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AL Pure Mathematics

Paper II Marking Scheme



by

K.S. Ng


Sir

Sir


Sir


Sir Pure Maths.
Sir

Sir A-Level Pure Maths., ASL Maths. & Statistics HKCE A.Maths.
Sir

Sir

Sir Pure Maths.A.Maths.



2009-AL-Pure Mathematics II-1 ( by Ng Kwai Shing) Marking Scheme
Solution Marks Remarks
Advanced Level Examination 2009
Pure Mathematics Paper II
Marking Scheme
Section A
1. (a) By LHospitals Rule,
lim
cos( )
lim
cos( )
x
x
x
t t
x
x

1
]
2
4
3
2
2
2
8
d
11

( )
lim
cos
2
3
4 2
12
1
3
2
2
x
x
x

(b) Let y x
x
( sin ) 1
1
. Then
ln ln( sin )
ln( sin )
ln( sin )
y x
x
x
x
x
x


1
1
1
1
1
By LHospitals Rule,
lim ln lim
ln( sin )
lim
(
si
x x
x
y
x
x

+ +
+


0 0
0
1
1
1 nn
)( cos )
x
x

1
1
ln x is a continuous function
ln( lim )
lim
x
x
y
y e
e

+
+

0
0
1
1
1
That is,
lim ( ) lim ( sin )
x x
x
x x
e

+ +

0 0
1
1
1
f
f is continuous at x = 0
k
e

1
1M+1A
1A
1A
1A
1A
1A
(7)
1M for using LHospitals
Rule,
2009-AL-Pure Mathematics II-2 ( by Ng Kwai Shing) Marking Scheme
Solution Marks Remarks
2. (a) From (1),
f f f
f f f
f
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1
1 0
+
+

f is differentiable at x = 1

+

f
f f
f
( ) lim
( ) ( )
lim
( )
1
1 1
1
0
0
h
h
h
h
h
h
Hence,
lim
( )
h
h
h

0
1
2
f
(b) (i) For all x (0, ),

+

f
f f
f
( ) lim
( ) ( )
lim
( )
x
x h x
h
x
h
x
h
h
0
0
1
,,

+ + +

1
]
1

f
f f f
( )
lim
( ) ( ) ( )
x
h
h
x
x x
h
x
h 0
1 1 (( )
lim
( ) ( )
lim
( )
(
x
h
h
x
x x
h
x
h
x
x
h
h

+ +
+

0
0
1 f f
f
f 11+

_
,

h
x
h
x
)
When h 0, lim
h
h
x

0
0 .
Hence, from (a),
lim
( )
h
h
x
h
x

0
1
2
f
and so,
+
+

_
,

f
f
f
f
( ) lim
( )
( )
( )
x
x
x
h
x
h
x
x
x
h 0
1
++ 2
f is differentiable for x > 0 and that for all x (0, ),
+ f
f
( )
( )
x
x
x
2
1A
1A
1A
1M
1
For using (a)
2009-AL-Pure Mathematics II-3 ( by Ng Kwai Shing) Marking Scheme
Solution Marks Remarks
(ii) From (c)(i),
[ ]
+

_
,

+

f
d
d
f
d
d
f
f
( ) ( )
( )
( )
x
x
x
x
x
x
x x
2
0

+ [ ]

f
f f
( )
( ) ( )
x
x
x x x
x
x
2
2
2
2
Hence,

f f d
d
( ) ( )
ln
x x x
x
x
x C
2
2
1
where C
1
is a constant.
f (1) = 2
+

f ( ) ln 1 2 1
2
1
1
C
C
Hence,
f (x) = 2lnx + 2
With this result,
2 2 2
2
2
+ +

f
f
f
( )
ln
( )
ln
( ) ln
x
x
x
x
x
x
x x x
3. (a) Let t tan

2
. Then cos

+
1
1
2
2
t
t
and d d
+
2
1
2
t
t . Hence,
1
5 4
1
5 4
1
1
2
1
2
5 1
2
2
2
+

+

+
+

+

cos
( )
( )
(

d d
t
t
t
t
t
22 2
2
1
1
4 1
2
9
2
3 3
2
3
) ( )
tan
tan
+

+
+

t
t
t
t
t
C
d
d
(( tan )
1
3 2

+ C
where C is a constant.
1A
1A
1A
(8)
1A
1A
1
2009-AL-Pure Mathematics II-4 ( by Ng Kwai Shing) Marking Scheme
Solution Marks Remarks
(b) With the result in (a),
lim
cos
lim
n
k
n
n
n k
n

+ +

_
,

1 1
5 4
2
1
1

nn k
n
k
n
1
5 4
2
1 1
5 4
1
2
+ +

_
,

cos
cos


2
1
2
2
1
1 2
3
1
3 2
2
3

1
]
1

tan ( tan )
tan
11
3
1
3
4
3
1
3
1
1

_
,

tan ( )
tan

4. (a) For all x R,


f( ) lim
( ) ( )
( )
lim


+

x
x x
x
x
n
n
n
n
2 1
2
2
1
nn
n
n
n
n
n
x
x
x x
x
x
+

+
+


+

1
2
2 1
2
2
1
1
lim
( )
lim
nn
n
x
x
x
+

+

1
2
1
f( )
f is an odd function
(b) For x > 1,
lim lim
n
n
n
n
x x



1 1
0
2 2 1
Hence,
f( ) lim
lim
x
x x
x
x
x
x
n
n
n
n
n
n

2 1
2
2 1
2
1
1
1
11
x
For the correct method of
converting to a definite
integral
For application of (a)
1M
1M
1A
(6)
1
1
2009-AL-Pure Mathematics II-5 ( by Ng Kwai Shing) Marking Scheme
Solution Marks Remarks
(c) When x = 1,
f( ) lim x
n
n
n

+
1 1
1 1
0
2 1
2
For 0 x < 1,
lim lim
n
n
n
n
x x

+

2 2 1
0
Hence,
f( ) lim x
x x
x
x
n
n
n

+ 2 1
2
1
The graph of y = f(x) is shown in the following.
O
x
y
1 1
(d) From the graph in (c),
f(0) = f(1)
f is not an injective function
1A+1A
1A
(5)
1A for using the property
of odd function
1A all correct
2009-AL-Pure Mathematics II-6 ( by Ng Kwai Shing) Marking Scheme
Solution Marks Remarks
5. (a) I x e x
x e
x e e
n
n x
n x
n x x
+
+
+
+

1
]

1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
d
d
dd
d
x
e n x e x
e n I
n
n x
n
+

+
+
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
( )
( )
(by parts)
The second result is to be proved by induction on n.
(1) When n = 0,
( ) (
!
)
!
( )

1
]

1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
n n
x
x
I
n
I
e x
e
e
e
d
rr
r
r!


0
0
1
Hence, the proposition is true for n = 0.
(2) Assume the proposition is true for n = k, k 0, i.e.
( ) (
!
)
( )
!

1
1
1
0
k k
r
r
k
I
k
e
r
Then,
( )
( )!
( )
( )!
( )
+


+
+

1
+ +
+
1
1
1
1
1
1 1
1
k k
k
k
I
k k
e k I
]]


+
+


+
+
+
( )
( )!
( ) (
!
)
( )
( )
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
k
k k
k
e
k
I
k
e
k !!
( )
!
( )
( )!
(
+

_
,


+
+

e
r
e
k
r
r
k
k
1
1
1
1
0
1

_
,

1
1
1
1
0
0
1
)
!
( )
!
r
r
k
r
r
k
r
e
r
Hence, the proposition is also true for n = k + 1.
By the Principle of Mathematical Induction, the proposition is true for all non-
negative integer n.
1M
1
1
1
For integration by parts
2009-AL-Pure Mathematics II-7 ( by Ng Kwai Shing) Marking Scheme
Solution Marks Remarks
(b) For 0 x 1,
0 x
n
e
x
e
Hence,
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

[ ]

x e x e x
x e x ex
x e
n x
n x
n x
d d
d
dxx e
0
1


(c) 0 I
n
e

lim ( ) (
!
)
n
n n
I
n

1 0
Hence, from (a),
lim
( )
!
lim
( )
n
r
r
n
n
r
e
r
e

_
,

1
1 0
1
0
rr
e
r
r
n
n
r
r
n
n
!
lim
( )
!
lim
( )

0
0
1 0
1
1
1
rr
r
n
r e !


0
1
6. (a) cos
cos
(
sin
)
2 1 2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1

d d

+
+ +
+
C
44
2 sin + C
where C is a constant.
cos cos sin
( sin ) sin
sin
3 2
2
1
1

d d
d



33
3
sin + C
where C is a constant.
1M+1
1
(7)
1A
1A
1M for the correct method
2009-AL-Pure Mathematics II-8 ( by Ng Kwai Shing) Marking Scheme
Solution Marks Remarks
(b) (i) Consider the following figure.
O
x
y
2
P(x, y)

2
A B
C
With the help of the above figure,
OB BP

2
CD

2
2
2
cos( )
sin

and
PD

2
2
2
sin( )
cos

Hence,
x OB AB
OB CD




2 2
2


sin
( sin )
and
y AD PD
BC PD
+
+


2 2
2 1
cos
( cos )

The parametric equations of the cycloid obtained is


x
y

'

2
2 1
( sin )
( cos )

where 0 2.
(ii) The required volume

1
]
[ ]

2 1 2 1
8 1
2
0
2
( cos ) ( cos )
( cos
d
))
( cos cos cos )
3
0
2
2 3
0
2
8 1 3 3
8
d
d

+
+ +

1
]
3 3
1
2
1
4
2
1
3
3
sin ( sin ) (sin sin )
11
+

_
,

0
2
2
8 2
3
2
2
40

( )
1A
1A
1A
1A
1A
(7)
2009-AL-Pure Mathematics II-9 ( by Ng Kwai Shing) Marking Scheme
Solution Marks Remarks
Section B
7. (a) For x 1

+ +

f
d
d
d
d
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
x
x
x
x x
x
x
x
1 1 1 1
1
2 3 3 2
4

1
]
+ [ ]

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
(
x x x x
x
x
1 3 1 1 2 1
1
2 2 3
4
+ + [ ]

+
1 1 3 1 2 1
1
1 5
2
4
2
)( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
x x x
x
x x
(( ) x 1
3
and

+

1
]
+
f
d
d
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
x
x
x
x x x x 1 1 5 1 5
3 2 2 dd
dx
x
x
x x x x
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

+ + +
1
1
1 1 1 5 2 1
3
6
3 2
)) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) (
[ ] { }
+

1
]


x x x
x
x
1 5 3 1
1
1
2 2
6
3
xx x x x x x + + + [ ] { }
+

1
1 1 2 5 1 5 3 1
2 2
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
]]

+ [ ] { }
+
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
x
x x x x x
1
1 1 3 3 1 5 3
6
3 2
(( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )( ) (
x
x
x x x x x

1
]

+
1
1
3 1 1 1 3
2
6
2
++ [ ]

1 5
1
3 1 1 8
1
24
6
2
6
)( )
( )
( ) ( )( )
( )
(
x
x
x x
x
xx
x
+

1
1
4
)
( )
1A
1A
(2)
2009-AL-Pure Mathematics II-10 ( by Ng Kwai Shing) Marking Scheme
Solution Marks Remarks
(b) Consider the following tables:
x x < 1 x = 1 1 < x < 1 x = 1
f (x) + 0 + not exist
f(x) indecisive not exist
x 1 < x < 5 x = 5 5 < x
f (x) 0 +
f(x) minimum
x x < 1 x = 1 1 < x < 1 x = 1
f (x) 0 + not exist
f(x) concave down pt. of inflexion concave up not exist
x 1 < x
f (x) +
f(x) concave up
Hence, from the tables, we have
(i) When x < 1 or 1 < x < 1 or x > 5, f (x) > 0.
(ii) When 1 < x < 1 or x > 1, f (x) > 0.
(c) From the tables in (b), there is no maximum point.
Local minimum point:
( , ) 5
27
2
Point of inflexion: (1, 0)
1A
1A
(2)
1A
1A
(2)
2009-AL-Pure Mathematics II-11 ( by Ng Kwai Shing) Marking Scheme
Solution Marks Remarks
(d) Note that
lim ( ) lim
( )
( )
x x
x
x
x


1 1
3
2
1
1
f
x = 1 is a vertical asymptote.
Let y = mx + c be a slant asymptote. Then
m
x
x
x
x x
x
x
x

lim
( )
lim
( )
( )
lim
f
1
1
1
1
3
2
xx
x

_
,

_
,

3
2
1
1
1
and
c x mx
x x
x
x
x
x
[ ]
[ ]

lim ( )
lim ( )
lim
(
f
f
1))
( )
lim
( ) ( )
( )
3
2
3 2
1
1 1
1
x
x
x x x
x
x

_
,

22
2
2
5 2 1
1
5

_
,

+ +

_
,

lim
( )
lim
x
x
x x
x
++ +

_
,

2 1
1
1
5
2
2
x x
x
y = x + 5 is a slant asymptote.
(e) The graph of f(x) is shown in the following.
O
y
y = f(x)
y = x + 5
x = 1
x
1
( ) 5

1A
1A
(2)
1A+1A
(2)
1A for extreme points and
point of inflexion
1A for shape
2009-AL-Pure Mathematics II-12 ( by Ng Kwai Shing) Marking Scheme
Solution Marks Remarks
(f) (i) Consider
lim
( ) ( )
lim
( ) ( )
lim
h h
h
h
h
h
h

+ +
+

0 0
0 0 0 g g f f

+
+
+

+
0
3
2
0
3
1
1
1
1 1
( )
( )
lim
( ) ( )
h
h
h
h h
h
22
2
0
3 2
2
0
1
2 5
1
h h
h h h
h h
h
h
( )
lim
( )
lim

+
++
+


h h
h
2
2
2 5
1
5
( )
and
lim
( ) ( )
lim
( ) ( )
lim
h h
h
h
h
h
h

0 0
0 0 0 g g f f
00
3
2
0
3 2
1
1
1
1 1

( )
( )
lim
( ) ( )
(
h
h
h
h h
h h
h
11
2 5
1
2
2
0
3 2
2
0
2
)
lim
( )
lim

+ +

+ +

h
h
h h h
h h
h h 55
1
5
2
( )

h
lim
( ) ( )
lim
( ) ( )
h h
h
h
h
h

+
+

+
0 0
0 0 0 0 g g g g
g is not differentiable at x = 0
(ii) The graph of g(x) is shown in the following.
O
y
y = g(x)
y = x + 5
y = x + 5
1
x
1
1M+1A
1A
1M for the correct method
2009-AL-Pure Mathematics II-13 ( by Ng Kwai Shing) Marking Scheme
Solution Marks Remarks
From the above graph,
the required area

2
2
2
1
1
0
1
0
1
3
2
0
1
g d
f d
d
( )
( )
( )
( )
x x
x x
x
x
x

+ +
+
+
+
+
2
3 3 1
1
2 5
12 4
1
3 2
2
0
1
x x x
x
x
x
x
x
( )
(
d
))
( )
2
0
1
2
0
2 5
12
1
8
1

_
,

+
+
+
+

_
,

d
d
x
x
x x
x
11
2
0
1
2
2
5 12 1
8
1
17 24

+ +
+

1
]
1

x
x x
x
ln( )
ln 22
8. (a) Substituting y = mx into y
2
= k(x + a), we have
( ) ( ) mx k x a
m x kx ka
2
2 2
0
+

y = mx touches the parabola P
( ) ( )( )
( )

+
+
k m ka
k m ka
k k am
2 2
2 2
2
4 0
4 0
4 0
k 0
k = 4am
2
The equations of the two asymptotes of H are
y
b
a
x and
y
b
a
x
m
b
a
or m
b
a

Hence,
m
b
a
2
2
2

and so,
k am
a
b
a
b
a



4
4
4
2
2
2
2
( )
1M
1A
(5)
1M
1
1A
1A
(4)
For using the graph
obtained correctly
For using the condition for
tangency
2009-AL-Pure Mathematics II-14 ( by Ng Kwai Shing) Marking Scheme
Solution Marks Remarks
(b) Substituting y
2
= k(x + a) into
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 , we have
x
a
k x a
b
x b ka x a a b
x b a b
2
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
1
+

( )
( )
( )) ( )
( )( ) ( ) ( )
+
+ +
ka x a
b x a x a
b
a
a x a
b
2
2
2
2
0
4
0
22 2
2
4 0
4 0
( )( ) ( )
( ) ( )
x a x a ab x a
b x a x a a
+ + +
+ + [ ]
bb x a x a
2
3 0 ( )( ) + +
x = a or 3a
Hence, H and P intersect at the points (a, 0), ( , ) 3 2 2 a b and
( , ) 3 2 2 a b .
(c) H and P are symmetric about the x-axis
The volume V of the solid generated by revolving the region bounded by
H and P about the x-axis is given by
V k x a b
x
a
x
b
a
x
a
a
+

_
,

( ) ( )
(
2
2
2
3
2
1
4
d
++

_
,

a b
x
a
x
b x a
a
a
a
) ( )
( )
2
2
2
3
2 2
1
2
d
bb
x
a
x
ab
a
a
2
3
2
3
2
3
4
3
( )

1
]
1

(d) From (b),


B a b ( , ) 3 2 2 or B a b ( , ) 3 2 2
For
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 ,
2 2
0
2 2
2
2
x
a
y
b
y
x
y
x
b x
a y

( )
d
d
d
d
For y
2
= k(x + a),
2
4
2
2
2
y
y
x
k
b
a
y
x
b
ay
d
d
d
d



1A+1A+1A
(3)
1M
1A
(2)
For the method to find the
volume of revolution
2009-AL-Pure Mathematics II-15 ( by Ng Kwai Shing) Marking Scheme
Solution Marks Remarks
If B = (x
0
, y
0
), then
tan
( )
( )(


+
b x
a y
b
ay
b x
a y
b
ay
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
1
2
))
( )

+
ay b x ab
a y b x
ab y x a
a y
0
2
0
2
3
0
2 4
0
2
0 0
3
0
2
2
2
22 4
0
2 b x
B a b ( , ) 3 2 2 or B a b ( , ) 3 2 2
x
0
= 3a and y b
0
2 2
Hence,
tan
( ) ( )
( ) ( )

+

ab b a a
a b b a
a
2
3 2 4
2
2 2 3 2
2 2 2 3
2 2 bb
a b ab
b
a
b
a
3
3 2 4
2
8 6
2
4 3
+

_
,

( )
From this result,
4 3 2
3
2
+

_
,

'

b
a
b
a
b
a
tan ( )
( tan )


_
,

+
2
2 4 0 ( ) tan
b
a

a and b are real numbers

b
a
is also a real number
Hence,
( ) ( tan )( tan )
tan
tan
t
2 4 3 4 0
2 48 0
2 48
2
2
2

aan
tan
2 1
24
1
24
1
2 6
6
12

The greatest value of tan

6
12
1M
1M
1
1M+1A
1A
(6)
For the method to find tan
For using x
0
= 3a and
y b
0
2 2
For using the result that
b
a
is a real number
2009-AL-Pure Mathematics II-16 ( by Ng Kwai Shing) Marking Scheme
Solution Marks Remarks
9. (a) (i) f f f
f f f
f
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
0 0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0
+ +
+

(ii) f f f
f f f
f f
x x x x
x x
x
+ [ ] +
+
+
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
0
0 (( )
( ) ( )


x
x x f f
(iii) When n is a non-negative integer, the result is to be proved by induction.
(1) When n = 0,
f f
f
( ) ( )
( )
nx
x


0
0
0
The proposition is true for n = 0.
(2) Assume the proposition is true for n = k, where k 0, i.e.
f(kx) = kf(x)
Then
f f
f f
f f
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
(
k x kx x
kx x
k x x
k
+ [ ] +
+
+
+
1
11) ( ) f x
The proposition is true for n = k + 1.
By the Principle of Mathematical Inductin, f(x
n
) = nf(x) for all non-
negative integers n.
If n is a negative integer, then
n > 0
and so,
f f
f
f
f
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
nx nx
nx
n x
n x
[ ]

[ ]
[[ ]
n x f( )
For all integers n,
f(nx) = nf(x)
1
1
1
1
2009-AL-Pure Mathematics II-17 ( by Ng Kwai Shing) Marking Scheme
Solution Marks Remarks
(iv) Let r
p
q
, where p and q are two integers with q 0. Then
f f
f
f
( ) ( )
( )
( )
rx
p
q
x
q
q
p
q
x
q
q
p
q
x

_
,

_
,
1
1

'

[ ]

1
]

1
1
q
px
q
p x
p
q
x
r
f
f
f
( )
( )
( )
ff( ) x
For all rational numbers r,
f(rx) = rf(x)
(v) Let {r
n
} be a sequence in Q with lim
n
n
r a

. Then from (a)(iv),


f(r
n
x) = r
n
f(x)
Hence, for all real numbers x,
lim ( ) lim ( )
( lim )
n
n
n
n
n
n
r x r x
r x

1
]

f f
f f(( ) lim
( lim ) ( ) lim
( )
x r
x r x r
ax
n
n
n
n
n
n

f f
f aa x f( )
( f is a continuous function)
By putting x = 1, we have
f(a) = af(1)
Then, by replacing a by x, we have
f(x) = x f(1)
1M
1
1M
1A
1
(9)
For using (a)(iii)
For applying the result that
f is a continuous function
2009-AL-Pure Mathematics II-18 ( by Ng Kwai Shing) Marking Scheme
Solution Marks Remarks
(b) (i) Suppose there exists x
0
R
+
such that g(x
0
) = 0. Then
g g g
g
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
x
x
x
x
0
0
0
0
1 1
1 0

Hence, for all x R


+
,
g g
g g
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
x x
x

1
1
0
which contradicts to the fact that g is a non-constant function.
For all x R
+
,
g(x) 0
On the othr hand, for all x R
+
,
g g
g g
g
g
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ( ) )
x x x
x x
x
x

1
]
>
2
0 0
(ii) Let h(x) = ln g(e
x
). Then for all x, y R
+
,
h g
g
g g
( ) ln ( )
ln ( )
ln ( ) ( )
x y e
e e
e e
x y
x y
x y
+

1
]
+
+
+
ln ( ) ln ( )
( ) ( )
g g
h h
e e
x y
x y
Hence, from (a)(iv),
h h
g
g
g
( ) ( )
ln ( )
ln
ln ( ) ln
ln
(
x x
x e
x
e x
e
x
x

1
2
2
2
xx x
) 2
and so,
g g ( ) ( )
ln
ln
x e
x
x

2
1
1M
1
1M
1M
1
(6)
For trying to show that
g(x) 0
For checking the condition
for applying the result in
(a)
For applying (a)(iv)
correctly
2009-AL-Pure Mathematics II-19 ( by Ng Kwai Shing) Marking Scheme
Solution Marks Remarks
10. (a) t e t t e t te t
t e
t
t t
t
d d d
d

+
+
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
( )
tt e
te e t te e
t
t t t t
d
d
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1

1
]
+

1
]

ddt
e e e e
e e e
t t
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

1
]
+

1
]
+ +

( ) (( ) e

1
2
(by parts)
(b) For all t R,
cos t 1
When x < 0,
cos cos
cos
cos
t t t t
t t
t t
t
x
x
x
x
d d
d
d
d
0
0
0
0

xx
x
t
x
x x
0
0
0

[ ]

< ( )
When x 0,
cos cos
( )
t t t t
t
t
x
x x
x x
x
x
d d
d
0 0
0
0
0

[ ]


On the other hand,
cos sin
sin sin
sin
t t t
x
x
x
x
d
0
0
0

[ ]

Hence, for all x R,


sin x x
1A
1M
1A
(3)
1M
1M
1
(3)
For integration by parts
For separating into two
cases
For applying the property
of absolute vlaue for a
definite integral
2009-AL-Pure Mathematics II-20 ( by Ng Kwai Shing) Marking Scheme
Solution Marks Remarks
(c) (i) From the definition of f,
f( )
,
,
x
x x
x x

<

'

2
2
0
0
Hence,
lim
( ) ( )
lim
( ) ( )
lim
h h
h
h
h
h
h

0 0
0 0 0 f f f f
00
2
0
0

h
h
h
h
lim ( )
and
lim
( ) ( )
lim
( ) ( )
lim
h h
h
h
h
h
h

+ +
+

0 0
0 0 0 f f f f
00
2
0
0
+
+

h
h
h
h
lim
lim
( ) ( )
lim
( ) ( )
h h
h
h
h
h

+
+

0 0
0 0 0 0
0
f f f f
f is differentiable at x = 0 and
f (0) = 0
On the other hand,

<
>

'

<
>

f ( )
,
,
( ),
( ),
x
x x
x x
x x
x x
2 0
2 0
2 0
2 0
''

<
>

'

2 0
2 0
x x
x x
,
,
Hence, for all x R,
f ( ) x x 2
1
1
2009-AL-Pure Mathematics II-21 ( by Ng Kwai Shing) Marking Scheme
Solution Marks Remarks
(ii) From the definition of ,

_
,

( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
x x x
x x
t t
x x
x x
2
1
g
d
d
g d
d
dd
g g
g g
x
x x x x x
x x

_
,

1
]

2 2
2
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) (( ) x x

1
]
For x < 1,
x x x
g is increasing
g g ( ) ( ) x x x
Hence,

1
]

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) x x x x x 2
0
g g
For all x (1, 1), (x) 0
is increasing in (1, 1)
On the other hand, is obviously continuous on [1, 1].
is increasing on [1, 1].
Hence,
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )


1 1
2 2
1
1
1
1
t t t t t t t g d g d g dtt t t
t t t t t




1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0 2
g d
g d g d
g
( )
( ) ( )
(( ) ( ) t t t t t d g d

1
1
1
1
2
1M
1
1M
1
(6)
For the correct method to
find the derivative of an
integral
For using the concept of
increasing function
2009-AL-Pure Mathematics II-22 ( by Ng Kwai Shing) Marking Scheme
Solution Marks Remarks
1A
1M
1
(3)
1M+1A
1M
1
(4)
(d) Let g(t) = e
sin t
. Then for all x [1, 1],

g ( ) cos
sin
t t e
t
0
g is increasing on [1, 1].
From (a) and the result that exponential function is increasing,
e e
t t sin

Hence,
t e t e
t t sin

Hence, from the above results,


e t t e t
t e t
t e
t
t
t
sin
sin
sin
d d
d

1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
tt
t d

1
1
2 2
4
( )
11. (a) By the Mean Value Theorem,


f
f f
f f
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
d
c
c
c
c
0
0
0
where 0 < d < c, and

f
f f
( )
( ) ( )
e
c
c
1
1
where c < e < 1.
For all x (0, 1), f

(x) 0
For all x (0, 1), f (x) is increasing.
Hence, for 0 < d < c < e < 1,

f f
f f f f
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
d e
c
c
c
c
0 1
1
For using (b)
1M for using the Mean
Value Theorem
For using the result that
f (x) is increasing
2009-AL-Pure Mathematics II-23 ( by Ng Kwai Shing) Marking Scheme
Solution Marks Remarks
For the correct method
(b) (i) Suppose there exists t (0, 1) such that g(t) = 0. Then
a
1
t + b
1
(1 t) = a
2
t + b
2
(1 t) = 0
Hence,
a t b t
a b t b
1 1
1 1 1
1 0 +

( )
( )
and
a t b t
a b t b
2 2
2 2 2
1 0 +

( )
( )
If a
1
= b
1
, then
b
1
= 0
which is a contraction.
a
1
b
1
Hence,
( )
( )
a b t
a b t
b
b
a b
a b
b
b
a b
2 2
1 1
2
1
2 2
1 1
2
1
2 1


bb b a b b b
a b a b
1 2 1 2 1 2
2 1 1 2

which is a contraditon.
For all x (0, 1),
g(x) 0
(ii) From the definition of g(x),
g( ) ( ) ( ) x a x b x a x b x
r r r
[ ] +
[ ]
+ +
[ ]
1 1 2 2
1 1
Then
r x x r a x b x a b
r a
r r
g g ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] +
[ ]

+
1
1 1
1
1 1
1
22 2
1
2 2
1
1
1 x b x a b
x x a b
r
r
+
[ ]

[ ]

( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( g g
11 1 1
1
2 2 2 2
1
1
1
) ( )
( ) ( )
a x b x
a b a x b x
r
r
+
[ ]
+ +
[ ]

1M+1
1
2009-AL-Pure Mathematics II-24 ( by Ng Kwai Shing) Marking Scheme
Solution Marks Remarks
(iii) By the Cauchy-Schwarzs inequality,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( a b a x b x a b a x b x
r
1 1
2
1 1
2
2 2
2
2 2
1 1 +
[ ]
+ +

))
( ) ( )
(
[ ]
( )
+
[ ]
+ +
[ ]
( )

r
r r
a x b x a x b x
a
2
1 1 2 2
1 1
11 1
2
1 1
2
1 1
1 1 +
[ ]
+
[ ]

b a x b x a x b x
a
r r
) ( ) ( )
(
22 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
1 1 +
[ ]
+
[ ]
_
,

b a x b x a x b x
r r
) ( ) ( )
(aa b a x b x a b a x b
r
1 1
2
1 1
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
1 1 +
[ ]
+ +

) ( ) ( ) ( xx
a b a x b x a b
r
r
)
( )
[ ]

_
,

+
[ ]
+

2 2
2
1 1 1 1
1
2
1
22 2 2
1
2
1 1 1 1
1
1
a x b x
a b a x b x
r
r
+
[ ]
( )
+
[ ]

( )
( ) ( )

+ +
[ ]
( )
[ ]
1
2 2 2 2
1
2
1
1 ( ) ( )
( ) (
a b a x b x
x
r
r
g g xx) [ ]
{ }
2
Then, by differentiating g g ( ) ( ) x x
r
[ ]
1
with respect to x, we have
g g g g g ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) x x r x x x
r r
[ ] + [ ]
{ }

1 2
1
(( )( ) ( )
( )( )
r a b a x b x
r a b
r
+
[ ]
+

1 1
1
1 1
2
1 1
2
2 2
22
2 2
2
1
1
1
a x b x
x x r x
r
r
+
[ ]
[ ] +

( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) g g g [[ ] [ ]
+
[ ]

r
r
x
r a b a x b x
2 2
1 1
2
1 1
1 1
g ( )
( )( ) ( )
22
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 1
1 1 + +
[ ]
[ ]

( )( ) ( )
( )
r a b a x b x
x
r
r
g + [ ] [ ]

g g g ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
x r x x
r a b
r
1
1
2 2 2
1 1
22
1 1
2
2 2
2
2
1
1
a x b x x
r a b a x
r r
+
[ ] [ ]
+ +

( ) ( )
( )( )
g
bb x x
x x r
r r
r
2
2
2 1
1
1
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )

[ ] [ ]
[ ] +

g
g g g( ( ) ( )
( )( ) (
x x
r a b a x b x
r
[ ] [ ]
{ }
+
1
2
1 1
2
1 1
1 1
g
)) ( )
( )( ) ( )
[ ] [ ]
+ +
[ ]

r r
r
x
r a b a x b x
2
2 2
2
2 2
1 1
g
22
g( ) x
r
[ ]
1
1A
2009-AL-Pure Mathematics II-25 ( by Ng Kwai Shing) Marking Scheme
Solution Marks Remarks
and so,
g g ( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( ) x x r a b a x b x
r
[ ] +
[ ]
2 1
1 1
2
1 1
1 1
rr r
r
x
r a b a x b x

[ ]
+ +
[ ]
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
1 1
g
g
( )
( )( ) ( ) (xx
r x x
r a b
r
r
)
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) (
[ ]
[ ] [ ]
{ }

1
1
1
2
1 1
g g
)) ( )
( ) ( )
2
1 1
2
2 2
2
2 2
1
1
a x b x
a b a x b x
r
r
+
[ ]
(
+ +
[ ]

)
[ ]
[ ] [ ]
{ }

2
1
2
1
1
g
g g
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) (
x
r x x
r
r
r
aa b a x b x
a b a x b
r
1 1
2
1 1
2
2 2
2
2 2
1
1
+
[ ]
( {
+ +

) ( )
( ) (
[ ]
)
+
[ ]
+ +
[ ]
( )

x
a x b x a x b x
r
r r
)
( ) ( )
2
1 1 2 2
1 1
g( ( ) ( ) x x
r
[ ] [ ]
{ }
_
,

1
2
2
0
g
Obviously,
g( ) x
r
[ ] >
2 1
0
For all x (0, 1),
g

(x) 0
(c) If a
1
b
2
= a
2
b
1
, then
a
b
a
b
k
1
1
2
2

where k is a real number.
Hence,
a
1
= kb
1
and a
2
= kb
2
From these results,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) a b a b kb b kb b
r r
r
r r
1 1 2 2
1
1 1 2 2
+ + +

1
]
+ + +

1
]
+ + +

1
]
+
1
1 2
1
1 2
1 1
r
r r r r
r
r r
b k b k
b b
( ) ( )
( )(( )
( ) ( )
k
b b k
r
r
r r
r
+

1
]
+ +
1
1
1
1 2
1
and
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) a a b b kb kb
r r
r
r r
r
r r
r
1 2
1
1 2
1
1 2
1
+ + + +

1
]
++ +
+

1
]
+ +
( )
( ) ( )
b b
k b b b b
r r
r
r r r
r
r r
r
1 2
1
1 2
1
1 2
1
+ + +
+ +
k b b b b
b b k
r r
r
r r
r
r r
r
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 2
1
1 2
1
1 2
1
1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( a b a b a a b b
r r
r
r r
r
r
1 1 2 2
1
1 2
1
1 2
+ + +

1
]
+ + +
rr
r
)
1
1M for using the above
results
For considering the two
cases
1M+1
(6)
1M
1
2009-AL-Pure Mathematics II-26 ( by Ng Kwai Shing) Marking Scheme
Solution Marks Remarks
If a
1
b
2
a
2
b
1
, then from (a) and (b),
g g g g ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) c
c
c
c

0 1
1
where 0 < c < 1.
Let c
1
2
. Then
g g g g
g g
g
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
(
1
2
0
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1

22
0 1
1
2
2
1
2
0 1
) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )

+
g g g
g g g
On the other hand,
g( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 0 1 0 0 1 0
1 1 2 2
1
+
[ ]
+ +
[ ]
{ }

a b a b
r r
r
(( ) b b
r r
r
1 2
1
+
g( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 2 2
1
+
[ ]
+ +
[ ]
{ }

a b a b
r r
r
(( ) a a
r r
r
1 2
1
+
and
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
1 1 2 2
g( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( +

_
,

+ + a b a b
r
11
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1 1
)

_
,

'

_
,

+
r
r
r
a b
22
1
2
2
1
2
2 2
1
1
a b
a
r
r
r
+

_
,

'

_
,

+ ( bb a b
a b
r r
r
1 2 2
1
1 1
2
1
2
) ( )
( ) ( )
+ +

1
]

'

+
rr r
r
r r
r
a b
a b a b
+ +

1
]
+ + +

1
]
( )
( ) ( )
2 2
1
1 1 2 2
1
Hence,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( a b a b a a b b
r r
r
r r
r
r
1 1 2 2
1
1 2
1
1 2
+ + +

1
]
+ + +
rr
r
)
1
For all positive real numbers a
1
, a
2
, b
1
and b
2
,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( a b a b a a b b
r r
r
r r
r
r
1 1 2 2
1
1 2
1
1 2
+ + +

1
]
+ + +
rr
r
)
1
THE END
For using (a)
1A
1M
1
(5)