• 
Asymptotic stability. 

• 
Inputoutput stability. 

• 
Stability conditions. 

• 
RouthHurwitz criterion. 

• 
Jury test. 

• 
Nyquist criterion and stability margins. 

1 
2 
(
y k
) 0
k
(uk) 

b 
u 
, 
k 

b0 

y kb() 
y 
u , 
k 


b0 y 
012 

,,, ...012,,, ... 
3
4
k
k
k
5
f
(
k
)
n
A p
i
k
i
i
1
,
k
0,1, 2,
...
Z
F
(
z
)
n
i
1
z
z p
i
Bounded sequence for poles in the closed unit disc (i.e. on or inside the unit circle).
Sequence decays exponentially for poles in the open unit disc (i.e. inside the unit circle).
Unbounded sequence for repeated poles on the unit circle.
For real time sequences poles and partial fraction coefficients are either real or complex conjugate pairs.
6
7
(
y k
n
)
a
n 1
(
y k
n
1)
...
(
a y k
1
1)
a
0
(
y k
)
(
b u k
m
m
)
(
b u k
m
m
1)
...
(
b u k
1
1)
b u
0
(
k
)
k 0,1, 2, ...
Response of the system due to ICs y(0), y(1), , y(n)
Y
(
z
)
N
(
z
)
z
n
a
n 1
n 1
z
...
az
1
a
0
1. Denominator of the output ztransform = denominator of the ztransfer function for no polezero cancellation.
2. Poles of Y(z) = poles of transfer function.
3. Y(z) due to initial conditions is bounded for system poles in the closed unit disc unit (no repeated poles on the unit circle) & decays exponentially for system poles
in the open unit disc (inside the unit circle).
8
Example 
Solution 

Determine the asymptotic stability of the following systems: 
• 
Use Theorem 1 can (a) and (b) without pole zero cancellation. 
• 
Ignore zeros, (do not affect response due ICs) 
H 
4 z 2 
b H 
4 
z 0.2 



a 
) 
( 
z 
) 

z 2 z 0.1 

) 
( 
z 
) 

z 

0.2 
z 0.1 


) 
H 
( 
z ) 
5 
z 0.3 
d ) H 
( 
) 
8 
z 0.2 


c 
z 
0.2 z 0.1 

z 

z 
0.1 z 

1 


stable. 

9 
10 

BIBO Stability 
Theorem 4.2:BIBO Stability 

k ( ) yk ( hk 
iui ) ( ), 
k 

012 , , , ... 
i 0
0
b
h
1
(
h k
)
b
h
2
,
k
0,1, 2, ...
y ( k )
k
(
h k
i
0
)
i u
( )
i
b
h 1
k
( ),
u i
i
0
k
0,1, 2, ...
( )
u i
1,
i
0,1,
unbounded output
i 0
11
12
• Assume the system is BIBO stable but the impulse response is not absolutely summable. 
• Assume an absolutely summable impulse 

• Unbounded output with the bounded input (contradiction)(uki)1,1,() h i0()h i0 
response and show that the system is BIBO stable.• Use the input bound b _{u} in the convolution summation(y k)k i 0 ( )h iu(k i) 

(yk) 
k 
( ),hi 
( ) yk 
as 
k 

b 
u 
k ( )h i k , 
0 

i 0 
13 
i 0 
14 

Theorem 4.3: BIBO Stability 
Proof of Necessity 

A discretetime linear system is BIBO 
( h k 
) 

n 
A p i 
k i 
, 
k 

0,1, 2, ... Z 
H 
( 
z 
) 

n 
A i 
z 

stable if and only if the poles of its transfer function lie inside the unit circle. 
i 
1 
i 

1 
z p 
i 
15
16
(
h k
)
n
i 0
n
i 0
A
i
A
r
p
i
0
k
,
k
0,1, 2,
17
18
i
0
m
i
0
19
a
)
H
(
z
)
4
z
2
z
2
z
0.1
b
)
H
(
z
)
4
z
0.2
z
0.2
z
0.1
c
)
H
(
z
)
5
z
0.3
z
0.2
z
0.1
d
)
H
(
z
)
8
z
0.2
z
0.1
z
20
21
Im[z]
22
23
Eigenvalue
Magnitude Equiv. Damping
Equiv. Freq. (rad/sec)
+ 0.7428I

0.1941 
12.9441 

 0.7428I

0.1941 
12.9441 

0.6612 
0.6612 
0.1306 
31.6871 
24
If all the transfer functions that relate the system inputs (R and D) to the possible 
The system of Figure 43 is internally stable if and only if all the closedloop 

system outputs (Y and U) are BIBO stable, then the system is internally stable.
D(z
E(z)
U(z)
C(z)
G ZAS (z)
R(z)
+

Y(z) 
poles are in the open unit disc. 

D(z
E(z)
U(z)
C(z)
G ZAS (z)
R(z)
+

Y(z) 


C ( ) z G 
ZAS ( 
z ) 
G ZAS 
( z 
) 
R ( z D ( z 

Y U 
( ( 
z ) z ) 

1 
C ( ) z G C ( z 
ZAS ) 
( 
z 
) 

1 C ( ) z G ZAS ( z ) C ( ) z G ZAS ( z ) 
) ) 


1 
C ( ) z G 
ZAS 
( 
z 
) 
1 
C ( ) z G 
ZAS ( z ) 

25 
26 

Proof 
Theorem 45 

C 
( z ) 
N C ( z D C ( z 
) ) 
G ZAS 
( z ) N D 
G ( z ) G ( z ) 
The system of Figure 43 is internally stable if 

Y 

1 
N C 
N G 
D C N G 
R 
and only if: 

U D C D G N C N G N C D G N C N G D Characteristic polynomial D _{C} D _{G} +N _{C} N _{G} 
1.The characteristic polynomial 1+ C(z)G _{Z}_{A}_{S} (z)has no zeros on or outside the unit circle. 2. The loop gain C(z)G _{Z}_{A}_{S} (z) has no polezero 

No zeros on or outside the unit circle the transfer functions are asymptotically 
all 
cancellation on or outside the unit circle . 

stable 

system is internally stable. 

27 
28 
0.5848( 0.3549s 1) 

0.1828 
s ^{2} 0.8627 
1 
10( 
z 

0.8149)( 
z 

0.7655) 

( 
z 

1)( 
z 
1.334) 
29
Discretized process transfer function
30
C (
violates condition (ii) of Thm. 45: pole at 1.334 cancels in the loop gain
31
w 

z 
w 
w 
32
35
z
Stability determination by solving for roots is difficult.
Monic polynomial
constant term = product of poles
For pole magnitudes < 1
Necessary stability condition
Sufficient for complex conjugate poles
1
a
0
a
2
&
a
0
a
2
36
Bilinear Transformation 
Comments 

a 2 1 1 w w 2 a 1 1 1 w w 

a 
0 
• 
Recall: The condition is sufficient for 

a
a aw 2 aaw 20 a 210 a a RouthHurwitz criterion: poles of 2nd order wpolynomial 
complex conjugate roots and only necessary for real roots. 

remain in the LHP iff its coefficients are all positive. 
• 
For real roots, if the three conditions are 

aaa 0 210 
substituted in the zdomain characteristic 

a 2 a 0 0 
polynomial we obtain roots between 1 

aaa 0 210 
and +1. 

Adding the first and third conditions gives the condition 

obtained earlier 

a 2 a 0 0 
37 
38 
a 
2 
a1 
0 
1 a 
0 
a1 a 
0 
a 0
The roots of the polynomial are inside the unit
circle iff
() z 
n 
n 1 
0 
0 

F 
azn 
a(1) 
n 1 
zF(1) > 0 
az1 

a 
0 

, 
a 
n 


(2) 
(1) ^{n} F(1) > 0 

(3) 
 a _{0}  < a _{n} 

(4) 
 b _{0}  >  b _{n} _{} _{1}  

(5) 
 c _{0}  >  c _{n} _{} _{2}  



39 
(n+1) 
 r _{0}  >  r _{2}  
40 
Row 
z ^{0} 
z ^{1} 
z ^{2} 

_{z} n k 

_{z} n 1 
z ^{n} 

1 
^{a} 0 
^{a} 
1 
^{a} 2 

^{a} n k 

^{a} n 1 
^{a} 
n 

2 
^{a} n 
^{a} n 1 
^{a} n 2 

a 
k 

a 
1 
^{a} 
0 

3 
^{b} 0 
^{b} 
1 
^{b} 2 

^{b} n k 

^{b} n 1 

4 
^{b} n 1 
^{b} n 2 
^{b} n 3 

b 
k 

b 
0 

5 
^{c} 0 
^{c} 
1 
^{c} 
2 


^{c} n 2 

6 
^{c} n 2 
^{c} n 3 
^{c} n 4 


c 
0 

. 
. 
. 
. 



. 
. 
. 
. 



. 
. 
. 
. 



n 5 
0 
^{s} 
1 
^{s} 
2 
^{s} 
3 

n 4 
3 
^{s} 
2 
^{s} 
1 
^{s} 
0 

n 3 
^{r} 1 
^{r} 2 
41
b
k
a
0
a
n
a
n
k
a
k
,
k
01,, ,
n
1
c
k
b
0
b
n
1
b
n k
1
b
k
.
,
.
.
k
0,1,
,
n
2
r
0
s
0
s
3
s
3
s
0
r
1
s
0
s
3
s
2
s
1
r
2
s
0
s
3
s
1
s
2
42
1. First row of Jury table: listing of the coefficients of the polynomial F(z) in order of increasing power of z.
2. Number of rows of table 2 n 3 is always odd and the coefficients of each even row are the same as the odd row directly above it with the order of the coefficients reversed.
3. The n + 1 conditions for n +1 coefficients of F(z).
4. Conditions 3 through n +1 calculated using the coefficient of the first column of the Jury table, together with the last coefficient of the last row.
5. The middle coefficient of the last row is never used and need not be calculated.
6. Conditions (1) and (2) are calculated from F(z) directly. If one of the first two conditions is violated, F(z) has roots on or outside the unit circle (no need to construct the Jury table or test the remaining conditions).
43
7 Condition (3) with a
n
= 1, requires the constant term of
the polynomial to be less than unity in magnitude. The
constant term is simply the product of the roots and must
be smaller than unity for all the roots to be inside the unit
circle.
8 For first and second order systems, the Jury stability conditions reduce to the conditions derived earlier.
9 For higher order systems, applying the Jury test by hand
is laborious and it is preferable to test the stability of a
polynomial F(z) using a CAD package.
10 If the coefficients of the polynomial are functions of
system parameters, the Jury test can be used to obtain
the stable ranges of the system parameters.
44
Test the stability of the polynomial 
(1) F(1) = 1 + 2.6 0.56 2.05 + 0.0775 +0.35 =1.4175 > 0 (2) (1) ^{5} F(1) = (1)(1+2.6+0.562.050.0775+0.35) = 0.3825 < 0 

54 
056 . 
3 
2 05 . 
2 
0 0775 . 
0 35 . 

0 

Fz() z 
2 6 . 
z 

z 

z 

z 
(3)  0.35  < 1 (4)  0.8775  >  0.8325  

Row 
z ^{0} 
z ^{1} 
z ^{2} 
z ^{3} 
z ^{4} 
z ^{5} 
(5)  0.0770  <  0.5151  

1 
0.35 
0.0775 
2.05 
0.56 
2.6 
1 

2 
1 
2.6 
0.56 
2.05 
0.0775 
0.35 
• 
(6)  0.2593  <  0.3472  

3 
0.8775 
2.5729 
0.1575 
1.854 
0.8325 
• 
Conditions (2), (5) & (6) violated . Condition (2) is sufficient to conclude instability. 

4 
0.8325 
1.854 
0.1575 
2.5729 
0.8775 

No. of conditions violated No. of roots outside the unit circle. 

5 
0.0770 
0.7143 
0.2693 
0.5151 

• 
Polynomial has roots on or outside the unit circle. 

6 
0.5151 
0.2693 
0.7143 
0.0770 

7 
0.2593 
0.0837 
0.3472 
F () z 
z 


45 
•Root at 2.5 outside the unit circle. 
46 
Find the stable range of the gain K for the unity feedback digital control system with analog plant Transfer function for analog subsystem, ADC and DAC G ZAS ( z ) 1 z 1 Z _ 1 ( G s ) s 1 1 Z _ 1 K 

G 
( 
s 
) 
K 
z 


( s s 
3) 


s 3 

K 
K 
1 
1 


Partial fraction expansion with DAC and ADC if the sampling period is 0.02 s. Transfer function 
_{G} 
( s s 

3 
) 3 s s 3 19412 . 10 2 K 


ZAS ^{(} _{z} ^{)} 


47 
z 0 . 9418 
48 
Unity feedback, closedloop characteristic equation
ZAS ^{(}
z 0.9418 + 1.9412 10 ^{}^{2} K = 0
Stability conditions
0.9418 1.9412 10 ^{}^{2} K < 1
0.9418 + 1.9412 10 ^{}^{2} K < 1
Hence, the stable range of K is
3 < K < 100.03
49
Find the stable range of the gain K for the digital
position control system with the analog plant
transfer function
(
G s
)
K
(
s s
10)
and with DAC and ADC if T= 0.05 s.
50
G
ZAS
(
z
)
1
z
1
1
(
G s
)
s
1
z
1
1
K
s
2
(
s
10)
Partial fraction expansion
K
s
2
(
s
10)
0.01 K
10
s
1
s
2
1
s
10
Transfer function
G
ZAS
(
z
)
1.0653 10
2
K
z
0.8467
z
z
0.6065
51
G
ZAS
(
z
)
1.0653 10
2
K
z
0.8467
z
z
0.6065
ZAS
z
1
z
0.6065
1.0653 10
2
K
z
0.8467
z
2
1.0653 10
2
K
1.6065
z
0.6065 + 9.02
10
3
K
= 0
52
Imaginary Axis
1.6065)z+0.6065+9.02
1) F(1)=1+ (1.0653 10 ^{}^{2} K 1.6065) +0.6065 + 9.0210 ^{}^{3} K > 0
K > 0
2) F(1) =1 (1.065310 ^{}^{2} K1.6065)+0.6065+9.0210 ^{}^{3} K > 0
K < 1967.582
3)  0.6065 + 0.00902 K  <1
+ (0.6065 + 0.00902 K ) <1
(0.6065 + 0.00902 K ) <1
178.104 < K < 43.6199
&
The stable range is 0 < K < 43.6199
53
• N =no. of counterclockwise encirclements of the
point (1,0) for a loop gain L(z) when traversing
the stability contour (i.e. N clockwise)
• L(z) has P openloop poles inside the contour.
• Then the system has closedloop poles outside
the unit circle with given by
Z=(N)+P
( N=ZP)
Corollary: An openloop stable system is closed
loop stable iff the Nyquist plot does not encircle
the point (1,0) (i.e. N= 0)
54
Real Axis
N =0, no poles   1, the system is closedloop stable.
55
56
57
58
59
60
Real Axis
37.5426
61