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Islamic Intellectual Pattern In The Malay Archipelago

Prepared by: Aishah Ali Waheed Eva Noviana Budiyanti Najla Aiman Mohamed Idrus

Introduction Islam is one religion that enter and flourish in Malay-Indonesia Archipelago. Reconstructing the history of the coming of Islam to Southeast Asia has consumed the efforts of a number of gifted scholars who have drawn upon the evidence available from such disciplines as archaeology, sociology, philology, and the anthropological and historical study. However, some people argue that Islam came to Malay-Indonesia Archipelago was about 6th7th centuries. Gerini (1974) explained that the Muslims already in the regions of India, Indonesia, and Malaya between the years 606-669 M. Al-Attas (1969) revealed that the Muslims already in the archipelago Malaya-Indonesia at AD 672. In addition, Arnold (1896) explained that Islam came from Arabic to Indonesia Archipelago in the year 1 AH (AD 7). Some historians believe that Islam came to Malay Archipelago through trader, marriage, tasawuf, education, art, and politic. Thus, the nations of Arabic, Persian, India and China have contributed to the development of Islam in the Malay Archipelago. There are some evidences that could be approval about spread Islam in Malay Archipelago. For example, Gujarati style carving gravestones, India's customs and culture of Islam. From Persian was influenced by the title of "Shah" for the kings in Indonesia and effect of flow "Wihdatul Being" (Sheikh Siti Jenar). Some journals and books discussed about Islamic Intellectual patterns in the Malay Archipelago such as Muhammad Kamal (1989) who presented his paper in the International seminar on Islamic civilization in the Malay world, Brunei Darussalam in 1989. However, this paper attempts to discuss about the Islamic Intellectual Patterns in Malay Archipelago by focusing on process of Islamic Learning in the Malay Archipelago. The phases of Islamization in Malay Archipelago According to al-Attass book, he decides Islamization in Archipelago into three phases. The first phases (578-805/1200-1400) was the first of nominal conversion or conversion of body.

It means that jurisprudence (Fiqh) played the major role of interpreting the religious law (Shariah) in the conversion of the Malays. The second phase (803-1112/1400-1700), described as the period of the conversion of the spirit, means this phase the religious law Had passed on to philosophical mysticism and metaphysic (Tasawwuf) and other rational and intellectual elements such as rational theology (Kalam). In addition, the third phase

(1112/1700 onwards), continuation of phase I and phase II which is assigned the culture influencing by the coming of the West. What is generally known as Westernization. Feneer and Gade (1998) believes that Islamization in Asia had begun after the Mongol conquest of Baghdad and other 'central lands' of Islam in the thirteenth century, Muslim trading networks in Southeast Asia continued to expand dramatically. Many individuals are known for their travels throughout the cosmopolitan system of Islamicate culture in this period, and a personal account of experiences in Southeast Asia, given by Ibn Batuta (a traveler some have called the 'Arab Marco Polo'), he is famous for his travels throughout Africa, India, and China as well.) The networks traversed by 'Muslim travelers' like Ibn Batuta were consolidating during the same period that also saw wide-scale Islamization of the population of Southeast Asia. During this period, Islam became more deeply entrenched. in political, social, and cultural life, which meant more than simply the presence of Muslims at scattered trading stations and local courts in the region. The Center of Islamic Learning in Malay Archipelago There are five Majors centers of Islamic learning in Malay Archipelago before the advent of the 20th century had been identified (Kamal, 1989): a) Samudra-Pasai (1280-1400) b) Malacca (1400-1511) c) Acheh (1511-1650)

d) Johore-Riau (1650-1800) e) Patani (1800-1900)


In addition, when the Portuguese captured Malacca in 1511 AD, Acheh became a major point of Islamic dawah and learning, and as a flourishing intellectual center.

There were some of intellectuals, who had contributed in Islamic dawah and learning. First of all, Abd al-Rauf Singkil (AD 1615-1693), his name appeared in the genealogy of his congregation and be the first to introduce Syattariyah in Indonesia. His name was also associated with translation and interpretation of the Quran Malay language of the work entitled al-Anwar Baidhawi at-Tanzil wa Asrar at-Ta'wil, first published in Istanbul in 1884 (al-attas, 1963). Secondly, Nuruddin Al-Raniri, estimated born around the late 16th century in the town Ranir, India, and died on 21 September 1658 (Wikipedia.com). Ar Raniri has a broad knowledge that includes mysticism, kalam, fiqh, hadith, history, and comparative religion. During his lifetime, he wrote approximately 29 books, most notably the "Bustanus al-Salatin". His name is now immortalized as a religious college (IAIN) in Banda Aceh. The last was Hamzah Fansuri, he was a Sufi scholar and poet who lived in the 16th century. He
was the first to pen mystical pane theistic ideas into the Malay language (Wikipedia.com). The system of Islamic learning in Malay Archipelago had been influenced by religious education in Mecca (Abdullah, 1986). It is because many intellectuals who were from and studied in Mecca have been applied the system, especially in Indonesia and Malaysia. Moreover, the system of traditional learning has helped to preserve religious knowledge and contributed the strong commitment to religious values and the perpetuation of Shariah law. in addition, the pondok pesantren curriculum helped to project the image of peaceful and God-obedient community to the masses (Zamaksyari, 1982). The shariah that was used in Malay Archipelago has influenced by the Shafii. As a consequently, until today majority Muslims in Indonesia and Malaysia are still using Shafii shariah.

However, the Ghazalian imprint seemed to have a firm grip on the mind of the malay religious scholars, one of Ghazalis book that many scholars used and thought in Pondok Pesantren was Ihya ulumuddin (Kamal, 1986).

Intellectual Crisis and Islamic Reformism in Malay Archipelago Portuguese entered to the Malay Archipelago caused unrest among the religious scholars, they were convinced the Portuguese will affect the faith of local people with the lure of wealth, because of that, they sent some students to study abroad to the middle east in order to overcome the Portuguese attack (Sunanto, 2005). Ahmad Khatib al-minangkabawi (1860-1916 M), Syekh Muhammad Jamil Jambek, Haji Abdul Karim Amrullah/Haji Rasul (1879-1945M), Hasyim Asyari (1875-1947), and Ahmad Dahlan (1868-1923) were students who have been sent to Middle East. In that period, the thought of Jamaludin al-afghani, Muhammad abduh, M Rasyid Ridha as well as the thought of ibn Taimiyah (whose against the adat groups and thariqah) have been spread in Middle East. As a result, the scholars who studied there influenced by their thought and applied to Malay Archipelago. The scholars became reformists, and against the rule of traditional scholars who had been sent them. They have tried to change the education system, which was pondok pesantren to madrasahs. It had become a problem among traditional scholars. Thus, In Minangkabau was a boody conflict. Some of historians called as the padre conflict (Sunanto, 2005). However, The reformist group, through its publication associations and madrasahs was vocal in its criticism of the traditional elite and the religious establishment. As a result, some of those periodical and publications were proscribed in some states. In some cases, the reformists carried their cause of ijtihad, intellectual freedom and liberation from traditional custom to excesses (Kamal, 1986).

In addition, the long-standing feud between the two groups revolved around a wide range of ritual, doctrinal and social questions such as the issue of ijtihad (exercise of legal reasoning by reformists) vs taqlid (blind imitation by traditionalists) and the question of of ruyah and hisab for deciding the commencement of Ramadan and Idh. The reformist-traditionalist polemic gradually quieted down in the 2nd World War as more and more modern religious and secular scholars took the intellectual lead and modernization in material life. The sample that shows the impact of reformists thought is Muhammadiyah and Nahdhatul Ulamas organization in Indonesia. Conclusion The reformist effort has broadened the intellectual possibility of the Malay world and the center of intellectual activity was no longer confined to the enlightened royal court and famous Pondoks, or great Masjids. As a consequently, the popularity of the pondoks declined and lead to Madrashah system. However, the history showed that the new intellectuals is identified as westernizing elite, and Ulama (traditionalists) as religious fanatic.

References
Al-Attas, M. N,. Some Aspects of Sufism as Understood and Practised among the Malays. Editor by ShirleyGordon. Singapore 1963. Malaysian Sociological Research Institute. Feener, R. M,. Gade, A. M,. Pattern of Islamization in Indonesia. 1998. From: http://www.einaudi.cornell.edu/southeastasia/outreach/resources/IslamIndo.pdf Gerini. G, M,. (1974). Researches on Ptolemy's geography of eastern Asia (further India and Indo-Malay archipelago. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. Pg. 101 http://www. id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdurrauf_Singkil http://www.id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamzah_al-Fansuri http://www.id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuruddin_al-Raniri Sunanto. M,. 2005 Sejarah Peradaban Islam Indonesia Jakarta : Raja Grafindo Persada