Gi g Z v i ` - i wnZ c m
Chandrachud, C.J. ej b ( c v- 17 9 9 ) t
26. The newly introduced Clause (4) of Art. 368 must suffer the same
fate as Clause (5) because the two clauses are inter-linked. Clause (5) purports to
remove all limitations on the amending power while Clause (4) deprives the
courts of, their power to call in question any amendment of the Constitution.
Our Constitution is founded on a nice balance of power among the three wings
of the State, namely, the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary. It is the
function of the Judges, nay their duty, to pronounce upon the validity of laws. If
courts are totally deprived of that power the fundamental rights conferred upon
the people will become a mere adornment because rights without remedies are
as writ in water. A controlled Constitution will then become uncontrolled.
Clause (4) of Article 368 totally deprives the citizens of one of the most valuable
modes of redress which is guaranteed by Art. 32. The conferment of the right to
destroy the identity of the Constitution coupled with the provision that no court
of law shall pronounce upon the validity of such destruction seems to us a
transparent case of transgression of the limitations on the amending
power.( A a vi L v c ` )
Z wK Z msk va b i c f ve m K Chandrachud, C.J. ej b ( c v-
18 0 7 ) t
63..................On any reasonable interpretation, there can be no doubt
that by the amendment introduced by Section 4 of the 42
nd
Amendment, Articles
14 and 19 stand abrogated at least in regard to the category of laws described in
Article 31.C. The startling consequence which the amendment has produced is
that even if a law is in total defiance of the mandate of Article 13 read with
218
Articles 14 and 19, its validity will not be open to question so long as its object
is to secure directive principle of State Policy....................................

Waman Rao V. Union of India AIR 1981 SC 271 g vK v g vq f vi Z xq
mswea vb i 31A, 31B I 31C A b y Q` wj ea Nvl Yv K wi Z h vBq v
myc xg K vUKesavananda Bharati I Indira Gandhi g vK v g vq c ` i vq i
g ~j vq b K i | c a vb wePvi c wZ Y.V. Chandrachud wb i c g e K i b t
16. The judgment of this Court in Kesavananda Bharati (AIR 1973 SC
1461) provoked in its wake a multi-storied controversy, which is quite
understandable. The judgment of the majority to which seven out of the thirteen
Judges were parties, struck a bridle path by holding that in the exercise of the
power conferred by Article 368, the Parliament cannot amend the Constitution
so as to damage or destroy the basic structure of the Constitution. The seven
learned Judges chose their words and phrases to express their conclusion as
effectively and eloquently as language can do. But, at this distance of time any
controversy over what was meant by what they said is plainly sterile. At this
distance of time, because though not more than a little less than eight years
have gone by since the decision in Kesavananda Bharati was rendered those few
years are packed with constitutional events of great magnitude. Applying the
ratio of the majority judgments in that epoch-making decision, this Court has
since struck down constitutional amendments which would otherwise have
passed muster. For example, in Smt. Indira Gandhi v. Raj Narain, (1976) 2 SCR
347: (AIR 1975 SC 2299), Article 329A (4) was held by the Court to be beyond
the amending competence of the Parliament since, by making separate and
special provisions as to elections to Parliament of the Prime Minister and the
Speaker, it destroyed the basic structure of the Constitution. Ray C.J. based his
decision on the ground that the 39
th
Amendment by which Art. 329A was
introduced violated the Rule of Law (p.418); Khanna J. based his decision on
the ground that democracy was a basic feature of the Constitution, that
democracy contemplates that elections should be free and fair and that the
clause in question struck at the basis of free and fair elections (pp. 467 and 471);
Mathew J. struck down the clause on the ground that was in nature of legislation
ad hominem (p. 513) and that it damaged the democratic structure of the
Constitution (p. 515); while on of us, Chandrachud J., held that the clause was
bad because it violated the Rule of Law and was an outright negation of the
principle of equality which is a basic feature of the Constitution (pp.663-665).
More recently, in Minerva Mills (AIR 1980 SC 1789), clauses (4) and (5) of
Article 368 itself were held unconstitutional by a unanimous Court, on the
ground that they destroyed certain basic features of the Constitution like judicial
219
review and a limited amending power, and thereby damaged its basic structure.
The majority also stuck down the amendment introduced to Article 31C by
Section 4 of the 42
nd
Amendment Act, 1976.
17..................The law on the subject of the Parliaments power to amend
the Constitution must now be taken as well-settled, the true position being that
though the Parliament has the power to amend each and every article of the
Constitution including the provisions of Part III, the amending power cannot be
exercised so as to damage or destroy the basic structure of the Constitution. It is
by the application of this principle that we shall have to decide upon the validity
of the Amendment by which Article 31A was introduced. The precise question
then for consideration is whether Section 4 of the Constitution (First
Amendment) Act, 1951 which introduced Article 31A into the Constitution
damages or destroys the basic structure of the Constitution.
18. In the work-a-day civil law, it is said that the measure of the
permissibility of an amendment of a pleading is how far it is consistent with the
original: you cannot by an amendment transform the original into the opposite of
what it is. For that purpose, a comparison is undertaken to match the amendment
with the original. Such a comparison can yield fruitful results even in the
rarefied sphere of constitutional law. What were the basic postulates of the
Indian Constitution when it was enacted? And does the 1
st
Amendment do
violence to those postulates? Can the Constitution as originally conceived and
the amendment introduced by the 1
st
Amendment Act not endure in harmony or
are they so incongruous that to seek to harmonies them will be like trying to fit a
square peg into a round aperture? Is the concept underlying Section 4 of the 1
st

Amendment an alien in the house of democracy?its invader and destroyer?
Does it damage or destroy the republican framework of the Constitution as
originally. devised and designed ?

Kesavananda Bharati, Indira Gandhi, Minerva Mills I Waman Rao
g vK v g v wj i i vq nBZ c Z xq g vb nq h Parliament Gi A h w K
g Z vew basic structure Z Z i mwnZ mvsNwl K nBZ c vi K vi Y H i c
g Z v ew i mwnZ g ~j mswea vb i c K wZ I c wi eZ b nBZ c vi |

P. Sambamurthy V. State of Andhra Pradesh AIR 1987 SC 663 g vK v g vq
3 7 1- wW A b y Q` i ( 5 ) ` d vi mvswea vwb K ea Z v D vc b K i v nq |
D mvswea vwb K msk va b i vR mi K vi K c k vmwb K UvBeyb vj i i vq
c wi eZ b ev i ` K wi evi g Z v c ` vb K i | myc xg K vU D
220
mvswea vwb K msk va b A ea Nvl Yv K i | c a vb wePvi c wZ P.N.
Bhagwati ej b ( c v- 6 6 7 ) t
4.......... It is a basic principle of the rule of law that the exercise of
power by the executive or any other authority must not only be conditioned by
the Constitution but must also be in accordance with law and the power of
judicial review is conferred by the Constitution with a view to ensuring that the
law is observed and there is compliance with the requirement of law on the part
of the executive and other authorities. It is through the power of judicial review
conferred on an independent institutional authority such as the High Court that
the rule of law is maintained and every organ of the State is kept within the
limits of the law. Now if the exercise of the power of judicial review can be set
at naught by the State Government by overriding the decision given against it, it
would sound the death knell of the rule of law. The rule of law would cease to
have any meaning, because then it would be opon to the State Government to
defy the law and yet to get away with it. The Proviso to Cl. (5) of Art. 371D is
therefore clearly violative of the basic structure doctrine. ( A a vi L v
c ` )

GBevi A vg i v Anwar Hossain Chowdhury V. Bangladesh 1989 BLD (Spl.)
1 g vK g vwU A vj vPb v K wi e| GB g vK g vq mswea vb ( A g
msk va b ) A vBb , 19 8 8 , Gi mvswea vwb K ea Z v D vc b K i v nq |

evsj v` k mb vevwnb xi Chief of Staff Lieutenant General H.M. Ershad
NDC, PSC, 19 8 2 mvj i 2 4 k g vPZ vwi L wZ xq evi i g Z evsj v` k
mvg wi K k vmb R vi x K i b | wZ wb c a vb mvg wi K c k vmK wnmve
evsj v` k mi K vi i meg q g Z v ` L j K i b | wZ wb Proclamation
R vi xi g va g i vi mev P A vBb mswea vb i K vh g wMZ K i b
Ges Martial Law Proclamations, Orders I Regulation vi v ` k c wi Pvj b v
A vi K i b | 19 8 2 mvj i Martial Law Order No. 11 vi v wZ wb XvK vmn
` k i wewf b vb nvBK vUwef vMi vq x e vc b K i b | 19 8 6
mvj i 10 B b f ^i Z vwi L GK Proclamation g vi d r mvg wi K k vmb
c Z vnvi K i v nq Ges mswea vb c y b i vi nq | 19 8 8 mvj i 9 B R yb
Z vwi L mswea vb ( A g msk va b ) A vBb , 19 8 8 , msm` wewa e nq |
D A vBb vi v mswea vb i 10 0 A b y Q` msk va b K i v nq |
221
msk vwa Z 10 0 A b y Q` g vi d r XvK v g nvb Mi mn ` k i wewf b
R j vq nvBK vUwef vMi 6 ( Qq ) wU vq x e vc b K i v nq |

Anwer Hossain Chowdhury V. Bangladesh 1989 BLD (Spl.) g vK v g vq
mswea vb i 10 0 A b y Q` msk va b i ea Z v GB K vi Y D vc b K i v
nq h Z wK Z msk va b mswea vb i 14 2 A b y Q` i A vI Z vq msm` i
msk va b g Z vewnf ~Z Ges D msk va b vi v mswea vb i GK wU basic
structure a sm K i v nBq vQ|

nvBK vUwef vM i xU& g vK v g vwU msw A v` k vi v L vwi R
K i | A vc xj b vb x A A vc xj wef vM mswea vb i Z wK Z msk va b wU
3 - 1 msL vMwi Z vq A ea Nvl Yv K i |

mswea vb i 14 2 A b y Q` i A vI Z vq msm` i mswea vb
msk va b i g Z v c m wePvi c wZ Badrul Haider Chowdhury ( as his
Lordship then was) ej b BLD (Spl.) (c v- 8 8 ) t
165. The Attorney General argued that the amending power is a
constituent power. It is not a legislative power and therefore the Parliament has
unlimited power to amend the Constitution invoking its constituent power.
166. The argument is untenable. The Attorney General argued this point
keeping an eye on Article 368 of the Constitution of India which says that
Parliament may in exercise of its constituent power amend etc. which was
inserted by amendment following certain observations in the Golak Nath case.
The amendment therefore recognised the distinction between an ordinary law
and a constitutional amendment. It will not be proper to express any opinion as
to the merit of any constitutional amendment made in Constitution of another
country. It will be enough that our Constitution does not make such distinction.
Secondly, our Constitution is not only a controlled one but the limitation on
legislative capacity of the Parliament is enshrined in such a way that a removal
of any plank will bring down the structure itself. For this reason, the Preamble,
Article 8, had been made unamendable- it has to be referred to the people! At
once Article 7 stares on the face to say. All power in the Republic belongs to
people, and more, their exercise on behalf of the people shall be effected only
under, and by the authority, of this Constitution To dispel any doubt it says:
This Constitution is as the solemn expression of the will of the people You talk
of law?- it says: it is the Supreme law of the Republic and any other law
inconsistent with this Constitution will be void. The Preamble says it is our
222
sacred duty to safeguard, protect, and defend this Constitution and to maintain
its supremacy as the embodiment of the will of the people of Bangladesh. The
constituent power is here with the people of Bangladesh and Article 142(1A)
expressly recognises this fact. If Article 26 and Article 7 are read together the
position will be clear. The exclusiduary provision of the kind incorporate in
Article 26 by amendment has not been incorporated in Article7. That shows that
law in Article 7 is conclusively intended to include an amending law. An
amending law becomes part of the Constitution but an amending law cannot be
valid if it is inconsistent with the Constitution. The contention of the Attorney
General on the non-obstante clause in Article 142 is bereft of any substance
because that clause merely confers enabling power for amendment but by
interpretative decision that clause cannot be given the status for swallowing up
the constitutional fabric. It may be noticed that unlike 1956 Constitution or Sree
Lanka Constitution there is no provision in our Constitution for replacing the
Constitution. ( A a vi L v c ` )

mswea vb i k Z I amendment k i A _ evL v K wi q v
wePvi c wZ Chowdhury ej b ( c v- 9 6 ) t
195.It must control all including amending legislation. The laws
amending the Constitution are lower than the Constitution and higher than the
ordinary laws. That is why legislative process is different and the required
majority for passing the legislation is also different (compare Article 80(4) and
Article 142(1)(ii). What the people accepted is the Constitution which is
baptised by the blood of the martyrs. That Constitution promises economic and
social justice in a society in which the rule of law, fundamental human right
and freedom, equality and justice is assured and declares that as the
fundamental aim of the State. Call it by any a name-basic feature or whatever,
but that is the fabric of the Constitution which can not be dismantled by an
authority created by the Constitution itself-namely , the Parliament. Necessarily,
the amendment passed by the Parliament is to be tested as against Article 7.
Because the amending power is but a power given by the Constitution to
Parliament, it is a higher power than any other given by the Constitution to
Parliament , but nevertheless it is a power within and not outside the
Constitution.
196. The argument of the learned Attorney General that the power of
amendment as given in Article 142 Notwithstanding anything contained in this
Constitution is therefore wide and unlimited. True it is wide but when it is
claimed unlimited power what does it signify? to abrogate? or by amending it
can the republican character be destroyed to bring monarchy instead ? The
Constitutional power is not limitless-it connotes a power which is a constituent
223
power. The higher the obligation the greater is the responsibility- that is why the
special procedure (long title) and special majority is required. Article 7(2) says
if any other law is inconsistent with this Constitution that other law shall to the
extent of the inconsistency be void. The appellants have contended that the
integral part of the Supreme Court is the High Court Division. By amendment
this Division has been dismantled into seven courts or regional courts. Before
we proceed further, let us understand what is meant by amendment. The word
has latin orgin emendere- to amend means to correct. ( A a vi L v c ` )

wePvi c wZ Chowdhury mswea vb msk va b evL v K wi Z h vBq v
Walter F. Murphy wj wL Z Constitutions, Constitutionalism and Democracy M
nBZ wb wj wL Z A sk D Z K i b ( c v- 9 6 ) t
196........Thus an amendment corrects errors of commission or
omission, modifies the system without fundamentally changing its nature-that is
an amendment operates within the theoritical parameters of the existing
Constitution. But a proposal that would attempt to transform a central aspect of
the nature of the compact and create some other kind of system-that to take an
extreme example, tried to change a constitutional democracy into a totalitarian
state-would not be an amendment at all, but re-creation, a re-forming , not
merely of the covenant but also of the people themselves. That deed would lie
beyond the scope of the authority of any governmental body or set of bodies, for
they are all creatures of the Constitution and the peoples agreement. In so far as
they destroy their own legitimacy. ( A a vi L v c ` )

mswea vb i 10 0 A b y Q` i Z wK Z msk va b wU evwZ j (ultra vires)
Nvl Yv K wi Z h vBq v wZ wb ej b h Z wK Z msk va b wU mswea vb i 7
A b y Q` mn A b vb wea vb i mwnZ mvsNwl K | mswea vb i basic structure
m ^ wZ wb ej b ( c v- 111) t
256...........Now if any law is inconsistent with the Constitution (Article
7) it is obviously only the judiciary can make such declaration. Hence the
constitutional scheme if followed carefully reveals that these basic features are
unamendable and unalterable. Unlike some other Constitution, this Constitution
does not contain any provision to repeal and replace the Constitution and
therefore cannot make such exercise under the guise of amending power.
257. The impugned amendment in a subtle manner in the name of
creating permanent Benches has indeed created new courts parallel to the
High Court Division as contemplated in Articles 94, 101, 102. Thus the basic
structural pillar, that is judiciary, has been destroyed and plenary judicial power
224
of the Republic vested in the High Court Division has been taken
away.( A a vi L v c ` )
Dc msnvi wZ wb ej b ( c v- 112 ) t
259. To sum up :(1) The amended Article 100 is ultra vires because it
has destroyed the essential limb of the judiciary namely, of the Supreme Court
of Bangladesh by setting up rival courts to the High Court Division in the name
of permanent Benches conferring full jurisdictions, powers and functions of the
High Court Division.
(2) Amendment Article 100 is ultra vires and invalid because it is
inconsistent with Article 44, 94, 101 and 102 of the Constitution. The
amendment has rendered Articles 108, 109, 110, 111 and 112 nugatory. It has
directly violated Article 114.
(3).....................................
....................................
( A a vi L v c ` )

wePvi c wZ Shahabuddin Ahmed ( as his Lordship then was) Z vnvi i vq
mswea vb ewYZ amendment k wU wb i c f ve evL v K i b ( c v-
14 1) t
336.....................The word amendment or amend has been used in
different places to mean different things; so it is the context by refering to which
the actual meaning of the word amendment can be ascertained. My conclusion,
therefore, is that the word amendment is a change or alteration, for the
purpose of bringing in improvement in the statute to make it more effective and
meaningful, but it does mean its abrogation or destruction or a change resulting
in the loss of its original identity and character. In the case of amendment of a
constitutional provision amendment should be that which accords with the
intention of the makers of Constitution.
( A a vi L v c ` )

msk va b ea nBevi k Z Ges mswea vb i basic structure m ^
wZ wb ej b ( c v- 14 3 ) t
341. There is however a substantial difference between Constitution and
its amendment. Before the amendment becomes a part of the Constitution it
shall have to pass through some test, because it is not enacted by the people
through a Constituent Assembly. Test is that the amendment has been made
after strictly complying with the mandatory procedural requirements, that it has
not been brought about by practising any deception or fraud upon statutes and
that it is not so repugnant to the existing provision of the Constitution that its co-
225
existence therewith will render the Constitution unworkable, and that, if the
doctrine of bar to change of basic structures is accepted , the amendment has not
destroyed any basic structure of the Constitution.
(A a vi L v c ` )

Z wK Z msk va b wU mswea vb i A b vb wea vb vej xi mwnZ
weePb v K wi q v wePvi c wZ Ahmed ej b ( c v- 15 4 ) t
373. Now considering the impugned Article as a whole along with the
other Articles related thereto. I am to see what is the position that emerges.
Independent of the contentions that basic structure of the Constitution has been
altered and the amendment has transgressed the limit of amending power, I find
that the amended Article is in serious conflict with the other Articles and the
conflict is so uncompromisable that if it is allowed to stand, other Articles stand
amended by implication. Repeal or amendment by necessary implication,
though permissible in ordinary statutes, is not so permissible in a Constitution
like ours because of the mandatory procedural bar...............
( A a vi L v c ` )

mswea vb i g ~j wf w m ^ wZ wb ej b ( c v- 15 5 - 5 6 ) t
376. Main arguments against the Impugned Amendment are that a basic
structure of the Constitution has been destroyed and its essential features have
been disrupted. There is no dispute that the Constitution stands on certain
fundamental principles which are its structural pillars and if these pillars are
demolished or damaged the whole constitutional edifice will fall down. It is by
construing the constitutional provisions that these pillars are to be identified.
Implied limitation on the amending power is also to be gathered from the
Constitution itself including its Preamble. Felix Frankfurter, in his book Mr.
Justice Holmes said:
Whether the Constitution is treated primarily as a text for interpretation
or as an instrument of government may make all the difference in the world. The
fate of cases, and thereby of legislation, will turn on whether the meaning of the
document is derived from itself or from ones conception of the country, its
development, its needs, its place in a civilized society.
I shall also keep in mind the following observation of Conrad in
Limitation of Amendment Procedure and the Constitutional power- Any
amending body organized within the statutory scheme, however verbally
unlimited its power, cannot by its very structure change the fundamental pillars
supporting its constitutional authority. He has further stated that the amending
body may effect changes in detail, adopt the system to the changing condition
but should not touch its foundation. Similar views have been expressed by
226
Carl J. Friedman in Man and his Govt., Crawford in his Construction of
Statutes and Cooly in his Constitutional Limitation.
( A a vi L v c ` )

mswea vb msk va b c k basic structure Z Z i f ~wg K v m ^
wePvi c wZ Ahmed ej b ( c v- 15 6 ) t
377. Main objection to the doctrine of basic structure is that it is
uncertain in nature and is based on unfounded fear. But in reality basic structure
of a Constitution are clearly identifiable. Sovereignty belongs to the people and
it is a basic structure of the Constitution. There is no disputed about it, as there is
no dispute that this basic structure cannot be wiped out by amendatory
process.........................................If by exercising the amending power peoples
sovereignty is sought to be curtailed it is the constitutional duty of the Court to
restrain it and in that case it will be improper to accuse the Court of acting as
supper- legislators. Supremacy of the Constitution as the solemn expression of
the will of the people, Democracy, Republican Government , Unitary State,
Separation of power, Independence of the Judiciary, Fundamental Rights are
basic structures of the Constitution. There is no dispute about their identity. By
amending the Constitution the Republic cannot be replaced by Monarchy,
Democracy by Oligarchy or the Judiciary cannot be abolished, although there is
no express bar to the amending power given in the Constitution. Principle of
separation of powers means that the sovereign authority is equally distributed
among the three organs and as such one organ cannot destroy the others. These
are structural pillars of the Constitution and they stand beyond any change by
amendatory process..................................
( A a vi L c ` )

mswea vb msk va b i mxg v Ges basic structure m ^ wePvi c wZ
Ahmed ej b ( c v- 15 7 ) t
378............ As to implied limitation on the amending power, it is
inherent in the word amendment in Art. 142 and is also deducible from the
entire scheme of the Constitution. Amendment of the Constitution means change
or alteration for improvement or to make it effective or meaningful and not its
elimination or abrogation. Amendment is subject to the retention of the basic
structures. The Court therefore has power to undo an amendment if it
transgresses its limit and alters a basic structure of the Constitution.
( A a vi L v c ` )

Basic structure Z Z i c vc U A vj vPb v K wi Z h vBq v wePvi c wZ
M.H. Rahman (as his Lordship then was) ej b ( c v- 16 9 ) t
227
435.The doctrine of basic stricture is one growing point in the
constitutional jurisprudence. It has developed in a climate where the executive,
commanding an overwhelming majority in the legislature, gets snap
amendments of the Constitution passed without a Green Paper or White Paper,
without eliciting any public opinion without sending the Bill to any select
committee and without giving sufficient time to the members of the Parliament
for deliberation on the Bill for amendment.
A vBb i k vmb I mswea vb i c veb v m ^ wePvi c wZ Rahman
ej b ( c v- 17 1) t
443. In the case we are concerned with only one basic feature, the rule
of law, marked out as one of the fundamental aims of our society in the
Preamble. The validity of the impugned amendment may be examined, with or
without resorting to the doctrine of basic feature, on the touchstone of the
Preamble itself.


Subesh Sharma V. Union of India AIR 1991 SC 631 GK wU R b ^v_ g ~j K
g vK v g v| GB g vK v g vq f vi Z xq myc xg K vU I nvBK vU
wePvi K ` i k ~Yc ` wb q vM c ` vb c v_ b v K i v nq | mswea vb i Basic
structure Z Z m ^ myc xg K vUej ( c v- 6 4 6 ) t
44. Judicial Review is a part of the basic constitutional structure and
one of the basic features of the essential Indian Constitutional policy. This
essential constitutional doctrine does not by itself justify or necessitate any
primacy to the executive wing on the ground of its political accountability to the
electorate. On the contrary what is necessary is an interpretation sustaining the
strength and vitality of Judicial Review...............
( A va vi L v c ` )

S.R Bommai V. Union of India AIR 1994 SC 1918 g vK v g vq f vi Z i
i vc wZ K Z K mswea vb i 3 5 6 A b y Q` i A vI Z vq Proclamation R vi x
K i Z t i vR mi K vi evwZ j K wi q v i vc wZ i k vmb R vi x vc b c m
myc xg K vUi judicial review Gi g Z v m K wePvi c wZ K. Ramaswamy
ej b ( c v- 2 0 3 6 ) t
162............... It owes duty and responsibility to defend the democracy.
If the Court, upon the material placed before it finds that the satisfaction reached
by the Presidents is unconstitutional highly irrational or without any nexus, then
the Court would consider the contents of the proclamation or reasons disclosed
228
therein and in extreme cases the material produced pursuant to discovery order
nisi to find the action is wholly irrelevant or bears no nexus between purpose of
the action and the satisfaction reached by the President or does not bear any
rationale to the proximate purpose of the proclamation. In that event the Court
may declare that the satisfaction reached by the President was either on wholly
irrelevant grounds or colourable exercise of power and consequently
Proclamation issued under Art. 356 would be declared
unconstitutional.................. ( A a vi L v c ` )

Dc msnvi wZ wb ej b ( c v- 2 0 4 7 ) t
192. This Court as final arbiter in interpreting the Constitution, declares
what the law is. Higher judiciary has been assigned a delicate task to determine
what powers the Constitution has conferred on each branch of the Government
and whether the actions of that branch transgress such limitations, it is the duty
and responsibility of this Court/ High Court to lay down the law. It is the
constitutional duty to uphold the constitutional values and to enforce the
constitutional limitations as the ultimate interpreter of the Constitution. The
judicial review, therefore, extends to examine the constitutionality to the
Proclamation issued by the President under Article 356. It is a delicate task,
though loaded with political over-tones, to be exercised with circumspection and
great care..................
( A a vi L v c ` )

mswea vb i c veb v I basic structure m ^ wePvi c wZ K.
Ramaswamy ej b ( c v- 2 0 4 5 ) t
183. The preamble of the Constitution is an integral part of the
Constitution. Democratic form of Government, federal structure, unity and
integrity of the nation, secularism, socialism, social justice and judicial review
are basic feature of the Constitution. ( A a vi L v c ` )


mswea vb i msk va b g vi d r wK QyTribunal vc b K wi q v nvBK vU
I myc xg K vUi GL &wZ q vi L e K wi evi c q vm j I q v nBj L. Chandra
Kumar V. Union of India AIR 1997 SC 1125 g vK v g vq Z wK Z msk va b x wj
D vc b K i v nq | Judicial Review c k nvBK vUI myc xg K vUi
mvswea vwb K A e vb m K c a vb wePvi c wZ A.M. Ahmedi ej b ( c v-
114 9 - 5 0 ) t
229
78. The legitimacy of the power of Courts within constitutional
democracies to review legislative action has been questioned since the time it
was first conceived. The Constitution of India, being alive to such criticism, has,
while conferring such power upon the higher judiciary, incorporated important
safeguards. An analysis of the manner in which the Framers of our Constitution
incorporated provisions relating to the judiciary would indicate that they were
very greatly concerned with securing the independence of the judiciary. (#)
These attempts were directed at ensuring that the judiciary would be capable of
effectively discharging its wide powers of judicial
review........................................ The Judges of the superior Courts have been
entrusted with the task of upholding the Constitution and to this end, have been
conferred the power to interpret it. It is they who have to ensure that the balance
of power envisaged by the Constitution is maintained and that the legislature and
the executive do not, in the discharge of their functions, transgress constitutional
limitations. It is equally their duty to oversee that the judicial decisions rendered
by those who man the subordinate Courts and tribunals do not fall foul of strict
standards of legal correctness and judicial
independence.................................................... We therefore, hold that the power
of judicial review over legislative action vested in the High Courts under Article
226 and in this Court under Article 32 of the Constitution is an integral and
essential feature of the Constitution, constituting part of its basic structure.
Ordinarily, therefore, the power of High Courts and the Supreme Court to test
the constitutional validity of legislations can never be ousted or excluded.
( A a vi L v c ` )

State of Rajasthan V. Union of India AIR 1997 SC 1361 g vK v g vq
f vi Z xq mswea vb i 3 5 6 A b y Q` i ( 1) ` d vi A vI Z vq i vc wZ i
g Z vi evw Ges K vb &c wi w wZ Z myc xg K vUD g Z v c q vM
n c K wi Z c vi Z vnv A vj vPb v K i v nBq vQ|


i vc wZ K Z K mvswea vwb K c ` c MnYi g vK v g v
nBj Z vnv i vR b wZ K c k wea vq myc xg K vUi f ~wg K v m K
wePvi c wZ P.N. Bhagwati ej b ( c v- 14 12 ) t
143............... Of course, it is true that if a question brought before the
Court is purely a political question not involving determination of any legal or
constitutional right or obligation, the Court would not entertain it, since the
Court is concerned only with adjudication of legal rights and liabilities. But
merely because a question has a political complexion, that by itself is no ground
230
why the Court should shrink from performing its duty under the Constitution if
it raises an issue of constitutional determination. Every constitutional question
concerns the allocation and exercise of governmental power and no
constitutional question can, therefore, fail to be political. A constitution is a
matter of purest politics, a structure of power............
( A a vi L v c ` )


i vR b wZ K c k mZ I K vb & n c K i v myc xg K vUi
A vBb MZ eva eva K Z v Z vnv eYb v K wi q v wePvi c wZ P.N. Bhagwati ej b
( c v- 14 13 ) t
143............... It will, therefore, be seen that merely because a question
has a political colour, the Court cannot fold its hands in despair and declare
Judicial hands off. So long as a question arises whether an authority under the
constitution has acted within the limits of its power or exceeded it, it can
certainly be decided by the Court. Indeed it would be its constitutional
obligation to do so. It is necessary to assert in the clearest terms, particularly in
the context of recent history, that the Constitution is Supreme lex, the paramount
law of the land, and there is no department or branch of Government above or
beyond it. Every organ of Government, be it the executive or the legislature or
the judiciary, derives its authority from the Constitution and it has to act within
the limits of its authority. No one howsoever highly placed and no authority
howsoever lofty can claim that it shall be the sole judge of the extent of its
power under the Constitution or whether its action is within the confines of such
power laid down by the Constitution. This Court is the ultimate interpreter of the
Constitution and to this Court is assigned the delicate task of determining what
is the power conferred on each branch of Government, whether it is limited, and
if so, what are the limits and whether any action of that branch transgresses such
limits. It is for this Court to uphold the constitutional values and to enforce the
constitutional limitations. That is the essence of the rule of
law........................................
Where there is manifestly unauthorised exercise of power under the
Constitution, it is the duty of the Court to intervene. Let it not be forgotten, that
to this Court as much as to other branches of Government, is committed the
conservation and furtherance of democratic values. The Courts task is to
identify those values in the constitutional plan and to work them into life in the
cases that reach the Court..........................................
The Court cannot and should not shirk this responsibility, because it has
sworn the oath of allegiance to the Constitution and is also accountable to the
people of this Country. There are indeed numerous decisions of this Court where
231
constitutional issues have been adjudicated upon though enmeshed in questions
of religious tenets, social practices, economic doctrines or educational polices.
The Court has in these cases adjudicated not upon the social, religious,
economic or other issues, but solely on the constitutional questions brought
before it and in doing so, the Court has not been deterred by the fact that these
constitutional questions may have such other overtones or facets. We cannot,
therefore, decline to examine whether there is any constitutional violation
involved in the President doing that he threatens to do, merely on the facile
ground that the question is political in tone, colour or complexion.
( A a vi L v c ` )


Constitution (Seventy-seven Amendment) Act, 1995 I Constitution (Eighty-
fifth Amendment) Act, 2001 Gi g va g mswea vb msk va b K i Z t 16 ( 4 -
G) A b y Q` msh vR b K i v nq | D msk va b i g va g PvK zi xZ
c ` vb wZ i mg vR i c vr c ` A sk i R b R Z vmn c `
msi Yi wea vb K i v nq |

M. Nagraj V. Union of India (2006) 8 SCC 212 g vK v g vq Dc i v
16 ( 4 - G) A b y Q` i ea Z v D vc b K i v nq | A ve` b K vi x c
nBZ h yw D vc b K i v nq h D msk va b A mvswea vwb K , basic
structure Z Z Ges 14 A b y Q` ewYZ A vBb i ` wZ mg Z vi mwnZ
mvsNwl K | b vb xA f vi Z xq myc xg K vU16 ( 4 - G) A b y Q` K
GK wU mg _ xK i Y wea vb (enabling provision) wnmve MY K wi q v ej h
mswk i vR a yg v mg vR i c K Z c vr c ` A sk i R b mev P
5 0 % GBi c c ` msi Y K wi Z c vwi e wea vq Z wK Z wea vb wU
ea | D i vq mswea vb I basic structure A vj vPb vq DwVq v A vm|


mswea vb basic structure wK f ve Bnvi Dc w wZ c K vk K i Z vnv
A vj vPb v K wi Z h vBq v wePvi c wZ S.H. Kapadia ej b ( c v- 2 4 2 ) t
22.......................The concept of a basic structure giving coherence and
durability to a constitution has a certain intrinsic force. This doctrine has
essentially developed from the German Constitution. This development is the
emergence of the constitutional principle in their own right. It is not based on
literal wording.
..................................................................................................
232
..................................................................................................
24. The point which is important to be noted is that principles of
federalism, secularism, reasonableness and socialism, etc. are beyond the words
of a particular provision. They are systematic and structural principles
underlying and connecting various provisions of the Constitution. They give
coherence to the Constitution. They make the Constitution an organic whole.
They are part of constitutional law even if they are not expressly stated in the
form of rules.
25. For a constitutional principle to qualify as an essential feature, it
must be established that the said principle is a part of the constitutional law
binding on the legislature. Only thereafter, is the second step to be taken,
namely, whether the principle is so fundamental as to bind even the amending
power of Parliament i.e. to form a part of the basic structure. The basic structure
concept accordingly limits the amending power of Parliament. To sum up: in
order to qualify as an essential feature, a principle is to be first established as
part of the constitutional law and as such binding on the legislature. Only then,
can it be examined whether it is so fundamental as to bind even the amending
power of Parliament i.e. to form part of the basic structure of the Constitution.
This is the standard of judicial review of constitutional amendments in the
context of the doctrine of basic structure.
26...........axioms like secularism, democracy, reasonableness, social
justice, etc. are overarching principles which provide linking factor for principle
of fundamental rights like Articles 14, 19 and 21. These principles are beyond
the amending power of Parliament. They pervade all enacted laws and they
stand at the pinnacle of the hierarchy of constitutional values............................
( A a vi L v c ` )


Basic structure Z Z mvswea vwb K c wi wPwZ ev c K wZ i Dc i wb f i
K wi q v Z vnv evL v K wi Z h vBq v wePvi c wZ Kapadia ej b ( c v- 2 4 4 ) t
28. To conclude, the theory of basic structure is based on the concept of
constitutional identity. The basic structure jurisprudence is a preoccupation with
constitutional identity. In Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala it has been
observed that one cannot legally use the Constitution to destroy itself. It is
further observed the personality of the Constitution must remain unchanged.
Therefore, this Court in Kesavananda Bharati while propounding the theory of
basic structure, has relied upon the doctrine of constitutional
identity........................
( A a vi L v c ` )


233
mvswea vwb K wel q v` x j Bq v wm v c ` vb i mwnZ b vq b xwZ I
A v` k R wo Z _ vK ewj Z h vBq v wePvi c wZ Kapadia ej b ( c v- 2 4 5 ) t
30. Constitutional adjudication is like no other decision-making. There
is a moral dimension to every major constitutional case; the language of the text
is not necessarily a controlling factor. Our Constitution works because of its
generalities, and because of the good sense of the judges when interpreting it. It
is that informed freedom of action of the judges that helps to preserve and
protect our basic document of governance.


mswea vb msk va b i ea Z v wb i c Y m ^ wePvi c wZ Kapadia
ej b ( c v- 2 4 6 ) t
35. The theory of basic structure is based on the principle that a change
in a thing does not involve its destruction and destruction of a thing is a matter
of substance and not of form. Therefore, one has to apply the test of overarching
principle to be gathered from the scheme and the placement and the structure of
an article in the Constitution. For example, the placement of Article 14 in the
equality code; the placement of Article 19 in the freedom code; the placement of
Article 32 in the code giving access to the Supreme Court. Therefore, the theory
of basic structure is the only theory by which the validity of impugned
amendments to the Constitution is to be judged.
( A a vi L v c ` )


I.R. Coelho V. State of T.N. (2007) 2 SCC 1 g vK v g vq c k wQj h 2 4 -
4 - 19 7 3 Z vwi L Kesavananda g vK v g vq basic structure Z Z De nBe vi
c i g wj K A wa K vi i evw nBZ , mswea vb i b eg Z d mxj msh y
b ~Z b A vBb wj 3 1- we A b y Q` i A vI Z vq , Parliament msi Y K wi Z
c vi wK b v|

f vi Z xq myc xg K vUi 9 R b wePvi K mg b q MwVZ GK wU enr
e wm v MnY K i h c _ g b eg Z d mxj A vb xZ mK j c _ K
A vBb c _ K f ve c i x v K wi q v ` wL Z nBe h mswk A vBb wU
mswea vb i Z Z xq f vM ewYZ g wj K A wa K vi i mwnZ mvsNwl K
wK b v| h w` mvsNwl K nq Z e c i x v K wi Z nBe h Z vnv mswea vb i
basic structure K L eK i wK b v| h w` Z vnv K i Z e b eg Z d mxj
ewYZ A vBb wU evwZ j nBe|
234

i vq wU mswea vb , Bnvi msk va b I basic structure Z Z i Dc i
A vj vK c vZ K wi q vQ|

mvswea vwb K Z v m ^ c a vb wePvi c wZ Y.K. Sabharwal ej b ( c v-
7 9 ) t

43. The principle of constitutionalism is now a legal principle which
requires control over the exercise of governmental power to ensure that it does
not destroy the democratic principles upon which it is based. These democratic
principles include the protection of fundamental rights. The principle of
constitutionalism advocates a check and balance mode of the separation of
powers; it requires a diffusion of powers, necessitating different independent
centers of decision-making. The principle of constitutionalism underpins the
principle of legality which requires the courts to interpret legislation on the
assumption that Parliament would not wish to legislate contrary to fundamental
rights. The legislature can restrict fundamental rights but it is impossible for
laws protecting fundamental rights to be impliedly repealed by future statutes.
..........................
.........................
109. ........... The constitution is a living document, its interpretation may
change as the time and circumstances change to keep pace with it.
( A a vi L v c ` )

Basic structure m ^ c a vb wePvi c wZ Sabharwal ej b ( c v- 10 2 ) t
114. The result of the aforesaid discussion is that since the basic
structure of the Constitution includes some of the fundamental rights, any law
granted Ninth Schedule protection deserves to be tested against these principles.
If the law infringes the essence of any of the fundamental rights or any other
aspect of the basic structure then it will be struck down. The extent of
abrogation and limit of abridgment shall have to be examined in each case
( A a vi L v c ` )

mswea vb msk va b m ^ wZ wb ej b ( c v- 10 4 ) t
124. Since power to amend the Constitution is not unlimited, if changes
brought about by amendments destroy the identity of the Constitution, such
amendments would be void. That is why when entire Part III is sought to be
taken away by a constitutional amendment by the exercise of constituent power
under Article 368 by adding the legislation in the Ninth Schedule, the question
arises as to the extent of judicial scrutiny available to determine whether it alters
the fundamentals of the Constitution.

235
125. The question can be looked at from yet another angle also. Can
Parliament increase the amending power by amendment of Article 368 to confer
on itself the unlimited power of amendment and destroy and damage the
fundamentals of the Constitution? The answer is obvious. Article 368 does not
vest such a power in Parliament. It cannot lift all restrictions placed on the
amending power or free the amending power from all its restrictions. This is the
effect of the decision in Kesavananda Bharati case as a result of which
secularism, separation of power, equality etc., to cite a few examples, would fall
beyond the constituent power in the sense that the constituent power cannot
abrogate these fundamentals of the Constitution..........
( A a vi L v c ` )

A vBb i k vmb (Rule of Law) I wePvi wef vMi f ~wg K vm ^ c a vb
wePvi c wZ Sabharwal ej b ( c v- 10 5 ) t
129. Equality, rule of law, judicial review and separation of powers
form parts of the basic structure of the Constitution. Each of these concepts are
intimately connected. There can be no rule of law, if there is no equality before
the law. These would be meaningless if the violation was not subject of the
judicial review. All these would be redundant if the legislative, executive and
judicial powers are vested in one organ. Therefore, the duty to decide whether
the limits have been transgressed has been placed on the judiciary.
( A a vi L v c ` )

mswea vb msk va b i mxg ve Z v m ^ wZ wb ej b ( c v- 10 9 ) t
144. The constitutional amendments are subject to limitations and if the
question of limitation is to be decided by Parliament itself which enacts the
impugned amendments and gives that law a complete immunity, it would disturb
the checks and balances in the Constitution. The authority to enact law and
decide the legality of the limitations cannot vest in one organ. The validity to the
limitation on the rights in Part III can only be examined by another independent
organ, namely, the Judiciary.

Basic structure Gi judicial review Gi f ~wg K v m ^ c a vb
wePvi c wZ Sabharwal ej b ( c v- 10 9 - 10 ) t

147. The doctrine of basic structure as a principle has now become an
axiom. It is premised on the basis that invasion of certain freedoms needs to be
justified. It is the invasion which attracts the basic structure doctrine. Certain
freedoms may justifiably be interfered with. If freedom, for example, is
interfered with in cases relating to terrorism, it does not follow that the same test
can be applied to all the offences. The point to be noted is that the application of
236
standard is an important exercise required to be undertaken by the Court in
applying the basic structure doctrine and that has to be done by the Courts and
not by prescribed authority under Article 368. The existence of the power of
Parliament to amend the Constitution at will, with requisite voting strength, so
as to make any kind of laws that excludes Part III including power of judicial
review under Article 32 is incompatible with the basic structure doctrine.
Therefore, such an exercise if challenged, has to be tested on the touchstone of
basic structure as reflected in Article 21 read with Article 14 and Article 19,
Article 15 and the principles thereunder.
( A a vi L v c ` )

GK R b we amicus curiae A wf g Z c K vk K wi q vQb h mswea vb
( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb m wK Z wg g vsmv R vZ xq msm` nI q v
DwPZ , A v` j Z b q |
` yBk Z er mi c ~eh y i v mvswea vwb K c k GB i K g a i Yi B
g Z wQj wK mvswea vwb K c k wK f ve a xi a xi myc xg K vUi
Judicial Review g Z vi A vI Z vq A vm Z vnvi Gg weK vk Ges wek l
K wi q v i vxq h c wZ wb wa Z k xj MYZ i g va g wewf b ` k i
R b MYi mvswea vwb K m Z v c d zwUZ K wi evi D k i vq i GB
f vM MYZ , c R vZ , wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v, mswea vb i k Z ,
mswea vb msk va b I Basic Structure Z Z Ges m~c xg K vUi f zwg K v
m ^ GK wU mva vi Y A vj vPb v K i v nBq vQ|

Z Z xq f vM
R b MY, mswea vb I mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 6
A vj vPb v


2 9 | mvswea vb I R b MY t mZ e h ewUk - i vR i
i vR Z K vj evsj v` k mn mg M f vi Z el c i va xb wQj | wK Government
of India Act, 1935, Gi A vI Z vq mxwg Z A vK vi nBj I ^i vR c ` vb K i v
nq | f vi Z evmx Z vnv` i f vUvwa K vi c vq | Z vnvi v Z vnv` i wb R ` i
c wZ wb wa K f vU c ` vb K wi q v wb evPb K i Z t c v` wk K A vBb mf vq
c i Y K i | e Z t GB f ve c wZ wb wa g vi d r f vi Z evmx A vBb mf vq
Z vnv` i Dc w wZ Dc j w K i |

ewUk - i vR i i vR Z K vj ^va xb Z v A v` vj b ewZ i K A vBb -
k L j v c wi w wZ L vi vc wQj GUv ej v h vq b v | mg M f vi Z el
237
A va ywb K wk v ee v, wePvi ee v, ^v ee v, hvMvhvM ee vi
c f ~Z Db wZ nq | Bnvi c i I f vi Z evmx f vi Z i g vwj K wQj b b v|
mK j c K vi myhvM mywea v mZ I Z vnvi v wQj b wb R ` k c i evmx
Ges k vwmZ | we` k x k vmK i k L j vg y nBq v ^va xb Z v c vBZ c vq
5 0 er mi i A v` vj b j vwMq v wMq vwQj |

f vi Z I c vwK vb ` yBwU ` k ^va xb nBj | f vi Z MYg vb yl i
^va xb Z v I A wa K vi c wZ w Z nBj I c vwK vb Mv xZ I c vmv` -
l o h i wk K vi nBj | c ~eevsj v ^va xK vi nvi vBj , c v vei
K j vb xZ c wi YZ nBj | GBevi g vZ f vl vi A v` vj b , ^vq k vmb i
A v` vj b , mveR b xb f vUvwa K vi Z _ v R b MYi mvef g Z i
A v` vj b A vi nBj | GB A v` vj b ^va xb Z vi h y Z _ v g yw h y
c wi YZ nBj | j j g vb yl i A vZ Z vMi g a w` q v ^va xb
evsj v` k GK mvMi i i we wb g q R b MnY K wi j |
evsj vi g vb yl ewUk k vmb K f vj b vB, c vwK vb x` i
wb t l Y, A wePvi , A Z vPvi nBZ Z vnvi v wPi Z i g yw Pvwnq vQ|
Z vnvi v Gg b GK evsj vK Pvwnq vQ h L vb K nB c i va xb _ vwK e b v,
k vl Y _ vwK e b v, mK j g vb yl i mg A wa K vi _ vwK e, mK j c K vi
i vxq I mvg vwR K k vl Y nBZ Z vnvi v g yw c vBe| c K Z MYZ
c wZ v c vBe| GB K vi Y evsj v` k mswea vb i c veb vq Z vnv` i
a y ^va xb Z v b q , g yw i A vwZ d zwUq v DwVq vQ, MYZ i K _ v,
c R vZ i K _ v, k vl Yg y mg vR i K _ v, a g wb i c Z vi K _ v,
g vb evwa K vi i K _ v, mevc wi h j g yw hv v` i A vZ Z vMi
wewb g q evsj v` k g yw c vBq vQ, Z vnvB wj wc e nBq vQt
c veb v
A vg i v, evsj v` k i R b MY, 19 7 1 L xv i g vPg vmi
2 6 Z vwi L ^va xb Z v Nvl Yv K wi q v R vZ xq g yw i R b
H wZ nvwmK msMvg i g va g ^va xb I mvef g MYc R vZ x
evsj v` k c wZ w Z K wi q vwQ;
A vg i v A xK vi K wi Z wQ h , h mK j g nvb A v` k
A vg v` i exi R b MYK R vZ xq g yw msMvg A vZ wb q vM I exi
k nx` w` MK c vYvr mMK wi Z Dy K wi q vwQj - R vZ xq Z vev` ,
238
mg vR Z , MYZ I a g wb i c Z vi mB mK j A v` k GB
mswea vb i g ~j b xwZ nBe;
A vg i v A xK vi K wi Z wQ h , A vg v` i i vi A b Z g g ~j
j nBe MYZ vw K c wZ Z Gg b GK k vl Yg y
mg vR Z vw K mg vR i c wZ v- h L vb mK j b vMwi K i R b
A vBb i k vmb , g wj K g vb evwa K vi Ges i vR b wZ K , A _ b wZ K
I mvg vwR K mvg , ^va xb Z v I mywePvi wb w Z nBe;
A vg i v ` pf ve Nvl Yv K wi Z wQ h, A vg i v hvnvZ ^va xb
mvq mg w j vf K wi Z c vwi Ges g vb eR vwZ i c MwZ k xj
A vk v- A vK v vi mwnZ mwZ i v K wi q v A v R vwZ K k vw I
mnh vwMZ vi c ~Yf ~wg K v c vj b K wi Z c vwi , mBR b
evsj v` k i R b MYi A wf c vq i A wf ew ^i c GB mswea vb i
c va vb A zb i vL v Ges Bnvi i Y, mg _ b I wb i vc vwea vb
A vg v` i c we K Z e ;
GZ vi v A vg v` i GB MYc wi l ` , A ` Z i k Z E b A vk x
ev i K wZ K g vmi A vVvi Z vwi L , g vZ veK E wb k k Z
evnvi L xv i b f ^i g vmi Pvi Z vwi L , A vg i v GB
mswea vb i Pb v I wewa e K wi q v mg eZ f ve MnY K wi j vg |

Dc i ewYZ A vg i v, evsj v` k i R b MY, K vnvi v GB R b MY?
evsj v` k i g yw h v v, K l K , k wg K , Qv , wk K , A MwYZ R b g vb yl ,
R b Z v, Z vnvi vB GB A vg i v, evsj v` k i R b MY| Z vnv` i m
MYc wi l ` mK j i A vk v, A vK vL v I A wa K vi i g ~Z c Z xK wnmve
GB mswea vb i Pb v K wi q vQ| c K Z c , GB mswea vb A vg i v,
evsj v` k i R b MYGi B mw |
A vo vB nvR vi er mi c ~eAristotle Z uvnvi The Politics G mswea vb
I A vBb m K m ^ ej b t
........... for the laws are , and ought to be, relative to the constitution,
and not the constitution to the laws. A constitution is the organization of offices
in a state, and determines what is to be the governing body, and what is the end
of each community. (Translated by B. Jowett )

wj wL Z mswea vb i c m D vwc Z nBj c _ g B h y i vi
mswea vb i K _ v A vg v` i g b A vm|

^va xb Z v h y K vj xb mg q 17 7 7 mvj Continental Congress
h y i vR i mwnZ Pj g vb h y I Bnvi A vb yl vwK mg mv mg va vb I
239
mnh vwMZ vK 13 wU K j vb xi g a GK wU A vb y vwb K A uvZ vZ ev
m K Mwo q v Z zwj evi c q vR b xq Z v A b yf e K i | GB j GK wU
Articles of Confederation c Yq b K i v nq | Bnv 17 8 1 mvj mK j
K j vb xvi v A b yg vw` Z nq | BwZ g a h y k l nq | GK wU ^va xb
i vi c q vR b i Z zj b vq D Articles of Confederation A c h v ewj q v
c Z xq g vb nq | Gg Z A e vq BnvK msk va b K wi evi wm v nq |
mB j Continental Congress wewf b K j vb x i v nBZ Philadelphia
k ni A b yw Z e Federal Convention G c wZ wb wa c i Y K wi Z A b yi va
K i |

GB mg q me i vR b xwZ we` I c wZ ew MYi g a A vmb
msk va b j Bq v A vj vc A vj vPb v Pwj Z _ vK | h _ vmg q 17 8 7
mvj i g g vm Convention Gi A wa ek b A vi nq | e A vj vPb vi c i
c ~ew i K Z Articles of Confederation msk va b i c wi eZ GK wU c ~Yv
mswea vb i Pb v K i vB wm v nq Ges 16 m vni A vj vPb vi c i
17 8 7 mvj i 17 B m ^i Z vwi L mswea vb wU Dc w Z c wZ wb wa MY
^v i K i b | GB mg q ` k i i vR b xwZ we` I c wZ ew MY b ~Z b
mswea vb i wewf b w` K j Bq v c c w K vq A vj vPb v K wi Z _ vK b |
Bnvi g a The Federalist Papers G Alexander Hamilton, John Jay I James
Madison Gi b vq L vZ b vg v ew eMb ~Z b mswea vb i wewf b i Z c ~Y
w` K j Bq v Publius Q` b vg c vwZ c ~YA vj vPb v K i b | mvq v ` yBk Z
er mi c i I Bnv GL b I i Z enb K i |

mswea vb i k Z Z _ v R b MYi k Z m K Alexander Hamilton
17 8 8 mvj i 2 8 k g Z vwi L Federalist No.78 j L b t
........... No legislative act, therefore contrary to the Constitution, can be
valid. To deny this , would be to affirm, that the deputy is greater than his
principal; that the servant is above his master ; that the representatives of the
people are superior to the people themselves; that men acting by virtue of
powers, may do not only what their powers do not authorise, but what they
forbid.
240
.............. It is not otherwise to be supposed, that the Constitution could
intend to enable the representatives of the people to substitute their will to that
of their constituents. It is far more rational to suppose, that the courts were
designed to be an intermediate body between the people and the legislature, in
order, among other things, to keep the latter within the limits assigned to their
authority. The interpretation of the laws is the proper and peculiar province of
the courts. A constitution is, in fact, and must be regarded, by the Judges, as a
fundamental law. It therefore belongs to them to ascertain its meaning as well as
the meaning of any particular act proceeding from the legislative body. If there
should happen to be an irreconcilable variance between the two , that which has
the superior obligation and validity ought , of course, to be preferred; or, in other
words, the Constitution ought to be preferred to the statute , the intention of the
people to the intention of their agents. ( A a vi L v c ` )

A va ywb K i vi g a h yi vi mswea vb mevc v c yi vZ b |
Bnvi c Z veb vi c _ g B R b MYi k Z Nvl Yv K i v nBq vQ| Bnvi
c vi B e j v nq t
We the people of the United States....... do ordain and establish this
constitution for the United States.

Z L b wK h y i v Congress ev President K vb ms vB R b j vf
K i b vB| wewf b K j vb x i v wj nBZ R b mva vi Yi c wZ wb wa MY
Philadelphia Convention G R b MYi c nBZ mswea vb i GB c veb v
Nvl Yv K i Z t mswea vb c Yq b K i v nq h vnv c i eZ xZ mK j A i v
A b yg v` b K i | A _ vr R b MYB GB mswea vb i i Pwq Z v|

h y i vi ^va xb Z v h y K vj xb mg q Colony wj i R b MYi
g Z v, Article of confederation i Pb vi c Uf ~wg K v, NUb vej x I Bnvi
A vBb MZ ea Z v m ^ Ware V. Hylton (1796) g vK g vq US Supreme Court
Gi c Justice Samuel Chase ej b t
It has been inquired what powers Congress possessed from the first
meeting, in September,1774, until the ratification of the Articles of
Confederation on the 1
st
of March,1781. It appears to me that the powers
of Congress during that whole period were derived from the people they
represented, expressly given, through the medium of their State
conventions or State legislatures;......................
241
(Thomas M. Cooley : A Treatise on the Constitutional Limitations page-
7) ( A a vi L v c ` )

H GK B g vK v g vq R b MYi g Z v m K Justice Chase ej b t
There can be no limitation on the power of the people of the United
States. By their authority the State Constitutions were made, and by their
authority the Constitution of the Untied States was established;............
( A a vi L v)

Martin V. Hunters Lessee (1816) g vK v g vq U.S. Supreme Court Gi
c Justice Joseph Story ej b t
The Constitution of the United States was ordained and established,
not by the States in their sovereign capacities, but emphatically, as the
preamble of the Constitution declares, by the people of the United
States. There can be no doubt that it was competent to the people to
invest the general government with all the powers which they might
deem proper and necessary; to extend or restrain these powers according
to their own good pleasure, and to give them a paramount and supreme
authority.
................................... The government, then, of the United States can
claim no powers which are not granted to it by the Constitution, and the
powers actually granted, must be such as are expressly given, or given by
necessary implication.
(Professor John B. Sholley: Cases on Constitutional Law1951, page-52-53)
( A a vi L v c ` )

GB K vi YB McCulloch V. Maryland (1819) g vK v g vq US Supreme
Court Gi c a vb wePvi c wZ John Marshall ej b t
From these conventions the Constitution derives its whole authority.
The government proceeds directly from the people; is ordained and
established in the name of the people; ........It required not the affirmance, and
could not be nagatived, by the state governments. The Constitution, when thus
adopted, was of complete obligation, and bound the state sovereignties.
The government of the Union, then (whatever may be the influence of
this fact on the case), is emphatically and truly a government of the people. In
form and in substance it emanates from them, its powers are granted by them,
and are to be exercised directly on them, and for their benefit.
242
It is the government of all; its powers are delegated by all; it represents
all, and acts for all. (Cushman: Leading Constitutional Decisions, 13
th
Edition).
(A a vi L v c ` )

Gibbons V. Ogden (1824) g vK v g vq R b MYi g Z v I mswea vb
m ^ c a vb wePvi c wZ John Marshall ej b t
This instrument contains an enumeration of powers expressly granted
by the people to their government.
(Professor John B. Sholley: Cases on Constitutional Law, 1951, Page-
109)

c vq GK B a i b i K _ v Justice Stanley Mathews 18 8 5 mvj Yick Wo
V. Peter Hopkins 118 US 356 g vK v g vi i vq _ nxb f vl vq Nvl Yv K wi q v
wQj b t
When we consider the nature and the theory of our institution of
government, the principles upon which they are supposed to rest and review the
history of their development, we are constrained to conclude that they do not
mean to leave room for the play and action of purely personal and arbitrary
power. Sovereignty itself is, of course, not subject to law, for it is the author and
source of law; but in our system, while sovereign powers are delegated to the
agencies of government, sovereignty itself remains with the people, by whom
and for whom all government exists and acts

GB f ve R b MY K Z K mswea vb c Yq b c m Professor K.C.
Wheare ej b t
Most modern Constitution have followed the American model and the
legal and political theory that lies behind it. The people, or a constituent
assembly acting on their behalf, has authority to enact a Constitution. This
statement is regarded as no mere flourish. It is accepted as law. The Courts of
the Irish Free State spoke of the Constitution of 1922 as having been enacted by
the people, and the Courts of Eire speak in the same way of the Constitution of
1937. The Supreme Court of the United States regards the people as having
given force of law to the Constitution. (Modern Constitution, 1975)
( A a vi L v c ` )

19 2 2 mvj A vq vi j vi mswea vb c YxZ nq | m j b i
wb evwPZ m` mMY Irish Free State Gi R b GK wU mswea vb i Pb v K i b |
243
m j b i m` mMY R b MY K Z K g Z v c v nBq v in the exercise of
undoubted right H mswea vb i Pb v K wi q vQb ewj q v g b K i b |

c _ g g nvhy i c i R vg vb ` k Weimar Constitution Gi c vi GB
f vet
The German People,........... has given itself this Constitution|

Czechoslovak Republic Gi mswe a vb Gi A vi wb i c t
We, the Czechoslovak nation, have adopted the following Constitution
for the Czechoslovak Republic.

Estonia ` k i mswea vb Gi A vi t
The Estonian people.........has drawn up and accepted through the
Constituent Assembly the Constitution as follows.

Poland Gi mswea vb Gi A vi t
We, the Polish nation,.... do enact and establish in the Legislative Sjem
of the Republic of Poland this Constitutional law.

c Z xq g vb nq h c _ g g nvh y i c i BDi vc i wewf b i v
R b MYK B mswea vb mv, ` vZ v I c YZ v wnmve ^xK wZ c ` vb
K wi q vQ| wZ xq g nvh y i c i GK B a vi v eR vq _ vK | 19 4 6 mvj
Jugoslaviai mswea vb Bnvi Constituent Assembly c Yq b K i | West German
Federal Republic Bnvi mswea vb Nvl Yv K i h t
the German people has, by virtue of its constituent power , enacted this basic
law of the Federal Republic of Germany.

f vi Z i 19 5 0 mvj i mswea vb I ` vex K i v nBq vQ h
mswea vb c Yq b K wi evi g Z v I A wa K vi R b MYi wb K U nBZ B
A vwmq vQ| Bnvi c vi ej v nq t
We , the people of India,........in our Constituent Assembly this twenty-sixth day
of November, 1949, do hereby , adopt ,enact and give to ourselves this
constitution.

Dc i i wewf b ` k i mswea vb i D` vni Y nBZ c Z xq g vb nq
h , R b MYi c wZ wb wa wnmve MYc wi l ` mswea vb c Yq b K wi evi R b
R b MY K Z K g Z vc v | Z e mswea vb c Yq b nBq v Mj R b MYmn
244
mK j B D mswe a vb vi v eva | Fourth French Republic Gi mswe a vb I
R b MYi k Z I mswea vb i eva eva K Z v m ^ A vj vK c vZ K i |
Bnvi 3 q A b y Q` wb i c t
National sovereignty belongs to the French people. No section of the
people nor any individual may assume its exercise. The people exercise
it in constitutional matters by the vote of their representatives and by the
referendum. In all other matters they exercise it through their deputies in
the National Assembly, elected by universal, equal, direct, and secret
suffrage.
(K.C. Wheare : Modern Constitution, page-62) ( A a vi L v c ` )

Fifth French Republic Gi mswea vb I R b MYi k Z I mvef g Z
wb w Z K wi q vQ| mswea vb i 2 q I 3 q A b y Q` wb i c t
Article 2 :
..................................................................
....................................................................
The principle of the Republic shall be government of the people, by the
people and for the people.
Article 3:
National sovereignty shall vest in the people, who shall exercise it
through their representatives and by means of referendum.
..................................................................
.......................................................................
( A a vi L v c ` )

GB c m h y i vi mswea vb i Preamble m ^ Professor Edward S.
Corwin h _ v_ B ewj q vQb t
The Preamble is the prologue of the Constitution. If proclaims the
source of the Constitutions authority and the great ends to be
accomplished under it.
From the Preamble we learn that the Constitution claims obedience,
not simply because of its intrinsic excellence or the merit of its
principles, but because it is ordained and established by the people........
The people are the masters of the Constitutionnot the reverse.
(Professor Edward S. Crown : Understanding the Constitution, 1949,
page-1).

245
Dc i i GB m~` xNA vj vPb v nBZ c Z xq g vb nq h mvq v
` yBk Z er mi c ~eh y i vi ^va xb Z v h y K vj xb I Z r c i eZ xc wZ wU
h y i vi R b MYi Dc w wZ Dc j w K i v h vq | R b MY
Continental Congress G Z vnv` i c wZ wb wa g vi d r Dc w Z wQj , R b MY
^va xb Z v h y K wi q vwQj , h y k l Philadelphia Convention G K j vb x
i vi c wZ wb wa ` i g va g I R b MY Dc w Z _ vwK q v h y i vi
mswea vb i Pb v K wi q vQ| A i v wj i convention G R b MYB mswea vb
A b yg v` b (ratify) K wi q vQ| h y i v mK j g Z vi Dr m h R b MY
Z vnv US Supreme Court weMZ ` yBk Z er mi c ~ec yb t c yb t Nvl Yv
K wi q vQ| Bnvi c i e i v mswea vb i wPZ nBq vQ | c wZ wU i vi
mswea vb R b MYB h g Z vi Dr m Ges R b MYi c wZ wb wa Z _ v
R b Mb B h mswea vb i Pb v K wi q vQ Z vnvB evi sevi Nvwl Z nBq vQ|
mK j ` k i mswea vb R b MYB g Z vi g ~j K ` we` y|

3 0 | evsj v` k mswea vb R b MY- c Uf ~wg K v t e vsj v` k
mswea vb I Bnvi K vb ewZ g b q | evsj v` k i vi K ` we` yZ
i wnq vQ Bnvi R b MY| 19 7 1 mvj R b MYB g yw h y K wi q v ^va xb Z v
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A wf ew i ^xK wZ | mswea vb i vi mev P A vBb K vi Y Bnv R b MYi
A wf c vq i c wZ d j b | mL vb B mswea vb i k Z | c K Z c
A vg v` i mswea vb i me R ywo q v i wnq vQ R b MY| evsj vi R b MYB
evsj v` k i vi g ~j Pvwj K v- k w | mswea vb mB k w i evnb |
GB evsj vi R b MY f vi Z el c vwK vb b vg GK wU i v
Pvwnq vwQj | 19 4 6 mvj evsj vi R b MY Z vnv` i f vUvwa K vi c q vM
K wi q v g ymj g vb ` i R b wb w` 119 wU A vmb i g a 116 wU A vmb
g ymwj g j xMK c ` vb K wi q v c vwK vb ` vex md j f ve m yL j Bq v
A vm| c K Z c g ymwj g j xMi GB f ~wg a m& weR q f vi Z el
c vwK vb mw K i |
246
c vwK vb mwZ h g b evsj vi R b MYi mev P A e` vb i wnq vQ
wVK Z g wb f ve evsj v` k mwZ I evsj vi R b MYi a yA e` vb b q
Pi g Z vM I mev P g ~j w` Z nBq vQ|
19 4 8 mvj f vl v A v` vj b i c vi | 19 5 2 mvj i 2 1k
d eq vi x Z vwi L g vZ f vl v evsj vi R b G` k i g vb yl R xeb w` j |
BwZ nvm mw K wi j | mB BwZ nvmi mvc vb evwnq v A vR 2 1k
d eq vi x A v R vwZ K g vZ f vl v w` em|
c vwK vb A vg j wQj evsj vi R b e b vi BwZ nvm| c vwK vb
mwi c i c ~eevsj vi b ~Z b b vg K i Y nBj c ~ec vwK vb | c _ g nBZ B
G` k c vmv` l o h i wk K vi nBj | Z e 19 5 4 mvj i c v` wk K
wb evPb R b MY c _ g myh vMB g ymwj g j xMK c ~ee nBZ c vq
wb w K wi q v ` q | wK msL vMwi c ` k nBq vI c w g c vwK vb i
mwnZ BnvK Parity g vwb q v j BZ eva K i v nBj | e l o h i c i
19 5 6 mvj c vwK vb GK wU mswea vb nBj e U wK 19 5 9 mvj i
d eq vi x g vm A b yw Z e mva vi Y wb evPb A b y vb nBevi K q K g vm
c ~e 19 5 8 mvj i 7 B A vei Z vwi L mg M ` k mvg wi K A vBb
R vi x nBj | c ~ec vwK vb i c a vb i vR b wZ K ` j wj i c vq mK j
b Z vK A i xY K i v nBj | c ~e c vwK vb i R b MY Pi g f ve
A Z vPvwi Z I wb wl Z nBZ j vwMj | c vwK vb i A wa evmx` i
genius A b ymvi 19 6 2 mvj i mswea vb i g va g Basic democracy
ewj q v GK A yZ MYZ Pvj y nBj h vnv BasicI b q democracyI b q
h w` I wK QymsL K A wZ Dr mvnx ` k x I we` k x c wZ ew BnvK
a b a b K wi Z j vwMj b |
19 6 6 mvj Z ` vwb b c ~e c vwK vb i GK wU c a vb i vR b wZ K
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f vUvwa K vi ` vex K wi j | evsj vi R b MY Z vnv mev K i Y mg _ b c ` vb
K wi j | g g A v` vj b eMevb nBZ j vwMj Ges Pi g i Z i
A vK vi a vi Y K wi j c vmv` l o h i b vq K c wi eZ b nBj | 19 6 2
247
mvj i mswea vb f K wi q v R b vi j Bq vwnq v L vb c vwK vb i
c wmWU nBj b |

19 7 0 mvj i k l f vM A L c vwK vb i mec _ g I mek l
mva vi Y wb evPb A b yw Z nBj | wb evPb i A b Z g c a vb D k wQj
mg M c vwK vb i R b GK wU mswea vb c Yq b K i v| wb evPb GK wU
i vR b wZ K ` j c ~ec vwK vb i R b wb w` 16 9 wU A vmb i g a
16 7 wU A vmb j vf K wi q v mg M c vwK vb GK K msL vMwi Z v j vf
K i | 19 7 1 mvj i 3 i v g vPZ vwi L XvK vq msm` A wa ek b i Z vwi L
Nvl Yv K i v nBq vwQj | c w g c vwK vb nBZ msm` m` mMY GK
GK K wi q v XvK vq A vMg b K wi Z wQj b GB mg q A K mvr 1j v g vP
Z vwi L R b vi j Bq vwnq v L vb A wb w` K vj i R b A wa ek b wMZ
Nvl Yv K i b | mg M evsj v` k vf ` yt L d vwUq v c wo j | 6 ` d v
` vex 1` d v ^va xb Z vi ` vexZ c wi YZ nBj | 7 B g vPZ vwi L i f vl Y
k L g ywR eyi i ng vb mK j K c yZ nBevi A vnevb R vb vBj b |
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msMvg GB A g vN evYx D Pvi b i g a w` q v wZ wb mw` b Z vunvi f vl Y
k l K i b |
2 3 k g vPc vwK vb w` em wQj wK H w` b K vUb g U evwZ Z
mg M c ~ec vwK vb i me ^va xb evsj vi c Z vK v k vf v c vBZ wQj |
2 5 k g vPw` evMZ i v c w_ exi BwZ nvmi R NYZ g MYnZ v XvK vq
I evsj vi wewf b nvb A b yw Z nBj | 2 6 k g vPi c _ g c ni B k L
g ywR e yi i ng vb evsj v` k i ^va xb Z v Nvl Yv K i b |
Bnvi c i eZ xb q g vm evOvj xi A vZ Z vMi BwZ nvm| evsj vi
mva vi Y R b MY A a vi Y K wi q v j R xeb i wewb g q evsj vi
^va xb Z v wQb vBq v A vb | Bnv wQj c K Z B R b h y | 19 4 9 mvj nBZ
c _ g m~` xNmvswea vwb K msMvg , Z r c i , R b MYi mk m msMvg i
K vi YB evsj v` k mswea vb i me B R b MYi Dc w wZ j K i v
h vq |

248
3 1| mvswea vwb K K vVvg v t -
c veb v t evOvj x R vwZ i c wi wPwZ , ewk Ges mswea vb i
D k , A v` k I g ~j b xwZ hvnvi Dc i wf w K wi q v GB i v c wZ w Z
nBq vQ Z vnvi GK wU msw wK i yZ c ~YeYb v c veb vq K i v
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K i v nq | mswea vb i wewf b A sk i c wi wPwZ wb c ` vb K i v nBj |
c _ g f vMt evsj v` k h GK wU MYc R vZ x i v , R b MY GB
i vi g vwj K Ges mswea vb i c a vb m K Nvl Yv GB f vM c ` vb
K i v nBq vQ|
wZ xq f vMt wZ xq f vM i v c wi Pvj b vi g ~j b xwZ mg ~n eYb v
K i v nBq vQ|
Z Z xq f vM t GB f vM evsj v` k i R b MYi we` g vb g wj K
A wa K vi mg ~ni ^xK wZ c ` vb K i v nBq vQ|
PZ z_ f vM t GB f vM i vi wb evnx wef vMi wewf b mvswea vwb K
c ` h g b - i vc wZ , c a vb g xmn Bnvi g w mf v, Z ve a vq K mi K vi ,
vb xq k vmb , c wZ i v K g wef vM Ges A vUb x- R b vi j BZ vw` c `
mw K wi q vQ Ges Z vnv` i mK j i mva vi Y ` vwq Z I K Z e wb ` k
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c g f vM t GB f vM i vi A vi K wU A vBb mf v mw
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xK vi , b vq c vj , A vBb c Yq b I A _ ms v c wZ Ges A a v` k
c Yq b BZ vw` eYb v c ` vb K i v nBq vQ|
l f vM t GB f vM mswea vb i vi Z Z xq wePvi wef vM
c wZ v K wi q vQ| myc xg K vU c wZ v, wePvi K wb q vM, A a t b
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K wi q vQ| wb evPb K wg k b c wZ v, wb evPb A b y vb i mg q BZ vw`
wb w` nBq vQ|
A g f vM t GB f vM g nv- wnmve wb i x K I wb q K c ` i
c wZ v Ges G msGv wel q vw` eYb v K i v nBq vQ|
249
b eg f vM t GB f vM evsj v` k i K g wef vM m ^ eYb v K i v
nBq vQ| mswea vb GB f vM mi K vi x K g Pvi x` i wb q vM I K g i
k Z vej x, K g wef vM c ~b MVb Ges mi K vi x K g K wg k b c wZ v
K wi q vQ|
b eg K f vM t GB f vM mswea vb R i i x A e v Nvl Yv I
GZ ` ms v K vh vej x wb ` k K wi q vQ|
` k g f vMt GB f vM mswea vb msk va b i g Z v e Yb v K i v
nBq vQ|
GK v` k f vM t GB f vM wewea wel q vw` m ^ eYb v K i v
nBq vQ|

mswea vb i 15 0 A b y Q` i vi w K vj xb I A vq x wea vb vej x
m wK Z | GB A b y Q` i A vI Z vq m PZ z_ Z d &wmj vw K vj xb I
A vq x wea vb vej x eYb v K i v nBq vQ|
vw K vj xb ewj Z 19 7 1 mvj i 2 6 k g vPZ vwi L nBZ
mswea vb c eZ b i Z vwi L A _ vr 19 7 2 mvj i 16 B wWm ^i c h
mg q K vj eyS vBZ Q| GB mg q K vj i g a ^va xb Z v Nvl Yvc ,
mK j A vBb I mK j K vh g K PZ z_ Z d &wmj i 3 A b y Q`
mswea vb i 15 0 A b y Q` i A vI Z vq mvswea vwb K ea Z v ` vb
K wi q vQ| Z vnvQvo v, D Z d &wmj ewYZ 3 A b y Q` mn 17 wU
A b y Q` c vK - mswea vb A vBb , i vi wewf b wef vM I Bnvi
K vh g wj K mswea vb , mswea vb ewYZ A vBb i A vI Z vf ~ K i Z t
mZ ze mw K wi q vQ| GL vb B mswea vb i 15 0 A b y Q` i A vI Z vq
c YxZ PZ z_ Z d &wmj i K vh g i mg vw | mswea vb i c i eZ x
msk va b wj h nZ zmswea vb i 15 0 A b y Q` ewnf ~Z mBnZ zD
msk va b wj PZ z_ Z d &wmj vb c vq b vB , h g b , mswea vb c _ g
msk va b , wZ xq msk va b , Z Z xq msk va b I PZ z_ msk va b | A ea
mvg wi K k vmb vg j I Z r c i eZ xK vj i mswea vb msk va b x wj i g a
h wj mswea vb ewnf ~Z mB wj void ab initio Ges hw` PZ z_ Z d &wmj
msh y K i v nBq v _ vK mB wj D Z d &wmj nBZ evwZ j ewj q v MY
250
nBe| K vb ea msk va b x hw` D PZ z_ Z d &wmj vb c vBq v _ vK
Z e D msk va b x ea _ vwK e eU wK PZ z_ Z d &wmj nBZ weh y
nBe K vi Y PZ z_ Z d &wmj 19 7 2 mvj i 16 B wWm ^i c h D
Z d &wmj ewYZ vw K vj xb I A vq x wea vb vej x m wK Z g v |

3 2 | mswea vb i wewf b f vMi g a f vi mvg t
mswea vb i g ~j I c a vb wZ b wU, h g b t A vBb mf v, wb evnx
wef vM I wePvi wef vM|
mswea vb i g g evYx nBZ Q h R wUj i vh i wewf b wef vMi
g a Checks and balances Gi g va g Governance G mg Z v ev Balance i v
K i v| G A vBb mf v mswea vb A b ymvi A vBb c Yq b K wi e,
wb evnx wef vM A vBb i g g A b ymvi Z vnv c q vM K wi e Ges we l q wU
wePvi wef vMi m yL A vb q b K i v nBj Bnvi A vBb MZ ea Z v
c i x v K wi e| GK Bf ve wb evPb K wg k b , g nv- wnmve wb i x K I
wb q K , mi K vi x K g K wg k b , Z vnvi v mK j B i vh i wewf b A sk i
A sk wek l Ges wb R wb R Governance K c he Y K wi q v
_ vK b , Z e wek l K wi q v wePvi wef vM i vxq g Z vi h _ Qv eenvi
mymsnZ K wi q v _ vK | GB K vi Y GK R b wePvi K i ` vwq Z I K Z e
A Z i Z c ~Y| GB c m Professor W. Friedmann ej b t
In the modern democratic society the Judge must steer his way between
the Scylla of subservience to Government and the charyvdis of remotensess
from constantly changing social pressures and economic needs (Law in a
Changing Society) (Union of India Vs. Sankalchand AIR 1977 SC 2328
g vK v g vq K Iyer, J Gi i vq nBZ D Z )

i vxq h i wewf b wef vMi g a mg Z v i vwL evi c q vR b Ges
K vb wUi ^v_ msNvZ h b b v NU mB K vi YB mswea vb i wewf b
f vM wb R wb R ` vwq Z g a ` w i vwL Z Q|

3 3 | evsj v` k mswea vb R b MY t GL b ` L v hvK
R b MYi m mswea vb i g va g R b MY wK f ve i vwb q Y K i |
251
c _ g B GB c m Senator Daniel Webster Gi e e c wYa vb hvM|
h y i vi Federal f ~wg b xwZ j Bq v GK weZ K ( 18 3 0 ) Daniel Webster
R b MYi mswea vb I R b MYi f ~wg K v m ^ ej b t

It is, sir, the Peoples Constitution, the Peoples Government; made for
the People; made by the People; and answerable to the People ..... We are all
agents of the same power, the People ... I hold it to be a popular Government,
erected by the people; those who administer it responsible to the People; and
itself capable of being amended and modified, just as the People may choose it
should be. It is as popular, just as truly emanating from the People, as the State
Governments.
(Karamer: The People Themselves, c v- 17 7 )

Bnvi 3 3 er mi c i h y i vi Gettysburg h y i GK wU A sk
g Z mwb K ` i mg vwa wnmve Dr mMK wi evi A b y vb President
Abraham Lincaln Z uvnvi msw e Z v k l K i b GB ewj q v t
..........that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall
not perish from the earth.

A vR nBZ ` o k Z er mi c ~eGB f ve Abraham Lincaln ` k i
R b MYi k Z mg yb Z K i b |
evsj v` k mswea vb i c g f vM A vBb mf v eYb v K wi q vQ| 6 5
A b y Q` i 1g ` d v R vZ xq msm` mw K wi q vQ| 3 q ` d v c Z
wb evPb i g va g evsj v` k i wZ b k Z wU A v wj K wb evPb x Gj vK v
nBZ wZ b k Z msm` - m` m wb evPb i wea vb K i v nBq vQ| GB
wZ b k Z msm` - m` m evsj v` k i R b MYi c wZ wb wa Z K i b | Z e
Z vnvi v R b MYb nb R b MYi wb evwPZ c wZ wb wa g v |
R b MYi c wZ wb wa GB msm` - m` mMY wb evPb i g va g
evsj v` k i i vc wZ K wb evPb K i b | mK j wb evPb B mswea vb i
119 I 12 3 A b y Q` A b ymvi evsj v` k i wb evPb K wg k b c wi Pvj b v
K i b |
mswea vb i 4 8 I 4 9 A b y Q` Gi g Z v ej i vc wZ Z uvnvi
` vwq Z c vj b K i b | 5 5 ( 4 ) A b y Q` A b ymvi mi K vi i mK j wb evnx
252
c ` c i vc wZ i b vg MnxZ nBq vQ ewj q v c K vk K i v nq | 5 5 ( 5 )
A b y Q` A b ymvi i vc wZ i b vg c YxZ A v` k mg ~n I A b vb
Pzw c wK i c mZ vwq Z ev c g vYxK Z nBe, i vc wZ Z vnv wewa vi v
wb a vi Y K i b | Z vnvQvo v, i vc wZ mi K vi x K vh vej x eUb I
c wi Pvj b vi R b wewa mg ~n c Yq b K i b | h msm` - m` m msm` i
msL vMwi m` mi A v vf vR b ewj q v i vc wZ i wb K U c Z xq g vb
nBeb , i vc wZ Z uvnvK 5 6 ( 3 ) A b y Q` ej c a vb g x wb q vM
K i b |
i vc wZ mswea vb i 9 4 ( 2 ) , 9 5 ( 1) , 9 7 I 9 8 A b y Q`
A b ymvi c a vb wePvi c wZ , A vq x c a vb wePvi c wZ , myc xg K vUi
wePvi c wZ I A wZ wi wePvi c wZ wb q vM c ` vb K i b |
Z e c a vb g x I c a vb wePvi c wZ wb q vMi eZ xZ
i vc wZ Z uvnvi A b mK j ` vwq Z c vj b c a vb g xi c i vg k A b yh vq x
K vh K i b |
Dc i i eYb v nBZ c Z xq g vb nq h i vc wZ R b MYi
c wZ wb wa MY vi v wb evwPZ A _ vr i vc wZ msm` - m` mMY g va g
R b MY K Z K c i v f ve wb evwPZ | A vevi i vc wZ i mK j K vh
g xmf v K Z K wb q w Z Ges g xmf v msm` i wb K U ` vq e , msm` -
m` mMY evsj v` k i R b MYi wb K U ` vq e | Z vnvQvo v, c a vb g x I
Z uvnvi g w mf vi A wa K vsk g xeMwb evwPZ wea vq Z uvnvi vI R b MYi
wb K U mi vmwi ` vq e |
K vR B A vBb c Yq b i msm` - m` mMYi g va g R b MY
msm` Dc w Z | R b MYi wb K U ` vq e Z vB g Z vi c K Z Dr m|
wb evnx K vh c a vb g x I g w mf v ` yB f ve R b MYi wb K U
` vq e | c _ g Z , R vZ xq msm` g vi d r , wZ xq Z , wb evwPZ msm` -
m` m wnmve| GB ` yBf veB R b MYi Qvq v c a vb g x I Z uvnvi
g w mf vi Dc i wb w Z f ve we` g vb | hnZ z, c a vb g x I Z uvnvi
g w mf vi A wa K vsk m` m wb evwPZ m K vi Y Z uvnvi v mvef g
R b MYi GB Qvq v A ^xK vi K wi Z c vi b b v, Z uvnv` i c wZ wU
253
c ` c i R b Z uvnvi v R b MYi wb K U ` vq e | (accountable to the
sovereign people)|
c R vZ i K g K g Pvi x` i wb q vM I K g i k Z vej x msm`
A vBb ` vi v wb q Y K i , K vR B m R b MY msm` g vi d r
evsj v` k i K g wef vMK wb q Y K i b | Gg b wK c wZ i v
K g wef vMi I R b MYi wb q Y i wnq vQ K vi Y D K g we f vMI
msm` K Z K c YxZ A vBb vi v wb q w Z I c wi Pvwj Z | Z e GB wb q Y
a yZ vwZ K f ve mswea vb i c vq _ vwK j Pwj e b v| i vc wZ nBZ
i vi meK wb mK j K g Pvi xK A i GB b xwZ a vi Y K wi Z nBe
h Z vnvi v mK j B R b MYi meK g v , R b MYi c wZ mK j i wb R
wb R mev c ` vb i g va g B Z vnv` i c Z K i i Z I Z vr c h
wb wnZ i wnq vQ| BnvB evsj v` k i mswea vb g ~j g I mK j i c wZ
evZ v|
myc xg K vUewZ i K R j v wf wK wePvi wef vMi A vBb
g Yvj q I myc xg K vUi Z wb q Y i wnq vQ| G A Z t
A vBb g Yvj q Bnvi wewf b c ` c i R b msm` i wb K U ` vq e
Ges msm` g vi d r R b MYi wb K U ` vq e |

Z e myc xg K vUev wb A v` vj Z K vb A v` vj Z B Bnvi wePvwi K
K vh g i R b mi vmwi K vnvi I wb K U ` vq x b n| h w` K vb
wePvi c v_ xK vb i vq y nb , wZ wb A ek B c i eZ x D P A v` vj Z
A vc xj K wi Z c vi b | k Z k Z er mi a wi q v wek i mK j mf ` k
GB c wZ B we` g vb , A b _ vq , b vq wePvi evnZ nBevi m eb v
_ vK | Z e h K vb A v` vj Z i i vq j Bq v c K Z c vwZ c ~YA eva
A vj vPb v nBZ B c vi , Z vnvZ mK j i B j vf evb nBevi m eb v
_ vK , Gg wb wK wePvi K i I , Z e wePvi K K j Bq v mg j vPb v wea q
b n| K vi Y wePvi K K ew MZ f ve mg vj vPb v K wi j c i eZ xZ
i vq c ` vb wZ wb wa vM nBq v c wo Z c vi b , Z vnvZ b vq wePvi
evnZ nBevi m eb v _ vK , BnvZ wePvi c v_ xMYB wZ M nBZ
c vi b | Dj L , GK R b wePvi K K f q f xwZ I mec K vi c f veg y
254
nBq v i vq c ` vb K wi Z nq | Z vnvQvo v, GK R b wePvi K i m yL h
mK j h yw I NUb vej x c K vwk Z nq Z vnv f wel r A vj vPK ` i m yL
b vI _ vwK Z c vi | Z e R b MY b vq wePvi A ek B ` vex K wi Z
c vi b , K vi Y, myc xg K vUmn mg M wePvi wef vM R b MYi mswea vb
nBZ m I R b MYi B m w Ge s mB w` K w` q v wePvi wef vM
P~o v wePvi R b MYi wb K U A ek B ` vq e |
GB c m Senator Daniel Webster Gi e e ( 18 3 0 )
c wYa vb h vMt
The People, then, sir, created this Government. They gave it a
Constitution, and in that Constitution they have enumerated the powers which
they bestow upon it. They made it a limited Government. They have defined its
authority.... But, sir, they have not stopped here. If they had, they would have
accomplished but half their work. No definition can be so clear, as to avoid
possibility of doubt; no limitation so precise, as to exclude all uncertainty. Who,
then, shall construe this grant of the People? .... This, sir, the Constitution itself
decides, also by declaring, that the Judicial power shall extend to all cases
arising under the Constitution and Laws of the United States. [That clause
together with the Supremacy Clause], sir, cover the whole ground. They are, in
truth, the keystone of the arch. With these, it is a Constitution; without them, it
is a Confederacy.
(Kramer : The People Themselves, c v- 17 7 )

i vi A b vb wef vMi K vh g hg b R b MY mi vmwi c wi Pvj b v
K i b b v, Z vnv` i wb evwPZ c wZ wb wa g vi d r c wi Pvj b v K i b , Z g wb
R b MYi c wZ wb wa g vi d r wb q vM c v wePvi K MY R b MYi c
R b MYi wePvwi K g Z v c q vM K i b |
mB K vi Y R b MYi c wZ wb wa Z K vi x msm` wePvi wef vMi
wei D vwc Z A wf h vM I GB wef vMi mvweK K vh g (Performance)
m ^ a yc k D vc b K wi Z A wa K vi x b n, BnvK A wa K Z i K g g
K wi evi j c wZ wea vb K wi Z c q vR b xq c ` c I j BZ c vi b |
Dj L h R b MYi A _ B wePvi wef vM c wi Pvwj Z nq | A Z Ge,
wePvi wef vMI R b MYi g Z v- ej q i A MZ |
3 4 | mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb Gi
c Uf ~wg K v t g v i v wb evPb x Gj vK vi msm` m` m R b ve g vt
255
A vmv` y vg vb i g Z z nBj Z _ vq Dc - wb evPb A b y vb K wi evi
c q vR b nq | wb evPb K wg k b 19 9 4 mvj i 2 0 k g vPZ vwi L g v i v
wb evPb x Gj vK vq Dc - wb evPb A b y vb K wi evi R b Z d &wmj Nvl Yv
K i | wei va x` j wj A vmb Dc - wb evPb f vU- K vi Pzwc i A vk sK v
c ej f ve c K vk K wi Z _ vK |
wb evPb vi K vj wei va x` j wj g v i v Dc - wb evPb K vi Pzwc i
A wf h vM D vc b K i Z t mg M ` k c ej c wZ ev` K wi Z _ vK Ges
wei va x ` j xq mvsm` MY msm` eR b A evnZ i vL b |
19 9 5 mvj i 4 Vv R yj vB i vc wZ mswea vb i 10 6 A b y Q`
A b ymvi wb wj wL Z wel q myc xg K vUi A vc xj wef vMi g Z vg Z
R vwb Z Pvnb (Special Reference No. 1 of 1995) 47 DLR (AD) (1995) 117 t
Para U: And Whereas, pursuant to the powers conferred on me by
Article 106 of the Constitution, I, Abdur Rahman Biswas, President of the
Peoples Republic of Bangladesh hereby refer the said questions to the
Appellate Division of the Supreme Court of Bangladesh to report its opinion
thereon namely -
(1) Can the walkout and the consequent period of non-return by
all the opposition parties taking exception to a remark of a
ruling party Minister be construed as absent from Parliament
without leave of Parliament occurring in Article 67(1)(b) of
the Constitution resulting in vacation of their seats in
Parliament?
(2) Does boycott of the Parliament by all members of the
opposition parties mean absent from the Parliament without
leave of Parliament within the meaning of Article 67(1)(b) of
the Constitution resulting in vacation of their seats in
Parliament?
(3) Whether ninety consecutive sitting days be computed
excluding or including the period between two sessions
intervened by prorogation of the Parliament within the
meaning of Article 67(1)(b), read with the definition of
sessions and sittings defined under Article 152(1) of the
Constitution ?
(4) Whether the Speaker or Parliament will compute and
determine the period of absence ?
Sd/ Abdur Rahman Biswas
256
4.7.95
President
Peoples Republic of Bangladesh.

b vb x A 2 4 / 7 / 19 9 5 Z vwi L i i vq A vc xj wef vMi c
we c a vb wePvi c wZ wb wj wL Z g Z vg Z c ` vb K i b t
80. Having regard to the discussion as above, we are of the opinion that
the answers to question Nos. 1 and 2 are in the affirmative subject to
computation of ninety consecutive sitting days. As to question No. 3 our opinion
is that the period between two sessions intervened by prorogation of the
Parliament should be excluded in computing ninety consecutive sitting days. As
to question No. 4, our opinion is that it is the Speaker who will compute and
determine the period of absence. Let this report be communicated to the
President immediately.

2 4 / 11/ 19 9 5 Z vwi L msm` f vwq v ` I q v nq | K q K evi
wMZ nBevi c i 19 9 6 mvj i 15 B d eq vi x Z vwi L l msm` i
wb evPb A b yw Z nBevi Z vwi L wb a vi Y K i v nq |
` k c P MYwe vf Pwj Z _ vK | GK wU i vR b wZ K ` j
wb evPb A sk MnY b v K wi evi wm v MnY K i | mg M ` k evc K
g v vq mwnsm NUb vej xi g a w` q v 15 / 2 / 19 9 6 Z vwi L wb evPb
A b yw Z nq | wb evPb evc K g v vq f vU K vi Pzwc i A wf h vM D vc b
K i v nq |
l msm` i c _ g A wa ek b B Z ve a vq K mi K vi wej A vb q b
K i v nq | wK i vR b wZ K ` j wj i c nBZ d eq vi xZ A b yw Z
wb evPb evwZ j Ges c a vb g xmn K vweb U Z _ v mi K vi i c ` Z vM
` vex K i v nBZ _ vK | i vc wZ wel q wj j Bq v Df q c i mwnZ
A vj vPb v A vi K i b |

3 5 | mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 6 t
2 6 / 3 / 19 9 6 Z vwi L msm` mva vi Y wb evPb A b y vb i R b wb ` j xq
Z vea vq K mi K vi MVb i D k mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b )
A vBb Gi wej wU msm` MnxZ nq | 2 8 / 3 / 19 9 6 Z vwi L i vc wZ D
wej ^v i c ` vb K wi j Z vnv A vBb c wi YZ nq |
257
3 0 / 3 / 19 9 6 Z vwi L 12 w` b i l msm` f vwq v ` I q v nq I
mi K vi c ` Z vM K i Ges mek l A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ R b ve
g ynv ` nvweeyi i ng vb c a vb Dc ` v wb h y nb Ges Z uvnvi b Z Z
Dc i v A vBb i A vI Z vq c _ g Z vea vq K mi K vi MwVZ nq |

mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 6 , A vBb wU wb i c t
19 9 6 mb i 1 b s A vBb
2 8 k g vP, 19 9 6

MYc R vZ x evsj v` k i mswea vb i K wZ c q wea vb i
A wa K Z i msk va b K c YxZ A vBb
h nZ z wb ewYZ D k mg ~n c ~i YK MYc R vZ x
evsj v` k i mswea vb i K wZ c q wea vb i A wa K Z i msk va b
mg xPxb I c q vR b q ;
mnZ zGZ vi v wb i c A vBb K i v nBj t -

1| msw wk i vb vg | - GB A vBb mswea vb ( q v` k
msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 6 b vg A wf wnZ nBe|

2 | mswea vb b ~Z b 5 8 K A b y Q` i mwb ek | -
MYc R vZ x evsj v` k i mswea vb ( A Z t c i mswea vb ewj q v
Dj wL Z ) Gi 5 8 A b y Q` i c i wb i c b ~Z b A b yPQ`
mwb ewk Z nBe, h _ vt -
5 8 K | c wi Q` i c q vM | - GB c wi Q` i K vb wK Qy
5 5 ( 4 ) , ( 5 ) I ( 6 ) A b y Q` i wea vb vej x eZ xZ , h g q v`
msm` f vswMq v ` I q v nq ev f sM A e vq _ vK mB mB
g q v` c h y nBe b v t
Z e k Z _ vK h , 2 K c wi Q` h vnv wK Qy _ vK zK b v
K b , h 7 2 ( 4 ) A b y Q` i A a xb K vb f sM nBq v h vI q v
msm` K c yb i vnvb K i v nq m GB c wi Q` c h vR
nBe|
3 | mswea vb b ~Z b 2 K c wi Q` i mwb ek | - mswea vb i
PZ y_ f vMi 2 q c wi Q` i c i wb i ~c b ~Z b c wi Q`
mwb ewk Z nBe, h _ vt -
2 K c wi Q` - wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi
5 8 L | wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi | - ( 1) msm` f vswMq v
` I q vi c i ev g q v` A emvb i K vi Y f sM nBevi c i h
Z vwi L wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi i c a vb Dc ` v K vh f vi
MnY K i b mB Z vwi L nBZ msm` MwVZ nI q vi c i b ~Z b
258
c a vb g x Z uvnvi c ` i K vh f vi MnY K i vi Z vwi L c h g q v`
GK wU wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi _ vwK e|
( 2 ) wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi h _ f ve i vc wZ i wb K U
` vq x _ vwK eb |
( 3 ) ( 1) ` d vq Dj wL Z g q v` c a vb Dc ` v K Z K ev
Z uvnvi K Z Z GB mswea vb A b yh vq x c R vZ i wb evnx g Z v ,
5 8 N( 1) A b y Q` i wea vb vej x mvc , c hy nBe Ges
wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi i c i vg k A b yhvq x Z r - K Z K Dnv
c h y nBe|
( 4 ) 5 5 ( 4 ) , ( 5 ) I ( 6 ) A b y Q` i wea vb ej x ( c q vR b xq
A wf evR b mnK vi ) ( 1) ` d vq Dj wL Z g q v` GK Bi ~c
wel q vej xi c h y nBe|
5 8 M| wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi i MVb , Dc ` vMYi
wb q vM BZ vw` | - ( 1) c a vb Dc ` vi b Z Z c a vb Dc ` v
Ges A c i A b wa K ` k R b Dc ` vi mg b q wb ` j xq Z vea vq K
mi K vi MwVZ nBe , h vnvi v i vc wZ K Z K wb h y nBeb |
( 2 ) msm` f vswMq v ` I q v ev f sM nBevi c i eZ x c b i
w` b i g a c a vb Dc ` v Ges A b vb Dc ` vMY wb h y
nBeb Ges h Z vwi L msm` f vswMq v ` I q v nq ev f sM nq
mB Z vwi L nBZ h Z vwi L c a vb Dc ` v wb hy nb mB
Z vwi L c h g q v` msm` f vswMq v ` I q vi ev f sM nBevi
A eewnZ c ~e` vwq Z c vj b i Z c a vb g x I Z uvnvi g w mf v
Z uvnv` i ` vwq Z c vj b K wi Z _ vwK eb |
( 3 ) i vc wZ evsj v` k i A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ MYi
g a wh wb mek l A emi c v nBq vQb Ges wh wb GB
A b y Q` i A a xb Dc ` v wb h y nBevi h vM Z uvnvK c a vb
Dc ` v wb q vM K wi eb t
Z e k Z _ vK h , h w` D i c A emi c v c a vb
wePvi c wZ K c vI q v b v h vq A _ ev wZ wb c a vb Dc ` vi c `
MnY A m Z nb , Z vnv nBj i vc wZ evsj v` k i mek l
A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ i A eewnZ c ~eA emi c v c a vb
wePvi c wZ K c a vb Dc ` v wb q vM K wi eb |
( 4 ) h w` K vb A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ K c vI q v b v
h vq A _ ev wZ wb c a vb Dc ` vi c ` MnY A m Z nb , Z vnv
nBj i vc wZ A vc xj wef vMi A emi c v wePvi K MYi g a
wh wb mek l A e mi c v nBq vQb Ges wh wb GB A b y Q` i
A a xb Dc ` v wb h y nBevi hvM Z uvnvK c a vb Dc ` v
wb q vM K wi eb t
259
Z e k Z _ vK h , h w` D i c A emi c v wePvi K K
c vI q v b v h vq A _ ev wZ wb c a vb Dc ` vi c ` MnY A m Z
nb , Z vnv nBj i vc wZ A vc xj wef vMi A emi c v
wePvi K MYi g a mek l A emi c v wePvi K i A eewnZ c ~e
A emi c v A b yi ~c wePvi K K c a vb Dc ` v wb q vM K wi eb |
( 5 ) hw` A vc xj wef vMi K vb A emi c v wePvi K K
c vI q v b v h vq A _ ev wZ wb c a vb Dc ` vi c ` MnY A m Z
nb , Z vnv nBj i vc wZ , hZ ` ~i m e, c a vb i vR b wZ K
` j mg ~ni mwnZ A vj vPb vK g , evsj v` k i h mK j b vMwi K
GB A b y Q` i A a xb Dc ` v wb h y nBevi h vM Z uvnv` i
g a nBZ c a vb Dc ` v wb q vM K wi eb |
( 6 ) GB c wi Q` h vnv wK Qy_ vK zK b v K b , h w` ( 3 ) , ( 4 )
I ( 5 ) ` d vmg ~ni wea vb vej xK K vhK i K i v b v hvq , Z vnv
nBj i vc wZ GB mswea vb i A a xb Z vunvi ^xq ` vwq Z i
A wZ wi wnmve wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi i c a vb Dc ` vi
` vwq Z MnY K wi eb |
( 7 ) i vc wZ -
( K ) msm` - m` m wnmve wb evwPZ nBevi
hvM;
( L ) K vb i vR b wZ K ` j A _ ev K vb
i vR b wZ K ` j i mwnZ hy ev A sMxf ~Z
K vb msVb i m` m b nb ;
( M) msm` - m` m` i A vmb wb evPb c v_ x
b nb , Ges c v_ xnBe b b v g g
wj wL Z f ve m Z nBq vQb ;
( N) evnvi er mi i A wa K eq b nb |
GBi c ewMYi g a nBZ Dc ` v wb q vM K wi eb |
( 8 ) i vc wZ c a vb Dc ` vi c i vg k A b yh vq x Dc ` vMYi
wb q vM` vb K wi eb |
( 9 ) i vc wZ i D k ^n wj wL Z I ^v i h y
c h vM c a vb Dc ` v ev K vb Dc ` v ^xq c ` Z vM K wi Z
c vwi eb |
( 10 ) c a vb Dc ` v ev K vb Dc ` v GB A b y Q` i
A a xb Di ~c wb q vMi h vMZ v nvi vBj wZ wb D c ` envj
_ vwK eb b v|
( 11) c a vb Dc ` v c a vb g xi c ` g hv` v Ges c vwi k wg K
I myh vM- mywea v j vf K wi eb Ges Dc ` v g xi c ` g h v` v
Ges c vwi k wg K I mh vM- mywea v j vf K wi eb |
260
( 12 ) b ~Z b msm` MwVZ nBevi c i c a vb g x h Z vwi L
Z vunvi c ` i K vh f vi MnY K i b mB Z vwi L wb ` j xq
Z vea vq K mi K vi wej y nBe|
5 8 N| wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi i K vh vej x| - ( 1)
wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi GK wU A eZ xK vj xb mi K vi wnmve
Bnvi ` vwq Z c vj b K wi eb Ges c R vZ i K g wb q vwR Z
ew MYi mvnvh I mnvq Z vq D i ~c mi K vi i ` b w` b
K vh vej x m v` b K wi eb ; Ges GBi ~c K vh vej x m v` b i
c q vR b eZ xZ K vb b xwZ wb a vi Yx wm v MnY K wi eb b v|
( 2 ) wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi k vw c ~Y, my y I
wb i c f ve msm` - m` mMYi mva vi Y wb evPb A b y vb i R b
h i c mvnvh I mnvq Z vi c q vR b nBe, wb evPb K wg k b K
mBi ~c mK j m ve mvnvh I mnvq Z v c ` vb K wi eb |
5 8 O| mswea vb i K wZ c q wea vb i A K vh K i Z v| - GB
mswea vb i 4 8 ( 3 ) , 14 1K ( 1) Ges 14 1M( 1) A b y Q` h vnvB
_ vK zK b v K b , 5 8 K A b y Q` i ( 1) ` d vq g q v` wb ` j xq
Z vea vq K mi K vi i K vh K vj i vc wZ K Z K c a vb g xi
c i vg k A b yh vq x ev Z uvnvi c wZ ^v i MnYv K vh K i vi
wea vb mg ~n A K vh K i nBe|
4 | mswea vb i 6 1 A b y Q` i msk va b | - mswea vb i 6 1
A b y Q` i wb q w Z nBe k wj i c wi eZ wb q w Z
nBe Ges h g q v` 5 8 A b y Q` i A a xb wb ` j xq Z vea vq K
mi K vi _ vwK e mB g q v` D A vBb i vc wZ K Z K
c wi Pvwj Z nBek wj c wZ vwc Z nBe|
( 5 ) mswea vb i 9 9 A b y Q` i msk va b | - mswea vb i 9 9
A b y Q` i ( 1) ` d vq A va v- wePvi wef vMxq c ` k wj i
c wi eZ A va v- wePvi wef vMxq c ` A _ ev c a vb Dc ` v ev
Dc ` vi c ` k wj c wZ vwc Z nBe|
6 | mswea vb i 12 3 A b y Q` i msk va b | - mswea vb i
12 3 A b y Q` i ( 3 ) ` d vi c wi eZ wb i c ` d v c wZ vwc Z
nBe, h _ vt -
( 3 ) g q v` A e mvb i K vi Y A _ ev g q v` A emvb
eZ xZ A b K vb K vi Y msm` f vswMq v h vBevi c i eZ xb eB
w` b i g a msm` - m` mMYi mva vi Y wb evPb A b yw Z
nBe|
7 | mswea vb i 14 7 A b y Q` i msk va b | - mswea vb i
14 7 A b y Q` i ( 4 ) ` d vq , -
( K ) ( L ) Dc - ` d vi c wi eZ wb i Dc - ` d v c wZ vwc Z
nBe, h _ v t -
261
( L ) c a vb g x ev c a vb Dc ` v; Ges
( N) ( N) Dc - ` d vi c wi eZ wb i c ` d v c wZ vwc Z
nBe, h _ v t -

( N) g x, Dc ` v, c wZ g x ev Dc - g x|
8 | mswea vb i 15 2 A b y Q` i msk va b | - mswea vb i
14 7 A b y Q` i ( 1) ` d vq , -
( K ) A b y Q` A wf ew i ms vi c i wb i c ms v
mwb ewk Z nBe, h _ v-
Dc ` v A _ 5 8 M A b y Q` i A a xb D c `
wb h y K vb ew ;
( L ) c R vZ i K g A wf ew i ms vi c i wb i c
ms v mwb ewk Z nBe, h _ vt -
c a vb Dc ` v A _ 5 8 N A b y Q` i A a xb D
c ` wb h y K vb ew |

3 6 | mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb Gi i Z c ~Y
ewk t
GB A vBb i i Z c ~Yewk wj wb i c t
( 1) msm` f A e vq _ vwK j mB g q v` mswea vb i 5 5
A b y Q` i ( 4 ) , ( 5 ) I ( 6 ) ` d v wj c h y _ vwK e, wK
mswea vb i PZ y_ f vMi 2 q c wi Q` i A b K vb A sk
c h y _ vwK e b v ;
( 2 ) h y ve vi K vi Y h w` f msm` mswea vb i 7 2 ( 4 )
A b y Q` i A vI Z vq A vnvb K wi Z nq Z e 2 q c wi Q`
c hy nBe ;
( 3 ) msm` i g q v` A emvb i K vi Y ev A c ~Yg q v` g a
mva vi Y wb evPb i K vi Y msm` f nBj GK wU wb ` j xq
Z vea vq K mi K vi MwVZ nBe ;
( 4 ) Z vea vq K mi K vi i g q v` wb evPb c i eZ x msm` MVb
Ges b ~Z b c a vb g xi ` vwq Z f vi MnY c h ej er
_ vwK e;
( 5 ) Z vea vq K mi K vi h _ f ve i vc wZ i wb K U ` vq x
_ vwK e ;
( 6 ) Z vea vq K mi K vi g q v` g a 5 8 ( N) ( 1) A b y Q` i
wea vb vej x mvc c R vZ i wb evnx g Z v c a vb
Dc ` v K Z K c hy nBe ;
262
( 7 ) Z vea vq K mi K vi g q v` g a I i v A Z Z vwZ K f ve
nBj I GK wU c R vZ _ vwK e ;
( 8 ) Z vea vq K mi K vi g q v` g a 5 5 A b y Q` i ( 4 ) , ( 5 )
I ( 6 ) ` d v wj Z ewYZ i vc wZ i K vh g eR vq _ vwK e;
( 9 ) Z vea vq K mi K vi i vc wZ c a vb Dc ` v I A b wa K
` k R b Dc ` vK wb h y K wi eb ;
( 10 ) msm` f nBevi 15 w` b i g a Dc ` vMY wb hy
nBeb ;
( 11) c v_ wg K f ve wb evPb i c ~e evsj v` k i mek l
A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ c a vb Dc ` v wb h y nBeb ;
( 12 ) h w` mek l A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ K c vI q v b v h vq
A _ ev wZ wb c a vb Dc ` vi c ` MnY K wi Z A m wZ
R vb vb Z e Z uvnvi A eewnZ c ~e A emi c v c a vb
wePvi c wZ K c a vb Dc ` v wb q vM ` I q v nBe ;
( 13 ) h w` K vb A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ K c a vb Dc ` v
c ` wb q vM ` I q v b v h vq Z e m A vc xj wef vMi
mek l A emi c v wePvi K K c a vb Dc ` v c ` wb q vM
` I q v nBe;
( 14 ) h w` A vc xj wef vMi mek l A emi c v wePvi K K c vI q v
b v h vq A _ ev wZ wb c a vb Dc ` vi c ` MnY K wi Z
A m wZ R vb vb Z e A vc xj wef vM Z uvnvi A eewnZ c ~e
A emi c v wePvi K K c a vb Dc ` v wb q vM ` I q v
hvBe;
( 15 ) h w` A vc xj wef vMi K vb A emi c v wePvi K K c a vb
Dc ` v c ` wb q vM c ` vb m e b v nq Z e i vc wZ
evsj v` k i GK R b myh vM b vMwi K K c a vb Dc ` v
c ` wb q vM K wi Z c vwi eb ;
( 16 ) h w` A vc xj wef vMi K vb A emi c v wePvi K A _ ev K vb
b vMwi K K c a vb Dc ` v c ` wb q vM c ` vb K i v m e b v
nq Z e i vc wZ mek l c ` c wnmve ^q s c a vb
Dc ` vi ` vwq Z f vi MnY K wi Z c vwi eb ;
( 17 ) i vc wZ c a vb Dc ` vi c i vg k A b yh vq x Dc ` vMYi
wb q vM ` vb K wi eb ;
( 18 ) c a vb Dc ` v c a vb g xi b vq Ges GK R b Dc ` v
g xi b vq c ` g h v` v Ges c vwi k wg K I myh vM- mywea v j vf
K wi eb ;
( 19 ) b ~Z b msm` MwVZ nBevi c i c a vb g x h Z vwi L Z uvnvi
c ` i K vh f vi MnY K wi eb mB Z vwi L wb ` j xq
Z vea vq K mi K vi wej y nBe ;
263
( 2 0 ) Z vea vq K mi K vi c R vZ i K g wb q vwR Z ewMYi
mvnvh I mnvq Z vq mi K vi i ` b w` b K vh vej x m v` b
K wi e Ges D ` b w` b K vh ej x m v` b i c q vR b
ewZ Z K vb b xwZ wb a vi Yx wm v MnY K wi e b v ;
( 2 1) k vw c ~Y, my yI wb i c f ve R vZ xq msm` - m` mMYi
mva vi Y wb evPb A b y vb i R b Z vea vq K mi K vi wb evPb
K wg k b K mK j c K vi m ve mvnvh I mnvq Z v c ` vb
K wi e;
( 2 2 ) Z vea vq K mi K vi i g q v` - g a mswea vb i 4 8 ( 3 )
A b y Q` ewYZ c a vb g xi c i vg k , 14 1 ( K ) ( 1)
A b y Q` ewYZ R i i x A e v Nvl Yv I 14 1 ( M) ( 1)
A b y Q` ewYZ R i i x A e vi mg q g wj K A wa K vi mg ~n
wMZ K i Y ms v c a vb g xi c i vg k BZ vw` MnY
K wi evi wea vb mg ~n A K vh K i _ vwK e;
( 2 3 ) Z vea vq K mi K vi g q v` g a evsj v` k i c wZ i v
K g wef vM ms v c k vmb i vc wZ K Z K mswk A vBb vi v
c wi Pvwj Z nBe;
( 2 4 ) mswea vb i 12 3 A b y Q` i ( 3 ) ` d v c wi eZ b K wi q v
msm` f nBevi c i eZ xb eB w` b i g a R vZ xq msm`
m` m` i mva vi Y wb evPb A b y vb K wi evi wea vb K i v
nBq vQ|

c Z xq g vb nq h g q v` mg vc v msm` f vwq v Mj A _ ev
msm` A b K vb K vi Y g q v` i c ~eB f nBj , msm` f i
Z vwi L nBZ 15 w` b i g a c a vb g x I Z uvnvi g w mf v c ` Z vM
K wi eb Ges i vc wZ Dc ` vMYK c a vb Dc ` vi myc vwi k A b ymvi
wb q vM c ` vb K wi eb Ges GK wU wb` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi MwVZ
nBe|
wb evPb K wg k b msm` f i Z vwi L nBZ 9 0 w` b i g a
msm` m` m` i mva vi Y wb evPb A b y vb K wi eb | GB mg q K vj i
g a Z vea vq K mi K vi GK wU my y mva vi Y wb evPb A b y vb i R b
wb evPb K wg k b K mK j c K vi mvnvh mnh vwMZ v K wi e|

3 7 | R b MY I mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb t
wK mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 6 , evsj v` k i
264
R b MYK m ~YA ` k K wi q v w` q vQ| msm` b vB, g xmf v b vB,
R b MYi K vb c wZ wb wa b vB| A _ P GB R b MYB h y K wi q vQ, eyK i
i w` q v evsj v` k K g y K wi q vQ| GB R b MYK eR b K wi q vB
R b MYi MYZ c wZ vi R b GB Z wK Z msk va b x GK R b c a vb
Dc ` vmn A wb evwPZ 11R b Dc ` v mg wf evnvi GK wU wb ` j xq
Z vea vq K mi K vi MVb i ee v K wi q vQ| Bnv h b Prince of Denmark
K eR b K wi q v Hamlet Gi A wf b q | h R b MY evsj v` k i vI Bnvi
mswea vb i K ` we` yI Pvwj K v k w mB R b MYK eR b K wi q v Z _ v
c R vnxb Mv xZ i R b c YxZ GB A vBb i ea Z v GB g vK v g vq
wePvi i wel q e |
Dj L , h wb evPb A b y vb me mg q B c a vb Z wb evPb
K wg k b i ` vq I ` vwq Z Ges K Z e | Z vea vq K mi K vi i wek l I
c a vb ` vwq Z nBj 5 8 N( 2 ) A b yQ` ewYZ k vw c ~Y, my y I
wb i c f ve wb evPb A b y vb i R b wb evPb K wg k b K m ve mK j
c K vi mvnvh I mnvq Z v c ` vb K i v|
c a vb g x I Z uvnvi g w mf v Z uvnv` i mK j K vh g i R b
h _ f ve R vZ xq msm` i wb K U ` vq e _ vK b Ges msm` i g va g
I ew MZ f ve R b MYi wb K U ` vq e _ vK b | wK Z ve a vq K
mi K vi h nZ zA wb evwPZ mnZ zZ uvnv` i msm` i wb K U ev R b MYi
wb K U ` vq e _ vwK evi c k b vB| Z uvnvi v Z uvnv` i wb q vMK Z v
i vc wZ i wb K U ` vq e _ vK b |

i vc wZ I mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb t
i vc wZ evsj v` k i i vc a vb | wZ wb c a vb g x, c a vb wePvi c wZ ,
wePvi c wZ mn mvswea vwb K c ` A wa w Z mK j ew eMi wb q vMK Z v|
Z vnvQvo v, mvg wi K , emvg wi K mK j K g wef vMi wZ wb B wb q vMK Z v|
Z uvnvi b vg B A a v` k I wewa g vj v R vi x Ges mK j A v` k , wb ` k
c ` vb , mK j wb evnx K g K v c wi Pvwj Z I Pzw wb evn K i v nBq v
_ vK | h w` I wZ wb i vi mev P ew wK i vxq mK j K g K v
Z uvnvi c I b vg c a vb g x ev A c i K vb ` vwq Z c v g x
265
c wi Pvj b v K wi q v _ vK b | wZ wb mvswea vwb K i vc a vb , Z uvnvi c K Z
K vb wb evnx ` vwq Z b vB|
wK mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb Dc i v i vxq
i c i L vi g wj K c wi eZ b A vb q b K wi q vQ|
msm` i g q v` A emvb i K vi Y ev A b K vb K vi b mva vi Y
wb evPb A b y vb i R b msm` f nBj Dc i v mswea vb msk va b
A vBb A b ymvi A b vb ` vwq Z i mwnZ wb wj wL Z A wZ wi ` vwq Z
i vc wZ i Dc i eZ vBet
1) msm` f nBevi c b i w` b i g a c a vb
Dc ` v I A b vb Dc ` v wb q vM;
2 ) c wZ i v g Yvj q i wb evnx ` vwq Z ;
3 ) A a v` k I wewa g vj v R vi x;
4 ) wb R ` vwq Z R i i x A e v Nvl Yv;
5 ) R i i x A e vK vj xb mg q wb R ` vwq Z g wj K
A wa K vi mg ~n wMZ K i Y;
c Z xq g vb nq h Z wK Z A vBb A b ymvi ^ mg q i R b nBj I
i vc wZ mvswea vwb K ev wb q g vZ vw K i vc a vb nBZ wb evnx i vc a vb
c wi YZ nb h w` I wZ wb R b MY K Z K wb evwPZ b nb ev wZ wb R b MYi
c wZ wb wa Z I K i b b v| wZ wb h msm` K Z K wb evwPZ nBq vwQj b ,
mB msm` I A vi we` g vb _ vK b v| Z vea vq K mi K vi i vc wZ i
wb K U ` vq e wK wZ wb K vnvi I wb K U ` vq e b b , Gg b wK mvef g
R b MYi wb K UI b n| GL vb B mvswea vwb K f ve Z uvnvi g Z vi
A mvi Z v ev ` b Z v K vi Y i vwU Z L b I c R vZ Ges R b MYi wb K U
` vq e Z vB g Z vi Dr m| ` vq e Z vi A b yc w wZ Z g Z vI
A b yc w Z |

R b MYi mvef g Z t Dj L h wewUk A vg j evsj vi
R b MY c i va xb wQj | c i va xb Z vi k L j nBZ i v c vBevi R b
evsj vi R b MY c vwK vb mw K wi q vwQj | wK c vwK vb A vg j I
evsj vi R b MY c K Z ^va xb Z vi A v ^v` K vb w` b B c vq b vB | Gi c i
j R xeb i wewb g q evsj v` k ^va xb nq | evsj vi R b MY GB c _ g
266
mvef g Z A R b K i | wK K q K er mi i g a B GB ` k ` yB ` yB
evi mvg wi K k vmb A vi vc K i v nq , evsj vi R b MY c K Z c
A vevi I wb R ` i mvg wi K evwnb xi wb K U mvef g Z nvi vq |

` xNMYA v` vj b k l 19 9 1 mvj msm` xq MYZ c yb i vi
K i v nq | Bnv wQj R b MYi weR q | R b MY Z vnv` i mvef g Z
wd wi q v c vq | wK Z wK Z A vBb 3 ( wZ b ) g vmi R b i vR Z b v
nBj I Mv xZ vc b K i | GB A vBb i vc wZ K Mv xZ i
c a vb K i Ges ^ mg q i R b nBj I R b MY A vevi I mvef g Z
nvi vq | evsj v` k i R b MY f vi Z ev c vwK vb i g Z wewUk i vR i
A b yMn mvef g Z c vq b vB, h y i vi R b MYi b vq h y K wi q vB e
Z vMi wewb g q GB mvef g Z A R b K wi q vQ| mswea vb i c veb v
I 7 A b y Q` Z vnv A wZ c wi vi f ve Nvl Yv K i v nBq vQ A _ P GB
msk va b x A vBb i K vi Y R b MY Z vnv` i k Z I wb i yk K Z Z
wZ b g vmi R b nBj I nvi vq | Dj L , R b MYi GB mvef g Z
K vnvi I ` vb i mvg Mx b q h h L b L y wk w` j vg ev h L b L ywk wd i vBq v
j Bj vg ev Bnv L K vj xb I b n, R b MY g yw h y K wi q v GK mvMi
i i wewb g q GB wPi b mvef g Z A R b K wi q vQ|

K vb A vBb c Yq b h Z K vi Y I I R i B _ vK zK b v K b , K vb
K vi Y ev K vb A R ynvZ , Z vnv h Z i Z c ~YB nDK b v K b K L b B
R b MYi mvef g Z K vwo q v j I q v h vq b v| R b MYi mvef g Z mK j
K vi Y, c q vR b I I R i i Dc i A ew Z | R b MYi K vi Y I
c q vR b mswea vb I msk va b K i v h vq , h g b , h y i vi mswea vb
MZ mvq v ` yBk Z er mi 2 7 wU msk va b x A vb vq b K i v nBq vQ,
f vi Z i mswea vb I k Z vwa K evi msk va b nBq vQ, wK K vb
msk va b xB R b MYi mvef g Z K L b B K vb f veB yb K i b vB|

h y i v 18 6 1 mvj Mnh y R o vBq v c o | Pvi er mi evc x
c ej Mnh y Union Gi A w Z wec b nBq v c o | j j g vb yl
Mnnvi v nq , c vY nvi vq wK GBi c Z xe msK Ug q A e vZ I
267
h y i vi R b MYi mvef g Z we` yg v zb nq GBi c K vb A vBb
c Yq b K i v nq b vB ev c ` c MnY K i v nq b vB| wZ xq g nvh y i
mg q R vc vb nvI q vB xc c y A v g b K wi j hy i v m~` xNmg q i
R b mi vmwi h y R o vBq v c o | wK R b MYi mvef g Z i c wi c x
K vb c ` c GBi c R i i x A e vZ I K L b I MnY K i v nq b vB,
Gg b wK wb evPb I mwVK mg q A b yw Z nBq vQ|
Z ` c f vi Z I 19 4 9 mvj nBZ eevi h y ev h y ve vi
m yL xb nBq vwQj , R i i x A e vI K q K evi R vi x K wi Z nBq vwQj
wK R b MYi mvef g Z c wi c x K vb c ` c K L b I MnY K i
b vB |

c K Z c Sovereignty ev mvef g Z K L b I g f nBZ c vi
b v, Bnv Perpetual Succession Gi b vq wPi b A wew Qb f ve Pj g vb |
16 4 9 mvj Bsj vi i vR v Charles I Gi wk i Q` K i v nq Ges
Oliver Cromwell Bsj vK Commonwealth Nvl Yv K i b | Z r c i , wZ wb
wb R Lord Protector Dc vwa MnY K wi q v Bsj v k vmb K wi Z _ vK b |
Z vnvi g Z zi wK QyK vj c i i vR Z c yb i vi nq Ges Charles I Gi c y
Charles II 16 6 0 mvj Bsj vi wmsnvmb A vi vnY K i b | GB 11
er mi mg q K vj i NUb vej x BwZ nvmi c q vR b wj wc e nBq vQ eU
wK mvswea vwb K A vBb A b ymvi Charles I Gi g Z yi m mB
^q sw q f ve Charles II 16 4 9 mvj B Bsj vi i vR v nBq vwQj b
ewj q v mvswea vwb K f ve MY K i v nq | GB K vi YB The King is dead
Nvl Yvi m m GK wb t k vmB c i eZ x i vR vi D k Long live the
King ej v nq |

19 7 1 mvj i 2 6 k g vPZ vwi L i c _ g c ni evsj v` k i
^va xb Z v Nvl Yvi mg q nBZ B wek i g vb wP evsj v` k b vg GK wU
b ~Z b i v A vZ c K vk K i | 10 B Gwc j Z vwi L A vb y vwb K f ve
Proclamation of Independence R vi x K i v nq Ges Z vnv 2 6 k g vPZ vwi L
268
nBZ K vhK i K i v nq | D Proclamation G A b vb wel q vej xi mwnZ
wb wj wL Z Nvl YvI K i v nq t
declare and constitute Bangladesh to be a sovereign Peoples
Republic................

2 5 k g vPw` evMZ i v nBZ B evsj v` k i R b MY MYh y
A vi K i | h y i c vi nBZ B evsj vi R b MY A v R vwZ K mg _ b
j vf K wi Z _ vK Ges h y i k l f vM wewf b ` k evsj v` k K i v
wnmve ^xK wZ (recognition) c ` vb K wi Z A vi K i h vnv wQj evsj vi
R b MYi mvef g Z i c wZ A v R vwZ K ^xK wZ | 16 B wWm ^i
Z vwi L c vwK vb mb vevwnb xi A vZ mg c b i g a w` q v evsj vi R b MY
^va xb Z v h y R q j vf K i |

19 7 2 mvj i 11B R vb yq vi x Z vwi L R vi xK Z Provisional
Constitution of Bangladesh Order, 1972, 10 B Gwc j Gi Proclamation K
A b yg v` b K i |

mswea vb i 15 3 ( 1) A b y Q` A b ymvi mswea vb 19 7 2 mvj i
16 B wWm ^i Z vwi L nBZ ej er nq | mswea vb i 15 0 A b y Q` I
PZ z_ Z d wmj i 3 ( 1) A b y Q` A b ymvi 19 7 1 mb i 2 6 k g vPnBZ
mswea vb c eZ b i Z vwi L c h c YxZ mK j A vBb I ^va xb Z vi
Nvl Yvc A b yg vw` Z nq |

A Z Ge, 19 7 1 mvj i 2 6 k g vPZ vwi L ^va xb Z v Nvl Yvi
mv_ mv_ evsj vi R b MY GK wU mvef g e vsj v` k i A wa evmx
wnmve mvef g Z j vf K i | mswea vb D mvef g Z K a yg v
A b yg v` b B c ` vb K i b vB, A wa K Z i mg yb Z I K wi q vQ| c K Z c
evsj vi R b MYi mvef g Z K A b ymi Y K wi q v mswea vb i wPZ
nBq vQ|

^va xb Z v Nvl Yvi g va g evsj vi R b MY h mvef g Z A R b
K i , g yw h y j k nx` i i Z vnv g wng vwb Z nq , R b MYi mB
mvef g Z wPi b | evsj v` k wPi K vj ^va xb _ vwK e Ges wPi K vj
269
evsj vi R b MYi mvef g Z we` g vb _ vwK e| g vS g a ` e` ~NUb vi
b vq mvg wi K k vmb BZ vw` i g Z mvswea vwb K wePzwZ NwUj I NwUZ
c vi wK evsj vi R b MYi mvef g Z wPi b - Pj g vb | Bnvi mwnZ
h vnvB mvsNwl K nBe Z vnvB L wZ nBe, A e a Nvwl Z nBe|

GB c h evsj vi R b MYi mvg f g Z K A v R vwZ K I
i vR b wZ K ` wK vY nBZ wePvi K i v nBj | GBevi Bnvi A vBb MZ
ea Z v weePb v K i v h vK |

c ~eB Dj L K i v nBq vQ h evsj vi R b MY mswea vb i Pb vi
c ~eB mvef g Z A R b K wi q vQ| 19 7 1 mvj i 10 B Gwc j Z vwi L
Proclamation of Independence R vi x nq | BnvB evsj v` k i c _ g
mvswea vwb K ` wj j | GB ` wj j B ^va xb Z v Nvl Yvi Z vwi L 2 6 k g vP
nBZ B mvef g MYc R vZ i c evsj v` k i c wZ v Nvl Yv K i |

GL vb Dj L h i vR Z i vR v wb R B mvef g (Sovereign) |
c R vZ MYg vb yl B mvef g | GB K vi YB Proclamation of IndependenceG
Sovereign Peoples Republic A _ ev mvef g MY- c R vZ ej v nBq vQ|
Z e c R vZ A _ nBZ Q c R v A _ vr R b MYi Z ev i vR Z |
Blacks Law Dictionary A b ymvi Republic A _ A system of government in
which the people hold sovereign power and elect representatives who exercise that
power.
Robert A Dahl Gi g Z A b ymvi A republic is a government which (a)
derives all of its powers directly or indirectly from the great body of the people.........
mswea vb i wPZ nBevi c ~eevsj v` k i R b MYi GB A vBb MZ
A e vb mswea vb i 15 0 A b y Q` I PZ z_ Z d wmj i 3 ( 1) A b y Q` I
mg _ b I A b yg v` b K i |
mswea vb i c veb v GK B f ve Nvl Yv K i h evsj v` k i
R b MYB ^va xb Z vh y i g ~j Pvwj K vk w , Z vnvi vB g yw h y i g va g
mvef g MYc R vZ x evsj v` k ^va xb K wi q vQ Ges evsj v` k i
mswea vb i Pb v I wewa e K wi q v mg eZ f ve MnY K wi q vQ|
270
mswea vb i c _ g f vMi wk i vb vg c R vZ , Bsi R xZ The
Republic| mswea vb i c _ g A b y Q` I GK B f ve Nvl Yv K i h t
evsj v` k GK wU GK K , ^va xb I mvef g c R vZ , h vnv
MYc R vZ x evsj v` k b vg c wi wPZ nBe|

c _ g A b y Q` i Bsi R x f vl wb i c t
Bangladesh is a unitary, independent, sovereign Republic to be known as
the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh.

GB f ve R b MYi mvef g Z Nvl Yvi g va g B
mswea vb i m~Pb v|

mswea vb i c _ g f vMi mek l m g A b y Q` mswea vb i
c va vb Nvl Yv K wi Z wMq v R b MYi k Z I mvef g Z wb wj wL Z
f ve mywb w Z K i t
7 | ( 1) c R vZ i mK j g Z vi g vwj K R b MY; Ges
R b MYi c mB g Z vi c q vM K ej GB mswea vb i A a xb
I K Z Z K vh K i nBe|
( 2 ) R b MYi A wf c vq i c i g A wf ewI i c GB
mswea vb c R vZ i mev P A vBb Ges A b K vb A vBb hw`
GB mswe a vb i mwnZ A mg m nq , Z vnv nBj mB A vBb i
h Z L vwb A mvg mc ~Y, Z Z L vwb evwZ j nBe|
Bsi R x f vl wb i c t
7.(1) All powers in the Republic belong to the people, and their exercise
on behalf of the people shall be effected only under, and by the authority of,
this Constitution.
(2) This Constitution is, as the solemn expression of the will of the
people, the supreme law of the Republic, and if any other law is inconsistent
with this Constitution that other law shall, to the extent of the inconsistency,be
void.

GB f ve evsj v` k i c _ g mvswea vwb K ` wj j The
Proclamation of Independence, mswea vb i c veb v Ges c _ g I m g
A b y Q` evsj v` k i R b MYi mvef g Z K mvswea vwb K f ve Nvl Yv
K wi q vQ, mg _ b K wi q vQ I mywb w Z K wi q vQ wea vq A vBb MZ f ve
Bnv mswea vb i GK wU A j Nb xq wea vb ev Basic Structure | BnvK
271
K vb f veB, K vb K vi YB j Nb K i v h vBe b v| A _ P Z wK Z A vBb
wK f ve R b MYi mvef g Z K j Nb K wi evi c q vm c vBq vQ Z vnv
Dc i i A vj vPb vq weeZ nBq vQ|

Z ve a vq K mi K vi - Mv xZ t Z vea vq K mi K vi i
c a vb Dc ` v g b vb xZ nBeb c v b c a vb wePvi c wZ A _ ev A vc xj
wef vMi A emi c v wePvi K A _ ev evsj v` k i GK R b myh vM
b vMwi K A _ ev Z vnv` i K vnvK I c vI q v b v Mj i vc wZ ^q s c a vb
Dc ` v nBeb | Bnv ewZ Z A c i ` k R b Dc ` vI c a vb Dc ` vi
c i vg k mvc i vc wZ K Z K wb q vMc v nBeb | Z uvnvi v mev P
b eB w` b i R b ` k c wi Pvj b v K wi eb Ges wb evPb K wg k b K my y
f ve wb evPb c wi Pvj b vi R b c q vR b xq mnh vwMZ v c ` vb K wi eb |
m` n b vB h c a vb Dc ` v I A b ` k R b Dc ` v mK j B
A Z m b ew Ges vb , Y I wk vq Z uvnvi v ` k i k
m vb ` i A b Z g | wK Z uvnvi v A wb evwPZ | Z uvnvi v K vb f veB
` k i R b MYK c wZ wb wa Z K i b b v| ^ mg q i R b nBj I
Z uvnvi v GK wU ^va xb mvef g i v c wi Pvj b vi ` vwq Z _ vwK eb |
Z uvnvi v mr , b vq c i vq Y I me Yvwb Z nI q v mZ I i vwe vb i f vl vq
GBi c i vee vK Mv xZ (Oligarchy) ej | A wZ ^ mg q i R b
nBj I Z vea vq K mi K vi ee v GK wU Mv xZ e B A vi wK Qyb n|
Mv xZ i BwZ nvm mf Z vi b vq B c yi vZ b | wK GB
i vee vK A vo vB nvR vi er mi c ~ ei Mxmi b Mi K ` xK mf Z vI
MnY K i b vB | g a h yMi c vi BDi vc i K vb K vb ` k GB
i vee v c Pj b i Pv e_ nq | 18 k k Z v x nBZ B c wZ wb wa Z k xj
MYZ i Db l | A _ P 2 1 k Z K i ` vi c v Dc b xZ nBq v evOvj x
R vwZ K GL b GB Mv xZ K Mj a t K i Y K wi Z nBZ Q| Dc j
nBZ Q GK wU my y wb evPb A b y vb K wi Z wb evPb K wg k b I
mi K vi i e_ Z v|

3 8 | Basic Structure Z Z - mva vi Y A vj vPb v t

272
Kesavananda g vK v g vq A wf g Z c K vk K i v nq h mswea vb
msk va b Parliament Gi g Z v A mxg b q ei s 3 6 8 A b y Q` c `
g Z vq A c Z (implied) mxg ve Z v i wnq vQ| D A b y Q`
mswea vb i basic structure A _ ev framework msk va b i g Z v c ` vb K i
b v|
mvswea vwb K Z v eZ g vb GK wU A vBb MZ b xwZ | Bnv
mi K vi i wb evnx g Z vK wb q Yi g a i vL h vnvZ i vMYZ I
A vBb i k vmb eR vq _ vK | GB MYZ vw K i xwZ b xwZ i A b Z g
nBZ Q g wj K A wa K vi msi Y| GB mvswea vwb K Z v separation of
powers ev g Z vi c _ K &K i YK checks and balances Gi g a i vL | Bnv
g Z vK K ` xf ~Z b v K wi q v c wi ev K wi q v ` q | Parliament K L b B
g wj K A wa K vi L eK i b v, myc xg K vUGB b xwZ ev a vi Yv MnY
K i Z t A vBb wek l Y K wi q v _ vK | Parliament c q vR b g Z g wj K
A wa K vi mxwg Z K wi Z c vi wK K L b B A vBb K wi q v evwZ j K wi Z
c vi b v| GK wU ^va xb wePvi ee vB g wj K A wa K vi i v K wi Z
c vi K vi Y Bnv a yg v A vBb i mva vi Y evL vB K i b v, A v` k MZ
g ~j vq b I K i |

Bsj vi Parliamentary mvef g Z I A vg v` i mvswea vwb K
mvef g Z i g a Z d vr i wnq vQ| A vg v` i mswea vb MYc wi l ` i Pb v
K wi q vQ, R vZ xq msm` b q | A vg v` i GK wU ` yt wi eZ b xq mswea vb
i wnq vQ| mswea vb i Z Z xq f vM ewYZ g wj K A wa K vi mg ~n A vBb i
k vmb i wf w| A vBb i k vmb (rule of law) I g Z vi c _ K &K i Y I
g wj K A wa K vi mg ~n mvswea vwb K Z vi b xwZ hvnv judicial review Gi
wf wI eU | GBi c c vc UB basic structure Z Z i De nq |

g wj K A wa K vi mg ~n mf mg vR GK wU wek l vb A wa K vi
K wi q v i wnq vQ| GB A wa K vi mg ~n g wj K I ` ~ q h vnvK h y i vi
mswea vb i A vj vK inalienable A wa K vi ej v nq | h y i vi g ~j
mswea vb g wj K A wa K vi mg ~n c _ g msh vwR Z wQj b v| c i eZ xZ
273
g wj K A wa K vi m ^wj Z 10 ( ` k ) wU msk va b x A vb v nq | msk va b
A vBb wj 17 9 1 mvj i 15 B wWm ^i Z vwi L GK A i v wj i
A b yg v` b (ratification) j vf K i | GB wj K GK Bill of Rights ej v
nq | Z vnvQvo v, Mnh y i c i XIII, XIV I XV msk va b wj A b yg v` b
c vq | GB wj mswea vb i ma ^i c | evsj v` k mswea vb i wZ xq I
Z Z xq f vMK GK mswea vb i weeK ej v h vq |

mswea vb i Pb v K i i vi R b MYi c wZ wb wa wnmve MYc wi l ` |
D g ~j mswea vb i ea Z v D vc b i K vb myh vM b vB wK mswea vb
msk va b K i v nq mswea vb c ` g Z vi A vI Z vq , mL vb B ea Z vi
c k I V|

mswea vb i K vb &A sk wU basic feature Z vnv wb Yq K wi Z Z wK Z
msk va b i D k I K vi Y mvg wMK f ve mswea vb i mwnZ weePb v
K i Z t D msk va b i K vi Y h w` Bnvi K vb g ~j A sk Gg b f ve
wZ M nq h mswea vb i Pwi B A vg ~j c wi eZ b nBq v hvq , m
D g ~j A sk K basic sturcture ej v nq | 14 2 A b y Q` i A vI Z vq Gg b
K vb msk va b K i v h vq b v h vnvi vi v mswea vb weK j v nBq v h vq |
Bnv wb Yq K wi Z c wZ wU Z wK Z msk va b A vBb g ~j mswea vb i mwnZ
c _ K c _ K f ve Z zj b v K i Z t wePvi weePb v K wi evi c q vR b
i wnq vQ|

Dj L h c Z K wU g vb yl R b i mg q nBZ K Z K wj mva vi Y
A wa K vi j Bq v R b j vf K i | mswea vb i Z Z xq f vM evsj v` k i
g vb yl K b ~Z b K vb A wa K vi ` q b vB| R b nBZ g vb yl i we` g vb
A wa K vi K mvswea vwb K ^xK wZ c ` vb K wi q vQ g v | msL vMwi Z vi
k w Z GB A wa K vi evwZ j K i v h vq b v| GK wU mva vi Y A wa K vi i
hw` g wj K Z v _ vK , wPw Z I wb w Z A v` k _ vK , Z e Z vnv g wj K
A wa K vi c wi YZ nq | myc xg K vUK Gg b f ve mswea vb wek l Y
K wi Z nq h vnvZ g vb yl Z vnvi mvswea vwb K A wa K vi Dc f vM K wi Z
274
c vi | g wj K A wa K vi mg ~n mswea vb i GK wU wek l g h v` vc ~Y
A e vb i wnq vQ|

g wj K A wa K vi mg ~n mva vi Y f ve basic structure I
A c wi eZ b xq | Bnv wek l K vb K vi Y msw K i v h vBZ c vi wK
K L b B i wnZ K i v h vq b v| Bnv i vi A c wi wg Z g Z vK msh Z I
wb q Yi g a i vL | Basic structure Z Z g wj K A wa K vi wj i vi
R b c vPxi wnmve K vR K i |

myc xg K vUi judicial review Gi g Z v basic structure Z Z i
A vI Z vf ~ | mg A vBb i mvswea vwb K Z v wePvi K wi evi ` vwq Z wePvi
wef vMi Dc i b | wePvi wef vMi wb q Y ewZ i K mswea vb
msk va b msm` xq ^i Z c wi YZ nBZ c vi Ges c wi YwZ Z
mswea vb i k Z nvi vBevi m eb v ` L v w` Z c vi |

mva vi Yf ve R vZ xq msm` mswea vb i h K vb A b y Q` i
msk va b K wi Z c vi eU wK D msk va b h w` basic structure Gi
mwnZ mvsNwl K nq Z vnv nBj Dnv A ea ev ultra vires nBe|

Indira Gandhi g vK g vq A vBb i ` wZ mg Z v Ges Minerva
g vK v g vq f vi Z xq mswea vb i 14 , 19 I 2 1 A b y Q` K mswea vb i
basic structure Ges Z vnv evwZ j h vM b n ewj q v Nvl Yv K i v nq |

g wj K A wa K vi i c vZ h A v` k I b xwZ we` g vb i wnq vQ
Z vnvB basic structure Gi wf w|

mswea vb msk va b i g va g Bill of Rights h y i vi mswea vb
mshy K i v nBe GB k Z A i v wj mswea vb A b yg v` b K wi q vwQj |
wZ xq g nvh y i c i wek A b K b ~ Z b MYZ vw K i v R b j vf
K wi q vQ| c vq mK j MYZ vw K i v R b g vb yl i g wj K A wa K vi
i vi c ` c MnY K i v nBq vQ|

R vg vb xi mswea vb K Z K wj g ~j A wa K vi basic structure wnmve
msh vwR Z i wnq vQ| K vb vWv Bnvi 19 8 2 mvj i mswea vb K Z K wj
275
g wj K A wa K vi msi Y K wi q vQ| 19 9 8 mvj h y i vR Human
Rights Act c Yq b K i v nBq vQ|

c Z xq g vb nq wek i c vq mK j i vi mswea vb K Z wj wek l
A wa K vi msi Y K i h vnv K L b B c wi eZ b h vM b n|

Indira Gandhi g vK v g vq g Z vi A c Z (implied) mxg ve Z v I
controlled mswea vb K uncontrolled mswea vb i c v i K wi evi c q vmi
K vi Y myc xg K vUmswea vb mshvwR Z 3 2 9 - G( 4 ) A b y Q` evwZ j
Nvl Yv K i |

R vZ xq msm` mswea vb msk va b K wi Z g Z vc v wK D
g Z v mxg vnxb ev A wb q xZ b q | h w` msk va b wU mswea vb i c K wZ
c wi eZ b K i Z vnv nBj D msk va b xwU evwZ j ev ultra vires nBe|

c k DwVZ c vi h R vZ xq msm` 14 2 A b y Q` msk va b
K wi q v Bnvi msk va b i g Z v ew K i Z t mswea vb i g wj K Pwi
ni Y K wi Z c vi wK b v| 14 2 A b y Q` Gg b K vb g Z v R vZ xq
msm` K c ` vb K i b v| R vZ xq msm` h K vb msk va b x K wi Z
c vwi j I D A b y Q` ewYZ msk va b xi k Z f ev basic structure Gi
mwnZ mvsNwl K K vb msk va b A vBb R vZ xq msm` K wi Z c vi b v|

c R vZ , MYZ , A vBb i ` wZ mg Z v, A vBb i k vmb , wePvi
wef vMi ^va xb Z v, judicial review I g Z vi c _ K &K i Y BZ vw`
mswea vb i basic structure| GB A wa K vi wj A vevi GK wU A vi GK wUi
Dc i c i i wb f i k xj | A vBb i ` wZ mg Z v GB g wj K
A wa K vi i A b yc w wZ Z A vBb i k vmb A vk v K i v A _ nxb | K vb
msk va b xZ mswea vb j Nb nBZ Q wK b v Z vnv wePvi K wi evi ` vwq Z
me mg q B myc xg K vUi Dc i b v | GB K vi YB myc xg K vUi
judicial review Gi g Z v mswea vb i GK wU A wZ c q vR b xq ewk |
Z Z xq f vM ev A b vb f vM mswea vb i g ~j m~i ev D k wK Z vnv
judicial review Gi g va g B Bnvi c K Z A e vb wb Yq K i v m e|

276
A vBb i ` wZ mg Z v mva vi Yf ve GB g wj K A wa K vi
wb t m` n mswea vb i GK wU basic structure, wK mvweK mg Z vi D k
A vBb i g va g GB A wa K vi wek l mxwg Z K i v ev Gg b wK
mvweK ^v_ L eK i vI m e| mswea vb i K vb basic structure Gi Pwi
ni Y b v K wi q vI mxwg Z K wi evi GB mxg vb v wb a vi Y judicial review Gi
g va g B m e|

GB f ve K vb A wZ c q vR b xq A vBb K mvswea vwb K f ve i v
K wi evi j A vBb i k vmb ev g Z vi c _ K &K i Y ewZ g wnmve
wK QyUv Qvo w` Z nq wK Z vnvZ basic structure wnmve Bnv` i g ~j
Pwi ni Y nq b v | wK GBi c I mswea vb i A b vb A sk i
mwnZ Z wK Z msk va b xwU mymsMwZ c ~Y wK b v Z vnv wePvi wek l Y
K wi evi ` vwq Z I myc xg K vUi , R vZ xq msm` ev wb evnx K Z c i
b n|

g Z vi c _ K &K i Y, A vBb i k vmb , mvswea vwb K Z v c Z K wU Z Z
judicial review Gi mwnZ msMwZ c ~Y| A va ywb K MYZ msL vMwi i
k vmb i mwnZ g wj K A wa K vi msi Y Df q i Dc i wb f i k xj |
` k i mi K vi hb Bnvi msL v Mwi Z vi k w Z R b MYi g wj K
A wa K vi L eb v K i Z vnv wb q Y I Z Z vea vq b K wi evi ` vwq Z
myc xg K vUi |

mvswea vwb K msk va b xi mxg ve Z v i wnq vQ wK R vZ xq
msm` mswea vb msk va b K i Z t c yb i vq Bnvi A vBb MZ wb i vc v wea vb
K i v, Bnvi GL wZ q vi ewnf ~Z I h _ v_ b q | GK B c wZ vb K Z K A vBb
c Yq b A vevi mB c wZ vb i Dc i B Dnvi ea Z v wb i c Y K wi evi
` vwq Z c ` vb mvswea vwb K f ve wea q b q | Z vnvZ mswea vb i
A wb wnZ checks and balances web nq | R vZ xq msm` A vBb c Yq b
K wi e Ges myc xg K vU mswea vb i A vj vK m ~Y ^va xb I
A veMg y f ve D A vBb i ea Z v wb i c Y K wi e BnvB mswea vb
277
A c Z f ve wb wnZ i wnq vQ| GB K vi YB mswea vb i 10 1 I 10 2
A b y Q` A Z i Z c ~Ybasic structure|

mswea vb mva vi Y K vb ` wj j b q | GB g nvb ` wj j i vi
R b MYi c R b MYi c wZ wb wa MY g ywI h y i A v` k i Pb v
K wi q vwQj b | Bnv GK wU R xe ` wj j | Bnvi wb R ^ GK wU ^vf vweK
A wb wnZ k w i wnq vQ| Bnv R b MYi A vk v, A vK vL v I wb ` k b vK
c wZ d wj Z K i | GL vb B GB ` wj j i k Z wb wnZ i wnq vQ| GB
` wj j i vi A Z xZ msi Y K i Ges eZ g vb I f wel r w` K
wb ` k b v c ` vb K i | Basic structure GK wU ^Z t wm Z Z | GB Z Z
mvswea vwb K c wi Pq (identity) I c K wZ i Dc i wb f i k xj | Bnv
mswea vb K ` pZ v c ` vb K i Ges mK j wea vb mwZ c ~YK i | GK wU
i vi R xeb hZ wK Qy mg mv Z vnv GB g nvb ` wj j i g va g B
mg va vb K i v m e I k q | GB K vi YB mswe a vb i evL v I wek l Y
mg q I mg vR c wi eZ b I weeZ b i mwnZ mwZ c ~YnBq v _ vK | GB
K vh wU i vi c wePvi wef vM K wi q v _ vK |

mg q i Z vwM` A b K mg q mswea vb msk va b c q vR b nBZ
c vi wK D msk va b K L b B g ~j mswea vb i Pwi MZ c wi eZ b
A vb q b K wi e b v| c K Z c mswea vb K a sk K wi evi R b mswea vb
eenvi K i v h vq b v|

MYZ , mg vR Z , R vZ xq Z vev` , a g wb i c Z v BZ vw` b xwZ I
A v` k mg ~n mswea vb i mwnZ mvsk wq K I web vwmZ | GB A v` k wj B
mswea vb K c v j f ve R b g vb yl i wb R ^ m ` wnmve c K vwk Z
K i | Bnv mvswea vwb K A vBb i A sk I eU | GB wj msm` i
msk va b x g Z v ewnf ~Z |

msm` i Dc i eva K i nBevi c i B a ymvswea vwb K K vb b xwZ
mswea vb i i Z c ~Yewk wnmve c wi MwYZ nBZ c vi | h w` H
wea vb GZ UvB g wj K nq h Z vnv msm` i msk va b x g Z vi
Dc i I eva K i nq Z eB DnvK basic structure wnmve MY K i v h vq
278
wK b v Z vnv weePb v K i v h vq | GB basic structure Z Z msm` i msk va b x
g Z vK I mxg ve i vL |

mva vi Y f ve mswea vb msk va xZ nBj I mswea vb Bnvi g ~j
Pwi A zb i vL | msk va b hw` mswea vb i g ~j c K wZ L enq Z e
mswea vb i basic structure i ` i wnZ nBZ c vi | BnvB mvswea vwb K
mvef g Z i c wi Pq | Basic structure GK g v Z Z h vnvi vi v mswea vb
msk va b i ea Z v wb Yq K i v h vq |
mswea vb i K vb wek l wea vb basic structure wnmve MY K i v h vq
wK b v Z vnv c Z K wU B A vg v` i mswea vb i i c - i L vq Bnvi
c K Z A e vb Ges Bnvi j I D k wb Yq K i Z t mswea vb i b vq
i vi k vmb c wi Pvj b vi GK wU g wj K ` wj j Bnvi A ^xK wZ ev
A b yc w wZ i c wi Yvg wK ` uvo vq c wZ wU A vewk K f ve Z vnv
c i x vi c q vR b nq | h w` Z wK Z msk va b xi K vi Y mswea vb i
g wj K c wi wPwZ (identity) ev c K wZ i c wi eZ b NU Z vnv nBj Bnv
Basic structure eU|


3 9 | mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb Gi we k l Yt

GB c h A vg i v MYZ , c R vZ I wePvi wef vM Ges mswea vb
msk va b m ^ mva vi Y A vj vPb v K wi q vwQ|
GBevi mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 6 , K vh K i x
nBevi c ~ei vi i vR b wZ K A e vb i c wi eZ b I D A vBb
K vh K i x nBj i vi i vR b wZ K A e vb m ^ A vj vPb v K i v nBj |

c ~eB Dj L K i v nBq vQ h evsj v` k mswea vb i wPZ I
wewa e nBq v evsj v` k R b MYi c Bnvi MYc wi l ` K Z K 19 7 2
mvj i 4 Vv b f ^i Z vwi L MwnZ nq | GB g nvb mswea vb 19 7 2
mvj i 16 B wWm ^i Z vwi L nBZ c ewZ Z I K vh K i nq |

279
mswea vb A b ymvi evsj v` k i v c _ g msm` xq MYZ
(Parliamentary Form) c Pwj Z nq | A Z c i t , mswea vb ( PZ z_ msk va b )
A vBb , 19 7 5 , A b ymvi 19 7 5 mvj nBZ i vc wZ k vmb ee v
(Presidential System of Government) Pvj ynq | GB ee v 19 9 1 mvj c h
Pvj y_ vK | 19 9 1 mvj mK j i vR b wZ K ` j GK g Z nBj msm` xq
i vee v c yb i vq c Pj b K wi evi wm v MnY K i v nq | mB wm v
A b ymvi mswea vb ( v` k msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 1, c _ g wej A vK vi
MnxZ nq Z r c i D msk va b x MYf vU MnxZ nBq v A vBb c wi YZ
nq |

mswea vb i PZ y_ f vM i vi wb evnx wef vM m wK Z Gi
wea vb mg ~n mwb ewk Z K i v nBq vQ| Bnvi 1g c wi Q` i vc wZ
ms v , 2 q c wi Q` c a vb g x I g w mf v, 3 q c wi Q` vb xq
k vmb , 4 _ c wi Q` c wZ i v K g wef vM I 5 g c wi Q` A vUwb -
R b vi j ms v wea vb vej x wj wc e K i v nBq vQ|

mswea vb i 4 8 ( 1) A b y Q` A b ymvi evsj v` k i vi GK R b
i vc wZ _ vwK eb | wZ wb A vBb A b yhvq x msm` - m` mMY K Z K wb evwPZ
nBeb | Z ` vb yh vq x i vc wZ wb evPb ms v A vBb , 19 9 1 ( 19 9 1
mvj i 2 7 b s A vBb ) A b ymvi msm` - m` mMY c K vk f vU` vb
K i b | 5 0 ( 1) A b y Q` A b ymvi i vc wZ c vuP er mi g q v` Z uvnvi
c ` A wa w Z _ vwK eb | wK K vb ew ` yB g q v` i A wa K i vc wZ
c ` A wa w Z _ vwK eb b v|

4 8 ( 2 ) A b y Q` A b ymvi i vc wZ evsj v` k i wb q g vZ vw K
i vc a vb | Z uvnvi vb i vi mK j ew i Da |

4 8 ( 3 ) A b y Q` A b ymvi K ej c a vb g x I c a vb wePvi c wZ
wb q vMi eZ xZ i vc wZ Z uvnvi A b mK j ` vwq Z c vj b
c a vb g xi c i vg k A b yh vq x K vh K i b |

280
mswea vb wb evnx g Z v i vc wZ i Dc i b K i b vB Z e 5 5
A b y Q` i ( 4 ) ` d v A b ymvi mi K vi i mK j wb evnx ee v i vc wZ i
b vg MnxZ nBq vQ ewj q v c K vk K i v nq |

5 5 A b y Q` i ( 5 ) ` d v A b ymvi i vc wZ i b vg c YxZ
A v` k mg ~n I A b vb Pzw c wK i c mZ vwq Z ev c g vYxK Z nBe,
i vc wZ Z vnv wewa mg ~n- vi v wb a vi Y K i b |
5 5 A b yQ` i ( 6 ) ` d v A b ymvi i vc wZ mi K vi x K vh vej x
eUb I c wi Pvj b vi R b wewa mg ~n c Yq b K i b | GB g Z vej
i vc wZ mi K vi i K vh vej x eUb I c wi Pvj b vi R b Rules of Business,
1996, c Yq b K i b |

Rules of Business Gi rule 6 ( i) Gi A vI Z vq Z d wmj 3 G Dj wL Z
wel q v` x, h _ vt c a vb g x I c a vb wePvi c wZ i wb q vM I c ` Z vM
m wK Z wel q vej x i vc wZ i wb K U mi vmwi Dc vc b K i v nq |

5 6 A b y Q` i ( 3 ) ` d v A b yh vq x h msm` m` m msm` i
msL vMwi m` mi A v vf vR b ewj q v i vc wZ i wb K U c Z xq g vb
nBeb i vc wZ Z uvnvK c a vb g x wb q vM K i b |

c a vb g xi c i vg k A b ymvi 5 6 A b y Q` i ( 2 ) ` d v A b ymvi
i vc wZ A b vb g x, c wZ g x I Dc - g xw` MK wb q vM ` vb K i b |

c a vb g xi c i vg k A b ymvi i vc wZ evsj v` k i A vUwb -
R b vi j ( 6 4 A b y Q` ) , myc xg K vUi Df q wef vMi wePvi K MY ( 9 5
A b y Q` ) , c a vb wb evPb K wg k b vi I A b vb K wg k b vi
( 118 A b y Q` ) , g nv- wnmve wb i x K I wb q K ( 12 7 A b y Q` ) ,
mi K vi x K g K wg k b i mf vc wZ I m` mMY` i ( 13 8 A b y Q` )
wb q vM ` vb K i b |

6 1 A b y Q` A b ymvi evsj v` k i c wZ i v K g wef vMmg ~ni
mevwa b vq K Z v i vc wZ i Dc i b Ges A vBb vi v Z vnvi c q vM
wb q w Z nq |

281
9 3 A b y Q` i ( 1) ` d v A b yh vq x msm` f vwq v h vI q v A e vq
A _ ev Dnvi A wa ek b K vj eZ xZ K vb mg q i vc wZ i wb K U A v
ee v MnYi R b c q vR b xq c wi w wZ we` g vb i wnq vQ ewj q v
m vl R b K f ve c Z xq g vb nBj wZ wb D c wi w wZ Z hi c
c q vR b xq ewj q v g b K wi eb , mBi c A a v` k c Yq b I R vi x
K wi Z c vi b |

4 9 A b y Q` i A vI Z vq K vb A v` vj Z , UvBeyb vj ev A b K vb
K Z c K Z K c ` hK vb ` i g vR b v, wej ^b I wei vg g yi
K wi evi Ges h K vb ` g I K zd , wMZ ev nvm K wi evi g Z v
i vc wZ i _ vwK e|

4 8 A b y Q` i ( 3 ) ` d v A b ymvi K ej c a vb g x I c a vb
wePvi c wZ wb q vMi ewZ Z i vc wZ Z uvnvi A b mK j ` vwq Z
c vj b c a vb g xi c i vg k A b yh vq x K vh K i b |

Dc i i eYb v nBZ Bnv Z B c Z xq g vb nq h Dc i i ` yB
ewZ i K A b mK j K vh i vc wZ c a vb g xi c i vg k A b ymvi
K i b |

GBevi c a vb g xi mvswea vwb K A e vb c i x v K i v h vDK |

GK R b c a vb g x A ek B GK R b wb evwPZ msm` - m` m, A _ vr
wZ wb R b MYi GK R b wb evwPZ c wZ wb wa | Z vnvQvo v, wZ wb msL vMwi
msm` - m` m, h vnvi v wb evwPZ R b c wZ wb wa , Z vnv` i A v vf vR b |

i vc wZ Dc i ewYZ c ` c wj mswea vb A b ymvi a yg v
c a vb g xi c i vg k g B MnY K wi q v _ vK b A b K vnvi I c i vg k
b q | wZ wb A b K vb msm` - m` m ev g xi c i vg k A b ymvi I Dc i v
K vb c ` c MnY K wi Z c vi b b v, K wi j Z vnv A ek B
A mvswea vwb K nBe|

5 6 A b y Q` i ( 1) ` d v A b ymvi evsj v` k i vi GK R b
c a vb g x _ vwK eb | 5 7 A b y Q` i ( 1) ` d v A b ymvi c a vb g xi c `
282
k ~b nBe hw` wZ wb K vb mg q i vc wZ i wb K U c ` Z vMc c ` vb
K i b , A _ ev, wZ wb msm` - m` m b v _ vK b | Z vnvQvo v, ( 2 ) ` d v
A b yh vq x msL vMwi m` mi mg _ b nvi vBj c a vb g x c ` Z vM
K wi eb wK sev msm` f vswMq v w` evi R b wj wL Z f ve i vc wZ K
c i vg k ` vb K wi eb | Z e, ( 3 ) ` d v A b yh vq x c a vb g xi Di vwa K vi x
K vh f vi MnY b v K i v c h c a vb g x ^xq c ` e nvj _ vwK eb |

5 5 A b y Q` i ( 2 ) ` d v A b ymvi c a vb g x K Z K ev Z uvnvi
K Z Z mswea vb - A b yh vq x c R vZ i wb evnx g Z v c h y nBe| ( 3 )
` d v A b yh vq x g w mf v h _ f ve R vZ xq msm` i wb K U ` vq x _ vwK eb |

GB wZ b wU ` d v wek l Y K wi j c Z xq g vb nBe h wK f ve
mswea vb i vi k vmb ee vq c i v f ve nBj I R b MYi wb K U
R evew` wnZ v wb w Z K wi q vQ|

Z vnvQvo v, c a vb g x I Z vnvi g w mf vi A b ~b b q - ` k g vsk
g xB wb evwPZ msm` - m` m A _ vr Z vnvi v mK j B R b c wZ wb wa Ges
mB wnmve R b MYi wb K U ` vq e |

Dj L , 19 7 2 mvj i g ~j mswea vb i 5 6 A b y Q` A b ymvi
mva vi YZ g x c ` wb q vM c vBZ nBj Z vnvK GK R b msm` - m` m
nBZ nBZ | A ek 5 6 A b y Q` i ( 4 ) ` d v A b ymvi g x c ` wb h y
nBevi mg q K vb ew msm` - m` m b v _ vwK j c i eZ xQq g vmi
g a Z vnvK msm` - m` m wb evwPZ nBZ nBZ , A b _ vq wZ wb g x
_ vwK Z b b v|

19 9 1 mvj mswea vb ( v` k msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 1 ( 19 9 1
mb i 2 8 b s A vBb ) A b ymvi i v c yb i vq msm` xq MYZ c Z veZ b
K i | wK g ~j 5 6 A b y Q` i ( 2 ) ` d vi c i k Z (Proviso) c wi eZ b
K i v nq | ( 2 ) ` d v wb i c t
( 2 ) c a vb g x I A b vb g x, c wZ g x I Dc g xK
i vc wZ wb q vM ` vb K wi eb t
Z r c i c wi ewZ Z k Z (Proviso) wb i c t
283
Z e k Z _ vK h, Z vnv` i msL vi A b ~b b q - ` k g vsk
msm` - m` mMYi g a nBZ wb h y nBe Ges A b wa K GK -
` k g vsk msm` - m` m wb evwPZ nBe vi h vM ew MYi g a
nBZ g b vb xZ nBZ c vwi eb |

c Z xq g vb nBZ Q, Dc i v k Z (Proviso) A b ymvi g w mf vi
GK - ` k g vsk m` m msm` - m` m wnmve wb evwPZ b v nBq vI g x
wnmve g b vb q b c vBZ c vi b , h w` I Z uvnvi v MYc wZ wb wa b nb |

19 7 2 mvj mswea vb c YZ vMY evsj v` k i vi mswea vb h
a i Yi R b c wZ wb wa Z k xj MYZ I R b MYi g Z vq b i m~Pb v
K wi q vwQj b Dc i v k Z Z vnvi ei L j vc |

Dj L , h mswea vb ` yBf ve R b MYi wb K U g x` i
R evew` wnZ v wb w Z K wi q vQ, c _ g Z t g x wnmve R vZ xq - msm`
g vi d r R b MYi wb K U, wZ xq Z t wb evwPZ msm` - m` m wnmve
R b MYi wb K U|
A vi v Dj L h 19 7 2 mvj i g ~j mswea vb i c wZ wU i
MYZ vw K A b yk xj b I R b MYi g Z vq b h f ve c ywUZ nBq v
DwVq vwQj 19 9 1 mvj i Dc i v A MYZ vw K wea vb mswea vb i g ~j
A v` k i mwnZ m ~YmvsNwl K ewj q v c Z xq g vb nBZ Q, Z e h nZ z
wel q wU eZ g vb g vK v g vq wePvh wel q b n, mnZ zG m K K vb
Nvl Yv ` I q v nBj b v|

h y i vR i mvswea vwb K i xwZ (Convention) A b ymvi g xMY
g w mf vi m` m wnmve h _ I wb R wb R g Yvj q i R b GK K
f ve House of Commons Gi wb K U ` vq e _ vK b | f vi Z i mswea vb
g xMYi wb R wb R g Yvj q i R b ew MZ ` vq e Z vi K _ v ej v b v
nBj I Z vnvi v mva vi YZ hy i vR i mvswea vwb K i xwZ A b ymi Y K wi q v
ew MZ ` vq e Z v MnY K i b |

evsj v` k g w mf vi g xMY R vZ xq msm` wb R wb R g Yvj q
ms v D vwc Z c k i Di c ` vb K i b Ges c q vR b weewZ I
c ` vb K i b eU wK wb R i ev g Yvj q i e_ Z vi ` vq f vi MnY
284
Ges c q vR b c ` Z vMi K vb NUb v A vg v` i ` k Z g b GK Uv
` L v h vq b v| evsj v` k Ministerial responsibility ev g xi ` vwq Z k xj Z vi
ms wZ GL b I Z g b f ve Mwo q v I V b vB|

mswea vb i 14 1 K A b y Q` A b ymvi i vc wZ R i i x- A e v
Nvl Yv K wi Z c vi b , Z e Nvl Yvi c ~eB c a vb g xi c wZ - ^v i
c q vR b nBe|

Rules of Business Gi rule- 4 (ii) A b ymvi g w mf vi A b yg v` b
ewZ i K K vb i Z c ~Yb xwZ MZ wm v MnY K i v nq b v|

Rule- 7 A b ymvi Rules of Business Gi Z d wmj - 4 G Dwj wL Z c K wZ i
mK j wel q vej x m wK Z A v` k R vi xi c ~ec a vb g x I i vc wZ i
wb K U Dc vc b K wi Z nq |

Rule- 8 A b ymvi Rules of Business Gi Z d wmj - 5 G Dwj wL Z
wel q vej x c a vb g xi wb K U Dc vc b K wi Z nq |

c Z xq g vb nq , c a vb g x wb evnx c a vb nBj I mva vi YZ
g w mf vq A vj vPb v ewZ i K K vb wm v MnY m e b q , K vi Y,
c a vb g xmn mg M g w mf v h_ f ve R vZ xq msm` i wb K U ` vq x
_ vK b | c a vb g x h w` K vb K vi Y g w mf vi mwnZ A vj vPb v
ewZ i K K vb wm v MnY K i b Z vnv nBe Z uvnvi GK K wm v |
GB GK K wm v i R b g w mf v R vZ xq msm` i wb K U ` vq e
_ vwK e b v Ges c a vb g xi b Z Z mg mv ` L v w` Z c vi | mswea vb
c a vb g x I Z uvnvi g w mf vi mK j c ` c i R b R vZ xq msm` i
wb evwPZ msm` - m` mMYi g va g ` k i R b MYi wb K U Z uvnv` i
R evew` wnZ v wb w Z K wi q vQ| GL vb B msm` xq MYZ i h w K Z v
I k Z |

GL vb A vi v Dj L , h wh wb msm` i msL vMwi m` mi
A v vf vR b nBeb wZ wb evsj v` k i mK j R b MYi , Gg b wK hvnvi v
Z uvnvK Ges Z uvnvi i vR b wZ K ` j K f vU ` q b vB Z vnv` i I
c a vb g x nBeb |
285

GBevi mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 6 , wK f ve
i vc wZ i K vh g c wi eZ b A vb q b K i Z vnv A vj vPb v K i v
c q vR b | Z e Z vnvi c ~e Dc i v A vBb wU mswea vb msk va b
K wi q vQ wK b v Ges msk va b K i v nBj wK f ve K i v nBq vQ Z vnvI
A vj vPb v c q vR b , K vi Y, nvBK vUwef vMi wePvi c wZ MY Dc i v
A vBb vi v A v` K vb msk va b nq b vB ewj q v g Z c K vk
K wi q vQb |

Dc i v A vBb c i x v c Z xq g vb nq h mswea vb i 5 8
A b y Q` i c i 5 8 K A b y Q` mwb ewk Z K i v nq | PZ z_ f vM 2 q
c wi Q` i c i GK wU b ~Z b c wi Q` 2 K c wi Q` , msh vwR Z K i v
nBq vQ| D b ~Z b c wi Q` 5 8 L , 5 8 M, 5 8 N I 5 8 O A b y Q` wj
mwb ewk Z K i v nBq vQ| Z vnvQvo v, mswea vb i 6 1, 9 9 I 12 3
A b y Q` msk va b K i v nq |
c ~eB mswea vb i 14 2 A b yQ` i A vI Z vq mswea vb msk va b
m ^ A vj vPb v K i v nBq vQ| c yb e K wi q v ej v h vq h mswea vb i
K vb wea vb msh vR b , c wi eZ b , c wZ vc b ev i wnZ K i Yi vi v
msk vwa Z nBZ c vwi e|
wb w` a vq ej v h vq h 5 8 L , 5 8 M, 5 8 N I 5 8 O A b yQ` wj
mwb ek mswea vb i PZ z_ f vM 2 K c wi Q` wU mswea vb msh vR b i
g va g mswea vb msk va b K i v nBq vQ| Z vnvQvo v, 5 8 K A b y Q` wUI
msh vR b K i v nBq vQ|
mswea vb i 6 1 A b y Q` i wb q w Z nBek wj i c wi eZ
wb q w Z nBe Ges h g q v` 5 8 L A b y Q` i A a xb wb ` j xq
Z vea vq K mi K vi _ vwK e mB g q v` D A vBb i vc wZ K Z K
c wi Pvwj Z nBe k wj Ges 9 9 A b y Q` i ( 1) ` d vq A va v-
wePvi wef vMxq c ` k wj i c wi eZ A va v- wePvi wef vMxq c `
A _ ev c a vb Dc ` v ev Dc ` vi c ` k wj Df q vb h _ v g
c wZ vwc Z nBq vQ|
286
Z vnvQvo v, mswea vb i 12 3 A b y Q` i c ~eZ b ( 3 ) ` d vi
c wi eZ b ~Z b ( 3 ) ` d v c wZ vwc Z nBq vQ|
12 3 A b y Q` i c ~eZ b ( 3 ) ` d v wb i c t

12 3 | ( 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
( 3 ) msm` - m` m` i mva vi Y wb evPb A b yw Z nBe|
( K ) g q v` - A emvb i K vi Y msm` f vwq v h vBevi
f vwq v h vBevi c ~eeZ xb eB w` b i g a ; Ges

( L ) g q v` - A emvb eZ xZ A b K vb K vi Y msm`
f vwq v h vBevi f vwq v h vBevi c i eZ xb eB w` b i
g a ;
Z e k Z _ vK h, GB ` d vi ( K ) Dc - ` d v A b yhvq x
A b yw Z mva vi Y wb evPb wb evwPZ ew MY D Dc - ` d vq
Dj wL Z g q v` mg v b v nI q v c h msm` - m` mi c
K vh f vi Mnb K wi eb b v|


q v` k msk va b i c i c wZ vwc Z ( 3 ) ` d v wb i c t

12 3 | ( 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
( 3 ) g q v` A emvb i K vi Y A _ ev g q v` A emvb eZ xZ
A b K vb K vi Y msm` f vwq v h vBevi c i eZ xb eB w` b i
g a msm` - m` m` i mva vi Y wb evPb A b yw Z nBe|
( A a i L v c ` )
GB ` yBwU wea vb i g a c v_ K nvBK vU wef vMi we
wePvi K MY A b ya veb K wi Z e_ nBq vQb |

Dc i v A b y Q` wj Z c wZ vc b i g va g mswea vb msk va b
K i v nBq vQ|
Z vnvQvo v, mswea vb i PZ z_ f vM 5 8 K A b y Q` Ges 2 K
c wi Q` i wewf b A b y Q` 2 q c wi Q` i A b y Q` wj , 14 1K ( 1) I
14 1M( 1) wj K I wewf b f ve msk va b K wi q vQ|
Dc i ewYZ msk va b wj i A vBb MZ A e vb Ges GB wj
mswea vb i wK wK c wi eZ b A vb q b K wi q vQ Ges Z vnv mswea vb i
287
basic sturcture Gi mwnZ mvsNwl K wK b v Z vnv G b A vj vPb v K i v
nBe|
c _ g B i vc wZ i K g c wi mi GB msk va b wK c f ve A vb q b
K wi q vQ Z vnv A vj vPb v K i v h vDK |
c ~eB Dj L K i v nBq vQ, i vc wZ evsj v` k i wb q g vZ vw K
i vc a vb | wZ wb i vi wb evnx c a vb b nb | c a vb g x I c a vb
wePvi c wZ i wb q vM I c ` Z vM c MnY ewZ i K A b mK j ` vwq Z
c vj b wZ wb c a vb g xi c i vg k A b ymvi K vh K i b | BnvB
mvswea vwb K c wi K b v|
wK q v` k msk va b x K vh K i x nBj Z uvnvi f ~wg K vi A vg ~j
c wi eZ b nq |
mva vi Y f ve i vc wZ evsj v` k i c wZ i v K g wef vMmg ~ni
mevwa b vq K nBj I A vBb vi v Z vnvi c q vM wb q w Z nq | A _ vr
wb q g vZ vw K f ve i vc wZ c wZ i v K g wef vMmg ~ni mevwa b vq K
nBj I Bnvi c K Z wb evnx g Z v i vR b wZ K mi K vi i Dc i B b
_ vK Ges mi K vi i mswk c wZ i v g Yvj q i mi vmwi A vBb MZ
wb q Y c wi Pvwj Z nq |
wK q v` k msk va b x K vhK i x nBj h g q v` 5 8 L
A b y Q` i A a xb wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi _ vwK e mB g q v`
c wZ i v K g wef vMmg ~n i vc wZ K Z K A vBb vi v mi vmwi c wi Pvwj Z
nBe A _ vr H mg q i R b wZ wb i vR b wZ K mi K vi i wb evnx g Z v
MnY K wi eb Ges c K Z c i vc wZ i ` vwq Z i mwnZ wZ wb GK B
mv_ c wZ i v g Yvj q i g xi ` vwq Z I c vj b K wi eb |
mva vi Y mg q ` vwq Z c vj b i Z c wZ i v g x GK R b wb evwPZ
R b c wZ wb wa | Z uvnvi g va g evsj v` k i R b MY MYZ vw K f ve
evsj v` k i c R vZ i c wZ i v K g wef vMmg ~ni wb q Y K i |
i vc wZ mvswea vwb K f ve i vi mev P c ` vwa K vi x ew eU wK
wZ wb MYZ vw K f ve c R vZ i wb e vwPZ c wZ wb wa b nb | g ~j mswea vb
c wZ i v K g wef vMmg ~ni wb evnx ` vwq Z i vc wZ i Dc i b K i b vB,
288
wb evwPZ i vR b wZ K mi K vi i Dc i K wi q vQ| Gg Z A e vq i vc wZ
K Z K c wZ i v g Yvj q i GB wb evnx ` vwq Z c vj b g ~j mvswea vwb K
c wi K b vi mwnZ m ~YmvsNwl K |
mswea vb i 4 8 ( 3 ) , 14 1K ( 1) Ges 14 1M( 1) A b y Q` h vnvB
_ vK zK b v K b , 5 8 L A b yQ` i ( 1) ` d vi g q v` 5 8 O A b y Q`
wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi i K vh K vj i vc wZ K Z K c a vb g xi
c i vg k A b yh vq x A _ ev Z vunvi c wZ ^v i MnYv K vh K i vi wea vb mg ~n
A K vh K i K wi q vQ|
Dj L , mswea vb i R i i x wea vb vej x m ^wj Z b eg - K f vM g ~j
mswea vb wQj b v| mswea vb ( wZ xq msk va b ) A vBb , 19 7 3 ( 19 7 3
mb i 12 b s A vBb ) ej D b eg - K f vM mswea vb msh vR b K i v
nq |
14 1K ( 1) A b y Q` c ` g Z vej i vc wZ ` k R i i x-
A e v Nvl Yv K wi Z c vi b | ` k R i i x- A e v Nvwl Z nBj 14 1L
I 14 1M A b y Q` ewYZ wea vb vej x A b ymvi g wj K A wa K vi mg ~nmn
mswea vb i K wZ c q A b y Q` i wea vb wMZ nBq v h vq | GB K vi Y
i vc wZ K Z K R i i x- A e v Nvl Yvi g Z vi A c eenvi i va K
4 8 ( 3 ) A b y Q` c ` mva vi Y k Z ewZ i K A b GK wU wek l k Z ,
14 1K ( 1) A b y Q` i k l wb wj wL Z f ve ewYZ nBq vQ t
Z e k Z _ vK h, A b yi c Nvl Yvi ea Z vi R b
Nvl Yvi c ~eB c a vb g xi c wZ - ^v i c q vR b nBe|

wK K vi Y c a vb g xi c wZ - ^v i c q vR b nBZ c vi , Z vnv
weePb v K i v c q vR b | g wj K A wa K vi g vb yl i A g ~j m ` I
mf Z vi c K D` vni Y| Bnv g vb yl i mek A wa K vi | Z e ` k i
eni ^v_ mB g wj K A wa K vi I A b K mg q wMZ i vwL Z nq |
wK mB g Z v h b K vb f veB A c eenvi b v nq m K vi YB
R i i x- A e v R vi xi c ~eGB A wZ wi k Z A vi vc K i v nBq vQ,
K vi Y c a vb g x wb R GK R b wb evwPZ R b c wZ wb wa | Z vnvQvo v,
c a vb g x wnmve msL vMwi R b c wZ wb wa MYi wZ wb A v vf vR b I
289
eU| wb t m` n R i i x A e v Nvl Yv GK wU i Z c ~Y b xwZ MZ
wm v | A vewk K f veB g w mf vq GB Nvl Yv m ^ c yL b vc ~L f ve
A vj vPb vi c i B G m ^ wm v j I q v nq | g w mf vi A wa K vsk
m` mMY wb evwPZ R b c wZ wb wa | mK j i mw wj Z A vj vPb v I
weePb vi c i h w` c Z xq g vb nq h Gg b R i i x- A e v we` g vb
i wnq vQ, h vnvZ h y ev ewni v g Y ev A f i xY Mvj h vMi
vi v evsj v` k ev Dnvi h K vb A sk i wb i vc v ev A _ b wZ K
R xeb wec ` i m yL xb , Z vnv nBj c a vb g x c _ g Z mswea vb i
4 8 ( 3 ) A b y Q` A b ymvi i vc wZ K R i i x- A e v Nvl Yv c m
c i vg k c ` vb K wi eb Ges wZ xq Z t 14 1K A b y Q` i k Z g vZ veK
i vc wZ K Z K R i i x- A e v Nvl Yvi c ~eB DnvZ c wZ - ^v i c ` vb
K wi eb | Z r c i R i i x- A e v Nvl Yv K i v nBe| BnvB R i i x- A e v
Nvl Yvi mvswea vwb K c ~ek Z vej x I A e vb |

wK 5 8 O A b y Q` i vc wZ K ^xq weePb v A b ymvi Z uvnvi
GK K wm v ` k R i i x- A e v Nvl Yvi wb evnx g Z v c ` vb K i |
GB GK K g Z v c _ g Z t i vc wZ i mvswea vwb K wb q g vZ vw K
A e vb i c wi c x Ges wZ xq Z t mswea vb i 4 8 ( 3 ) I 14 1K ( 1)
A b y Q` i k Z c ` mvswea vwb K i vK ePi mwnZ mvsNwl K | Gg Z
A e vq i vc wZ i c ^i vPvi xi f ~wg K vq h vBevi GK wU m veb v
_ vwK q v h vq | nq Z v i vc wZ K vb w` b B ^i vPvi xi f ~wg K v MnY
K wi eb b v, wK Z g b m veb v _ vwK j B mB ee v mswea vb e
MYZ vw K A v` k i mwnZ mvsNwl K nBe wea vq Z vnv A mvswea vwb K
nBe|

5 8 L A b y Q` i ( 2 ) ` d v A b ymvi wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi
h _ f ve i vc wZ i wb K U ` vq x _ vwK eb | wK mva vi Y A e vq
c a vb g x ev Z uvnvi g w mf vi g xMY Z uvnv` i K vR i R b i vc wZ i
wb K U ` vq e _ vK b b v| ei 5 5 A b y Q` i ( 3 ) ` d v A b yh vq x
c a vb g xmn g w mf v h _ f ve msm` i wb K U ` vq x _ vK b Ge s
ew MZ f ve I msm` - m` mMYi g va g mvef g R b MYi wb K U
290
` vq e _ vK b | BnvB MYZ vw K b xwZ I i xwZ | Gg Z A e vq wb ` j xq
Z vea vq K mi K vi A vg j g ~j mswea vb i mek k Z e v basic structure
evsj v` k i R b MYi mvef g Z Z vnv L e nq Ges R b MYi
mvef g Z i c wi eZ i vR vi b vq i vc wZ mvef g nb | Bnv
mswea vb i g wj K b xwZ i c wi c x I mvsNwl K |

5 8 L A b y Q` i ( 4 ) ` d v A b ymvi 5 5 ( 4 ) , ( 5 ) I ( 6 )
A b y Q` i wea vb vej x ( c q vR b xq A wf h vR b mnK vi ) ( 1) ` d vq
Dj wL Z g q v` GK Bi c wel q vej xi c h y nq | Z e c v_ K
nBZ Q GB h 5 5 A b y Q` i mK j c ` c 4 8 ( 3 ) A b ymvi
wb evwPZ c a vb g xi c i vg k mvc c h y nq , wK 5 8 L ( 4 )
A b y Q` i A vI Z vq wb evwPZ c a vb g xi Z _ v R b MYi f ~wg K v
A b yc w Z _ vK | d j k wZ Z MYZ I A b yc w Z _ vK | Bnv g ~j
mswea vb i g wj K A v` k I b xwZ i mwnZ m ~Y mvsNwl K | MYZ K
A b yc w Z i vwL q v Z vnv h Z ^ mg q i R b B nDK b v K b , K vb
ee vB mvswea vwb K nBe b v|

5 8 M A b y Q` A b ymvi msm` f vswMq v ` I q vi ev f sM nBevi
c i eZ x c b i w` b i g a i vc wZ c a vb Dc ` v I A c i A b wa K
` k R b Dc ` vi mg b q wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi MVb K wi eb |

msm` f vwq v h vI q v A e vq A _ ev Bnvi A wa ek b K vj eZ xZ
K vb mg q i vc wZ i wb K U A v ee v MnYi R b c q vR b xq
c wi w wZ we` g vb i wnq vQ ewj q v m vl R b K f ve c Z xq g vb nBj
mswea vb i 9 3 A b y Q` i ( 1) ` d v A b ymvi wZ wb D c wi w wZ Z
A a v` k c Yq b I R vi x K wi Z c vi b |

GK B f ve i vc wZ 9 3 A b y Q` i ( 3 ) ` d vi A vI Z vq Gg b
A a v` k I c Yq b I R vi x K wi Z c vi b h vnvZ mswea vb - vi v msh y
Z nwej i (Consdidated Fund) Dc i K vb eq ` vq g y nDK ev b v nDK ,
D Z nwe j nBZ mBi c eq wb evni K Z Z c ` vb K i v h vBe|

291
mva vi YZ A vBb c Yq b R vZ xq msm` i A b b g Z v| c vweZ
A vBb i L mo v, c ve ev wej A vK vi mswea vb i 8 0 A b y Q`
A b ymvi msm` c k K wi Z nq | c vweZ Public Bill c _ g g w mf vq
A vj vPb v nq | g w mf v K Z K A b yg vw` Z nBj mva vi YZ mswk g x
Z vnv msm` c k K i b | msm` c q vR b g b K wi j wej wU msm` xq
K wg wUZ Z vnv c i x v wb i x vi R b c i Y K wi Z c vi | Z r c i
msm` xq K wg wUi myc vwi k mnK vi Z vnv msm` i weePb vi R b
c yb i vq c k K i v nq | Z r c i , wej wU msm` A b yg v` b K wi j Z vnv
^v i i R b i vc wZ mg xc c k K i v nq | i vc wZ i ^v i i c i
wej wU A vBb c wi YZ nq |

msm` i A wa ek b K vj ewnf ~Z K vb mg q h w` K vb A a v` k
c Yq b I R vi xi wek l c q vR b A b yf ~Z nq Z vnv nBj 9 3
A b y Q` i wek l g Z vej i v c wZ A a v` k c Yq b I R vi x
K wi Z c vi b | wK m I g w mf vK c vweZ L mo v
A a v` k wU c i x v K i Z t A b yg v` b K wi Z nq | GL vb c yb i vq
Dj L , c a vb g xmn g w mf vi A wa K vsk m` m wb evwPZ
R b c wZ wb wa | c vweZ A a v` k wUi L mo v g w mf vK B A b yg v` b
K wi Z nq , A b K vnvi I A b yg v` b Pwj e b v| g w mf v L mo vwU
A b yg v` b K wi evi c i i vc wZ i A v` k g A a v` k wU R vi x nq |
GBi c i vc wZ i A a v` k R vi xI c i v f ve R b MYi K Z Z i
A vI Z vi g a _ vwK q vB K wi Z nq |

wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi g q v` L mo v A a v` k wU Dc ` v
c wi l ` A b yg v` b K i , wK Dc ` vMY K nB wb evwPZ R b c wZ wb wa
b nb | K vR B wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi A vg j i A a v` k wj i
L mo v A wb evwPZ ew eMK Z K A b yg vw` Z h vnv R b MYi K Z Z Z _ v
GK wU MYZ vw K i vee vi mwnZ mvsNwl K | memg q Bnv n` q
L vw` Z _ vwK Z nBe h evsj v` k i v GK wU wPi b MYZ vw K i v,
Gg b wK Z vwI K f ve Z I vea vq K mi K vi A vg j I , h w` I Z I vea vq K
mi K vi ee v MYZ i mwnZ mi vmwi mvsNwl K |
292

A _ ms v A a v` k i wel q wU mvswea vwb K f ve A vi I
mxb nBq v ` uvo vq |

12 15 mvj i Magna Carta Gi mg q nBZ Bnv a e mZ h
R b c wZ wb wa ` i m wZ ewZ i K K L b B A _ ms v K vb A vBb K i v
h vq b v| 16 4 8 mvj Purging of the Parliament K wi q vI Oliver Cromwell
c q vR b xq A _ Qvo K i vBZ c vi b b vB|

h y i vR i mwnZ Bnvi A vg wi K v K j vb x i v wj i wei va i
g ~j K vi Y wQj h h y i vR i Parliament G A vg wi K v K j vb x
i v wj i K vb c wZ wb wa wQj b v wK Parliament K j vb x i v wj i Dc i
K i A vi vc K wi Z | K j vb x i v wj i e e wQj h hnZ zZ vnv` i
K vb c wZ wb wa h y i vR i Parliament G b vB, mB nZ zD Parliament
Z vnv` i Dc i K i A vi vc K wi Z c vi b v| BnvB wei va i g ~j
K vi Y|

h y i vi i vc wZ mvswea vwb K f ve i vi wb evnx c a vb |
h y i vi mswea vb i Article II wb i c t
Section 1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the
United States...........

wb evnx c a vb wnmve Z uvnvi ` vq e Z v h y i vi R b MYi wb K U
h vnvi v Z uvnvK wb evwPZ K wi q vQ, A vi K vnvi I wb K U b q |

f vi Z wb evnx g Z v i vc wZ i Dc i wb wj wL Z f ve A wc Z t
Article 53. Executive power of the Union ; (1) The executive power of
the Union shall be vested in the President.......

wK wZ wb g w c wi l ` (Council of Ministers) Gi aid and advise vi v
c wi Pvwj Z nBeb | Article 74 wb i c t
Article 74. Conucil of Ministers to aid and advise President : There shall
be a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister at the head to aid and advise
the President who shall, in the exercise of his functions, act in accordance with
such advice.
293
Shamsher Singh V. State of Punjab AIR 1974 SC 2192 g vK g vq f vi Z xq
m~c xg K vUi vc wZ i f zwg K v m K g e K i t
There is no doubt that the imprint of his personality may chasten and
correct the Polititical government, although the actual exercise of the functions
entrusted to him by law is in effect and in law carried on by his duly appointed
mentors, i.e., the Prime Minister and his colleagues.

K vR B f vi Z xq i vc wZ i wm v c K Z c g w c wi l ` i B
wm v h vnvi v R b MYi wb evwPZ c wZ wb wa |
evsj v` k i vi vc wZ i A e vb wb i c t
4 8 | ( 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
( 2 ) i vc a vb i c i vc wZ i vi A b mK j ew i Da vb
j vf K wi eb Ges mswea vb I A b K vb A vBb i vi v Z uvnvK
c ` I Z uvnvi Dc i A wc Z mK j g Z v c q vM I K Z e c vj b
K wi eb | Ges
5 5 | ( 4 ) mi K vi i mK j wb evnx ee v i vc wZ i b vg
MnxZ nBq vQ ewj q v c K vk K i v nBe| wK
5 5 | ( 2 ) ( 3 ) A b y Q` wb i c t
5 5 | ( 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
( 2 ) c a vb g x K Z K ev Z uvnvi K Z Z GB mswea vb -
A b yh vq x c R vZ i wb evnx g Z v c h y nBe|
( 3 ) g w mf v h_ f ve msm` i wb K U ` vq x
_ vwK eb |


c Z xq g vb nq h i vc wZ evsj ` k i v mev P c ` vwa K vi x
ew nBj I i vi c K Z wb evnx g Z v g w mf vi Dc i b |

evsj v` k i mswea vb h y i v ev f vi Z i mswea vb i b vq
h _ v g The Executive power shall be vested in a President ev in the President
ej v nq b vB|

evsj v` k mswea vb i 5 5 ( 2 ) I ( 3 ) A b y Q` GK Dc j w
K wi Z nBe h c a vb g x GK K f ve msm` i wb K U ` vq e b nb ,
wZ wb I Z uvnvi g w mf v h _ f ve ` vq x| g ~j K _ v nBj t

( 3 ) g w mf v h _ f ve msm` i wb K U ` vq x _ vwK eb |

msm` i wb K U GB ` vq e Z vB R b MYi g Z vi A wf ewI |
294

mswea vb i GB f vl i c vc U nBj , c vwK vb A vg j g Z v
memg q B GK - ew K w` K wQj | evsj v` k i mswea vb c YZ vMY
GB GK - ew K w` K Z v nBZ evwni nBq v R b MYK g Z vq b K wi Z
Pvwnq vwQj b | GB K vi YB P~o v ` vq e Z v R b MYi wb evwPZ
c wZ wb wa MYi wb K U i vL v nBq vQ|

Dc j w K i v c q vR b , h y i v I f vi Z i i vc wZ i b vq wb evnx
g Z v evsj v` k i c a vb g xi Dc i vested ev A wc Z nq b vB| GL vb
wb evnx g Z v c a vb g x K Z K ev Z uvnvi K Z Z c h y nBe ej v
nBq vQ wK Z uvnvi GK K wm v c h y (exercised) nBe Z vnv ej v nq
b vB| Z B c Z xq g vb nq h c K Z wm v MnY K wi e g w mf v
Ges Z r c i c a vb g x K Z K ev Z uvnvi K Z Z D wm v c hy
nBe| GB K vi YB g w mf v h _ f ve msm` i wb K U ` vq e | hw`
c a vb g x Z uvnvi GK K wm v wb evnx g Z v c h y K wi Z b Z e
wZ wb wb R GK K f ve msm` i wb K U ` vq e _ vwK Z b | m
g w mf v c a vb g xi GK K wm v i R b h _ f ve msm` i wb K U
` vq x nBZ b b v|

h y i vR i Prime Minister Gi Z vwZ K A e vb nBj h wZ wb First
among the equals, h w` I wZ wb B g w mf v MVb K i b Ges Z uvnvi c Q`
A b ymvi B wewf b MP K g x c ` wb q vM ` I q v nq | b xwZ wb a vi Yi
I Z uvnvi f ~wg K vB mec a vb |

evsj v` k i mswea vb c YZ vMYI evsj v` k i i vc wZ K
h y i vR i Queen Gi A b yi c Ges g w mf vK m eZ Dc i v A v` k
A e vb A wa vb K wi Z Pvwnq vwQj b |

A a v` k i i vc wZ i h m ywi K _ v ej v nBq vQ Z vnv
c K Z c g w mf vi m yw| GB m yw GK wU mva vi Y evj k
b n| Bnvi i Z A c wi mxg | Dj L , g w mf vi A wa K vsk m` m
wb evwPZ MYc wZ wb wa | mswea vb c YZ vMY GBf ve Gg b wK A a v` k
295
c Yq b i I g w mf vi wb evwPZ m` mMYi g va g R b MYi
m Z v wb w Z K wi q vQb |

wK wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi A vg j i A a v` k i
Dc ` v c wi l ` K L b B g w mf vi j vwf wl nBZ c vi b b v, Z vnvi
c a vb K vi Y Dc ` vMY A wb evwPZ | Z uvnvi v vb Y b g m nBZ
c vi b wK Z uvnvi v R b c wZ wb wa b nb | BnvB Z uvnv` i mevc v
A h vMZ v| wb evwPZ I A wb evwPZ i g a GB c v_ K A vK vk mg |
The Rules of Business, 1996 Gi Rule-34 A b ymvi c a vb g x I g xi
j h _ v g c a vb Dc ` v I Dc ` v c h vR nBe| Rule-34
wb i c t
Rule-34 : During the period in which the Non-Party Care-Taker
Government is in office, all references to the Prime Minister and Minister
shall be construed as reference to Chief Adviser and Adviser respectively
and these rules shall, mutatis mutandis, apply.

wK c a vb g x ev g xMYi h R b c wZ wb wa m~j f Pvwi w K
ewk i wnq vQ Z vnv c a vb Dc ` v ev Dc ` vMYi g a GK evi B
A b yc w Z | BnvB Z vnv` i g a A vK vk mg c v_ K mw K i |

K vR B wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi A vg j A a v` k c Yq b
K wi evi R b Dc ` v c wi l ` i m yw mvswea vwb K f ve GK evi B
A MnYxq |

K vb K vb we amicus curiae GB g g h yw D vc b K wi q vQb
h i vc wZ h nZ z R vZ xq msm` K Z K wb evwPZ K vR B Z uvnvK I
wb evwPZ i vc wZ ej v h vq Ges Z uvnvi m ywI 9 3 A b y Q` i A vI Z vq
A a v` k c Yq b I R vi xi R b h _ |

Dc i v h yw mwVK b n| c _ g Z t wb evPb ewj Z mveR b xb
f vUvwa K vi g vi d r wb evPb ev adult franchise evS vb nq | msm` K Z K
i vc wZ i wb evPb GB a i b i wb evPb b n Ges wZ wb R b c wZ wb wa I
b nb | Gg Z A e vq Z uvnvi ew MZ m wi Dc i wb f i K wi q v 9 3
A b y Q` i A vI Z vq A a v` k c Yq b I R vi x mvswea vwb K b n| mi Y
296
i vwL Z nBe h c v_ wg K f ve GK g v msm` B A vBb c Yq b K wi Z
g Z vevb , K vb A wb evwPZ ew A vBb c Yq b K wi Z c vi b b v,
a yg v e wZ g wnmve, R i i x c q vR b A a v` k R vi x K i v nq ,
K vR B G I g w mf vi wm v GK v c q vR b nq , K vi Y,
g w mf vi A wa K vsk m` mB wb evwPZ R b c wZ wb wa |


5 8 M A b y Q` i g Z vej i vc wZ mek l A emi c v c a vb
wePvi c wZ K wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi i c a vb Dc ` vi c `
MnYi R b A vnvb R vb vBeb | Z uvnvi A c vw Z Z uvnvi A eewnZ
c ~eA emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ K c a vb Dc ` vi c ` MnYi R b
A vnvb R vb vBeb | Z uvnvi A c vw Z i vc wZ A vc xj wef vMi mek l
A emi c v wePvi c wZ K c a vb Dc ` vi c ` MnYi R b A vnvb
R vb vBeb | Z uvnvi A c vw Z Z u vnvi A eewnZ c ~e A emi c v
wePvi c wZ K c a vb Dc ` vi c ` MnYi R b A vnvb R vb vBeb |

A vc xj wef vMi K vb A emi c v wePvi K i A c vw Z i vc wZ ,
h Z ` ~i m e, c a vb i vR b wZ K ` j mg ~ni mwnZ A vj vPb v g ,
evsj v` k i h mK j b vMwi K GB A b y Q` i A a xb Dc ` v wb h y
nBevi hvM 5 8 M A b y Q` i ( 5 ) ` d v A b yhvq x Z vnv` i g a nBZ
c a vb Dc ` v wb q vM K wi eb |

h w` Dc i ewYZ K vb ew K c a vb Dc ` v c ` wb q vMi
R b c vI q v b v h vq , Z vnv nBj i vc wZ GB mswea vb i A a xb Z uvnvi
^xq ` vwq Z i A wZ wi wnmve wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi i c a vb
Dc ` vi ` vwq Z MnY K wi eb |

c Z xq g vb nq h q v` k msk va b i d j Dc i v f ve c a vb
Dc ` v c a vb g xi j vwf wl nBe b | Rules of Business Gi Rule-34 G
BnvB c yb e K i v nBq vQ|

GL vb c yb i j L K i v c q vR b h i vi wZ b wU c a vb i
g a wb evnx wef vM GK wU| wb evnx wef vMi Ges i vi mev P c `
i vc wZ A wa vb _ vwK j I c K Z wb evnx g Z v c a vb g x I Z uvnvi
297
g w mf vi Dc i b | Bnv a yg v mywea vi R b K i v nq b vB, Bnvi
GK wU mvswea vwb K evL v i wnq vQ|

evsj v` k i vi Pvwi w K ewk nBj Bnv GK wU c R vZ
( A b y Q` - 1) | mswea vb i c _ g f vMi wk i vb vg nBj c R vZ | GB
f vMi c wZ wU A b y Q` c R vZ k wU evi sevi D Pvi Y K i v
nBq vQ| 7 ( 1) A b y Q` R b MY h c R vZ i g vwj K Z vnv A wZ
K wi q v ej v nBq vQ| GB c R vZ h GK wU MYZ nBe Z vnv 11
A b y Q` ej v nBq vQ| Z vnvQvo v, GB mswea vb i A b Z g g ~j b xwZ
nBe MYZ Z vnv mswea vb i c veb vq ej v nBq vQ| GK B g ~j b xwZ i
K _ v 8 A b y Q` I ej v nBq vQ|

GB c vc U Bnv A wZ k q ^vf vweK h i v ee vc b vi c wZ wU
i c R vZ vw K Z v I MYZ vw K Z v A v` k wnmve c ywUZ | wb t m` n
BnvB evsj v` k i mswea vb i g ~j wf w ev basic structure | c veb v I
mswea vb i m ~Yweb vm nBZ Dc i v wf w I basic structure wb w Z
f ve wb Yq K i v hvq | mswea vb Gg b f ve K L b B msk va b K i v h vq
b v hvnvZ Dc i v ` yB basic structure Gi K vb c K vi c wi eZ b nq
h vnvZ mswea vb i c wi Pq ev Pwi c wi ewZ Z nBq v h vq |

h c wi eZ b R b MYi mvef g Z i wec h vq , Z vnv h Z ^
mg q i R b B nDK b v, R b MYi ^v_ ev c eenvi K i v nBZ Q
Z vnv ej v h vq b v| 14 2 A b y Q` i A a xb R vZ xq msm` h K vb
msk va b K wi Z c vi mZ wK R b MYi mvef g Z , i vxq b xwZ i
c R vZ vw K Z v I MYZ vw K Z v K L b B c wi eZ b K wi Z c vi b v,
Gg b wK zb I K wi Z c vi b v| memg q g b i vwL Z nBe h j vL v
k nx` i i i A vL i GB mswea vb i wPZ nBq vQ, Bnv L j va yj vi e y
b n| R vZ xq msm` h A vBb B K i K b v K b Z vnv mswea vb i 7
A b y Q` vi v A ek B c i xw Z nBZ nBe| K vi Y msk va b i
g Z vI mswea vb B R vZ xq msm` K c ` vb K wi q vQ|


298
R vZ xq msm` i mswea vb msk va b i wek vj g Z v i wnq vQ,
Bnv mZ , wK Bnv mswea vb i K vb g ~j wf w yb K wi Z c vi b v,
Gg b wK n c I K wi Z c vi b v| A wZ ^ mg q i R b I K vb
A R ynvZ c R vZ ev MYZ yb K wi q v Mv xZ A vb q b K wi Z c vi
b v| h K vb i c msk va b we` g vb mswea vb i mxg vi g a B _ vwK Z
nBe| we` g vb A e vb nBZ A b K vb c wZ Z c wi eZ b nI q v,
h g b , mvswea vwb K MYZ nBZ GK b vq K Z i vee v ev Mv xZ
c wi eZ b K i v h vBe b v|


A eva my zI wb i c wb evPb wb t m` n mswea vb i GK wU basic
structure, wK H i c wb evPb A b y vb i R b wb evPb K wg k b K c K Z
A _ k w k vj x K wi Z nBe, we` g vb mi K vi K mswea vb I A vBb
g vb K wi Z eva K wi Z nBe| wK mB A R ynvZ K vb msk va b
vi v R b MYi mvef g Z K K vb f veB yb K i v hvq b v, A _ ev
c R vZ I MYZ i c wi eZ GK b vq K Z ev Mvw Z A vb q b K i v
h vBe b v| A b _ vq Bnv nBe mvswea vwb K hara-kiri|

memg q mi Y i vwL Z nBe h g ~j mswea vb R b MY Bnvi
MYc wi l ` i g va g mw K wi q vQ wK msk va b R vZ xq msm` A vb q b
K wi q vQ|

A vi v mi Y i vwL Z nBe h K vb msk va b x vi v mswea vb i
g ~j wf wi wec i xZ K vb wK QyK i v h vq b v| GK vi Y Z wK Z msk va b x
mvswea vwb K f ve ea wK b v Z vnv wb i c Yi R b g ~j mswea vb i mwnZ
Z zj b v c q vR b nq | g ~j mswea vb h L b MnY K i v nBq vwQj Z L b
^Z t wm b xwZ wnmve MnxZ b xwZ wj i mwnZ Z wK Z msk va b xwU wK
mvsNwl K ev D g ~j b xwZ c wi c x Z vnv weePb v K wi Z nBe|
Z vnvQvo v, Z wK Z msk va b xwU g ~j mswea vb i mwnZ mwZ c ~YwK b v
Z vnvI weePb v K wi Z nBe| h w` mwZ c ~Y nq Z e Z wK Z
msk va b xwU ea nBe| wK h w` Dnv g ~j mswea vb i mwnZ GZ UvB
A mvg mc ~Ynq h Z wK Z msk va b xwU g ~j mswea vb i mwnZ mymsMZ
299
nBe b v, m msk va b xwU A mvswea vwb K Z _ v A ea nBe|
BnvQvo v, A vi I A b ya veb K wi Z nBe h Z wK Z msk va b xwU wK
MYZ vw K Pwi wei va x, Bnv wK g ~j mswea vb e i vi c R vZ vw K
Pwi K K vb f ve wZ M K i , h w` K i m I Z wK Z
msk va b xwU A ea nBe|

GBevi Z wK Z mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 6 , g ~j
mswea vb i wK a i b i c wi eZ b A vb q b K wi q vQ Ges Z vnv mswea vb i
g ~j wf w I basic structure K yb K i wK b v Z vnv c i x v K i v nBe|

^xK wZ g Z B i vc wZ i vi mev P c ` vwa K vi x ew nBj I
wZ wb wb q g Z vw K i vc a vb | g ~j mswea vb Z uvnvi K vb wb evnx g Z v
b vB| A _ P Z wK Z msk va b x i v c a vb i nvZ wb evnx g Z v c ` vb
K wi q v mswea vb i g ~j Pwi B c wi eZ b K wi q v d wj q vQ| g ~j
mswea vb R b MYi g Z vq b B c a vb Dc R xe| GB K vi YB wb evwPZ
c a vb g x I Z uvnvi g w mf vi Dc i B i vi mK j wb evnx g Z v A c b
K i v nBq vQ| Z uvnv` i g va g B R b MYi g Z vq b | A _ P GK w` K
A wb evwPZ c a vb Dc ` v I A b vb Dc ` vMY g w mf vi wb evnx
g Z v c q vM K wi Z Qb | A b w` K i vc wZ wb R c wZ i v
g Yvj q i wb evnx ` wvq Z c vj b K i b | 4 8 A b y Q` i ( 3 ) ` d vi
g va g R b MYi c wZ wb wa I g w mf vi g yL c v Ges R vZ xq msm`
R b MYi c wZ wb wa MYi A v vf vR b c a vb g xi c i vg k A b ymvi
i vc wZ Z uvnvi mK j ` vwq Z c vj b K wi evi K _ v Ges GBf ve
i vc wZ i mK j K vR i g a I R b MY Dc w Z _ vK | Gg b wK R i i x-
A e v Nvl Yv K wi evi c ~eI c a vb g xi c i vg k I c wZ - ^v i i
g va g R b MYi m Z v I Dc w wZ wb w Z K i v nBq vQ|
c a vb g xI Z uvnvi c wZ wU c i vg k I c wZ ^v i i c ~eg w mf vi
wm v MnY K i b | Dj L , Z uvnvi v h _ f ve R vZ xq msm` i wb K U
` vq e | GBf ve g ~j mswea vb i vi c R vZ vw K I MYZ vw K Pwi
eR vq i vL v wb w Z K i v nBq vQ| wK Z wK Z msk va b x g vi d r 4 8
A b y Q` i ( 3 ) ` d vi eva eva K Z v Ges R i i x- A e v Nvl Yvq
300
c a vb g xi c wZ - ^v i i k Z wej y K wi q v i vc wZ i ` vwq Z c vj b
R b MYK A b yc w Z K i Z t wZ b g vmi R b nBj I , Z wK Z msk va b xi
g q v` g a R b MYi mvef g Z , i vi c R vZ vw K I MYZ vw K
Pwi , mswea vb i GB wZ b wU basic sturcture L eK i v nBq vQ|

Z vnvQvo v, g w mf vi wm v I c a vb g xi c i vg k ewZ i K
A wb evwPZ Dc ` v- mf vi wm v A b ymvi i vc wZ K Z K A a v` k
c Yq b I R vi x GK wU A MYZ vw K c ` c h vnv i vi MYZ vw K Pwi
GB basic sturcture Gi mwnZ mvsNwl K |

c K Z c , Z wK Z msk va b xi A a xb i vi c R vZ vw K I
MYZ vw K Pwi h f ve j y nq Z vnvi mwnZ g ~j mswe a vb i A a xb
evsj v` k i vi A v` wk K Pwi i mwnZ K vb f veB mvg m A vb q b
m e b q |

Z wK Z msk va b x g ~j mswea vb i wf w ` yB c a vb basic sturcture,
c R vZ I MYZ i c wi eZ Mv xZ A vb q b K wi q vQ h vnvi c a vb
i vc wZ wb R | GBi c Mv xZ i mwnZ g ~j mswea vb i ^Z t wm
b xwZ wj GK evi B A msMwZ c ~YI mvsNwl K Ges mswea vb i Pole-
star 7 A b y Q` i m ~Yc wi c x|

Z vnvQvo v, i vc wZ h w` 5 8 M A b y Q` i ( 6 ) ` d v A b yh vq x ^xq
` vwq Z i A wZ wi wnmve wb ` j xq Z ve a vq K mi K vi i c a vb
Dc ` vi ` vwq Z MnY K i b Z vnv nBj evsj v` k GK b vq K Z vw K
i v c wi YZ nBe| BnvI g ~j mswea vb i ^Z t wm A v` wk K
b xwZ wj i m ~Yc wi c x I mvsNwl K |

A vi GK wU h yw D vc b K i v K i v nBq vQ h Z wK Z mswea vb
( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb Gi A a xb vwc Z wb ` j xq Z vea vq K
mi K vi c k wU g ~j Z GK wU i vR b wZ K c k wea vq A A v` vj Z i K Z Z
ewnf ~Z |

D vwc Z h yw wU A v` mwVK b n| Bnv wVK h a ~g v K vb
i vR b wZ K wei va wb wZ A v` vj Z K L b B A sk MnY K wi e b v|
301
Z e h w` K vb A vBb MZ ev mvswea vwb K ea Z v I A wa K vi i c k
D vwc Z nq Z vnv nBj GB myc xg K vUD vwc Z wel q wU weePb v
K wi e K vi Y, myc xg K vUmswea vb i A wef veK wnmve mswea vb I
A vBb i i Y, mg _ b I wb i vc v wea vb K wi Z mvswea vwb K f ve
eva | Z vnvQvo v, mvswea vwb K K vb wei va wb wi mwnZ i vR b wZ K
c k R wo Z _ vwK j I _ vwK Z c vi | m I GB A v` vj Z Bnvi
mvswea vwb K ` vwq Z I K Z e mswea vb I A vBb A b ymvi c vj b K wi Z
K L b B Go vBq v h vBZ c vi b v ev A b xnv c K vk K wi Z c vi b v|
K vi Y mswea vb evL v I wek l Y K wi evi ` vwq Z myc xg K vUi Dc i
b | R b MYi wb K U myc xg K vUi BnvB mvswea vwb K ` vq e Z v|

4 0 | Z ve a vq K mi K vi Gi A a xb mva vi Y wb evPb t
ewk i f vM we Amicus Curiae wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi ee vi c
g Z c K vk K wi q vQb | Z vnvi v evsj v` k GK wU wb i c I my y
wb evPb A b y vb i R b GB ee v GK v B A c wi nvh ewj q v g Z c K vk
K wi q vQb | Bnv vq x ee v wnmve c eZ b K i v nBq vQ wK b v c k
K wi j R b ve wU GBP L vb ej b h Bnv vq x ee v b v nBj I
wb i c I my y wb evPb A b y vb i ^ v_ GB ee v ew` b A evnZ
i vwL Z nBe| K Z w` b wR vmv K wi j wZ wb Z vr wYK f ve ej b ,
A Z c vk er mi i R b c q vR b nBe|
Z uvnv` i c vq mK j i B a vi Yv h wb evPb ms v mK j mg mvi
mg va vb Z vea vq K mi K vi ee vi g a B wb wnZ i wnq vQ| BnvB
mK j wb ` vb i Dc mg | A Z Ge, Z vea vq K mi K vi ee v 19 9 6 ,
2 0 0 1 I 2 0 0 6 mvj wK f ve mg mv mg va vb c ` c MnY
K wi q vwQj Z vnv R vwb evi Pv K i v c q vR b |
GB i vq i c _ g w` K B 19 9 4 mvj A b yw Z g v i vi Dc -
wb evPb i K _ v ej v nBq vQ| H wb evPb mec _ g b vb v c K vi
A wb q g i A wf h vM I V| ` yB er mi ec x g vMZ A v` j b i g ~L
mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 6 , c YxZ nq |
302
Dc i v A vBb i A a xb mec _ g m g R vZ xq msm` i
wb evPb A b yw Z nq | D wb evPb NUb v ej wQj b v Z vnv ej v h vq
b v| 19 9 6 mvj i 2 0 k g Z vwi L XvK vi i vR c _ XvK vevmx
K Z znj I wemq i mwnZ mvg wi K evwnb xi Uv Pj vPj c Z K i |
K vb K vb mi j g b v ew GB wj K K vb c v_ xi wb evPb x c Z xK g b
K wi q vwQj b | h vnv nDK , ` k i mf vM h k l c h mswk
mK j i f eyw i D` K nq Ges ` k A vevi I GK wU wec h q i nvZ
nBZ i v c vq |
A g R vZ xq msm` i wb evPb c a vb Dc ` v k c _ j Bevi
c i c i B Z vnvi Dc ` v c wi l ` k c _ j Bevi c ~eB ek K q K R b
mwPeK e` wj i A v` k c ` vb K i b | Z vi c i g vb q e K g K Z vK
e` wj K i v nq | d j GK i vR b wZ K ` j i c nBZ c ej A vc w
D vc b K wi q v Z vea vq K mi K vi i Dc i A b v v vc b K wi Z
_ vK | A b w` K A vi GK wU i vR b wZ K ` j h _ e` wj K i v nBZ Q
b v ewj q v Z vea vq K mi K vi i Dc i A b v v vc b K i |
2 0 0 4 mvj i g a f vM mswea vb ( PZ z` k msk va b ) A vBb ,
2 0 0 4 , wewa e K i v nq | D A vBb A b vb wel q i mwnZ myc xg
K vUi wePvi K MYi A emi Mg b i eq m 6 5 er mi nBZ ew K wi q v
6 7 er mi K i v nq | mi K vi c Bnvi K vi Y wnmve ej v nq h
A wf wePvi K MYK A vi I ` yB er mi PvK zi xZ i vwL evi g nr D k
GBi c A vBb K i v nq | A c i w` K Z ` vb x b wei va x` j i c c ej
A vc w D vc b K wi q v ej v nq h A emi c v q v` k c a vb
wePvi c wZ K b eg R vZ xq msm` i wb evPb c a vb Dc ` v wb q vM
c ` vb K wi evi D k B Dc i v f ve mswea vb msk va b K i Z t myc xg
K vUi wePvi K MYi eq m ew K i v nq |
2 0 0 6 mvj i k l f vM wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi wb q vMi
c v vj Z ` vb x b i vc wZ mswea vb i 5 8 M A b y Q` i ( 6 ) ` d vi
A a xb wb R B c a vb Dc ` vi c ` MnY K i b | BnvZ mg M ` k
c ej DR b v I A v` vj b A vi nq | mg M ` k GK i K g
303
A Pj ve vi mw nq | Gg b wK mb vevwnb xI g vZ vq b K wi Z nq | Z e
Gmg q I A b K c wZ ew i vc wZ i Z r K vj xb f ~wg K vi f ~q mx
c k smv K wi q vQb |
` k i GBi c A w i c wi w wZ Z 11- 1- 2 0 0 7 Z vwi L i vc wZ
c a vb Dc ` vi c ` nBZ c ` Z vM K i b Ges mg M ` k R i i x
A e v Nvl Yv K i b | Z uvnvi Nvl Yv wb i c t
wemwg j vwni i vng vwb i i vnxg |
wc q ` k evmx, A vmmvj vg yA vj vBK zg |
` k I R vwZ i vw j MwK Qy i Z c ~YK _ v Ges wm v
A vc b v` i K vQ Dc vc b K i vi R b A vwg A vc b v` i mvg b
nvwR i nq wQ| weMZ 2 9 A vei 2 0 0 6 Z vwi L A vwg mswea vb
Gi 5 8 M a vi v g vZ veK Dc ` vi ` vwq Z f vi MnY K wi Ges
Dc ` vg j x mnK vi A eva , wb i c Ges my z wb evPb
A b y vb i j wewf b c ` c MnY K wi | A vg v` i c vq
meK wU wm v I c ` c mK j i vR b wZ K ` j mg ~n K Z K
mg v` Z nq wb | c vq c wZ wU wm v GK R vU c g Z vg Z
w` j I A b R vU wec A e vb wb q Q| c v i ` k i
i vR b wZ K A Y ` L v w` q Q k vw , k sL j v I mwn yZ vi
A f ve| Dc ` v c wi l ` i H K vw K c P v mZ I weMZ A vo vB
g vm ` k nvb vnvwb , m vm, I i v msNl nq Q| wewf b
i vR b wZ K ` j i A mwn y I wnsmvZ K A vPi Yi d j S i
MQ A b K g ~j evb wb vc c vY, ` k A _ b xwZ Mf xi f ve
wec h | mg M ` k Qwo q c o Q mwnsmZ v, h v A vi v c K U
A vK vi a vi Y K i e ej A vg vi wek vm| mg M R vwZ A vR DM,
Dr K v, A w i Z v I A wb q Z vh wb c wZ Z | ` k i k vw k sL j v
` vi Yf ve wewNZ | K g - ek x mevB R vb - g vj i wb i vc vnxb Z vq
A v v | MYg vb yl i ` b w` b R xeb - h vc b nq Q mxg vnxb K I
` yf vMi wk K vi |
Z vea vq K mi K vi i A b Z g K vR k vw c ~Y, my z I
wb i c f ve msm` wb evPb A b y vb wb evPb K wg k b K mevZ K
mvnvh I mnvq Z v K i v| A eva , my y I wb i c wb evPb i
c ~ek Z n Q, wb evPb x c w q v i i c v vj GK wU wb f yj f vUvi
Z vwj K v c yZ K i v| mvswea vwb K f ve msm` wb evPb i R b
f vUvi Z vwj K v c yZ i ` vwq Z wb evPb K wg k b i | A vmb wb evPb
Dc j f vUvi Z vwj K v msk va b i nj ` L v h vq , GwU
304
wewf b a i Yi wU- wePzwZ Z c wi c ~YGes Gi MnYh vMZ v
c k mvc | mswea vb i 12 3 ( 3 ) b s A b y Q` msm` f
h vevi c i eZ x 9 0 w` b i g a msm` m` m` i mva vi Y wb evPb
A b y vb i wel q wb ` k b v ` q v A vQ| wK i p ev eZ v nj v,
G 9 0 w` b mg q mxg vi g a GK wU wbf zj f vUvi Z vwj K v c Yq b
K i A eva , my y, wb i c I mK j i wb K U MnYh vM wb evPb
A b y vb m e b q | BwZ g a g nv H K R vU _ K f vU MnY
A b y vb ^ Q evj U ev eenvi K i v I f vUvi ` i c wi Pq c
c ` vb K i vi wel q ` vwe D vc b K i Qb | R vZ xq msm` i
mva vi Y wb evPb GK wU eq ej c w q v wb w` g q v` i g a
GK vwa K mva vi Y wb evPb K L b I ` k i R b g j R b K ne
b v| mK j ` j i A sk MnY ewZ Z h K vb mva vi Y wb evPb ` k
I we` k MnYh vM ne b v|
wc q ` k evmx, ` k i eo ` ywU i vR b wZ K ` j i b Z Z
A b vb i vR b wZ K ` j mg ~n ` ywU R vUi A f ~ nq ` ywU
wec i xZ g i Z A e vb K i Q| ` ywU i vR b wZ K R vUi
K g K v Gf ve Pj Z _ vK j ` k i Db wZ I A MMwZ enZ
ne Ges ` k mvg b i w` K G b vi c wi eZ wc Qb i w` K
h Z _ vK e| GK wU ` k K m ve Db wZ i j c Q w` Z
nj R vZ xq b Z Z Pvi wU b vej xi mg b q c q vR b | h _ v,
mZ Z v, A v wi K Z v, Z vM I ` k c g | A vg v` i R vZ xq b Z Z
Pvi wU b vej xi mg b q n Q wK b v Z v g ~j vq b i ` vwq Z
` k evmxi | mwVK b Z Z h GK wU ` k K Cl vwb Z c h vq wb q
h vq Z vi D` vni Y A vg v` i G g nv` k B i q Q|
` k i A vc vg i R b MYi c Z vk v GK wU A eva , my y I
wb i c wb evPb i g va vg h vi v R q x ne Z v` i vi v ` k
c wi Pvwj Z nvK | wK we` g vb c wi w wZ Z Z v wK QyZ B m e
b q | Gw` K Df q R vUi wec i xZ g ~L x A e vb i K vi Y Z vi v ^
^K g m~Px wb q GwMq h Z _ vK j ` k m ve wec h q i g yL
c wZ Z ne| ` k i A _ b xwZ , eemv- evwYR wZ M ne,
i d Z vb xZ a m b vg e Ges mevc wi ` k A i vR K Z v I b i vR
wei vR K i e|
wc q ` k evmx, 19 7 1 mvj i i q x h y i g va g
A wR Z A vg v` i wc q g vZ f ~wg Z GB a i Yi c wi w wZ K vi vi B
K vg wQj b v| ^va xb evsj v` k mwi wZ b h yM c i A vR K I
` k evmx g wi q v nq L u yR eo v Q k vw , k sL j v, wb i vc v I
^w Z | A b vPvi A ee vc b v, A mwn yZ v I mxg vnxb ` yb xwZ i
K vi Y R b MYi A vk v, A vK vL v, myL I k vw wb evwmZ | ej v
305
h vq , MYZ PPvi b vg Pj Q A MYZ vw K A vPi Y, c nmb I
c Z vi Yv| GB A e v A evnZ f ve Pj yK R b MY Z v Pvq b v| Z vB
GB A e vi A emvb NwUq c wi eZ b A vb Z ne| c wi w wZ i
Db wZ NUvZ ne| R b MYK myL I k vw Z emevm K i vi
myh vM K i w` Z ne| ^va xb f ve Z v` i c Q` g vZ veK
wb i c , A eva I my ywb evPb i g va g GK wU mr I Dc h y
mi K vi MVb i A wa K vi I myh vM w` Z ne| GB g nr c q vR b
ee v MnYi wb wg A vg v` i mg q i c q vR b |
wc q ` k evmx, ` k i k vw wc q g vb yl h vi v A MMwZ I
c MwZ Z wek vm K i Z vi v K DB Pvq b v ` k i A c vi m veb vi
c _ i vR b wZ K A w wZ k xj Z vi K vi Y i nq h vK | G K _ v
A ^xK vi K i vi K vi Y b B h, BwZ g a c k vmb , c ywj k I wePvi
wef vMi D Pv` vj Z i f veg ywZ ` vi Yf ve zb nq Q| ` k K
me ^vej ^x K i Z nj , ` k i A _ b xwZ K mPj i vL Z
nj , ` k i i d Z vb x evwYR i c mvi NUvZ nj , ` k A vBb
k sL j v wb q Y i vL Z nj Ges ` k i Db q b i a vi vK
A evnZ i vL Z nj eZ g vb c wi w wZ Z R i i x A e v Nvl Yv
A Z vek K nq c o Q| Dc i v K vi Y Ges ` k I R b MYi
mevxY g j i K _ v weePb vq wb q R i i x A e v Nvl Yv K i wQ
h v mg Me vsj v` k ej er _ vK e|
ew MZ f ve A vg vi mi K vi I c mvk b i j GK wU
A eva , my y I MnYh vM wb evPb A b y vb , mr f ve MYZ PPv
Ges c Z vwk Z R vZ xq msm` i wb evPb i g va g R b MYi
K vwL Z mi K vi c wZ vi myh vM mw K i v| GB K vR I k vw -
k L j v c yb t D vi Ges mi K vi K c q vR b xq mvnvh K i vi R b
BwZ g a ` k c wg K I c i xw Z mb vevwnb xK Z j e K i v
nq Q| A vwg A vk v K wi c ~ei g Z vB Z vi v ` k i myb vg A zb
i L Z v` i Dc i b ` vwq Z myPvi i c c vj b K i e|
A vwg i vc wZ c ` i A wZ wi Z vea vq K mi K vi c a vb i
` vwq Z b q vq h weZ K i mw nq Q Z v A vR ` k I R vwZ K
` ywU wec i xZ g yL x a vi vq wef K i Q| ` k i c MwZ I
A MMwZ i ^v_ I weZ K i A emvb nI q v ev b xq | mK j
i vR b wZ K ` j i A sk MnYi g va g GK wU MnYh vM
wb evPb i c _ K myMg K i vi j A vwg Z vea vq K mi K vi
c a vb i c ` _ K B d v c ` vb i wm v MnY K i wQ Ges A vwg
A vMvg x 2 / 1 w` b i g a GK wU Dc ` v c wi l ` MVb K i ev|
b Z zb Dc ` v c wi l ` MVb i c ~e c h eZ g vb c wi l ` i
R Z g Dc ` v f vi c v wnmve ` vwq Z c vj b K i eb |
306
b eMwVZ A eZ x mi K vi mswk mK j i mv_ A vj vPb v K i
^ mg q i g a GK wU A eva , my y, wb i c I MnYh vM
wb evPb A vq vR b i g va g Z v` i Dc i A wc Z ` vwq Z c vj b
K i R b c wZ wb wa ` i vi v ` k k vmb i ee v K i eb |

A vj vn A vc b v` i mnvq nvb | A vj vn nvd R | evsj v` k
wR ` vev` |
( ` wb K Bd vK c w K vi 12 - 1- 2 0 0 7 Z vwi L i c w K v nBZ
D Z )

BnvB nBj ej c Pvwi Z I A wZ c k swmZ Z I vea vq K mi K vi i
Z _ vK w_ Z mvd j i mi K vi x f vl | g e wb q vR b |
` yB GK w` b i g a i vc wZ b ~Z b c a vb Dc ` v I Dc ` v
c wi l ` wb q vM c ` vb K i Z t Z vea vq K mi K vi c yb MwVZ K i b |
c yb MwVZ GB Z vea vq K mi K vi ` yB er mi K vj h veZ mi K vi
c wi Pvj b v K i b | A _ P Z wK Z mswea vb msk va b A vBb i A vI Z vq
Z vea vq K mi K vi i g q v` K vb g B b eB w` b i A wZ wi
nBevi K _ v b q |
Bnv mZ h mswea vb i PZ z_ f vMi 2 K c wi Q` G 5 8 L
A b y Q` wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi MVb i wea vb _ vwK j I Bnvi
g q v` m ^ K vb wea vb b vB wK msk vwa Z 12 3 ( 3 ) A b y Q`
wb i c wea vb i wnq vQ t
12 3 ( 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
( 3 ) g q v` A emvb i K vi Y A _ ev g q v` A emvb eZ xZ
A b K vb K vi Y msm` f vswMq v h vBevi c i eZ x b eB w` b i
g a msm` - m` m` i mva vi Y wb evPb A b yw Z nBe|
Bsi R x f vl t
123.(1) ............................
............................
(3) A general election of members of Parliament shall be
held within ninety days after Parliament is dissolved,
whether by reason of the expiration of its term or
otherwise than by reason of such expiration.
307
Dc i v wea vb wb evPb A b y vb b eB w` b i g a A b yw Z
K wi evi K _ v ej v nBq vQ| K vR B mva vi Y wb evPb msm` f vswMq v
h vBevi 9 0 w` b i g a A b yw Z K wi Z nBe| A vi , wb ` j xq
Z vea vq K mi K vi MVb K wi evi GK g v D k nBZ Q mva vi Y
wb evPb A b y vb | mswea vb wek l Y K wi evi wb q g nBZ Q h
mswea vb i GK wU A b y Q` c _ K f ve weePb v K wi j nBe b v, mg M
mswea vb GK weePb v K wi q v Bnvi g g A b ya veb K wi Z nBe|
eZ g vb a yg v PZ z_ f vMi 2 K c wi Q` wew Qb f ve weePb v
K wi j nBe b v, Bnvi mwnZ 12 3 ( 3 ) A b y Q` I weePb v K wi Z
nBe| 5 8 L I 12 3 ( 3 ) A b y Q` GK wek l Y K wi j wb w Z f ve
c Z xq g vb nBe h Z vea vq K mi K vi i g q v` 9 0 w` b , Bnvi
A wZ wi b q |
A Z Ge, wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi i g q v` mev P 9 0 w` b |
wK g ~j mswea vb Ges Gg b wK mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b )
A vBb i A vI Z vi evwni 9 0 w` b i A wa K c vq ` yB er mi K vj m ~Y
A ea f ve Dj wL Z wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi ` k k vmb
K wi q vQ| 9 0 w` b i A wZ wi mg q K vj m ~YA mvswea vwb K f ve
DI mi K vi ` k k vmb K wi q vQ|
GB mg q K vj i g a Z ` vb x b mi K vi ewea c k vmwb K I A b
b vb vwea K vh g c wi Pvj b v K wi q vQ| i v I R b MYi ^v_ H
mg q K vj i mK j A ea Z v g vR b v K i v ( condone) K i v c q vR b nBe|
Dj L h mswea vb i 12 1 A b y Q` A b ymvi msm` wb evPb i
R b GK wU f vUvi Z vwj K v eva Z vg ~j K f ve c yZ i vwL evi wea vb
i wnq vQ| Z vnvQvo v, mswea vb i 12 3 A b y Q` A b ymvi I A a xb
mg q g Z mva vi Y wb evPb A b y vb K wi evi mK j ` vq I ` vwq Z wb evPb
K wg k b i Dc i b | wb w` mg q mxg vi g a wb evPb A b y vb K wi Z
b v c vwi j mswea vb f K wi evi ` vq - ` vwq Z wb evPb K wg k b i Dc i B
eZ veB, Z e wej ^ A b yw Z wb evPb i ea Z v zb nq b v, wb evPb
ea B _ vK |
308
A vi GK wU wel q A vg v` i b R i A vwmq vQ| c Z xq g vb nq
2 0 0 7 mvj i 11B R vb yq vi x Z vwi L i GK A v` k ej i vc wZ ` k
R i i x- A e v R vi x K wi q vwQj b Ges D R i i x- A e v c vq ` yB er mi
K vj ` k ej er wQj | ^xK Z g Z B H mg q R vZ xq msm` i
A wa ek b we` g vb A e vq wQj b v|
R i i x- A e v R vi x K wi Z nBj Z vnv A ek B mswea vb i
14 1K A b y Q` e k Z vw` c vj b mvc R vi x K wi Z nBe Ges
Dnvi g q v` D wea vb ewYZ g q v` A b ymvi B nBZ nBe| R i i x
A e v R vi xi ea Z v m K K vb g e ewZ i K Bnv wa vnxb f ve
ej v h vq h R vZ xq msm` i A b yg v` b ewZ i K c vq ` yB er mi K vj
R i i x- A e v eR vq i vL v A vc vZ ` wZ B (on the face of it) A ea ewj q v
c Z xq g vb nq | msm` i A b yg v` b ewZ i K h K q w` b R i i x- A e v
eR vq i vL v m e, mB K q w` b B R i i x A e v eR vq _ vwK e, Z r c i
^q sw q f ve Z vnv A K vh K i nBq v h vBe| 14 1K A b y Q`
ewnf ~Z f ve K L b B R i i x- A e v R vi x ev Pj g vb i vL v h vBe b v|
A b _ vq mswea vb f nBe |
Dc i v A vj vPb v nBZ c Z xq g vb nBe h A wZ c k swmZ
19 9 6 mvj i Z vea vq K mi K vi , 2 0 0 1 mvj i wZ xq Z vea vq K
mi K vi ev 2 0 0 6 / 2 0 0 7 mvj i Z vea vq K mi K vi q K vb wUB
K vwL Z A v v g vUI R vMZ K i b v|
19 9 6 mvj i c _ g Z vea vq K mi K vi A vg j ` k meb vk i
vi c v (precipice) Pvwj q v wMq vwQj | Z vnv A vi h vnvB nvK ej
c Pvwi Z I c k swmZ wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi i wek vmh vMZ v I
K wZ Z i mv enb K i b v| wb evPb i c i GK wU i vR b wZ K ` j
wb evPb i d j vd j MnY K wi Z A ^xK vi K i |
2 0 0 1 mvj i wZ xq Z vea vq K mi K vi A vg j wewf b
i vR b wZ K ` j GK A c i i c wZ A wf h vM A vb q b Ges mevc wi
309
Z vea vq K mi K vi K g vMZ c k we K wi q vQ| wb evPb i c i GK wU
i vR b wZ K ` j wb evPb i d j vd j MnY K wi Z A ^xK vi K i |
Z vnv nBj c v_ K Uv wK nBj | mswea vb msk va b vi v
Z I vea vq K mi K vi ee v A vb q b K wi q v c wi w wZ i Db wZ B ev wK
nBj | Z I vea vq K mi K vi vi v A b yw Z wb evPb Z v mK j i vR b wZ K
` j i wb K U Mnb h vM nq b v| Z vnv nBj GB ee vi mvd j
K v_ vq ?
2 0 0 6 mvj q v` k c a vb wePvi c wZ c a vb Dc ` vi c ` MnY
K wi Z A ^xK wZ vc b K i vq k l c h i vc wZ wb R B c a vb
Dc ` vi c ` MnY K i b | Bnv c K Z c GK b vq K Z c wZ v K i
Ges evsj v` k i vi g ~j wf w c R vZ I MYZ m ~Ywb evmb
h vq | c P MYA v` vj b i g yL wZ wb 2 0 0 7 mvj i 11B R vb yq vi x
Z vwi L c ` Z vM K i b |
GB mK j NUb vej x A vi h vnvB nvK Z vea vq K mi K vi i
mvd j ev MnYh vMZ v I wek vmh vMZ v A vb q b K i b v|
Bnvi c i R b ve d L i Dw b A vng ` c a vb Dc ` v wnmve
wb q vM c vb | m eZ t mswea vb msk va b x A b ymvi 5 8 L A b y Q` i
( 5 ) ` d vi A a xb Z uvnvi wb q vM nq |
c k I V h i vc wZ wK 5 8 L ( 5 ) A b y Q` i A a xb c a vb
Dc ` v wb q vM c ` vb i c Pv ewZ i K B wK 5 8 L ( 6 ) A b y Q` i
A vI Z vq wb R c a vb Dc ` vi c ` MnY K wi q vwQj b ? A _ ev 5 8 L ( 6 )
A b y Q` i A vI Z vq wZ wb c a vb Dc ` vi c ` GK evi MnY K wi evi
c i c yb i vq 5 8 L ( 5 ) A b y Q` i A vI Z vq c a vb Dc ` vi c ` wb q vM
c ` vb K wi Z c vi b wK b v? h nZ z Z wK Z q v` k msk va b
A vBb wUi B ea Z v weePb v K i v nBZ Q, mnZ z Dc i v c k wj
wek l Y K wi evi K vb c q vR b b vB|
c ~eB ej v nBq vQ h Gg b wK Z wK Z mswea vb ( q v` k
msk va b ) A vBb i A a xb I wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi mev P 9 0
310
w` b g Z vq _ vwK Z c vi , Z vnvi A wa K b n| Gg Z A e vq A wZ wi
c vq GK er mi b q g vm K vj D wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi
mswea vb , Gg b wK Z wK Z mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb i I
A vI Z v ewnf ~Z f ve evsj v` k k vmb K wi q vQ| Bnvi K vb
mvswea vwb K ev A b K vb A vBb MZ ea Z v wQj b v| 2 0 0 6 mvj
A vei g vmi h Z vwi L Z ` vb x b c a vb g x 5 8 L ( 6 ) A b y Q` i
A vI Z vq Z ` vb x b i vc wZ i wb K U ` vwq Z f vi n v i K wi q vwQj b
mB Z vwi L nBZ 9 0 w` b c i Gg b wK Z wK Z ( msk va b ) A vBb i I
A vI Z vi evwni Z _ vK w_ Z Z vea vq K mi K vi g Z vq A wa w Z wQj |
GB mvswea vwb K hara-kiri m ^ we A vUb x- R b vi j ev Amicus
curiae MY K vb e e c k K i b b vB|

4 1| wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v I mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb t -
i xU&` i L v K vi x c R b ve Gg A vB d vi K x, GvW&f vK U,
wb e` b K i b h Z wK Z mswea vb msk va b xi A vBb g vi d r A emi c v
c a vb wePvi c wZ ev A vc xj wef vMi A emi c v wePvi c wZ MYK c a vb
Dc ` v wb q vM c ` vb K wi evi wea vb K wi q v wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v
L eK i v nBq vQ| wZ wb A vk v c K vk K i b h Bnvi d j i vR b wZ K
` j wj mswk wePvi K MYK wb R ` i c A vwb evi R b c f ve
we vi K wi Z _ vwK eb | Z vnvQvo v, h i vR b wZ K ` j mi K vi
i wnq vQ Z vnvi vI wb R ` i f vea vi vi ew K c a vb wePvi c wZ
K wi evi c q vm c vBeb | d j k wZ Z nq Z v A h vM ew c a vb
wePvi c wZ nBeb Ges h vM ew i A e` vb nBZ ` k I R vwZ
ew Z nBe|
wZ wb A vk v c K vk K i b h nq Z v K vb K vb wePvi c wZ
A mZ K g yZ c a vb Dc ` v nBevi A vK vL v c vl Y K wi q v K vb
wek l i vR b wZ K ` j i c wZ mnvb yf ~wZ k xj nBq v c wo Z c vi b |
d j b vq wePvi zb nBZ c vi | b vq wePvi zb nBj wePvi
wef vMi A w Z msK U mw nBZ c vi |
311
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yb K wi Z c vi | R b ve i wd K Dj nK c a vb Dc ` v wb q vM weK
c ve c k K i b |
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Lounge Gi m yL K wi Wi GK wU i vR b wZ K ` j i mg _ K A vBb R xwe
g nv` q Mb i GK vsk k q b i Z _ vwK q v mswk wePvi c wZ i A vc xj
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wePvi c wZ Z g b A b yi va K wi Z A b xnv c K vk K i b | Z r c i
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312
5 0 R b wePvi K ` yB NUvi Da K vj A vUK A e v nBZ g yw c vq |
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Z ` vb x b c a vb wePvi c wZ c i eZ xK vj wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi i
c a vb Dc ` v c ` wb q vM c vb | Z L b ` yB NUvi A wa K mg q myc xg
K vUi Df q wef vMi mK j A v` vj Z i K vh g e _ vK , wK c a vb
wePvi c wZ mg h vc h vMx ` p c ` c j BZ Z L b K b e_ nBj b |
Z vunvi A ePZ b g b c a vb Dc ` v nBevi A vK vL vB wK Z vunvK
c q vR b xq ` p c ` c j BZ eva v mw K wi q vwQj ? Z uvnvi g vb wmK
A e vb R vb v m e b q , wK Bnv GK wU m veb v eU| wb w Z nBevi
c q vR b b vB, GBi c m veb vB wePvi wef vMi R b m vb nvb xK i
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mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 6 , Gi A a xb
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msk va b xwU wewa e nq b vB wea vq c f vevwb Z nBevi K vb myh vM
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K vU evi Gvmvwmq k b i we m` mMYi g a h vnvi v wewf b
i vR b wZ K ` j i mg _ K Z vnv` i Z i d nBZ I K vb k K vZ i Z vi
c k Z L b ` L v ` q b vB|
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R wePvi K MYK A wZ v K i b | GK B f ve l vo k , m ` k I
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wePvi K K A wZ v K wi q v c a vb wePvi c wZ nb | q v` k c a vb
wePvi c wZ Z uvnvi R wePvi K K A wZ Gv K wi q v wb q vMc v nBj
Z g b K vb b nq b vB| wZ wb 2 6 - 1- 2 0 0 4 Z vwi L A emi Mg b
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313
c i eZ xZ mswea vb ( PZ z` k mswea vb ) A vBb g vi d r myc xg
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wei va x` j BnvZ c ej A vc w D vc b K wi Z _ vK |
Z vnvi v h yw D vc b K wi q v ej b h Z L b h i vR b wZ K ` j
mi K vi MVb K wi q vwQj wZ wb wePvi c wZ wnmve wb q vM c vBevi c ~e
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h D q v` k c a vb wePvi c wZ c a vb Dc ` vi c ` MnY K wi Z
A ^xK wZ R vb vb |
c Z xq g vb nBe h c a vb wePvi c wZ c ` b q ei c a vb
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eq mi g q v` ew i c i B a yZ uvnvi c a vb Dc ` v c ` wb q vMi
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f veg ~wZ wb w Z f ve zb nq Ges wePvi wef vMi f veg ~wZ
c i v f ve nBj I zb nq |
314
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mek l A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ , m GBi c eg yL x mg mvi
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mswea vb I A vBb i wek l Y eR b K wi q v i vq i g a K j ywl Z
i vR b xwZ A vwe vi K wi Z _ vK b | GB f ve wK QymsL K wePvi K i
mwnZ i vR b wZ K g b vf vem b wK Qy msL K A vBb R xwei ` yi Z mw
nBZ _ vK h vnv a xi a xi A b A vBb R xwe` i g a I ms g b nq |
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315
Z vunvi v Z vunv` i i vR b wZ K R xeb I A vBb c k vi g a GK wU c v_ K
memg q eR vq i vwL Z b | Z vunvi v A v` vj Z K m vb K wi Z b Ges
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K vb wePvi K K A m vb K wi Z b b v| Z vunvi v R vwb Z b h wePvi K K
A m vb Z vunv` i wb R ` i A m vb | K vi Y wePvi K i A m vb
A v` vj Z i A m vb , A vi A m vwb Z A v` vj Z m vwb Z K nB _ vK b
b v| A m vwb Z wePvi K I A v` vj Z i A vBb R xweMYK ` k i R b MYI
m vb K i b v|
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h K vb ` k i mev P wk w Z vb x Yx ew eMB i vR b xwZ
K wi Z b | c vPxb f vi Z Pvb K ev K wUj i g Z ew i vR b xwZ
K wi Z b | c vPxb Mxm m wUm, Wg vm_ wb m, c wi wK m,
A vwK wg wWm, c Uv, Gvwi vUj Gi b vq wk w Z I vb x ew
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Z L b i v c wi Pvj b vq A MYx f ~wg K v i vwL Z b | Bsj v nvi v, BUb ,
A d vW, K g exR , A vBb wk vi wewf b Inns of Court f we l r
i vR b xwZ we` MYi m~wZ K vMvi wQj | h y i vi ^va xb Z vi A MMvg x
wQj b Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, John Jay, Madison, Alexander Hamilton,
James Iredell, Thomas Jefferson c g yL ei Y i vR b xwZ we` MY| GB
Dc g nv` k i vR b xwZ i c yi vf vM wQj b g nvZ v Mvx, g vnv ` A vj x
wR b vn, g wZ j vj b ni , R I nvi j vj b ni , A ve` yj Mvd &d vi L vb ,
g vI j vb v A veyj K vj vg A vR v` , G. K . d R j yj nK , nvmb k nx`
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wb v I ` k i R b MYi c wZ wb L v` f vj evmv wQj c k vZ xZ |
GK R b i A vi GK R b i c wZ wQj A v wi K k veva I mnvb yf ~wZ |
GR b B Z vunvi v web v i c vZ wewUk - i vR i wb K U nBZ ` yBwU i v
^va xb K wi Z c vwi q vwQj b |
316
eZ g vb e vsj v` k g b nq GK R b A vi GK R b K nq K i v,
A m vb K i vB h b GL b G` k i ms wZ Z c wi YZ nBq vQ| BnvB
h b f wel r Db wZ i mvc vb Ges mvd j i evnb | Bnvi XD A v` vj Z
PZ i K I c ej f ve A v` vwj Z K wi Z Q| Z wK Z msk va b xi g va g
mek l A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ K c a vb Dc ` v K wi evi wea vb
GB A c ms wZ i R j ` v |
mva vi Y wb q g GK R b c a vb wePvi c wZ A emi Mg b K wi j
i vc wZ b ~Z b GK R b wePvi K K c a vb wePvi c wZ c ` wb q vM c ` vb
K i b | i vc wZ A vewk K f veB R vZ xq msm` , hL vb mi K vi c
i vR b wZ K ` j msL vMwi , Z vnv` i vi v wb evwPZ | hw` wnmve ` L v
h vq h Z wK Z msk va b x A b ymvi b ~Z b c a vb wePvi c wZ c i eZ x
wb evPb i c ~emek l A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ nBeb A _ vr wZ wb
c i eZ x wb evPb i mg q Z vea vq K mi K vi c a vb _ vwK eb m
mswk mK j B Z vunvi Dc i a ymZ K ` w i vL b Z vnvB b n mK j B
Z vunvi c wZ A wZ wi k K vZ i nBq v c o b |
K vb i vq B c a vb wePvi c wZ GK K wm v c ` vb K i b b v, wK
mB i vq h w` K vb i vR b wZ K ` j i ^v_ i wec h vq Z vnv nBj
A v` vj Z I A v` vj Z c vb D i vR b wZ K ` j i mg _ K
A vBb R xweMY c P A vj vo b mw K i b |
K vb K vb A vBb R xwe Z vnv` i c v_ b v g vwd K A v` k h vPT b v
K wi q v e_ nBj A m nb I b vb vf ve Z vnvi ewnt c K vk NU Ges
h K vb A R ynvZ c a vb wePvi c wZ i wei vPvi Y A vi K i b | A vevi
wei va x ` j xq A b K A vBb R xwe g b K i b h h nZ zmi K vi c xq
i vc wZ i wm v we` g vb c a vb wePvi c wZ D c ` wb q vM
c vBq vQb mnZ zA vMvg x wb evPb c a vb Dc ` v wnmve wZ wb A ek B
c wi Z vR | mB j h K vb A R ynvZ Z vnvi v c a vb wePvi c wZ i
wei A nZ zK Gg b DR b v I A v` vj b mw K wi Z _ vK b h vnv
c vq k B mva vi Y wk vPvi ewnf ~Z nBq v h vq | Z vnvQvo v, Z vnvi v b vb v
f ve Z vnvK weZ wK Z K wi Z _ vK b | c a vb wePvi c wZ wnmve A b K
317
mg q B Z vnvK A wc q wm v I j BZ nq , wK K vi Y ev A K vi YB
Z vnvi wei vPi b I c we A v` vj Z A b Pi g Dk L j A vPi Y
Pwj Z _ vK |
` p c k vmwb K c ` c MnY wek l K wi q v wePvi K MYK k L j vi
g a A vwb evi c Pvq wemq K i nBj I mZ h A b K A vBb R xwe
H i c c ` c A m nb |
Z vnvQvo v, c a vb wePvi c wZ wh wb nq Z v f wel r c a vb Dc ` v
c ` A wa w Z nBeb , m eZ t mB K vi YB Z vnvi c vq c wZ wU
c ` c i A c - evL v K i Z t Z vnvK weZ wK Z K wi evi g vMZ c Pv
A evnZ f ve Pwj Z _ vK | K vb A vBb R xwe, K vb wePvi K Gg b wK
K vb c a vb wePvi c wZ i ( wh wb mva vi Y wb evPb i c ~ei mek l c a vb
wePvi c wZ b b ) c I GBi c b vR yK c wi w nwZ Dc j w K i v m e
b q | mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb , A b ymvi h c a vb wePvi c wZ
c i eZ x c a vb Dc ` v nBeb GK g v wZ wb B Z vnvi w k y A e nv
Dc j w K wi Z c vwi eb | A vewk K f veB Bnv nBe Z vnvi ewI MZ
` yt mn A wf Z v|
H i c c wi w wZ Z GK R b c a vb wePvi c wZ wK K wi Z c vi b |

c _ g B wePvi K MYi k c _ c m A vj vPb v K i v c q vR b |
mswea vb i 14 8 A b y Q` A b ymvi Z Z xq Z d wmj Dwj wL Z h K vb
c ` wb evwPZ ev wb h yI ew K vh f vi MnYi c ~eD Z d wmj -
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^v i ` vb K wi eb |
mswea vb i Z Z xq Z d wmj ewYZ e w MYi g a myc xg K vUi
wePvi K MYI i wnq vQb | myc xg K vUi h K vb wef vM wb q vMi c i
mswk wePvi K K wb i c f ve k c _ ev Nvl Yv c vV K wi Z nq t
A vwg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . myc xg K vU i A vc xj / nvBK vUwef vMi
wePvi K wb hy nBq v mk wP k c _ ( ev ` pf ve Nvl Yv)
K wi Z wQ h , A vwg A vBb - A b yh vq x I wek vi mwnZ A vg vi c ` i
K Z e c vj b K wi e;
318
A vwg evsj v` k i c wZ A K w g wek vm I A vb yMZ c vl Y
K wi e;
A vwg evsj v` k i mswea vb I A vBb i i Y, mg _ b I
wb i vc vwea vb K wi e ;
Ges A vwg f xwZ ev A b yMn, A b yi vM ev wei vMi ek Z Z x b v
nBq v mK j i c wZ A vBb - A b yh vq x h _ vwenxZ A vPi Y K wi e|

Dc i i k c _ evK wj GK R b wePvi K i R b wb QK
A vb y vwb K Z v b n| Bnvi c wZ wU k wek l Z vr c h enb K i |
GB k c _ GK R b wePvi K i wePvwi K K Z e, ` k i c wZ
c k vwZ Z A vb yMZ , wb w Z wb i c Z v Ges mec wi mswea vb I A vBb
mg yb Z K wi evi ` vwq Z A c b K i |
GK R b wePvi K mg M R xeb , Gg b wK A emi Mg b K wi evi
c i I , Z vnvi k c _ vi v eva |
BwZ nvmi w` K Z vK vBj A vg i v ` wL Z c vB h Lord Chancellor
Sir Thomas More Z uvnvi k c _ K A Z i Z i mwnZ weePb v
K wi Z b | i vR v Henry VIII Z vnvK Head of the Church of England wnmve
^xK wZ c ` vb K i Z t k c _ j Bevi R b Sir Thomas More K wb ` k ` b
wK wZ wb Z vnv g vb K wi Z A ^xK wZ vc b K i Z t 15 3 2 mvj Lord
Chancellor c ` nBZ c ` Z vM K i b | i vR vi A v` k A g vb K i vq
i vR ` vni A wf h vM Z vnvK 16 er mi Tower G A i xY _ vwK Z nq
Z eyI mK j i A b yi va mZ I H i c k c _ MnY K wi Z A ^xK vi
K i b | A Z c i , Z uvnvi wk i Q` nq |
15 9 1 mvj wePvi K MYi g Z vg Z ( Opinion of Judges) ` L v h vq t

We are almost daily called upon to minister Justice according to law,
whereunto we are bound by our office and our oath (Philip Hamburger:
Law and Judicial Duty).

Pvwi k Z er mi c ~eExchequer Chamber A v` vj Z 12 R b wePvi K i
m yL Commendams ( 16 16 ) g vK g vwUi b vb x Pwj Z wQj | DI
g vK g vq i vR vi GK wU Prerogative A b ymvi g yi x c ` vb i wel q wUI
g vK g vi wel q e z wQj | H mg q i vR v James I j b Gi evwni
319
A e nvb K wi Z wQj b | wZ wb Attorney General Sir Francis Bacon g vi d r
i vR vi mwnZ A vj vPb v b v K i v c h g vK g vwUi b vb x nwMZ
K wi Z ej b | wK wePvi K MY R vb vb t
Obedience to His Majestys Command to stay proceedings would have
been a delay of justice, contrary to the law, and contrary to oaths of the Judges.
( A va v i L v c ` )

i vR v James I j b k ni wd wi q vB 12 R b wePvi K K WvwK q v
c vVvb Ges wR vmv K i b t
When the king believes his interest is concerned and requires the judges
to attend him for their advice, ought they not to stay proceedings till His Majesty
has consulted them?

Kings Bench Gi c a vb wePvi c wZ Sir Edward Coke ewZ i K A b
mK j wePvi c wZ i vR vi A wf j vl A b ymvi c ` c j Bevi A xK vi
K i b | a yg v Coke ej b t
When that happens, I will do that which it shall be fit for a judge to do.
A ek Coke K Z vunvi GB ^K xq Z vi R b A b K g ~j w` Z nq |
K q K w` b i g a B i vR v Z vunvK ei L v Z K i b Ges 7 g vm
Z vunvK Tower G A i xb _ vwK Z nq |
( Dc i i D wZ wj Lord Denning wj wL Z What Next In The Law
c y Z K nBZ eYb v K i v nBj ) |
` yBk Z er mi c ~eh yI i vi c a vb wePvi c wZ John Marshall Marbury
V. Madison (1803) g vK g vq wePvi K i k c _ m ^ A vj vK c vZ K i b t
Why otherwise does it direct the judges to take an oath to support it?
This oath certainly applies in an especial manner, to their conduct in their
official character. How immoral to impose it on them, if they were to be used as
the instruments, and the knowing instruments, for violating what they swear to
support !

The oath of office, too, imposed by the legislature, is completely
demonstrative of the legislative opinion on this subject. It is in these words: I
do solemnly swear that I will administer justice without respect to persons, and
do equal right to the poor and to the rich; and that I will faithfully and
impartially discharge all the duties incumbent on me as-,according to the best of
320
my abilities and understanding agreeably to the constitution and laws of the
United States.

Why does a judge swedr to discharge his duties agreeably to the
constitution of the United States, if that constitution forms no rule for his
government ? If it is closed upon him, and cannot be inspected by him ?

If such be the real state of things, this is worse than solemn mockery. To
prescribe, or to take this oath, becomes equally a crime. (Quoted from
Professor Noel T. Dowling on the Cases on the Constitutional Law, Fifth
Edition, 1954, at page-96. ( A va vi L v c ` )

Federation of Pakistan V. Moulvi Tamizuddin Khan PLD 1955 FC 240
g vK g vq wePvi c wZ A.R.Cornelius (as his Lordship then was) Z vunvi
wf b g Z m~PK i vq wePvi K ` i k c _ m ^ ej b ( c v 3 19 ) t
The resolution of a question affecting the interpretation of important
provisions of the interim constitution of Pakistan in relation to the very high
matters which are involved, entails a responsibility going directly to the oath of
office which the constitution requires of a Judge, namely, to bear true faith and
allegiance to the Constitution of Pakistan as by law established and faithfully to
perform the duties of the office to the best of the incumbents ability,
knowledge and judgment. ( A va vi L v c ` )

Fazlul Quader Chowdhury V. Muhammad Abdul Haque, PLD 1963 SC 486,
g vK g vq c a vb wePvi c wZ A.R. Cornelius k c _ m ^ ej b ( c v
5 0 2 - 0 3 ) t
The Judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts when they enter
upon their office, are required to swear an oath that they will preserve, protect
and defend the Constitution.
.......... The reasons why the Judges of the Supreme Court and the High
Courts have to take a similar oath can in my opinion be found within the simple
provisions of Article 58. It is there provided for all persons in Pakistan that in
any case where it becomes necessary for them to assert in their interest, any
provision of the Constitution, they shall have access to the High Courts and
through the High Courts to the Supreme Court as of right, and these two Courts
are bound by their oath and duty to act so as to keep the provisions of the
Constitution fully alive and operative, to preserve it in all respects safe from all
defeat or harm, and to stand firm in defence of its provisions against attack of
any kind. The duty of interpreting the Constitution is, in fact a duty of enforcing
321
the provisions of the Constitution in any particular case brought before the
Courts in the form of litigation. ( A va vi L v c ` )

Asma Jilani V. Government of Punjab PLD 1972 SC 139 g vK v g vq c a vb
wePvi c wZ Hamoodur Rahman k c _ m ^ ej b ( c v- 2 0 3 - 0 4 ) t
Incidentally it may also be mentioned here that a great deal that has
been said about the oath of Judges is also not germane to the question now
before us, for, in the view I take of the duty of a Judge to decide a controversy
that is brought before him it cannot be said that any Judge of this Court has
violated his oath which he took under the Constitution of 1962.
.................So far as this Court is concerned it has always acted in
accordance with its oath and will continue to do so whenever a controversy is
brought before it, no matter what the consequences ( A va vi L v c ` )

Anwar Hossain Chowdhury V. Government of Bangladesh 1989 BLD (Special )
g vK g vq wePvi c wZ B.H. Chowdhury (as his Lordship then was) k c _ m ^
ej b ( c v- 10 6 ) t
246. While it is the duty of the people at large to safeguard, protect
and defend the Constitution, the oath of the President, Judges is to preserve,
protect and defend the Constitution. To preserve it is an onerous duty. While for
the people the duty is to safeguard. Nature of the two duties are different and
run in parallel. To deny the power to judiciary to preserve the constitution is
to destroy the independence of the judiciary thereby dismantling the
Constitution itself.

GK B g vK g vq wePvi c wZ Shahabuddin Ahmed, (as his Lordship then
was) k c _ m ^ wb wj wL Z A wf g Z c K vk K i b ( c v- 15 7 ) t
379. Judges are by their oath of office bound to preserve, defend and
protect the Constitution and in exercise of this power and function they shall act
without any fear or favour and be guided by the dictate of conscience and the
principle of self restraint. It is these principles which restrain them from
exceeding the limits of their power. In this connection the following observation
of the sitting in the Court of Appeal, State of Virginia, is quite appropriate:
I have heard of an English Chancellor who said, and it was
nobly said, that it was his duty to protect the rights of the subject against
the encroachments of the crown; and that he would do it at every hazard.
But if it was his duty to protect a solitary individual against the rapacity
of the sovereign, surely it is equally mine to protect one branch of the
legislature and consequently the whole community against the
usurpations of the other and whenever the proper occasion occurs, I shall
feel the duty ; and fearlessly perform it...... if the whole legislature, an
322
event to be deprecated, should attempt to overleap the bounds prescribed
to them by the people, I, in administering the public justice of the court,
will meet the united powers at my seat in this tribunal, and pointing to
the constitution, will say to them, there is the limit of your authority; and
hither shall you go, but no further. ( A va vi L v c ` )

wePvi c wZ M.H. Rahman (as his Lordship then was) wePvi K MYi k c _
m ^ wb wj wL Z g e K i b ( c v- 18 0 ) t
488. The Courts attention has repeatedly been drawn to the oath the
Chief Justice or a Judge of the Supreme Court takes under art. 148 of the
Constitution on his appointment. Mr. Asrarul Hossain has pointed out the
difference between the language of the oath the Judges of the Indian Supreme
Court take to uphold the Constitution. The import of the single word uphold
is no less significant or onerous than that of the three words preserve, protect
and defend. In either case the burden is the same. And the Court carries the
burden without holding the swords of the community held by the executive or
the purse of the nation commanded by the legislature.

Bangladesh Italian Marble Works Limited V. Government of Bangladesh 2006
(Special Issue) BLT (HCD) g vK v g vq wePvi K ` i k c _ I ` vwq Z m ^
wb vI g e K i v nq ( c v- 2 0 3 ) t
It should be noted that the oath of office, an individual Judge takes at
the time of his elevation to the Bench, is a personal one and each individual
Judge declares it taking upon himself, the obligation to preserve, protect and
defend the Constitution. It is an obligation cast upon each individual Judge.
Each individual Judge himself remains oath-bound to fulfill his own obligations
under the Constitution. This obligation under the oath is personal and remains so
upon him, every day, every week, every month, every year, during his tenure as
a such Judge. His all other obligations are subject to his Oath and the
Constitution.
. . . . . . . . . . We the Judges have got the obligation to uphold the
Constitution and we are oath-bound to do it, no matter who is hurt. It is better to
hurt a few than the country. In any case everybody must face the truth however
awkard it may seem at first. But truth and only the truth must prevail. We Judges
are obliged to enhance the cause of justice and truth and not to disgrace it,
however political over-tone it may seem to have but the Constitution, the
supreme law with the ever vigilant people of this country, shall over-ride all
political implications.

323
Gg Z A e vq c a vb wePvi c wZ hw` weeK eyw m b mZ K vi
wePvi c wZ nb Ges f wel r c a vb Dc ` vi c ` h w` Z vunvK c f vweZ
b v K i Z vnv nBj wZ wb Z vnvi k c _ A b ymvi ` pn c wi w wZ
g vK vwej v K wi eb Ges A vBb I b vq b xwZ A b ymvi b vq wePvi wb w Z
K wi eb h w` I mBi c ` pZ vi R b Z vunvK c wZ c ` c ` A c g vb
mn K wi Z nBZ c vi | A b w` K wZ wb h w` c a vb Dc ` v c ` i
wP vq Gg b wK A eZ b g b I c f vevwb Z nb , Z vnv nBj mK j mg q
mK j i mwnZ A vc vl K wi q v Pvwnevg v Qvo w` eb | BnvZ mK j B
L yk x nBeb Ges wZ wb mevc v R b wc q c a vb wePvi c wZ nBeb wK
wePvi i evYx wb f Z K vuw` e|
c k DwVZ c vi h c a vb Dc ` vi c ` wU nBZ c a vb
wePvi c wZ ev A b wePvi c wZ K m b v K wi j wK mywea v nBZ
c vi |
c ~eA vj vPb v K i v nBq vQ h GK R b wePvi K i g vb wmK
k w B nBZ Q wePvi wef vMi c a vb k w | c a vb Dc ` vi c `
MnYi wel q wU b v _ vwK j GK R b c a vb wePvi c wZ g vb wmK Pvc nBZ
g y _ vwK q v m ~Y ^va xb _ vwK Z c vwi eb | wZ xq Z t wei va x ` j xq
i vR b wZ K ` j i mg _ K A vBb R xweMYi i vR b wZ K K vi Y m Pvc
nBZ c a vb wePvi c wZ g y _ vwK Z c vwi eb |
GB ` yBwU wel q B ^va xb wePvi ee vi R b A wZ c q vR b xq |
` k i ^va xb wePvi ee vi mv_ A e k B c a vb wePvi c wZ I A vc xj
wef vMi wePvi K MYK ` k i i vR b xwZ we` MYi e_ Z vi ` vq f vi
nBZ i v K wi Z nBe| wePvi K MYi mvswea vwb K ` vq I ` vwq Z
wePvi wef vMi c wZ I mK j wePvi c v_ xMYi c wZ | i vR b xwZ we` MYi
e_ Z vi ` vq f vi MnY wePvi K MYi K vb B mvswea vwb K ev b wZ K
` vwq Z b vB| Dj L h Z wK Z msk va b xwU i vR b xwZ we` MYi e_ Z vi
K vi YB A vb q b K wi Z nBq vQ| i vR b xwZ we` MYi wb R ` i ` vq I
` vwq Z Z vnv` i wb R ` i K B enb K wi Z nBe| wePvi wef vM Z vnv
enb K wi e b v| A b _ vq wePvi wef vM wb R B A v nv msK U c wo e|
324
A vi R b g vb yl i A v nvB nBZ Q wePvi K MYi c K Z k w | Samson
Gi k w j y vBZ wQj Z vi Pzj i g a , wePvi K MYi k w Z vunvi
c k vZ xZ mZ Z v, wb i c Z v I ` p c wi k xwj Z g b b k xj Z vq | GB
k w i Dc i wb f i K wi q vB GK R b wePvi K wb f xK I ` pf ve i vi
mevc v k w g vb ew i wei I A ej xj v g i vq c ` vb K wi Z
GZ UzK zwa v eva K i b b v|
wePvi wef vM K vb wK Qyi wewb g q B GB k w c wi Z vM K wi Z
c vi b v| Gg b wK c a vb Dc ` v c ` i R b I b n|
GK R b wePvi K mZ Z _ vwK eb t
Be just, and fear not :
Let all the ends thou aimst at be thy countrys,
Thy Gods, and truths;


4 2 | R b MYi mi K vi t
evsj v` k i vi g ~j wf w nBj mec h vq R b MYi g Z vq b |
mswea vb i c veb v, mswea vb i c _ g f vM, wZ xq f vM I me
R b MYi g Z vq b c ywUZ nBq v DwVq vQ| mswea vb i g ~j wZ b wU
i g a I R b MY Dc w Z | R b MYi g Z vq b A vg v` i
mswea vb i mek Basic Structure|
R b ve i wd K - Dj nK we GvW&f vK U g nv` q h yw D vc b
K wi q vQb h c vwK vb i mswea vb I GK a i b i Z e a vq K mi K vi
i wnq vQ| wK evsj v` k mswea vb i c wZ i e R b MYi wPi b
c evng vb g Z vq b i c ~ek Z wU Z u vnvi ` wi A MvPi i wnq v wMq vQ|
nvBK vUwef vMI h yw Dc vc b K i v nBq vQ h f vi Z i
mswea vb I GK a i b i Z vea vq K mi K vi i wnq vQ h L vb wb evPb
Dc j Parliament f vwOq v Mj c a vb g x I Z vunvi g w mf v
Z vea vq K mi K vi i ` vwq Z c vj b K i b |
R b ve i wd K - Dj nK we GvW&f vK U g nv` q h yw D vc b
K i b h f vi Z i b vq evsj v` k i mswea vb I H a i b i Z vea vq K
mi K vi i wnq vQ| q v` k msk va b x a yg v c a vb g x I g w mf vi
325
c wi eZ m ~YA i vR b wZ K ew eMvi v Dc ` v c wi l ` MVb K i Z t
wb i c I my z wb evPb wb w Z K wi q v i vi MYZ vw K ee vK
A vi I ` p K i v nBq vQ wK R b MYi g Z vq b i c ~ek Z wU wZ wb
c yb i vq we g Z nBq vQb |
c a vb g x I Z uvnvi g w mf vi c wi eZ Dc ` v c wi l ` wb q vMi
c h yw wel q wUi A wZ mi j xK i Y| c a vb g x I Z uvnvi g w mf vi
A wa K vsk m` m R b MYi wb evwPZ Ge s Z uvnvi v R b MYK c wZ wb wa Z
K i b | Z uvnv` i g va g B R b MY g w mf vq Dc w Z _ vK b Ges
g w mf vi c wZ wU wm v R b MYi wm v ewj q v c wi MwYZ nq |
GL vb B R b MYi g Z vq b | Z vnvQvo v, g w mf v R b MYi c wZ wb wa
R vZ xq msm` i wb K U ` vq e | GB ` yBf ve R b MYi g Z vq b |
c k DwVZ c vi , R vZ xq msm` i ` yB A wa ek b i g a e Z xmg q
Ges wb evPb Dc j R vZ xq msm` f vswMq v Mj R b MYi g Z vq b
D mg q i R b Q` c o wK b v ev Bnvi A wewQb Z v web nq wK b v|
b v K L b I nq b v, K vi Y, A wew Qb Z v K vb wek l ew ev ew eMi
R b b n, ew ev ew eMh _ v g c a vb g x nBeb ev g w mf vi
m` m nBeb Ges GK mg q c vb K wi eb , A b K n ev A b i v
A vwmeb Ges GK mg q Z vnvi vI c vb K wi eb , wK c a vb g x I
g w mf v A wew Qb f ve Pwj Z _ vwK e, mB m R b MYi Dc w wZ I
g Z vq b we` g vb c a vb g x I g w mf vi g va g A we Qb f ve
A veng vb K vj a wi q v Pwj Z _ vwK e| R b MYi GB A wew Qb f ve
A veng vb K vj a wi q v i vi me g Z vq b i vi g ~j wf w|
K L b B K vb K vi YB GB a vi vevwnK Z vq Q` (Hiatus) A vb v h vBe b v|
g ~j mswea vb A b ymvi c a vb g x I g w mf vi m` mmn mK j
msm` - m` mMY 5 ( c vuP) er mi i R b wb evwPZ nb | mswea vb i g ~j
12 3 ( 3 ) A b y Q` A b ymvi g q v` A emvb i K vi Y msm` f vwq v
h vBevi f vwq v h vBevi c ~eeZ xb eB w` b i g a wb evPb
A b yw Z nBZ nBe| wK mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb i
A vI Z vq msk vwa Z 12 3 ( 3 ) A b y Q` A b ymvi mva vi b wb evPb A b yw Z
326
nBe msm` f vwq v hvBevi c i eZ xb eB w` b i g a | m c k
DwVZ c vi h c vuP er mi A wZ g nBq v Mj c a vb g x I g w mf vi
m` mMY msm` - m` m _ vK b wK b v|
Bnvi Di mswea vb i 5 6 ( 4 ) , 5 7 ( 3 ) , 7 2 ( 3 ) , 7 2 ( 4 ) I g ~j
12 3 ( 3 ) A b y Q` c ` vb K i v nBq vQ| wb Dc i v A b y Q` wj
eYb v K i v nBj t
5 6 | ( 4 ) msm` f vswMq v h vI q v Ges msm` - m` m` i
A eewnZ c i eZ x mva vi Y wb e vPb A b y vb i g a eZ xK vj GB
A b y Q` i ( 2 ) ev ( 3 ) ` d vi A a xb wb q vM ` vb i c q vR b
` L v w` j msm` f vswMq v h vBevi A eewnZ c ~ehuvnvi v msm` -
m` m wQj b , GB ` d vi D k mva b K Z uvnvi v m` mi c
envj i wnq vQb ewj q v MY nBeb |
5 7 | ( 3 ) c a vb g xi Di wa K vi x K vhf vi MnY b v K i v
c h c a vb g xK ^xq c ` envj _ vwK Z GB A b y Q` i K vb
wK QyB A h vM K wi e b v|
7 2 | ( 3 ) i vc wZ c ~ef vwq v b v w` q v _ vwK j c _ g
eVK i Z vwi L nBZ c vuP er mi A wZ evwnZ nBj msm` f vwq v
hvBe;
Z e k Z _ vK h , c R vZ h y wj _ vwK evi K vj
msm` i A vBb - vi v A b yi c g q v` GK K vj A b wa K GK er mi
ewa Z K i v h vBZ c vwi e, Z e h y mg v nBj ewa Z g q v`
K vb g Qq g vmi A wa K nBe b v|
7 2 | ( 4 ) msm` f nBevi c i Ges msm` i c i eZ x
mva vi Y wb evPb A b y vb i c ~e i vc wZ i wb K U hw`
m vl R b K f ve c Z xq g vb nq h , c R vZ h h y wj
i wnq vQb , mB h y ve vi we` g vb Z vi R b msm` c yb i vnvb
K i v c q vR b , Z vnv nBj h msm` f vwq v ` I q v nBq vwQj ,
i vc wZ Z vnv A vnvb K wi eb |

Dc i vI wea vb wj nBZ c Z xq g vb nBe h mswea vb
c YZ vMb i vxq K vh R b Mb i c wZ wb wa Z _ v R b Mb K m
i vwL Z K Z Uv mP wQj b | Gg b wK hy A e nvq msm` i g q v`
ew i ee nv i vL v nBq vQ h vnvZ R b Mb i c wZ wb wa MY c q vR b xq
wm v c ` vb K wi Z c vi b |
327
GK Bf ve msm` f vwq v h vBe vi c i wK msm` i c i eZ x
mva vi Y wb evPb A b y vb i c ~e h w` h y A vi f nq m I
i vc wZ i m vl A b ymvi h msm` f vwq v ` I q v nBq vwQj Z vnv
c yb i vq A vnvb K i v h vBZ c vi |
ej vi A c v i vL b v h i vc wZ i m w c K Z c wb f i
K wi e we` g vb g w mf vi m w I wm v Ges mB A b yhvq x
c a vb g xi c i vg k i Dc i | Dj L h g w mf v we` g vb _ vK v mZ I
h y ve nvi R b msm` c yb i vnvb K wi evi ee nv mswea vb i vL v
nBq vQ|
GBf ve i vxq K vh i c wZ Z i evsj v` k i R b Mb i
g Z vq b I A e nvb mswea vb wb w Z K wi q vQ|
Z vnvQvo v, c vK mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 6
A _ vr msk va b i c ~ei mswea vb i 12 3 ( 3 ) A b y Q` wb i c t

12 3 | ( 3 ) msm` - m` m` i mva vi Y wb evPb A b yw Z nBe
( K ) g q v` - A emvb i K vi Y msm` f vwq v h vBevi
f vwq v h vBevi c ~eeZ xb eB w` b i g a ;
Ges
( L ) g q v` - A emvb eZ xZ A b K vb K vi Y
msm` f vwq v h vBevi f vwq v
h vBevi c i eZ xb eB w` b i g a |
( A a vi L v c ` )


Z e k Z _ vK h, GB ` d vi ( K ) Dc - ` d v A b yhvq x
A b yw Z mva vi Y wb evPb wb evwPZ ew MY Dc - ` d vq
Dj wL Z g q v` mg v b v nI q v c h msm` - m` mi c
K vh f vi MnY K wi eb b v|


Dc i ewYZ mswea vb i wea vb wj wek l Y K wi j c Z xq g vb
nBe h msm` - m` mMY hw` I c vuP er mi g q v` wb evwPZ nb , wK
K vb h y ev R i i x A e vi mw nBj D R i i x A e v mg v b v
nI q v c h msm` - m` mMY Z vnv` i K vh g Pvj vBq v hvBeb |
328
BnvZ B c Z xq g vb nq h b ~Z b wb evwPZ msm` - m` mMY k c _ MnY b v
K i v c h c ~ei msm` - m` mMY R b MYi c wZ wb wa Z K i b |
R b Mb i c wZ wb wa wnmve Z vnv` i Pvwi w K ewk g vUB wej xb
nBe b v|
c a vb g xi 5 7 ( 3 ) A b y Q` A b ymvi Z vnvi Di vwa K vi x
K vh f vi MnY b v K i v c h wZ wb ay ^xq c ` envj _ vK b b v, wZ wb
R b MYi c wZ wb wa Z I K i b |

mec wi c vK - q v` k msk va b xi g ~j 12 3 ( 3 ) A b y Q`
A b ymvi msm` - m` m` i mva vi Y wb evPb A b yw Z nBe g q v` A
msm` f vswMq v h vBevi c ~eeZ xb eB w` b i g a | GB wea vb L yeB
i Z c yY, K vi Y, m I b ~Z b msm` - m` mMY k c _ MnY b v K i v
c h c ~eZ b msm` - m` mMY wb R ` i A wa K vi ej ^vf vweK wb q g B
R b c wZ wb wa _ vwK eb Ges Z vnv` i g va g R b MYi g Z vq b
wei wZ nxb f ve Pj g vb _ vwK e|

myZ i vs g ~j mswea vb A b ymvi wb evPb Dc j msm` f vswMq v
h vBevi c i g w mf v GK a i b i Care taker mi K vi ev Z vea vq K mi K vi
wnmve ` vwq Z c vj b K wi j I Z L b I c a vb g x I g w mf vi mf MY
wb R ` i mvswea vwb K A wa K vi ej R b c wZ wb wa _ vK b Ges Z uvnv` i
c wZ wU c ` c i g a R b MYi g Z v Dc w Z _ vK wea vq Z uvnv` i
A vBb MZ A e vb i mwnZ q v` k msk va b i A a xb m c a vb
Dc ` v I Dc ` v c wi l ` i K vb B Z zj b v nq b v K vi Y Z uvnvi v
A wb evwPZ Ges i vi ^xK Z g vwj K R b MYi mwnZ Z uvnv` i K vb
m Z v b vB| h nZ z, R b Mb i mwnZ Z uvnv` i K vb c K vi
m Z v b vB, mnZ zmswe a vb Z uvnvw` MK k vmb (Governance) K wi evi
K vb A wa K vi ` q b v| K vi b , MYZ i c ~ek Z B nBj governance by
consent| Dc ` v` i c R b MYi K vb B consent b vB|

329
A Z Ge, Dc ` vMY K vb f veB i vh ^ Z g K vj i R b I
c wi Pvj b v K wi Z c vi b b v| K vi b , Every man, and every body of men on
earth, possess the right of self-government. (Thomas Jefferson, 1790)| Bnv
g vb yl i R b vwa K vi |

4 3 | Dc msnvi t
Dc i i ` xNA vj vPb v nBZ c Z xq g vb nBe h R b MYi
mvef g Z i vi c R vZ vw K I MYZ vw K Pwi , wePvi wef vMi
^va xb Z v wb t m` n mswea vb i Basic Structure I i vi g ~j wf w|
mswea vb i 14 2 A b y Q` A b ymvi h K vb msk va b A vBb B
msm` c Yq b K wi Z g Z vevb eU wK i vi g ~j wf w ev Basic
Structure L eev zb K i Gg b K vb msk va b x msm` Bnvi msk va b x
g Z vej K wi Z c vi b v| H msk va b myc xg K vUi m yL A vb q b
K i v nBj myc xg K vUewj e It is emphatically the province and duty of the
judicial department to say what the law is. (John Marshall)|
K vb A R ynvZ B Ges Z wK Z wel q wU myc xg K vUi A wa i
A MZ b q , k Z A vBb R xwei GBi c eI e mZ I Z wK Z A vBb hw`
mswea vb i evL v I wek l b K wi evi c k _ vK Z vnv nBj myc xg
K vUB Bnvi ` vwq Z w ni K wi e We have no more right to decline the
exercise of jurisdiction which is given, than to usurp that which is not given. The one or
the other would be treason to the constitution. (John Marshall).
Dc i mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 6 , m ^
we Z vwi Z A vj vPb v nBq vQ| DI A vBb wU i vi g ~j wf w R b Mb i
mvef g Z , i vi c R vZ vw K I MYZ vw K c wi Pq I wePvi wef vMi
^va xb Z v L eK wi q vQ wea vq Bnv A mvswea vwb K Z _ v A ea ewj q v
Nvl b v K i v nBj | Bnv A vBb b q |
c i eZ x c k nBZ Q h GB i vq i f ~Z vc c q vM K i Z t
Z wK Z A vBb wUK void ab initio Nvl b v K i v nBe wK b v| c k wU wek l
i Z c ~YA vK vi a vi b K wi q vQ K vi b 19 9 6 mvj nBZ Z wK Z
330
mswea vb msk va b A vBb i A a xb m g , A g I b eg R vZ xq msm`
wb evPb A b y vb nBq vQ| ` yBwU wb evwPZ mi K vi 10 ( ` k ) er mi K vj
` k c wi Pvj b v K wi q vQ Ges Z Z xq wb evwPZ mi K vi eZ g vb ` k
c wi Pvj b v K wi Z Q| GB ` xNmg q i g a A vewk K f ve ` k e
msL K A vBb wewa e nBq vQ| eevi evr mwi K evR U c vm
nBq vQ| m eZ t GB mg q i g a e msL K A v R vwZ K ,
eR vwZ K I wc vw K Pzw ^v wi Z nBq vQ| g vU K _ v, 19 9 6 mvj
nBZ GB 15 er mi i vxq A msL K g K v c wi Pvwj Z nBq vQ| h w`
Z wK Z A vBb wU void ab initio ej v nq Z e GB 15 er mi i i vxq mK j
K g K v A ea nBq v h vBe Ges ` k GK wU Pi g wec h q i mw
nBe|
GB c m Dj L h 19 9 6 mvj i 6 R vZ xq msm` Bnvi
A wa i g a _ vwK q vB (within jurisdiction) Z wK Z A vBb wU wewa e
K wi q vwQj h w` I Dc i A vj vwPZ K vi b va xb Bnv A ea |
GBi c A mva vi Y c wi w nwZ g vK vej v K wi evi R b A vg v` i
wePvi c wZ Benjamin N. Cardozo K mi b K wi Z nq | wZ wb h L b New York
A i vR i c a vb wePvi c wZ wQj b Z L b GK e Z vq wZ wb ej b t
The rule (the Blackstonian rule) that we are asked to apply is out of tune
with the life about us. It has been made discordant by the forces that generate a
living law. We apply it to this case because the repeal might work hardship to
those who have trusted to its existence. We give notice however that any one
trusting to it hereafter will do at his peril.

A Z c i , Great Northern Rly V. Sunburst Oil and Ref. Co. (1932) 287 US 358,
366 g vK v g q US myc xg K vUc _ g evi i g Z Prospective Overruling Z Z
c q vM K i | D g vK v g vq wePvi c wZ Cardozo ej b t
Adherence to precedent as establishing a governing rule for the past in
respect of the meaning of a statute is said to be a denial of due process when
coupled with the declaration of an intention to refuse to adhere to it in
adjudicating any controversies growing out of the transactions of the future.
We have no occasion to consider whether this division in time of the
effects of a decision is a sound or an unsound application of the doctrine of stare
331
decisis as known to the common law. Sound or unsound, there is involved in it
no denial of a right protected by the Federal constitution. This is not a case
where a Court in overruling an earlier decision has given to the new ruling of
retroactive bearing and thereby has made invalid what was valid in the doing.
Even that may often be done though litigants not infrequently have argued to the
contrary.....This is a case where a Court has refused to make its ruling
retroactive, and the novel stand is taken that the constitution of the United States
is infringed by the refusal.
We think the Federal constitution has no voice upon the subject. A state
in defining the limits of adherence to precedent may make a choice for itself
between the principle of forward operation and that of relation back ward. It
may say that decisions of its highest court, though later overruled, are law
nonetheless for intermediate transactions ......On the other hand, it may hold to
the ancient dogma that the law declared by its courts had a platonic or ideal
existence before the act of declaration, in which event, the discredited
declaration will be viewed as if it had never been, and the reconsidered
declaration as law from the beginning ..... The choice for any state may be
determined by the juristic philosophy of the Judges of her courts, their
conceptions of law, its origin and nature. We review not the wisdom of their
philosophies, but the legality of their acts.

c i eZ xZ Linkletter V. Walker 381 US 618 (1965) g vK v g vq
Prospective Overruling Z Z c yb t c wZ w Z nq | wePvi c wZ Clarke msL vMwi
wePvi c wZ ` i c ej b t
It is clear that based upon the factual considerations heretofore
discussed the Wolf Court then concluded that it was not necessary to the
enforcement of the Fourth Amendment for the exclusionary rule to be extended
to the States as a requirement of due process. Mapp had as its prima purpose
the enforcement of the Fourth Amendment through the inclusion of the
exclusionary rule within its rights.................................
We cannot say that this purpose would be advanced by making the rule
retrospective. The misconduct of the police prior to Mapp has already occurred
and will not be corrected by releasing the prisoners involved................On the
other hand, the States relied on Wolf and followed its command. Final
judgments of conviction were entered prior to Mapp. Again and again this Court
refused to reconsider Wolf and gave its implicit approval to hundreds of cases
in their application of its rule. In rejecting the Wolf doctrine as to the
exclusionary rule the purpose was to deter the lawless action of the police and to
332
effectively enforce the Fourth Amendment. That purpose will not at this late
date be served by the wholesale release of the guilty victims.
Finally, there are interests in the administration of justice and the
integrity of the judicial process to consider. To make the rule of Mapp
retrospective would tax the administration of justice to the utmost. Hearings
would have to be held on the excludability of evidence long since destroyed,
misplaced or deteriorated. If it is excluded, the witness available at the time of
the original trial will not be available or if located their memory will be dimmed.
To thus legitimate such an extraordinary procedural weapon that has no bearing
on guilt would seriously disrupt the administration of justice.

Dc i vI i vq i c wZ ` w A vK l b c ~eK L.C. Golak Nath V. State of
Punjab g vK g vq c a vb wePvi c wZ K. Subba Rao ej b t
This case has reaffirmed the doctrine of prospective overruling and has
taken a pragmatic approach in refusing to give it retroactivity. In short, in
America the doctrine of prospective overruling is now accepted in all branches
of law, including constitutional law. But the carving of the limits of
retrospectivity of the new rule is left to courts to be done, having regard to the
requirements of justice.

A Z c i , Prospective Overruling m ^ wZ wb ej b t
Our Constitution does not expressly or by necessary implication speak
against the doctrine of prospective overruling. Indeed, Arts.32, 141 and 142 are
couched in such wide and elastic terms as to enable this Court to formulate
legal doctrines to meet the ends of justice. The only limitation thereon is reason,
restraint and injustice. Under Art. 32, for the enforcement of the fundamental
rights the Supreme Court has the power to issue suitable directions or orders or
writs. Article 141 says that the law declared by the Supreme Court shall be
binding on all courts; and Art. 142 enables it in the exercise of its jurisdiction to
pass such decree or make such order as is necessary for doing complete justice
in any cause or matter pending before it. These articles are designedly made
comprehensive to enable the Supreme Court to declare law and to give such
directions or pass such orders. as are necessary to do complete justice. The
expression declared is wider than the words found or made. To declare is to
announce opinion. Indeed, the latter involves the process, while the former
expresses result. Interpretation, ascertainment and evolution are parts of the
process, while that interpreted, ascertained or evolved is declared as law. The
law declared by the Supreme Court is the law of the land. If so, we de not see
any acceptable reason why it, in declaring the law in supersession of the law
declared by it earlier, could not restrict the operation of the law as declared to
333
future and save the transactions, whether statutory or otherwise that were
effected on the basis of the earlier law. To deny this power to the Supreme Court
on the basis of some outmoded theory that the Court only finds law but does not
make it is to make ineffective the powerful instrument of justice placed in the
hands of the highest judiciary of this country.

A vBb MZ GB A e vb i c vc U Ges mswea vb i 10 4
A b y Q` i A a xb m ~Yb vq wePvi i R b (for doing complete justice)
mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 6 , A vBb wU f vexmvc f ve
(Prospectively) 2 0 11 mvj i 10 B g Z vwi L nBZ A ea Nvl Yv K i v
nBj |
c ~eB A vj vPb v K i v nBq vQ h we A vUb x- R b vi j I
msL vMwi Amicus Curiae MY wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi ee v
we` g vb i wL evi c g Z c K vk K wi q vQb | R b ve wU. GBP. L vb , we
GvW&f vK U g nv` q Z v ewj q vQb GB e e v 5 0 er mi _ vK v
c q vR b |
GB evc vi ` yBwU wel q weePb v K i v c q vR b | c _ g Z ,
c K Z c wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi b q , h vnv c q vR b Z vnv nBj
K vi Pzwc nxb GK wU my z, A eva I wb i c wb evPb | mB R b c q vR b
GK wU k w k vj x, ^vq k vwmZ I ^va xb (autonomous) wb evPb K wg k b ,
K vb Z vea vq K mi K vi b n| K vi Y, wZ xq Z , wb ` j xq Z vea vq K
mi K vi i A a xb A b yw Z c Z K wU wb evPb i c ~eI c i eZ xZ b vb v
a i Yi Pi g mU ` L v w` q vQ h vnv ej c Pvwi Z I ej c k swk Z
wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi i wek vmh vMZ v I K wZ Z i mv enb
K i b v| Z vnvQvo v, c wZ evi B h i vR wZ K ` j msL vMwi A vmb
j vf K wi Z e_ nBq vQ Z vnvi vB wb evPb i d j vd j MnY K wi Z
mi vmwi A ^xK vi K wi q vQ| a y Z vnvB b n, wb evPb i c ~eI
i vR b wZ K ` j wj wb ` j xq Z vea vq K mi K vi K b vb vwea A wf h vM
A wf h y K wi q vQ| Bnv A vi h vnvB nvK , Z I vea vq K mi K vi ee vi
mvd j i c wi Pq enb K i b v|
334
Dj L h 3 0 j k nx` i i i Dc i evsj v` k i v wek i
GK wU ^va xb i vi c A vZ c K vk K i | wek i vc y i ` i evi h w`
c Z xq g vb nq h GK wU i vR b wZ K ` j mva vi Y wb evPb R q j vf
K wi q v mi K vi MVb K i Ges c uvP er mi K vj i v c wi Pvj b v K i ,
wK mva vi Y wb evPb c wi Pvj b v K wi Z A c vi M| Bnv R vwZ i R b
A c g vb R b K | mi K vi K a y` k c wi Pvj b v b q , A v R vwZ K A b I
wewf b g yL x wm v MnY K wi Z nq | ` k i A vBb c Yq b , evR U
c Yq b I Db q b g yL x wewf b K vR I K wi Z c vi | a yZ vnvB b q , g q v`
g a A b K Dc - wb evPb I nq | me wK QyB mi K vi Bnvi g q v` g a B
K wi Z c vi , a yg v c i eZ x mva vi Y wb evPb A b y vb K wi Z A c vi M
K i v nq | wb evPb K wi evi R b A vi GK wU A wb evwPZ mi K vi c q vR b
nq | GK wU A vZ g h v` vk xj R vwZ wnmve Bnv A Z j vi K _ v| Bnv
MYZ i j v, GB c R vZ i j v| wek - i v c y i mg vR GB
NUb v A vg v` i m vb ew K i B b v, ei Bnv Pi g A c g vb R b K |
A v h h mB A c g vb Dc j w K wi evi g Z vI h b A vg i v nvi vBq v
d wj q vwQ|
Dc i GB e e nv c vuPer mi evc x R b c wZ wb wa ` i i v
c wi Pvj b vi ` vwq Z K b wZ K f ve c k we K wi q v Z vj |
GB Z vea vq K mi K vi ee vi a i Yv A vg i v mw K wi q vwQ
ewj q v MeK wi q v evK vi ^Mevm K wi , A _ P c w_ exi A b K ` k B
wb evPb c ej K vi Pzwc nq , m mK j ` k i msev` g va g I c q vR b
myc xg K vUK Vvi Z g f vl vq mswk wef vM Gg b wK mi K vi K I
mg vj vPb v K i eU, wK c R vZ vw K Z v ev MYZ K wb evmb
c vVvBevi K _ v Z vnvi v wP vI K i b v| wePvi wef vMK Z vnvi v mK j
c k i Da i vL |
G I c vc U A vg v` i wePvi K ` i ` vwq Z wK ?
I will not do that which my conscience tells me is wrong, upon this
occasion, to gain the huzzas of thousands, or the daily praise of all the papers
which come from the press: I will not avoid doing what I think is right; though it
should draw on me the whole artillery of libels ; all that falsehood and malice
335
can invent, or the credulity of a deluded populace can swallow. ( Lord
Mansfield)
Ges
wePvi K MY nBeb deaf as an adder to the clamours of the
populace (John Adams) | Z uvnvi v must follow their oaths and do their duty,
heedless of editorials, letters, telegrams, picketers, threats, petitions, panelists
and talk-shows. In this country, we do not administer justice by plebiscite.
(Judge Hiller B. Zobel)|

wb evPb K vi Pzwc m ^ we Amicus Curiae MYi DM I
` yw vi c wZ mg vb c ` k b c ~eK ewj Z PvB h wb ` j xq Z vea vq K
mi K vi Bnvi mg va vb b n| K vi Pzwc g y my z, A eva I wb i c wb evPb
A b y vb i R b c q vR b mZ K vi ^va xb I k w k vj x wb evPb K wg k b |
GB j A R b i R b mK j vb x I Yx ew MYi GK v I
wb f R vj c Pv c q vR b |
wb evPb K wg k b K A vw_ K f ve ^va xb K wi Z nBe| BnvK
m ~b c k vmwb K g Z v c ` vb K wi Z nBe| j vK ej wb q vM K vb
c K vi euva v mw K i v h vBe b v| wb evPb A b y vb K wi Z mec K vi
c q vR b wb i mb K mi K vi Z vr wb K f ve c ` c j Beb |
mswea vb i 12 6 A b y Q` ewYZ mK j c K vi mnvq Z v mi K vi i
wb evnx wef vM Z wo r c ` vb K wi Z eva _ vwK eb , A b _ vq Z vnvi v
mswea vb f K wi evi ` vq ` vq x nBeb | GB evc vi K vb Z i d
K vb Mvwd j wZ ` L v w` j wb evPb K wg k b c K vk A wf h vM D vc b
K wi eb Ges c q vR b xq c ` c Z wo r MnY K wi eb , A b _ vq
Z vnvi vI mswea vb f i ` vq ` vq x nBeb | mva vi Y wb evPb i
Z c mxj Nvl Yvi Z vwi L nBZ wb evPb i d j vd j Nvl Yvi Z vwi L
c h wb evPb i mwnZ c Z f ve R wo Z Ges wb evPb K wg k b i
weePb v ( discretion) A b ymvi , h vnvi v Gg b wK c i v f ve R wo Z ,
i vi mB mK j K g K Z vI K g Pvi xe` mn mswk mK j ew wb evPb
K wg k b i wb q Y _ vwK e| wb evPb K wg k b vi MY A g ~~~L x ( introvert)
nBeb b v| h Z ` yi m e Z vunv` i ` vwq Z c vj b ^ QZ v ( transparence)
eR vq i vwL eb | mZ Z g b i vwL eb h R b MYi wb K UB Z vunv` i
336
R evew` wnZ v ( accountability) | Z vunvi v mK j R b Mb i meK g v |
Z vunvi v wK K vR K wi Z Qb Z vnvI R b Mb i R vwb evi A wa K vi
i wnq vQ, Z vunvi v wK K vR K wi Z c vwi Z Qb b v Ges K b c vwi Z Qb
b v Z vnvI R vwb evi A wa K vi R b Mb i i wnq vQ| wb evPb x A vBb ev wewa
f K vi x` i wei h _ vc h yI A vBb MZ c ` c Z wo r j BZ nBe|
G evc vi K vb i c k w_ j c ` k b Pwj e b v| k w_ j c ` k b K wi j
wb evPb K wg k b i mswk K g K Z v ew MZ f ve A vBb A g vb K vi x
nBeb |
a yZ vnvB b n, msev` g va g I A vc vg i R b mva vi Y Z vnv` i
A wa K vi m ^ a y I q vwK envj b q , mv Pvi nBZ nBe| Z vnv
nBj B a ywb evPb K wg k b I mi K vi Gi R evew` wnZ v wb w Z nBe
Ges Z vnvi v mK j B wb R wb R ` vwq Z c vj b mP _ vwK eb |
Dj L h , A b K ` k B wb evPb A b y vb h _ Qv K vi Pzwc nq
wK m K vi b K vb ` k mswea vb msk va b K i Z t MYZ nwMZ
K i v nq b v | wb evPb m K wePvi c wZ V.R.Krisha Iyer ej b t
Philosophically speaking, election is an expression of opinion, a means
not an end; a process, not a product.

BnvB wb evPb Gi c K Z A vBb MZ A e vb |

f vi Z A b yw Z wb evPb m K wePvi c wZ Iyer ej b t .
The election process, now a lunatic, terrorist bedlam operation,
manipulated by the political mafia, shall have to undergo a civilizing mission.
(Justice V.R. Krishna Iyer: Law & Life, c v- 13 5 )

19 k k Z K h y i vi ` w Y A j wb Mv R b Mvw K wK f ve
Z vnv` i f vUvwa K vi nBZ ew Z K i v nBZ Z vnvi GK wU eYb v The
Will of the People Mn c vI q v h vq :
While explicit discrimination by law was forbidden, it took only a little
artifice on the part of states to accomplish the same goals in effect. Even the rights
to serve on juries and to vote were subsequently curtailed by state governments,
with the Court unwilling or unable to intervene. The Chicago Tribune explained in
1890 that to avoid federal interference, the Southern States all have constitutional
provisions and election laws which apparently guarantee the Negroes the right to
337
vote, but nonetheless under this cover election cheating has been reduced to a
system and the blacks are practically disenfranchised in several Southern States. To
cite but one example, plucked from Charlestons News and Courier, a leading
Democrat in the 1876 gubernatorial election in South Carolina called on each
Democrat to control the vote of one negro by intimidation, purchase, keeping him
away or as each individual may determine. (Barry Friedman : The Will of the
People page : 145).


wK h y i vev f vi Z K n G R b Z I vea vq K mi K vi ee vi
K _ v wP vI K i b vB|

Bnv wb w Z h m` v Pj g vb A L I wb f R vj MYZ vw K k vmb
ee vi K vb weK mg M wek GL b I Dvwe Z nq b vB| GB ee v
` p f ve vc b K wi Z MYZ vw K K vVvg vi g a B c q vR b xq
c wZ K vi g ~j K ee v ( remedial measures) R vZ xq msm` i weePb v
(Discretion) A b ymvi j I q v h vBZ c vi , wK Z vnvi R b MYZ vw K
k vmb ee vK K vb A R ynvZ B, Gg b wK m Z g mg q i R b I
c wi nvi K i v h vBe b v|
Gg Z A e vq t
( 1) mva vi Y wb evPb A b yw Z nBevi , R vZ xq
msm` i weePb v (Discretion) A b ymvi , h yw mZ K vj
(reasonable period) c ~e, h _ v, 4 2 ( eq vwj k ) w` b c ~e
msm` f vwq v ` I q v ev b xq nBe, Z e, wb evPb
c i eZ x b ~Z b g w mf v K vh f vi MnY b v K i v c h
c ~eeZ xg w mf v msw A vK vi MnY K i Z t D
mg q i R b i vi mvf vweK I mva vi Y K vh g
c wi Pvj b v K wi eb ;
( 2 ) mva vi Y wb evPb i Z c mxj Nvl Yvi Z vwi L nBZ
wb evPb i d j vd j Nvl Yvi Z vwi L c h wb evPb i
mwnZ c Z f ve R wo Z Ges wb evPb K wg k b i
weePb v ( Discretion) A b ymvi h vnvi v Gg b wK c i v
f ve R wo Z , i vi mB mK j K g K Z v I
K g Pvi xe` mn mswk mK j ew wb evPb K wg k b i
wb q Y _ vwK e|

338
we Amicus Curiae MY mK j B GB A v` vj Z i wmwb q i
GvW&f vK U| Z vunv` i myMf xi vb , c v, A wf Z v Ges ` k i
c wZ Z vunv` i ` vwq Z eva c k vZ xZ | msL vMwi Amicus Curiae MY K vb
b v K vb A vK vi Z vea vq K mi K vi ee nv eR vq i vwL evi c g Z
c K vk K wi q vQb | Z vunv` i A vk v wb evPb K vj Z vea vq K mi K vi
ee nvi A b yc w nwZ Z ` k A i vR K Z v I wek L j v mw nBZ
c vi | Z vunvi v mK j B ` vwq Z k xj ew | Z vunv` i A vk v A vg i v
GK evi A enj v K wi Z c vwi b v| h w` I Z wK Z mswea vb ( q v` k
msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 6 , K A mvswea vwb K I A ea Nvl b v K i v
nBq vQ Ges Bnv A ek B A ea | Z eyI GBi c A vk vi K vi b mnm
er mi i c yi vZ b Latin Maxim, h g b , Id Quod Alias Non Est Licitum, Necessitas
Licitum Facit (That which otherwise is not lawful, necessity makes lawful), Salus
Populi Est Suprema Lex (Safety of the people is the supreme law) Ges Salus
Republicae Est Suprema Lex (Safety of the State is the Supreme Law) Bnvi mnvq Z v
j BZ nBj |
Dc i v b xwZ mg ~ni A vj vK Z I vea vq K mi K vi ee nv
mvg wq K f ve a yg v c i eZ x` yBwU mva vi Y wb evPb i _ vwK e wK
b v m m ^ P~o v wm v a yg v R b MYi c wZ wb wa R vZ xq msm`
j BZ c vi |
D mg q i g a mswk mK j B wb R wb R K Z e mwVK i c
c vj b K wi Z m ~YmR vM I c wi c ~Y` vwq Z k xj nBeb ewj q v A vk v
K i v h vq |
GBi c A mva vi Y c wi w nwZ i K vi b Dc i v mnm er mi i
c yi vZ b Latin Maxim c q vM K i Z t Z wK Z mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b )
A vBb , 19 9 6 , A ea nI q v mZ I A vMvg x ` k g I GK v` k mev P
GB ` yBwU mva vi Y wb evPb R vZ xq msm` i weePb v A b ymvi
Z vea vq K mi K vi ee nvi A a xb nBZ c vi |
Z e,
339
( 1) R vZ xq msm` Z vea vq K mi K vi ee nvq
evsj v` k i A emi c v c a vb wePvi c wZ ev A vc xj
wef vMi A emi c v wePvi c wZ MYK ev` ` I q vi
R b A vBb c Yq b K wi Z c vi , K vi Y wePvi
wef vMi ^va xb Z v i vi ^ v_ Z vnvw` MK m
K i v ev b xq b q |
ei ,
( 2 ) Z vea vq K mi K vi a yg v R b MYi wb evwPZ R vZ xq
msm` m` mMY vi v MwVZ nBZ c vi , K vi b ,
R b MYi mvef g Z I g Z vq b , MYZ ,
c R vZ vw K Z v, wePvi wef vMi ^va xb Z v mswea vb i
basic structure Ges GB i vq D wel q wj i Dc i
mevwa K i Z A vi vc K i v nBq vQ;

( 3 ) Dc i ewYZ wb evPb K wg k b i g Z v Z I vea vq K
mi K vi A vg j I envj _ vwK e|

Z e a yg v A vBb vi v K vb ee vB mK j mg q i R b
^q sm ~YI wb w ` (Full proof) K i v m e b q | R b MYi m` v me` v
mPZ b Z vB c q vR b |
GL vb Dj L h , A A vc xj mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b )
A vBb , 19 9 6 , Gi A vBb MZ A e vb wb i c Yi c k B a yg v D vc b
K i v nBq vQ|
i vq k l K wi evi c ~eGK wU NUb v eYb v K i v c q vR b | NUb vwU
Prefessor Ronald Dworkin Gi Justice in Robes c y K eYb v K i v nBq vQ|
Oliver Wendell Holmes I Learned Hand ` yBR b B L ye b vg K i v wePvi K
I Jurist wQj b |
GK w` b Holmes myc xg K vUhvI q vi c _ Z i Y Learned Hand K
Z vunvi Mvo xZ K wi q v Z vnvi M e j c QvBq v ` b | Mvo x nBZ
b vwg q v Hand ewj q v I Vb Do justice, Justice | BwZ g a Mvo xwU wK Qy` yi
Pwj q v wMq vwQj wK y Holmes Mvo x wd i vBq v A vwb q v Hand K A evK
K wi q v ewj j b Thats not my job, Z vnvi c i wZ wb Pwj q v Mj b |
Bnvi c i I A vg i v ewj e
Fiat justitia, ruat caelum |
340

4 4 | mvi g g t
( 1) R b MY evsj v` k i vi g vwj K , R b Mb B mK j g Z vi
Dr m, R b MYB GK g v mvef g ;
( 2 ) evsj v` k i mi K vi g vb yl i mi K vi b n, A vBb i mi K vi
( Government of laws and not government of men) ;
( 3 ) mswea vb evsj v` k i mev P A vBb , Bnv e vsj v` k i
mK j c wZ vb I c ` mw K wi q vQ Ges c q vR b xq g Z v
I ` vwq Z A c b K wi q vQ;
( 4 ) R b MYi mvef g Z , c R vZ , MYZ I wePvi wef vMi
mva xb Z v i vi g ~j wf w Ges mswea vb i Basic structure;
( 5 ) MYZ w K i v ee vq K vb a i Yi Q` (interruption)
evsj v` k i mswea vb A b yg v` b K i b v ;
( 6 ) myc xg K vUBnvi Judicial Review Gi g Z vej h K vb
A mvswea vwb K A vBb K A ea Nvl b v K wi Z c vi ev
evwZ j ( Strike off ) K wi Z c vi ;
( 7 ) K vb g vK g vi b vb xK vj K vb A vBb i
mvswea vwb K Z vi c k D vwc Z nBj myc xg K vU m
m K wb wj _ vwK Z c vi b v, A vBb i c k wU wb i mb
K i vB myc xg K vUi ` vwq Z ;
( 8 ) mswea vb i 14 2 A b y Q` i A a xb R vZ xq msm`
mswea vb i h K vb msk va b K wi Z g Z vc v wK
i vi g ~j wf w I mswea vb i Basic structure zb ev L eev
msk va b K wi Z c vi b v;
( 9 ) mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 6 , evsj v` k
mswea vb msk va b ( amendment) K wi q vQ;
( 10 ) mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 6 , i vi wf w
Ges mswea vb i Basic structure K L eK wi q vQ wea vq D
Z wK Z A vBb A mvswea vwb K I A ea , myZ i vs evwZ j nBe ;
( 11) wek l c q vR b xq I K vi b va xb K vb A vBb
f vexmvc f ve ( Prospectively) A ea Nvl b v ev evwZ j
K i v h vBZ c vi ,
( 12 ) mva vi Y wb evPb A b yw Z nBevi , R vZ xq msm` i
weePb v (Discretion) A b ymvi , hyw mZ K vj (reasonable
period) c ~e, h _ v, 4 2 ( eq vwj k ) w` b c ~e, msm` f vwq v
` I q v ev b xq nBe, Z e, wb evPb c i eZ x b ~Z b g w mf v
K vh f vi MnY b v K i v c h c ~ eeZ xg w mf v msw A vK vi
MnY K i Z t D mg q i R b i vi mvf vweK I mva vi Y
K vh g c wi Pvj b v K wi eb ;
341
( 13 ) mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 6 , A mvswea vwb K
I A ea nBj I R vZ xq msm` Bnvi weePb v(Discretion) I
wm v A b ymvi Dc i ewYZ wb ` k vej x mvc ` k g I
GK v` k mva vi Y wb evPb K vj xb mg q c q vR b g Z
b ~Z b f ve I A vwK Z vea vq K mi K vi MVb i ee nv
MnY K wi Z c vwi e;

( 14 ) mva vi Y wb evPb i Z c mxj Nvl Yvi Z vwi L nBZ wb evPb i
d j vd j Nvl Yvi Z vwi L c h wb evPb i mwnZ c Z
f ve R wo Z Ges wb evPb K wg k b i weePb v (Discretion)
A b ymvi Gg b wK c i v f ve R wo Z , i vi mK j
K g K Z v I K g Pvi xe` mn mswk mK j ew wb evPb
K wg k b i wb q Y _ vwK e;
( 15 ) we` g vb mswea vb i 5 6 ( 2 ) A b y Q` i k Z ( Proviso) Gi
c wi eZ 19 7 2 mvj i g ~j mswea vb i 5 6 ( 4 ) A b y Q`
MYZ i ^v_ A vb vq b K i v c q vR b ;
( 16 ) 2 0 0 7 mvj wZ xq Z vea vq K mi K vi i 9 0 w` b g q v`
c i eZ x A wZ wi I c vq ` yB er mi mg q K vj c k we wea vq
H A wZ wi mg q K vj i K vh vej x g vR b v ( condone) K i v
nBj |

4 5 | A v` k t
A Z Ge, mswea vb ( q v` k msk va b ) A vBb , 19 9 6 , 2 0 11
mvj i 10 B g Z vwi L nBZ f vexmvc f ve ( Prospectively)
A mvswea vwb K Z _ v A ea Nvl b v K i v nBj Ges A vc xj wU L i Pv
ewZ i K g yi ( allow) K i v nBj |
Dc i vI A vc xj wUZ c ` A v` k Civil Petition For Leave to Appeal
No.596 of 2005 g vK v g vq A b ymi Y K i v nBj |
BnvQvo vI , Dc i 4 4 ` d vq ewY Z wb ` k vej x c ` vb K i v nBj |
4 6 | g e t
GB i vq wU wek l K wi q v A vg v` i g vZ f vl v evsj vq c ` vb K i v
nBj K vi b The judicial department comes home in its effects to every mans fire
side (John Marshall)|

GB c m Df q c i we GvW&f vK Ue` Ges wek l K wi q v
we Amicus Curiae MYK Z vunv` i Mf xi c vm b mnvq Z vi R b
342
GB myc xg K vUZ vunvw` MK h _ vc h y g ~j vq b (deep appeciaption)
K wi Z Q Ges Z vunv` i c Z K i mnh vMx A vBb R xweK Uvt
2 0 , 0 0 0 / - K wi q v c vwi Z vwl K ( honorarium) c ` vb K wi evi R b
evsj v` k mi K vi K wb ` k c ` vb K i v nBj |

C.J.

Md. Muzammel Hossain, J.:- I have had the advantage of
going through the judgments proposed to be delivered by A. B. M.
Khairul Haque, the learned Chief Justice, Md. Abdul Wahhab
Miah, J. and Muhammad Imman Ali, J.. I concur with the
judgment and order passed by the learned Chief Justice.

J.

S.K.Sinha,J: While agreeing with the opinion
of the learned Chief Judge, I would add a few
words of my own. This certificated appeal calls
for determination on whether the Constitution
(Thirteenth Amendment) Act, 1996 (Act 1 of 1996)
changed the basic structures of the Constitution.
By this amendment Article 58A has been inserted in
Chapter II, Part IV and Articles 58B, 58C, 58D and
58E along with Chapter IIA under the heading of
Non-Party Caretaker Government have also been
343
inserted. Along with the above additions Article
61 has also been amended. It is provided in
Article 58A that except clauses (4), (5) and (6)
of Article 55, the other provisions of Chapter II
shall not apply during the period of Non-Party
Caretaker Government, (the Care-taker Government).
Article 58B provides for the procedure and the
powers to be exercised by the Care-taker
Government; Article 58C relates to the composition
of such Government and the procedure for
appointment of Chief Adviser and other Advisers;
Article 58D relates to the functions of the Care-
taker Government; Article 58E provides that during
the period of Care-taker Government except the
provisions of Article 48(3), 141A(1) and 141C(1),
other provisions of the Constitution requiring the
President to act on the advice of the Prime Minister
shall be ineffective.
This amendment was challenged mainly on the
ground that it was passed by the Parliament
introducing new concept of non-representative
Care-taker Government system violating the basic
344
concept of democracy, the fundamental structure of
the Constitution and violative of the mandatory
provision of Article 142(1A) of the Constitution.
It is stated that Bangladesh is a Republic in
which effective participation of the people, by
the people and for the people is ensured by the
Constitution and the elected representatives in
administration at all levels are also ensured to
achieve fundamental human rights and freedom and
respect for the dignity worth of the human person
in Bangladesh. The exercise of governmental powers
for the interregnum is destructive of the
democratic values ensured by the Constitution. The
democracy being a corner stone of the
Constitution, the amendment made by the impugned
Act by introduction of the non-representative
Government even for interregnum is destructive of
democratic values. Therefore, the Parliament can
not introduce such destructive provisions allowing
unrepresentative and non-elected government to
rule the country.
345
The unanimous views expressed by the learned
Judges of the High Court Division are:
"1) The Constitution (Thirteenth
Amendment) Act, 1996 (Act No.1 of
1996) is valid and Constitutional.
2) The Constitution (Thirteenth
Amendment) Act, 1996 has not amended
the Preamble, Article 8, 48 and 56 of
the Constitution and it was therefore
not required to be referred to
referendum.
3) The Constitution (Thirteenth
Amendment) Act, 1996 has not affected
or destroyed basic structure or
feature of the Constitution,
particularly the democracy and
independence of the judiciary.
4) Clauses (1A), (1B) and (1C) to Article
142 of the Constitution are valid and
consequently any amendment to the
Preamble and Articles 8, 48 and 56 of
346
the Constitution must observe the
formalities provided in Clauses (1A),
(1B) and (1C) to Article 142 of the
Constitution."
The learned Judges, however, expressed
separate opinions. Md. Joynul Abedin, J. argued
that fair, independent and impartial election was
not possible for the reason that although the
Prime Minister used to run the Government during
the interregnum and held the general election to
the Parliament but the election was not free and
fair, inasmuch as, the Governments men and
machinery were used by such Government to
influence the election result in favour of the
political party to which the Prime Minister
belonged; this was the major factor necessitating
the passing of the said Act for engrafting the
Care-taker Government system. The learned Judge
further held that unless the Second Proclamation
(Fifth Amendment) Order, 1978 by which clause (1A)
was inserted to Article 142 is declared void by a
347
Court of law, the same should be held to be valid
and consequently any amendment is found to have
amended the Preamble and Articles 8, 48 and 56,
the amending bill must be referred to for a
referendum before it is assented to by the
President; that the legislature in its wisdom
preferred retired Judges and the retired Chief
Justices for discharging powers and functions of
Chief Advisor in the Care-taker Government and
that the Parliament may bring any amendment to the
Constitution to achieve for consolidating and
institutionalizing the democracy in the country.
Md. Awlad Ali,J. while concurring with the
above arguments added that the necessity for
forming Care-taker Government was felt in the
Parliament and by the votes of two third majority,
the bill was passed, which was a temporary measure
for a limited period. This amendment is the
product of political stress and crisis; major
political parties struggled for a system where all
citizens will have the equal opportunity to
348
exercise their voting power to elect
representatives of their own choice. It is further
added that this was made on the general will of
the people. Win in the election of any candidate
or party by foul means is a defeat of democracy,
destruction of democracy which is against the
fundamental structure of the Constitution. If the
people really believe in democracy and want to
practice democracy there is no harm if certain
provisions laid down in Articles 48(3), 56 and
57(3) of the Constitution are suspended or kept in
abeyance for a period of three months. The
impugned amendment has not added any new
provision; it has merely kept certain provisions
ineffective for a limited period and thus this
amendment is an apparatus set in the body of the
Constitution and that apparatus during the period
of 90 days will regulate certain provisions of the
Constitution which system is a peculiar and novel
political contrivance and it is an unprecedented
349
legislation in our legislative history since the
framing of the Constitution.
Mirza Hossain Haider,J. while endorsing the
above views added that even if democracy is taken
as a basic structure of the Constitution, the
impugned amendment cannot be said to be ultravires
the Constitution since improvement in the
democratic system has been brought by such
amendment; free and fair election is an essential
postulate of democracy and if the people cannot
trust or keep faith in the partisan Government or
in the system in holding free and fair election
then obviously an alternative is to be looked for
and thus it can not be said that the amendment has
affected the basic feature of the Constitution;
that the crisis that created in the political
arena in practicing democracy has been solved,
because the concept of care-taker Government is
inherent in our Constitution and in most of the
countries, where democracy is in practice,
particularly in the sub-continent when the
350
Parliament is dissolved and till next Parliament
is formed the concept of Care-taker Government is
provided for in the Constitution. It is also added
that under the scheme of the Constitution the out
going Prime Minister who lost his character as an
elected representative immediately with the
dissolution of the Parliament continues to hold
office along with members of out going cabinet
till the next elected Government enters upon its
office; such continuation being for a temporary
period is in the shape of interim Care-taker
Government, notwithstanding the fact that the
outgoing Prime Minister and the cabinet lose their
character as people's representative but they
continue to retain their affiliation with their
party. According to the learned Judge, under such
circumstances, holding of an election impartially,
free from influence or power under a partisan
Government becomes a remote proposition.
We have heard the learned Counsel for the
appellant and the learned Amici Curiae. It is the
351
contention on behalf of the appellant that
impugned amendment cannot be justified which has
changed the meaning of, or modify the basic
structure of the Constitution in its tenor and
effectiveness or by keeping them in abeyance,
temporarily or permanently; and that nevertheless
the impugned Act in effect has amended the
preamble and other articles including those
requiring reference of the bill to referendum. On
the other hand Mr. T.H. Khan, Dr. Kamal Hossain,
Mr. Mahmudul Islam, Mr. M. Amirul Islam and Mr.
Rokonuddin Mahmud have supported the judgment of
the High Court Division, while Dr. Zahir, Mr.
Ajmalur Hossain and Mr. Mohsen Rashid have argued
that the impugned amendment has changed the basic
structure of the Constitution. Mr. Rafiq-ul-huq
while arguing in favour of the amendment has
criticised the provision for keeping the former
Chief Justice or the retired Judges of this
Division as the Chief Adviser. Learned Chief
Justice has extensively reproduced their
352
submissions in his draft copy of the judgment and
in order to avoid repetition, I have refrained
from reiterating their submissions.
On perusal of the writ petition, the impugned
judgment and the submissions of the learned
counsel, and the Amici Curiae, the substantial
questions involved for our consideration are:
1) whether the Constitution (Thirteenth
Amendment) Act, 1996 (Act 1 of 1996)
ultra vires the Constitution; and
2) whether the provisions contained in
clauses (3) and (4) of Article 58C
relating to appointment of Chief
Adviser from amongst the retired
Chief Justices or from amongst the
retired Judges of the Appellate
Division retired last infringed the
independence of judiciary.
At the outset, I would like to point out that
it is always difficult and perhaps painful when,
on account of purely political situations in the
353
country, the judiciary is made to intervene and
render its opinion, which is found to be
controversial, more in a country like ours where
people are exceptionally individualistic and
subjective. The submission that the people have
faith in the judiciary and the judicial
institution, and thus the judiciary is the saviour
of the situation is not but partially correct. It
should be remembered that the judiciary cannot
solve all the problems of the peoplesuch
expectation is also undesirable. It will create a
false impression and false illusion that the
Judges are a panacea for all ills in society.
Politicians and the citizens should realise that
the problems confronting the country are so huge
that it will be an illusions in their minds that
the judiciary can solve all problems.
It should have to be remembered that the
judiciary is not in a position to provide
solutions to each and every problem of the state.
The problem of the day which is a burning issue
354
has to be solved by the politicians by using their
solemn responsibility and ethos, and not by
egoism. The problem is so massive that it can be
solved on taking into consideration the historical
background of achieving liberation, democracy and
the Constitution. They should not forget the past
history that whenever crisis comes, their strength
both moral and physical have been generated by the
mass people. While discussing on the
characteristics of the Indian Constitution,
Jennings stated All Constitutions are the heirs
of the past as well as the testators of the
future. In this context, Rowland, J. of the
Federal Court in Benoarilal Sharma, 1943 FCR96
observed, I do not see why historical facts
should be excluded from the purview. Such topics
as the history of legislation and the facts which
give rise to the enactment may usefully be
employed to interpret the meaning of the statute,
though they do not afford conclusive argument.
Accordingly, for understanding the constitutional
355
law of a country, one must have to refer to the
laws and the principles that exist outside the
Constitution, he must acquaint with the historical
background and also require to make a brief review
of the Constitutional set-up in the preceding
periods. Such historical account would not only
enable us to lay the lessons of the past before
the future, but to see the remarkable achievement
of the Constitution against its historical
background. Thus it will be necessary to go to
what is known as British period since our
political institution originated and developed
from the British period.
The optimistic views of English Constitution
was written by Burke in 1791 and then Hallam in
1818, was in the quaint language of George the
Third, the most perfect of human formations; it
was to them not a mere polity to be compared with
the Government of any other state but, so to speak
a secret mystery of statesmanship; it had not
been made but grown; it was the fruit not of
356
abstract theory but of that instinct which (it is
supposed) has enabled Englishmen, to build up
sound and lasting institutions, much as bees
construct a honeycomb, without undergoing the
degradation of understanding the principles on
which they raise a fabric more subtley wrought
than any work of conscious art. (Stanhope, Life of
Pitt,) The Constitution was marked by more than
one transcendent quality which in the eyes English
forefathers raised it far above the imitations,
counterfeits, or parodies which have been set up
during the last hundred years throughout the
civilized world; no precise date could be named as
the day of its birth; no definite body of persons
could claim to be its creators, no one could point
to the document which contained its clauses; it
was in short a thing by itself, which Englishmen
and foreigners alike should venerate, where they
are not able presently to comprehend.
The sources of English constitutional law may
be considered fourfold, namely-(i) Treaties or
357
quasi-treaties, i.e. the Acts of union; (ii) The
common law; (iii) Solemn agreements, i.e. the Bill
of Rights; (iv) Statutes. (Monsieur Boutmy,
English translation, page 8). Its resource is to
recur to writers of authority on the law, the
history, or the practice of the Constitution.
Constitutional law, as the term is used in
England, appears to include all rules which
directly or indirectly affect the distribution or
the exercise of the sovereign power in the state.
(Holland, Jurisprudence (10
th
end, P 138-139). It
includes all rules which define the members of the
sovereign power, all rules which regulate the
relation of such members to each other, or which
determine the mode in which the sovereign power,
or the members thereof, exercise their authority.
Its rules prescribe the order of succession to the
throne, regulate the prerogatives of the chief
magistrate, determine the form of legislature and
its mode of election.
358
The other set of rules consists of
conventions, understandings, habits, or practices
which, though they may regulate the conduct of the
several members of the sovereign power, of the
Ministry, or of other officials, are not in
reality laws at all since they are not enforced by
the Courts. This portion may be termed the
conventions of the constitution or conventional
morality. Thus constitutional law consists of two
elements. The one element is called the law of
constitution is a body of undoubted law; the
other element is conventions of the constitution
consists of maxims or practices which, though they
regulate the ordinary conduct of the Crown, of
Ministers, and of other persons under the
Constitution, are not in strictness laws at all.
To the law of the Constitution belong to the
rule; the king can do no wrong. There is no
power in the Crown to dispense with the obligation
to obey the law, this negation or abolition of the
dispensing power now depends upon the Bill of
359
Rights; it is a law of the Constitution and a
written law. So again the right to personal
liberty, the right to public meeting, and many
other rights, are part of the law of the
Constitution, though most of these rights are
consequences of the more general law or principle
that no man can be punished except for direct
breaches of law proved in the way provided by law.
To the conventions; The king must assent to,
or can not veto any bill passed by the two Houses
of Parliament; the House of Lords does not
originate any money bill; when House of Lords acts
as a Court of Appeal, no peer who is not a law
lord takes part in the decisions of the House;
Ministers resign office when they have ceased to
command the confidence of the House of commons; a
bill must be read a certain number of times before
passing through the House of Commons. It is said,
these maxims never violated and are universally
admitted to be inviolable. Of constitutional
conventions or practices some are as important as
360
any laws, though some may be trivial, as may also
be the case with a genuine law.
The Constitution of the United States, on the
other hand, is recorded in a given document to
which every one has access, namely, the
Constitution of the United States established and
ordained by the people of the United States. The
articles of this constitution fall indeed far
short of perfect logical arrangement, and lack
absolute lucidity of expression; but they contain,
is a clear and intelligibly form, the fundamental
law of the union. This law is made and can only be
amended or altered in a way different from the
method by which other enactments are made or
altered; it stands forth, therefore, as a separate
subject for study; it deals with the legislature,
the executive, and the judiciary, and, by its
provisions for its own amendment, indirectly
defines the body in which resides the legislative
sovereignty of the United States.
361
One has to ascertain the meaning of the
Articles of the American Constitution in the same
way in which he tries to elicit the meaning of any
other enactment. He must be guided by the rules of
grammer, by his knowledge of the common law, by
the light thrown on American legislation by
American history, and by the conclusions to be
deduced from a careful study of judicial
decisions. The task, in short, which lay before
the great American commentators was the
explanation of a definite legal document in
accordance with the received cannons of legal
interpretations. In the United States the legal
powers of the President, the Senate, the mode of
electing the President and the like, are, as far
as the law is concerned, regulated wholly by the
law of the Constitution. But side by side with the
law have grown up certain stringent conventional
rules, which, though they would not be noticed by
any Court, have in practice nearly the force of
law. No President has ever been re-elected more
362
than once; the popular approval of this
conventional limit of which the Constitution knows
nothing on a Presidents re-eligibility proved a
fatal bar to General Grants third candidature.
Constitutional understandings have entirely
changed the position of the Presidential electors.
They were by the founders of the Constitution
intended to be what their name denotes, the
persons who chose or selected the President; the
Chief Officer, in short, of the Republic was,
according to the law, to be appointed under a
system of double election. The power of an elector
to elect is as completely abolished by
constitutional understandings in America as is the
Royal right of dissent from bills passed by both
Houses of by the same force in England.
Under a written, as under an unwritten
Constitution, we find in full existence the
distinction between the law and the conventions of
the Constitution. This takes us to the very root
of the matter. To understand the true
363
Constitutional law, its proper function is to show
what are the legal rules, that is to say, rules
recognised by the Courts which are to be found in
several parts of the Constitution. This
constitutional law or the constitutional
convention or the conventional rules had not been
allowed to grow in Pakistan. Our leaders committed
to the people to present a modern democracy, a
Constitution where the fundamental rights of the
citizens will be enshrined, the democracy will be
flourished and practiced and the rule of law will
prevail but within a short period of time after
partition the people found the leaders tried to
concentrate power instead of presenting a
Constitution and also acted against the spirit of
democracy. The rullers whittled down the
conventional morality. No constitutional set up
either the Executive or Parliament or Election
Commission or the judiciary was allowed to
function and this will be evident from the
historical background narrated in Yusuf Patel V.
364
The Crown, PLD 1955 FC 387, State V. Dossos, PLD
1958 SC (Pak.) 533 and Asma Jilani V. Government
of the Punjab, PLD 1972 SC 139. The Government of
India Act, 1935 provided for a federal
Parliamentary form of Government, though the
Governor General was the real repository of power
as the representative of the British Sovereign. By
the Indian Independence Act, 1947, India was
partitioned in two dominions and two Constituent
Assemblies for the two dominions were constituted
which functioned until the adoption of the
Constitution.
The Constituent Assembly of Pakistan could not
enact the Constitution because of tussle among
persons in power, such as, the politicians,
bureaucrats and military officers. In 1950 Prime
Minister Liaquat Ali Khan, was murdered and the
murderer was killed on the spot so that the real
persons behind the murder could not be traced out.
Khawaja Nazimuddin, who became the Governor
General on the death of M.A. Jinnah, became the
365
Prime Minister and Ghulam Mohammad became the
Governor General. In April, 1953 Ghulam Mohammad
dismissed Khawaja Nizimuddin and his Cabinet, and
he appointed Mohammad Ali as the Prime Minister.
Ghulam Mohammad, a titular head had no
Constitutional authority to dismiss the Prime
Minister. A draft Constitution had been prepared
on the basis of the Objectives Resolutions on 25
th

October, 1954. Ghulam Mohammad issued a
Proclamation dissolving the Constituent Assembly
and reconstituting the cabinet with Mohammad Ali
as the Prime Minister and two army men were also
included in the said cabinet. Section 19 of Act of
1935 conferred power on the Governor General to
dissolve its legislature. Tamizuddin Khan,
challenged the dissolution of the Constituent
Assembly by filing a writ petition on the ground
that the Governor General had no power of
dissolution. The Sind Chief Court found that the
assent of the Governor General for inserting
section 223A in the Act of 1935 was not necessary
366
for the validity of the amendment and declared
that the Governor General had no power to dissolve
Constituent Assembly.
In an appeal from the said judgment, the
Federal Court of Pakistan by majority allowed the
appeal holding that the insertion of section 223A
was invalid for want of assent of the Governor
General and the Sind Chief Court had no
jurisdiction to entertain the writ petition.
(Pakistan Vs. Tamizuddin Khan, 7 DLR(FC)291).
Pursuant to such views taken in Tamizuddin, a
large number of Constitutional enactments of the
Constituent Assembly were found to be invalid for
want of the assent. The Governor General sought to
validate those Acts by indicating his assent
retrospectively by an Ordinance. The Federal Court
declared this Ordinance ultra vires the power of
the Governor. In Usif Patil V. Crown, 7
DLR(FC)385, in such situation, the Governor
General resorted to the advisory jurisdiction of
the Federal Court in reference by Governor General
367
to find a solution to the Constitutional deadlock
created by the judgment of the Federal Court in
Tamizuddin Khan.
The Federal Court invoked the doctrine of
necessity and evolved a new political formula for
setting up a Constituent Assembly. The Federal
Court found the dissolution of the Constituent
Assembly by the Governor General valid on the
reasonings that when the Constituent Assembly
failed to give a Constitution, the Governor
General could dissolve the said Constituent
Assembly. The Constituent Assembly, thereupon
adopted a new Constitution based on the principle
of parity prescribing a Federal Parliamentary
Government with the President as its
Constitutional head. The National Assembly would
be composed of an equal number of members from the
two units of East Pakistan and West Pakistan on
the basis of direct election. The Prime Minister
and the cabinet would be responsible to the
Federal Legislature. The Supreme Court and the
368
High Courts were given the power of judicial
review. By the Proclamation of Martial Law in 1958
no election could be held under the Constitution
of 1956. The Proclamation of 7
th
October, 1958
abrogated the Constitution and the President
issued the Laws Continuance in Force Order, 1958
which provided that notwithstanding the abrogation
of the Constitution, the country would be governed
as nearly as may be in accordance with the
abrogated Constitution.
Under the provisions of Frontier Crimes
Regulation several persons were found guilty of
murder and Malik Toti Khan and Mehrban Khan along
with others were found not guilty. The Deputy
Commissioner remanded the case to the Council of
Elders but the Council of Elders after keeping the
case pending for some time expressed their
inability to give an opinion on the ground that
the parties had approached them and they did not
open minds on the question. The case was then
referred to another Council of Elders, which found
369
the respondents guilty, whereupon the Deputy
Commissioner convicted them. The respondents then
moved a writ of habeas corpus and certiorari in
the Peshawar Bench of the High Court of West
Pakistan on the ground that the provisions of
Frontier Crimes Regulation enabling the executive
authorities to refer criminal cases to a Council
of Elders were void under Article 4 of the
Constitution. Their contention was accepted. On
appeal from the said judgment by the State, the
Supreme Court in State Vs. Dosso, 11 DLR SC 1 held
that the proceedings abated giving legal
recognition to the Martial Law itself by
describing it as a successful revolution.
The Constitution of Pakistan came into
operation on 7
th
June, 1962 introducing a system
which was euphemistically called a Presidential
form of Government even though the normal checks
and balances of such a form of Government to
prevent one-man rule were not incorporated in it.
It is, in fact, enacted an authoritarian rule by
370
one who occupied the office of the President Field
Martial Md. Ayub Khan. Under the Constitution the
National Assembly and the Provincial Assemblies
were to be elected by the members of Electoral
College who were to be elected by the people. The
members of the National and Provincial Assemblies
were not responsible to the people. People
electing the members of the Electoral College had
no way of ensuring that their wishes would be
reflected in the election of the President and the
members of the National and Provincial Assemblies.
In 1965 Ayub Khan got himself reelected as the
President of Pakistan. There was general
impression of the people that the election was
rigged. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman started a movement
in the then East Pakistan with his 6-point
programme in 1966 which reflected the genuine
grievances of the people of East Pakistan.
Towards the end of 1968, agitation was started
all over Pakistan by the main political parties
against the despotic rule of Ayub Khan and as a
371
result of such agitation, Ayub Khan wrote a letter
to the Commander-in-Chief of army Yahya Khan to
take over the rein of Pakistan and he expressed
his desire to step down. Yahya Khan by a
Proclamation issued on 26
th
March, 1969 abrogated
the Constitution, dissolved the National and
Provincial Assemblies, and imposed Martial Law
through out Pakistan and promulgated the
Provisional Constitution Order,1969. Thereafter,
he framed Legal Frame Work Order for holding
election. Under the said Order, National and
Provincial Assemblies elections were held in
December, 1970. Awami League led by Sheikh Mujibur
Rahman which won almost all the seats in East
Pakistan and held a clear majority in the National
Assembly. Z.A. Bhutto who held majority seats in
West Pakistan refused to attend the session of
National Assembly at Dhaka and Yahya Khan
postponed the session sine-die.
Jan Mohammad Dawood, a lawyer of Pakistan on
an analysis of the above cases expressed his
372
opinion lucidly in his book The Role of Superior
Judiciary in Politics of Pakistan thus This
country was conceived as a liberal democratic
country by our founders and under the Government
of India Act, 1935, read with the Indian
Independence Act of 1947 passed by the British
Parliament, this country came into being as a
modern democracy. Unfortunately, within a short
period of time serious differences arose between
our political leaders as regards the nature of our
Constitution, the quantum of provincial autonomy,
the National Language which the country should
adopt and many other disputes of a Fundamental
nature, with the result that the First Constituent
Assembly which came into being on 11
th
of August,
1947, got bogged down on political mere.
Throughout this period of 45 years, every leader
of the country, whether Civil or Military, has
sworn by democracy but has acted against the
spirit of democracy and has tried his level best
to concentrate all the powers of the state in his
373
person. Unfortunately, we have not yet developed
a democratic culture characterized by
accommodation, tolerance, large-heartedness and
mutual respect- a culture in which everybodys
legitimate rights are secured and everyone not
only feels obliged to do his duty and discharge
his obligations according to Constitution and the
law, but is also ready at all times to account for
his actions and willingly submits himself for
accountability.........All our leaders who came to
power either through elections or by other dubious
means started to believe that they were
indispensable for the continued existence of the
country and that their exit from power would sound
the death-knell of Pakistan. They, therefore,
always tried to perpetuate themselves in power by
hook or by crook.
The framers of the Constitution and the
history itself have made the Court the ultimate
arbiter of the Constitutions meaning as well as
the source of answers to a magnitute of questions
374
about how the then Pakistan, a complex country
would be governed but it failed to address the
core question. The Supreme Court of Pakistan in
Dossos case expressed that the proceedings of
habeas corpus abated and gave legal recognition to
the Martial Law itself by describing it as a
successful revolution and, therefore, a fresh law
creating organ. Thereafter the democracy in
Pakistan was trampled by the millitary rullers and
ultimately this country became independent. Thus,
it is important that the public understands how
the Court carries out its role.
The political episode in Pakistan and the
quotations of the author after analysing the
events are self explanatory which exposed nakedly
the proficiency of the politicians and their
thrust for power. Though the politicians spoke for
democracy, in reality they had no faith in it.
They had also no love for the people and the
country other than the power. The second episode
of the history is that after the election of 1970
375
when Bhutto refused to attend the session of
National Assembly at Dhaka and the Pakistani
regime supported him, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
virtually took over the administration in East
Pakistan and to meet the eventuality, Yahya Khan
pretended to talks with the important political
leaders in Dhaka, suddenly in the midst of such
talks used military force in the mid night of 25
th

March, 1971. The military gunned down thousands of
innocent unarmed persons all over East Pakistan,
committed genocide and atrocities which could be
compared with none other than orgies. In the back-
drop of such brutality, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
declared independence of Bangladesh on 26
th
March,
1971 and urged the people of Bangladesh to defend
the honour and integrity of Bangladesh. The people
of Bangladesh took arms to fight against the
Pakistani Jaunta to liberate the country and
ultimately at the cost of three million martyrs,
Bangladesh got its independence on 16th December,
1971.
376
The moot questions involved in this appeal are
to be considered in the light of the above
historical background, whether the impugned
judgment conflicts the basic feature of the
Constitution or in the alternative, such amendment
was made against the spirit of the Constitution
and the constitutional convention. If the answer
is in positive it is our duty to express opinion
as to how and why it is unconstitutional. The
Court has a special responsibility to ensure that
the Constitution works in practice.
The Proclamation of Independence reflected the
true feelings and emotions of the people. The
people took arms against the Pakistani rullers for
liberation of the country against exploitation.
This has been reflected in the beginning of the
Proclamation that there was "free elections" to
elect representatives for the purpose of framing
the Constitution but the Pakistani authority
declared an unjust and treacherous war, and Sheikh
Mujibur Rahman, the undisputed leader in due
377
fulfillment of the legitimate right of self
determination of the people declared independence
and urged the people to defend the honour and
integrity of Bangladesh. It was also pointed out
in unequivocal terms that the will of the people
is supreme and the independence was declared to
ensure the people of Bangladesh to present a
modern democratic country where equality, human
dignity and social justice will be served.
The following day of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's
return from Pakistani incarceration the
Provisional Constitutional Order, 1972 was issued
on 11th January, 1972. The President of the
Republic having realised the mischief committed by
the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan after
independence in 1947 that it failed to frame a
Constitution because of conflicting interests,
ideologies, and power struggle, did not waste a
single moment and declared that the Parliamentary
form of Government would be the basis for running
the country. Though he was sworn in as the
378
President of the newly born country immediate
after his return, again he was sworn in as Prime
Minister although the Constitution was not framed
and transacted the business of the Government in a
Parliamentary form in all practical purposes
during the interim period. He constituted the
Constituent Assembly with the members of National
and East Pakistan Provisional Assemblies who were
elected by the people of East Pakistan in
December, 1970 for drafting a Constitution. The
Constituent Assembly thereupon within a short
period adopted a Constitution on 16th December,
1972. The preamble of the Constitution reads:
"We, the people of Bangladesh, having
proclaimed our Independence on the 26th
day of March, 1971 and, through a
historic struggle for national
liberation, established the independent,
sovereign People's Republic of
Bangladesh;
379
Pleading that the high ideals of
nationalism, socialism, democracy and
secularism, which inspired our heroic
people to dedicate themselves to, and our
brave martyrs to sacrifice their lives
in, the national liberation struggle,
shall be the fundamental principles of
the Constitution;
Further pleading that it shall be a
fundamental aim of the State to realise
through the democratic process a
socialist society, free from
exploitation-a society in which the rule
of law, fundamental human rights and
freedom, equality and justice, political,
economic and social, will be secured for
all citizens;
Affirming that it is our sacred duty
to safeguard, protect and defend this
Constitution and to maintain its
supremacy as the embodiment of the will
380
of the people of Bangladesh so that we
may prosper in freedom and may make our
full contribution towards international
peace and co-operation in keeping with
the progressive aspirations of mankind;
In our Constituent Assembly, the
eighteenth day of Kartick, 1379 B.S.,
corresponding to the fourth day of
November, 1972 A.D., do hereby adopt,
enact and give to ourselves this
Constitution."
The preamble starts with the expression we,
the people of Bangladesh. The independence of
Bangladesh was achieved not as a course but it was
achieved by the people through a historic struggle
for national liberation. The Constituent Assembly
pledged that the fundamental aim of the state
should be realized through democratic process
free from exploitation a society in which the rule
of law, fundamental human rights and freedom,
equality and justice, political, economic and
381
social, will be secured for all citizens. The
supremacy of the Constitution was declared. The
framers of the Constitution describe the
qualitative aspects of the polity the Constitution
is designed to achieve. In this situation, the
preamble of the Constitution and in its role
cannot be relegated to the position of the
preamble of a statute.
This preamble is different from other
Constitutions of the globe which reflected the
philosophy, aims and objectives of the
Constitution and describes the qualitative aspects
of the Constitution as designed to achieve. The
preamble declares in clear terms that all powers
in the Republic belong to the people. It
emphatically declares to constitute a sovereign
Peoples Republic in which democracy with equality
of status and of opportunity of all citizens in
all spheres of life be ensured. Their exercise on
behalf of the people shall be effected only under
and by the authority of the Constitution. This
382
preamble speaks of representative democracy, rule
of law and the supremacy of the Constitution. The
beginning of the expressions we the people means
the machineries and the apparatus of the
Republic, that is, the Executive, the Legislature,
the Judiciary including the President and the
Cabinet, the disciplinary forces including the
army are subservient to the will of the people.
They are answerable to the people for every action
taken. If this preamble is read along with
Articles 7 and 11, provisions of Parts III, IV, V
and VI, there is no denying the fact that the
sovereignty of the people, the four ideals, such
as, nationalism, socialism, democracy and
secularism which inspired the martyrs to sacrifice
their lives, the will of the people, the rule of
law, the fundamental rights of the citizens and
the parliamentary form of Government are the main
pillars of the Constitution. The will of the
people is to be expressed through their elected
383
representatives in the administration at all
levels.
Thus, our preamble contains the clue to the
fundamentals of the Constitution and the basic
constituent of our Constitution is the
administration of the Republic through their
elected representatives. These two integral parts
of the Constitution form a basic element which
must be preserved and can not be altered. The
Parliament has power to amend the Constitution but
such power is subject to certain limitation which
is apparent from a reading of the preamble. The
broad contours of the basic elements and
fundamental features of the Constitution are
delineated in the preamble.
Chandrachud,CJ. while expressing views on
preamble of Indian Constitution in Minerva Mills
Ltd. V. Union of India, AIR 1980 S.C. 1789 stated:
"The preamble assures to the people of India a
polity where basic structure is described therein
as a Sovereign Democratic Republic". S. Ahmed,J.
384
in Anwar Hossain Chowdhury Vs. Bangladesh, 1989
BLD (Special)1 argued that the preamble of our
Constitution is something different from that of
ordinary statute and it is the intention of the
makers the Constitution that it is the guide to
its interpretation. M.H. Rahman,J. in Anwar
Hossain is of the opinion that the preamble is not
only a part of the Constitution, it now stands as
an entrenched provision that can not be changed
and any amendment to the Constitution 'is to be
examined in the light of the preamble'. In Kuldip
Nayar V. Union of India, AIR 2006, 3127 it has
been argued: "the edifice of democracy in the
country (India) rests on a system of free and fair
elections. These principles are discernible not
only from the preamble, which has always been
considered as part of the Constitution, but also
from its various provisions".
The basic feature of the Constitution is that
all powers belong to the people. The preamble
outlines the objectives of the whole Constitution.
385
The peoples participation in the affairs of the
state are through their elected representatives.
This is an essential characteristic of a
Parliamentary form of Government and it is the
main fabric of the system set up by the
Constitution. An alteration of this main fabric
is to destroy it altogether and it can not
altogether be changed even for a short period,
similar to those conventions of the British
Constitution that The King must assent to, or
can not veto any bill passed by the two Houses of
Parliament, the House of Lords does not
originate any money bill (A.V. Dicey-The Law of
the Constitution) and those of the American
conventional rules that No president has ever
been re-elected more than once.
Our Constitution establishes political
institutions designed to ensure a workable,
democratic form of Government that protects basic
personal liberties; divides and separates power so
that no person or office holder can become too
386
powerful; ensures a degree of equality and
guarantees the rule of law. The Constitution, by
creating several governmental institutions and
dividing power among them, stresses the importance
of considering those institutions as part of one
Government, working together. Under the
Constitution there is a threefold distribution of
powers, and those powers are co-extensive.
Article 7 says "All powers in the Republic
belong to the people ---- and their exercise on
behalf of the people shall be effected only under,
and by the authority of this Constitution".
Article 8 provides for the fundamental principles
of state policy, Article 11 highlights the
democracy and human rights of the citizens. Part
III protects the fundamental rights of the
citizens. This Division held in Anwar Hossain
Chowdhury that Article 7 of the Constitution
declares the supremacy of the Constitution, there
must be some authority to maintain and preserve
the supremacy of the Constitution and there can be
387
no doubt that judiciary must be that authority.
One of the basic features of the preamble of our
Constitution is to safeguard, protect and defend
the Constitution and to maintain its supremacy as
the embodiment of the will of the people of
Bangladesh. One of the fundamental principles
contained in Article II is that the Republic shall
be a democracy in which fundamental human rights
and freedoms and respect for the dignity and worth
of the human person be guaranteed. The expression
democracy used in the article has been explained
to the effect that effective participation by the
people through their elected representatives in
administration at all levels shall be ensured.
The basic concept underlying the sovereignty
of the people is that the entire body politic
becomes a trustee for the discharge of sovereign
functions. In a complex society every citizen can
not personally participate in the performance of
the affairs of the State, the body politic
appoints state functionaries to discharge these
388
functions on its behalf and for its benefit, and
has the right to remove the functionary so
appointed by it if he goes against the law of the
legal sovereign, or commits any other breach of
trust or fails to discharge his obligation under a
trust. The head of the state is chosen by the
people and has to be assisted by a Council of
Ministers which holds its meetings in public view.
They remain accountable to public. It is,
therefore, said the government becomes government
of laws and not of men, for; no one is above the
law. All powers lie with the people, not on any
particular individual. This trust concept of
government filtered into Europe through Spain and
even as early as 1685 John Locke rejected Hobbes
leviathan and propounded the theory that
sovereignty vested in the people and they have the
right not only to decide as to who should govern
them but also to lay down the manner of
government, which they thought to be the best for
the common good. Government was, therefore,
389
according to Locke essentially a moral trust which
could be forfeited if the conditions of the trust
were not fulfilled by the trustee or trustees, as
the case may be.
Part IV of the Constitution vests the power of
the President and the Cabinet providing for a
Parliamentary form of Government with the
President as the Constitutional head is elected by
the members of Parliament. The members of
Parliament are to be directly elected by the
people on the basis of adult franchise. The
President would appoint a member of Parliament who
commanded the support of the majority of the
members of Parliament as the Prime Minister and
would appoint Ministers on the recommendation of
the Prime Minister. The executive power of the
Republic is vested with the Prime Minister and his
Cabinet who shall be responsible to the
Parliament. The Prime Minister and the Cabinet
would continue as long as they command the support
of the majority of the members of Parliament.
390
In a Parliamentary form of Government the
Prime Minister occupies the central position. As
per Article 55, there shall be a Cabinet for
Bangladesh having the Prime Minister at its head
and comprising such Ministers as the Prime
Minister shall decide. The executive power of the
Republic shall be exercised by or on the authority
of Prime Minister. The Ministers comprising the
Cabinet shall be determined by the Prime Minister
and they shall hold office during the pleasure of
the Prime Minister, who can ask any Minister to
resign and if such Minister disobeys, he may
advice the President to terminate him. The tenure
of the Prime Minister, as per Article 57 of the
Constitution, shall become vacant (a) if he
resigns from office at any time or (b) if he
ceases to be a Member of Parliament. Except
otherwise than the above two conditions, the Prime
Minister shall continue to hold office so long he
retains the support of majority of the members of
Parliament and he shall be disqualified only when
391
his successor has entered upon office i.e. the
successor is elected. The Cabinet is the ultimate
policy and decision making organ of the
Parliamentary form of Government in which the
Prime Minister is the head. The Cabinet is thus in
full control over the direction of the public
affairs of the country and is instrumental in
formulating the policy of the administration,
piloting legislation in Parliament and correlating
and supervising all administrative actions. As the
Cabinet is composed of the leading members of the
majority party in Parliament, the Cabinet
virtually controls Parliament and the Cabinet
really runs the show in the executive and
legislative branches. Therefore, this
Parliamentary democracy is also a basic structure
of the Constitution which cannot be whittled down
or changed even for a shorter period by the
Parliament.
Under the scheme of the Constitution the
President has two powers under Article 48(3)
392
namely; the appointment of the Prime Minister in
accordance with Article 56(3) and the appointment
of the Chief Justice in accordance with Article
95(1). Though the President shall take precedence
over all other persons in the state, in practice
he is the titular head of the State. Apart from
the above two powers, the President shall act in
accordance with the advice of the Prime Minister.
In the light of these constitutional
provisions, let us look at whether the impugned
Act violates the basic feature as well as destroys
the structure of the Constitution. The impugned
amendment is to be tested in the context of the
Constitutional scheme. Learned Judges without
deciding the main issue in dispute diverted their
attention towards the holding of free and fair
parliamentary election. As regards the power of
amendment of the Constitution, Md. Joinul Abedin,
J. observes that the Parliament may bring any
amendment to the Constitution to achieve for
consolidating and institutionalising democracy.
393
Mr. Awlad Ali, J. was of the view that Parliament
considering the necessity for the system in
exercise of its prerogative powers passed the bill
by two thirds majority, who are representatives of
the people and if the people really believe in
democracy there is no harm if certain provisions
of the Constitution are suspended. Mirza Hossain
Haider, J. is of the view that democracy being the
basic structure of the Constitution, for
improvement of the democratic system, there is no
bar to making such amendment. I find fallacy in
the arguments of the learned Judges.
The expressions may be amended by way of
addition, alteration, substitution or repeal used
in Article 142(1)(a) do not cover the right to
abrogate or annul or change the basic features or
structure of the Constitution. This power of
amendment must be construed in such a manner so
as to preserve the basic features or in the
alternative, their power does not include in
damaging or destroying the structure and the
394
identity of the Constitution. This is why this
Division has declared the Constitution Eighth
Amendment, and the High Court Division has also
declared the Constitution Fifth Amendment
ultravires the Constitution which was affirmed by
this Division. Therefore, the arguments that the
Parliament has the power to amend the Constitution
by two-thirds of the total number of members of
Parliament for the improvement in the
Parliamentary democratic process are contrary to
the statements of law settled by this Division. It
is also not correct to come to the conclusion that
as the Sixth Parliament which passed the impugned
amendment having been validly constituted despite
non-participation of all other opposition
political parties has sanctity of law since it has
not been set aside by a Court of law.
It will not be out of place to mention that
the Parliamentary election by which the Sixth
Parliament was constituted was generally perceived
as one held without participation of the people
395
and that is why, the then Government could not
continue even for a single day after passing of
the said amendment. If the parameter for presuming
an election to have the sanctity and if it was
held following the provisions of the
Representation of the People Order, 1972, there is
no reason for not presuming the Magura bye-
election as one not held properly and legally.
These are not at all relevant for deciding the
core question as to whether the impugned amendment
was constitutional or not. Assuming that all the
political parties participated in the election and
supported the amendment which are not legal
grounds and relevant for justifying the amendment.
If it is so, there was no reason for declaring the
Constitution Fifth and Eighth amendments
ultravires the Constitution which amendments were
also passed by two-thirds of the total number of
members of Parliament. Whats more, in those
Parliamentary elections all political parties had
participated.
396
As per Constitution though the Parliament has
power to amend the Constitution, it has no power
to change its basic structure. If one puts
question as to what are the basic frameworks of
our Constitution, he has to draw on facts of
history which may admit one answer. Therefore
certain preliminary considerations must be borne
in mind in order to evaluate the doctrine of the
basic structure. First, what was the geographical
area, and secondly, who were the people, for whom
the Constitution was being framed? when the
Constituent Assembly first begun its work, the
objectives resolution moved by Sheikh Mujibur
Rahman show the lengths to which the members were
prepared to highlight the historical struggle for
liberation achieved by the people of Bangladesh
and secondly, the high ideals of nationalism,
socialism, democracy and secularism which inspired
the martyrs to dedicate their lives and thirdly,
to safeguard, protect and defend the Constitution
and to maintain its supremacy as the embodiment of
397
the will of the people. It is therefore, wrong to
say that to achieve democracy, the Parliament may
bring any amendment to the Constitution. Can the
Parliament amend the Constitution changing a
system to the Presidential form of Government for
consolidating and institutionalizing democracy? It
will be against the spirit of the Constitution. By
amending the Constitution the Republic cannot be
replaced by Monarchy, Democracy by Oligarchy or
the judiciary cannot be abolished, although there
is no express bar to the amending power given in
the Constitution.
There is no doubt that democracy is one of the
basic features of the Constitution but how the
country will be run by a Government which is not
democratically elected by the people? The
Constitution abhors any system of governance other
than a government which is elected by the people.
In theory, the British Parliament possessed the
power to repeal great charters of liberty like the
Magna Carta (1215), the Bill of Rights (1688) and
398
the Act of Settlement (1700) as easily as it could
repeal a Dog Act, but these great charters have
remained unchanged. The amending power is provided
for in a Constitution to secure orderly change by
remedying defects disclosed in the working of the
Constitution, or by judicial decisions (In the
united States the 11
th
Amendment was enacted to
nullify Chisholm V. Georgia (1793)2 Dallas 419),
or by unforeseen circumstances, or by
circumstances which were foreseen but not guarded
against. Therefore, the above opinions are in
direct contrast to the scheme of the Constitution.
Though Md. Joynul Abedin, J. concurred the
views argued in Anwar Hossain Chowdhury and
Sreemoti Indira Nehru Gandhi V. Raj Narain, AIR
1975(SC) 2299, that democracy is a basic feature
of our Constitution and that free and fair
election is an inextricable part of the democracy
which is also a basic feature of our Constitution,
on a wrong notion observed that the impugned
amendment was passed in order to strengthen,
399
consolidate and institutionalize the democracy in
Bangladesh which is also a basic feature of the
Constitution. If that being so, I fail to
understand how the democracy will be strengthened,
consolidated and institutionalized by amending
Part IV of the Constitution? This Chapter contains
the powers and functions of the Executive.
Supremacy of the Constitution as the solemn
expression of the people, while Democracy,
Republican Government, Unitary State, Separation
of Powers, Independence of the Judiciary,
Fundamental rights are no doubt basic structures
of our Constitution. There is no dispute about
their identity. Principle of separation of powers
means that the sovereign authority is equally
distributed among the three organs and as such one
organ cannot destroy the others. These are
structural pillars of the Constitution and they
stand beyond any change by a mandatory process.
Sometimes it is argued that this doctrine of bar
to change of basic structures is based on the fear
400
that unlimited power of amendment may be used in a
tyrannical manner so as to damage the basic
structures, in view of the fact that 'power
corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely'.
In Anwar Hosain Chowdhury, the question was
whether by substituting Article 100 by the
Constitution (Eighth Amendment) Act, 1988 for the
purpose of setting up Permanent Benches of the
High Court Division the basic structures of the
Constitution has been altered and it seeks to
destroy the independence of judiciary and the
character role and effectiveness of the High Court
Division. The majority view of this Division is
that Article 100(5) purports to mean that the
President has been empowered to redetermine by
executive fiat the territorial jurisdiction of the
permanent Benches which in effect renders the
Constitutional provisions in Articles 94, 95(3),
101, 102 nugatory and irreconciable. The High
Court Division being an integral part of the
Supreme Court has lost its original character as
401
well as most of its territorial jurisdiction.
Amendment of the Constitution means change or
alteration for improvement or to make it effective
or meaningful and not its elimination or
abrogation. Amendment is subject to the retention
of the basic structures. The Court, therefore, has
power to undo an amendment if it transgresses its
limit and alters a basic structure of the
Constitution.
In Kudrat-E-Elahi Panir Vs. Bangladesh, 44
DLR(AD) 319, Kudrat-E-Elahi and three others had
challenged the Constitutional validity of the
Bangladesh Local Government (Upazila Parishad and
Upazila Administration Re-Organisation) (Repeal)
Ordinance, 1991, on the ground that the Ordinance
is inconsistent with Articles 9, 11, 59 and 60 of
the Constitution and as such it is void in terms
of Article 7(2) of the Constitution. Mustafa
Kamal, J. argued the point as under:
"Thirdly, to the extent that
Articles 59 and 60 prescribe manner
402
and method of establishing local
government, its composition, powers
and functions including power of
local taxation, the plenary
legislative power of Parliament to
enact laws on local government is
restricted pro tanto. The learned
Attorney-General submits that the
plenary power still remains
unaffected. I can not conceive of a
local government existing in terms of
Articles 59 and 60 and another
outside of it. That will make a
mockery of Articles 59 and 60 and
will be in direct conflict with
Article 7(1) of the Constitution,
namely, "All powers in the Republic
belong to the people, and their
exercise on behalf of the people
shall be effected only under, and by
the authority of, this Constitution".
403
If Parliament has to pass a local
government legislation, it has
conform to Articles 59 and 60, read
with Article 152(1). With Articles 59
and 60 the Constitution local
government legislation became very
much a subject matter of legislation
within the terms of the Constitution.
Parliament is not free to legislate
on local government ignoring Articles
59 and 60."
In Kesavananda Bharati, AIR 1973 S.C. 1461,
the Supreme Court of India by a majority held that
though by Article 368 Parliament is given power to
amend the Constitution that power cannot be
exercised so as to damage its basic features or so
as to destroy its basic structure. Sikri, C.J.
held that fundamental rights conferred by Part III
of the Constitution can not be abrogated, though a
reasonable abridgement of those rights can be
effected in public interest and that the
404
fundamental importance of the freedom of the
individual has to be preserved for all times to
come and it could not be amended out of existence.
It is further argued that there is a limitation on
the power of amendment by necessary implication
which was apparent from the reading of the
preamble; that the expression amendment in
Article 368 means any addition or change in any of
the provisions of the constitution within the
broad contours of the preamble, made in order to
carry out the basic objectives of the
constitution. Therefore, every provisions of the
Constitution was open to amendment provided the
basic foundation or structure was not damaged or
destroyed. Shelat and Grover, JJ. were of the
opinion that the expression amendment contains
in Article 368 must be construed in such a manner
as to preserve the power of Parliament to amend
the Constitution, but not so as to result in
damaging or destroying the structure and identity
of the Constitution. There was thus implied
405
limitation of amending power of the Parliament
from changing the identity or any of the basic
features of the Constitution.
Hegde and Mukherjee, JJ. in the said case
observed that Indian Constitution is a social
document, is founded on the social philosophy and
thus it has two features: basic and
circumstantial. The basic constituent remained
constant, the later part is subject to change. The
broad contours, according to the learned Judges,
of the basic elements and the fundamental features
are delineated in the preamble and the Parliament
has no power to change or abrogate those basic
elements of fundamental features. According to the
learned Judges, the building of a welfare state is
the ultimate goal of every Government but that
does not mean that in order to build a welfare
state, human freedoms have to suffer a total
destruction.
In Minerva Mills Ltd. V. Union of India, AIR
1980 S.C.1789, the validity of sections 4 and 55
406
of the constitutional 42nd Amendment rests on the
ratio of the majority judgment in Kesavananda
Bharati. By section 4 of the amendment Article 31C
of the Constitution was amended by substituting
the words and figures all or any of the
principles laid down in part IV for the words
and figures the principles specified in clause
(b) or clause (c) of Article 30. Section 55 of
the amendment inserted sub-section (4) and (5) in
Article 368 which read thus:
(4) No amendment of the constitution
(including the provisions of Part III)
made or purporting to have been made
under this article (whether before or
after the commencement of section 55 of
the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment)
Act, 1976) shall be called in question on
any ground.
(5) For removal of doubts, it is hereby
declared that there shall be no
limitation whatever on the constituent
407
power of parliament to amend by way of
addition, variation or repeal the
provisions of this constitution under
this article.
The purpose of this amendment by inserting
clause (5) is to remove all limitations on the
amending power while clause (4) deprives the
Courts the power to call in question any amendment
of the Constitution. It is argued by Chandrachud,
C.J. that the Indian Constitution is founded on a
nice balance of power among the three wings of the
state, namely the Executive, the Legislature and
the Judiciary. It is the function of the Judges to
pronounce upon the validity of laws. If Courts are
totally deprived of that power the fundamental
rights conferred upon the people will become a
mere adornment because rights without remedies are
writ in water. A controlled Constitution will then
become uncontrolled. The conferment of the right
to destroy the identity of the Constitution
coupled with the provision that no court of law
408
shall pronounce upon the validity of such
destruction seems a transparent case of
transgression of the limitations on the amending
power. The Supreme Court approved of the majority
views argued in Kesavananda observing: Since the
Constitution had conferred a limited amending
power on the Parliament, the Parliament cannot
under the exercise of that limited power enlarge
that very power into an absolute power. Indeed, a
limited amending power is one of the basic
features of our Constitution and therefore, the
limitations on that power cannot be destroyed. In
other words, Parliament cannot, under Article 368,
expand its amending power so as to acquire for
itself the right to repeal or abrogate the
Constitution or to destroy its basic and essential
features. The donee of a limited power cannot by
the exercise of that power convert the limited
power into an unlimited one. The Supreme Court
declared sections 4 and 55 of the Constitution 42
nd

Amendment Act void.
409
This Division approved of the arguments in
Kesavananda Bharati and Minerva Mills Ltd. in
Anwar Hossain Chowdhury, and in a later case in
Khandker Delwar Hossain and others Vs. Bangladesh
Italian Marble works Ltd. and others, 18 BLT (AD)
329 also approved the arguments in Kesavananda. In
Kesavanandas case the Supreme Court dealt with
the amending power with reference to the 24
th

Amendment, and the Judges applied their views of
the amending power to test the validity of the 25
th

Amendment and the 29
th
Amendment. The 24
th

Amendment amended Article 368 of the Constitution
in the following manner:
368(1) Notwithstanding anything in this
constitution Parliament may, in exercise
of its constituent power amend by way of
addition, variation or repeal any
provision of this constitution in
accordance with the procedure laid down
in this article.
410
These amendments displaced the reasoning on
which Golak Naths case (1967) 2SCR 762) is based.
The Constituent power i.e. the ability to frame
or alter a Constitution as, the Constituent
Assembly, involved in amending a rigid
Constitution cannot be equated to the constituent
power involved in framing it. The sovereign
constituent power of framing a Constitution
consists of an undifferentiated amalgamation of
Legislative, Executive and Judicial powers, which
powers come into existence after a Constitution is
framed, is based upon a confusion of ideas. Those
who frame a Constitution possess law making power
to make a particular kind of law namely, the
Constitution of the country under which it is to
be governed. If this law making power is
unrestricted, because not subject to limitations
imposed by any external authority, the power is
plenary. Such a law making power is not an
undifferentiated mass of legislative, executive
and judicial power; it is a law making power. Till
411
that power is exercised, it is not possible to say
whether the Constitution will be the supreme law
or not for, if the power is exercised to enact a
flexible Constitution, the Constitution will not
be the supreme law in the sense that any law
contravening its provisions would be void.
But those who exercise the law making power
for framing a Constitution, do not possess
legislative power in the sense of making laws for
the governance of the country, or exercise
Executive power to administer those laws and carry
on the day to day Government of the country, or
exercise judicial power in the correct sense of
the words of (Griffith, C.J. in Huddart, Parker
Pvt. Ltd. V. Moorehead (1908-09) 8CLR 330),
approved by Privy Council, (1931) A.C. 275);
the power which every sovereign
authority must of necessity have to
decide controversies between its
subjects, whether the rights relate to
life, liberty or property. The exercise
412
of this power does not begin until some
tribunal which has power to give a
binding and authoritative division
(whether subject to appeal or not) is
called upon to take action.
Article V of the U.S. Constitution contains
two express limitations on the amending power,
namely,
Provided that no amendment which may be
made prior to 1808 shall, in any manner
affect the first and fourth clauses in
the ninth section of the first article;
and that no state, without its consent,
shall be deprived of its equal suffrage
in the senate.
The first limitation has long ceased to be
operative but the second limitation is in
operation till today. Section 128 of the
Australian Constitution contains the following
limitations:
413
No alteration diminishing the
proportionate representation of any state
in either House of the Parliament, or the
minimum number of representatives of a
state in the House of Representatives, or
increasing diminishing or otherwise
altering the limits of the state, or in
any manner affecting the provisions of
the Constitution in relation thereto,
shall become law unless the majority of
the electors voting in that state approve
the proposed law.
The Canadian Constitution (the B.N.A. Act of
1867) when enacted did not confer any power of
amendment on the Federal Parliament and could be
amended only by the British Parliament; but by
convention, recognised by the Statute of
Westminster, 1931, the power was not exercised
without the request of the Dominion Parliament.
(Wheare, Statute of Westminster & Dominion Status,
5
th
Edition, Page 178). In 1949 by the BNA Act of
414
1949, limited power of amendment was conferred on
the federal Parliament by insertion of Sub-section
(1) of Section 91. The United States, Canada and
Australia are federations of originally separate
states with Constitutions of their own. The U.S.
Constitution was drafted by a convention and
ratified by the requisite number of states. The
Canadian and Australian Constitutions were enacted
by the British Parliament. The limitation of
Article V on the amending power in the US
Constitution has remained unchanged for over 200
years without provoking any revolution; the
express limitation in section 128 of the
Australian Constitution has remained unchanged for
96 years. These two countries which were declared
to have status equal to that of United Kingdom did
not wish to have the power to amend their
Constitutions independently of the existing law.
The reason for bringing inferences from the above
is that a member of the British Commonwealth,
enjoying the status of a sovereign state
415
internationally, was content with a limited
amending power, and was content to sacrifice its
sovereignty by leaving the amending power to be
exercised, at its request, by the British
Parliament because an unlimited power of amendment
might have led to a disintegration of the
federation.
The same conclusion would follow from
considering whether even in the case of a Supreme
and sovereign Parliament, like that of United
Kingdom. In theory, the British Parliament can
enact any law, but it has been said by Dicey that
the combined influence both of the external and
the internal limits on legislative sovereignty
stated by Leslie Stephen in his Science of Ethics
(1882), Page 143: Lawyers are apt to speak as
though the legislature were omnipotent, as they do
not require to go beyond its decisions. It is, of
course, omnipotent in the sense that it can make
whatever laws it pleases, inasmuch as, a law means
any rule which has been made by legislature. But
416
from the scientific point of view, the power of
the legislature is of course strictly limited. It
is limited, so to speak, both from within and from
without; from within, because the legislature is
the product of a certain social condition, and
determined by whatever determines the society; and
from without, because the power of imposing laws
is dependent upon the instinct of subordination,
which is itself limited. If a legislature decided
that all blue-eyed babies should be murdered, the
preservation of blue-eyed babies would be illegal;
but legislatures must go mad before they could
pass such a law, and subjects be idiotic before
they could submit to it.
The above passage shows that it is not the
inability of Parliament to pass a law providing
for the murder of blue-eyed babies which would
provoke a revolution. On the contrary, the
exercise of the power to pass such a law would
provoke revolution. A legislative power which
would be exercised only if legislators go mad and
417
subjects become idiotic, does not, in any rational
sense, exist at all.
On an analysis of the authorities we may
conclude that there are rigid or flexible
Constitutions. A rigid Constitution is one in
which the power to amend the Constitution can only
be exercised by the special procedure prescribed
for it, and not by the procedure prescribed for
making laws under the Constitution. The
differentia being found in the different procedure
prescribed for the exercise of Constituent power
as distinguished from the procedure prescribed for
making ordinary laws (Kesavananda). A flexible
Constitution is one in which the power to amend
the Constitution is exercisable by the same
procedure as it prescribed for making ordinary
laws. In a flexible Constitution, the distinction
between legislative and constituent power is
analytic and formal, but in reality and in
substance the distinction disappears since any law
passed under the Constitution if inconsistent with
418
the provisions of the Constitution, those
provisions so far to that extent to be declared
ultravires. This distinction will not be
applicable to the making of a Constitution by the
Constituent Assembly which was not subject to
restraint by any external authority for, the
framing of the Constitution involves the exercise
of constituent power and is, not meant to
distinguish constituent power from legislative
power as in a rigid Constitution. Therefore, we
may conclude that the power to frame Constitution
is a primary power, whereas, a power to amend a
rigid Constitution is a derivative power and
subject at least to the limitations imposed.
Secondly, laws made under a rigid Constitution
as well as amendment of such Constitution can be
ultra vires if they contravene the limitations put
on the amending power by the Constitution for, the
Constitution is the touchstone of the validity of
the exercise of powers conferred by it. The
majority views of the apex Courts of this sub-
419
continent are that the power of amendment to the
Constitution can not be exercised so as to destroy
or damage its essential elements or the basic
structure. There is no doubt that the
Parliamentary form of Government is a basic
structure of our Constitution and thus, the
impugned amendment not only destroyed but also
damaged the Parliamentary form of Government-
consequently the said amendment would be
ultravires and void. Let us now examine how the
Parliamentary form of Government has been damaged
by the impugned amendment.
As observed above, the framers of the
Constitution have adopted the system of
Parliamentary executive. Article 58B has been
added by the impugned amendment providing that the
Care-taker Government shall enter upon office
after the Parliament is dissolved by reason of
expiration of its term till the date on which a
new Prime Minister enters upon his office. There
is total ambiguity in the provision in that
420
nothing has been mentioned either in Article 58B
or anywhere in Chapter 11A as to who would run the
Government if the Parliament is dissolved
otherwise than by reason of expiration of its
term. If Parliament is dissolved on the
resignation of the Prime Minister or for any other
reason and if the President is unable to appoint
another Prime Minister in accordance with Article
58(4), the Constitution, as it stands after
amendment, is silent about the form of Government
under which the election of the members of
Parliament will be held. None of the learned amici
curiae has been able to clarify the point on the
query of the Court and frankly concedes that there
is defect in the amendment.
It is to be noted that prior to the impugned
amendment the position of clause (3) of Article
123 was as under:
(3) A general election of members of
Parliament shall be held
421
(a) in the case of a dissolution by
reason of the expiration of its term,
within a period of ninety days
proceeding such dissolution; and
(b) in the case of a dissolution
otherwise than by reason of such
expiration, within ninety days after
such dissolution;
Provided that the persons elected at a
general election under sub-clause (a)
shall not assume office as members of
Parliament except after the expiration of
the term referred to therein.
After the Thirteenth Amendment this clause was
substituted as under:
(3) A general election of members of
Parliament shall be held within ninety
days after Parliament is dissolved,
whether by reason of the expiration of
its term or otherwise than by reason of
such expiration.
422
The difference between these two provision is
that under the previous provision the general
election was required to be held before the expiry
of the term of five years or within ninety days in
any other case of dissolution and the newly
elected members of Parliament could not assume
office before the expiration of the term of five
years, whereas, under the amended provision, the
general election will be held after the expiry of
the term, that is to say, after cessation of the
term of five years. Thus we find that even after
the dissolution of the Parliament and cessation of
the office of the members of Parliament, the
members of Parliament will be able to attend
Parliament in view of Proviso to Article 58 A.
Therefore, there is no gainsaying the fact that
the proviso to Article 58A and clause (3) of
Article 123 are inconsistent with clause (4) of
Article 72.
Article 72(4) of the Constitution provides
that if after dissolution before holding the next
423
general election of the members of Parliament, the
President is satisfied that owing to the existence
of a state of war in which the Republic is
engaged, it is necessary to recall Parliament, the
President shall summon the Parliament that has
been dissolved to meet. Suppose, after dissolution
of Parliament a Care-taker Government has been
appointed and immediate thereafter, the country is
engaged in a war or there is existence of a state
of war. The President will be left with no
alternative but to summon the Parliament. Then
what would be the fate of Care-taker Government?
As soon as the President would summon the
Parliament, the Prime Minister and his Cabinet
would assume the Government. The Parliament
thereupon would continue to function under the
provisions to the proviso to clauses (3) and (4)
of Article 72 for at least six months after the
cessation of the war. The persons holding the
office under the Care-taker Government system
would also continue in office without any power
424
pointing fingers in unequivocal terms that this
amendment ultravires the Constitution for, if the
care-taker Government has no authority or power to
take any decision in an emergent situation of the
country then how its other acts, deeds, things and
transactions relating to the affairs of the state
particularly dealing with finance can be said to
be justified.
There is also no dispute that the provisions
contained in Chapter IIA are in direct conflict
with Articles 55 and 57. The Legislature attempted
to meet the consequence by inserting Article 58A
in Part II which also has failed to address the
problem. It provided that except the provisions of
clauses (4) (5) and (6) of Article 55, the other
provisions in Chapter-II, Part-IV, shall not apply
during the period in which Parliament is
dissolved. A proviso has been added authorizing
the President to summon Parliament that has been
dissolved to meet the eventuality provided in
Article 72(4). What's more, if the Parliament is
425
dissolved how then the dissolved Parliament shall
be summoned by the President is not clear in
presence of the Care-taker Government? The
expression 'dissolve' according to Chambers
dictionary, New Edition, is to terminate or
dismiss (the assembly such as Parliament). After
the termination of the Parliament which ceased to
exist if the President summons Parliament, the
dissolved Cabinet would revive and in that
eventuality, the cabinet would exercise all
Executive powers of the Government.
Clause (2) to Article 58B provides that the
Care-taker Government shall be collectively
responsible to the President. This provision is
against the spirit of the Parliamentary form of
Government enshrined in Articles 55(2), 55(3) and
58(2) for, the Care-taker Government would be
converted into one akin to the Presidential form
of Government during the interregnum period.
Article 58C provides for the compositi