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NEGLIGENCE&STRICTLIABILITY OUTLINE

9.1.Introduction 9.2. Negligence 9.2.1Themeaningofnegligence 9.2.2Distinguishingbetweencriminalnegligenceandcivil(tortious)negligence 9.2.3Approachestonegligenceasabasisforcriminalresponsibility 9.3.StrictLiability 9.3.1UtilitarianArguments 9.3.2TheMoralJustifiabilityofStrictLiability? 9.3.2.1StrictLiabilityoffencesarenot`realcrimes 9.3.2.2StrictLiabilityoffencesfocusontheharmdone 9.3.3DefencestoStrictLiability 9.3.4EnforcementofStrictLiabilityoffences SUGGESTEDFURTHERREADING TODO NOTESONTOPIC 9.1.Introduction Somecommentatorswouldarguethatoffencesofstrictliabilityandthosethatrequirea mentalelementofnegligenceshouldnotfigureinadiscussionofmensreaatallbutweshall considerthemhere.Duringthisconsideration,weneedtobearinmindthatitisopento questionwhethertheoffencesthatweconsideraremensreaoffencesatall. Ifthesestatesofmindaretobeincludedinahierarchyofmensreaatallthentheyshould comeatthebottom. 9.2.Negligence 9.2.1Themeaningofnegligence Negligenceisusuallydeterminedtobeanobjectivestateofmindand,assuch,itisoften difficulttodeterminewhat,ifany,istherelevantdifferencebetweenobjectiverecklessness thatweconsideredinthelasttopicandcriminalnegligence Negligencetakesasitsstandardtheactionsofthereasonableman.So,ifthereasonable

manwouldhaverecognisedthattherewasariskofharmoccurringinthecircumstancesin whichtheaccusedpersonactedoromittedtoact,thentheaccusedpersonwillbeliableeven intheeventthatshegavenothoughttothepossibilityofthatrisk. Itshouldbeobviousfromthisthatthereisadegreeofoverlapbetweentheconceptof negligenceandtheconceptofCaldwellrecklessnessunderwhichitispossibleforan accusedpersontobeliablewhereshefailedtogivethoughttoanobviousrisk. However,negligenceextendsbeyondobjectiverecklessnesstocoverthepersonwho recognisestherelevantriskandtakesstepsinthebeliefthatdoingsowilleliminatetherisk butthestepstakenfallbelowthestandardofconducttobeexpectedfromareasonable person 9.2.2Distinguishingbetweencriminalnegligenceandcivil(tortious) negligence Asastartingpointforadiscussionofnegligenceweneedtodeterminehownegligencewithin thecriminalspherediffersfromnegligenceinthetortioussense. ThisdistinctionwasexploredintheNaurucaseofGairoev.DPP[1987]SPLR171: Facts:Theappellantworkedadoublenightshiftataphosphateworks.Going homeat7am(goinginthewrongdirectionaroundtheisland),hefellasleepatthe wheelandthecarcrossedthecentrallineoftheroad.Itcrashedintoanother vehicle.Atleastoneoftheoccupantsofthisothervehiclewasseriouslyinjured. Theappellantwasconvictedunders.328oftheCriminalCodeofnegligentdrivingcausing bodilyharm.HewasalsochargedwithnegligentdrivingundertheMotorTrafficActbutno convictionwasentered. Section328readsasfollows: (328)NegligentActscausingHarm.Anypersonwhounlawfullydoesanyact,oromitsto doanyactwhichitishisdutytodo,bywhichanactoromissionbodilyharmiscausedto anypersonisguiltyofamisdemeanour,andisliabletoimprisonmentwithhardlabourfor twoyears. Appeal:againstbothconvictionandsentenceof2monthsimprisonment. Held:Appealgranted.Thedegreeofguiltneededtoestablishcriminalguiltunder theCriminalCodeisgrossorculpablenegligenceandthereisadistinction betweenthatstandardandthelesserstandardofcompletelyobjectivenegligence thatpertainsundertheMotorTrafficAct. Theappealjudgefoundthattheevidencewasnotsufficienttosatisfythetestthatthe magistratehadapplied;i.e.thatthenegligencethathadtobeestablishedwassubjectivein natureratherthanpurelyobjectiveaswouldbethecaseifitwascivilnegligencethathadto beestablished. ThejudgmentalsoreferstothecaseofRex.v.Bateman(1925)94L.J.K.B.791inwhichLord

Hewartdrewthedistinctionbetweencriminalnegligenceandcivilnegligencealongthe followinglines: Inexplainingtojuriesthetestwhichtheyshouldapplytodeterminewhetherthenegligence, intheparticularcase,amountedordidnotamounttoacrime,theJudgeshaveusedmany epithetssuchasculpable,criminal,gross,wicked,clear,complete.But,whatever epithetcanbeusedandwhetheranepithetbeusedornot,inordertoestablishcriminal liabilitythefactsmustbesuchthat,intheopinionofthejury,thenegligenceoftheaccused wentbeyondamerematterofcompensationbetweensubjectsandshowedsuchdisregard forthelifeandsafetyofothersastoamounttoacrimeagainsttheStateandconduct deservingpunishment. So,criminalnegligenceisnegligencethatistosuchadegreeastoremovetheactionsor omissionsoftheoffenderfromthewhollyprivatesphereintothepublicremitofthecriminal law. 9.2.3Approachestonegligenceasabasisforcriminalresponsibility Shouldnegligencebesufficienttoactasafaultelementintermsofleadingtoafindingof criminalculpability?Whilstitispossibletoseethatnegligenceisafaultelement,itis undeniablethatitisafaultelementofasignificantlylesserdegreethanthosefaultelements thatcomeatthetopofourhierarchyofmensrea:namelyintentionandsubjective recklessness. WithintheUKjurisdictionthereareveryfewcrimesthatrecognisenegligenceasthesole basisforfoundingcriminalliability(Wewillnotconsiderthelawrelatingtogrossnegligence manslaughterherebutwilllookatitlaterinthecoursewhenweexaminehomicideoffences). However,insomecircumstances,inrelationtoparticularoffences,negligenceisdeemedto bethesolebasisforimposingcriminalliability So,forexample,s.3oftheRoadTrafficAct1988(assubstitutedbys.2ofthe RoadTrafficAct 1991)makesitanoffencetodriveamotorvehicleonaroadwithoutduecareandattentionor withoutreasonableconsiderationforotherpersonsusingtheroad(carelessdriving). SeeMcCronev.Riding[1938]1AllERinwhichLordHewartCJdefinedthestandardof drivingthatshouldapplyinthefollowingterms: Thatstandardisanobjectivestandard,impersonalanduniversal,fixedinrelationtothe safetyofotherusersofthehighway.Itisinnowayrelatedtothedegreeofproficiencyor degreeofexperiencetobeattainedbytheindividualdriver.(Atp.158). WeconsideredwhenwelookedatCaldwelltyperecklessnessthatitdidnotreallysatisfythe criteriaofbeingastateofmindbecauseit,infact,ledtotheattachmentofcriminalliability wheretherewasanabsenceofastateofmind. Itwouldappeartobeevidentthatnegligencefailstofitintotheclassicaldefinitionofmens reaforexactlythesamereasons...itisconcernedwithafailuretoexerciseduecareor consideration,afailuretoappreciatetherisksattendantonagivenaction,omissionor courseofconduct.

However,Harthascounteredthiscriticismbyidentifyingthatfailingtothinkorgivedue considerationtotheriskofharmarisingoutofagivenactorcourseofconductisnotand, indeed,shouldnotbedeemedtobeanylessculpableorcriminallyresponsiblethanany other`stateofmind: ...ahundredtimesadaypersonsareblamedoutsidethelawcourtsfornotbeingmore careful,forbeinginattentiveandnotstoppingtothink...[I]fanyoneiseverresponsiblefor anything,thereisnogeneralreasonwhymenshouldnotberesponsibleforomissionsto think,ortoconsiderthesituationanditsdangersbeforeacting.("Negligence,MensRea andCriminalResponsibility"inHart:PunishmentandResponsibility;pp.1512as citedinClarkson&Keating). Asimilarproblemorcriticismexistsinrelationtonegligenceasdoesinrelationtoobjective recklessness.Itisthatitisdifficulttoacceptthatnegligenceshouldbeacceptedasa recognisablefaultelementsolongasthereisnorecognitionofthefactthatsomedefendants areimpairedinsuchawayastomakeitimpossibleforthemtoavoidbeingnegligentand, therefore,thatsuchpersonsshouldnotbedeemedtobeasequallymorallyculpableasthose personswhoarecapableofavoidingbeingnegligentbutneglecttodoso,forwhatever reason. Oneexceptiontothelawsreluctancetoattachcriminalliabilitytonegligenceisinrelationto grossnegligencemanslaughterwhichwewillexamineinmoredetailwhenwelookat homicideoffences 9.3.StrictLiability Astrictliabilityoffenceisoneinwhichthereisnorequirementofmensreainrelationtoone ormoreelementsoftheactusreus.Sometimestheseoffencesaredescribedasabsolute butthisismisleadingasitimpliesthattherearenodefencesavailabletosomeonewhohas beenchargedwithsuchanoffence. WithintheUKjurisdiction,moststrictliabilityoffencesarestatutoryinoriginandareoften describedasregulatoryinnature.So,forexample,therearestrictliabilityoffenceswithinthe realmofthelawrelatingtovarioussortsoflicensingandalsoinrelationtothesellingof foodstuffswhetherinconnectionwithfoodhygieneorinrelationtoweightsandmeasures. Strictliabilityoffencesalsoexistinrelationtoissuesofpollution. SeeAlphacellv.Woodward[1972]A.C.824 Inthiscase,thedefendantswereconvictedunders.2(1)(a)oftheRivers(Preventionof Pollution)Act1951forcausingpollutedwatertoenterariver.Itwasheldthatthefactthatthey hadnoknowledgethatthepollutionwastakingplaceandthattheymistakenlythoughtthat theirfilteringsystemwasoperatingeffectivelydidnotconstituteadefence. Theexistenceofsuchoffencesandthefactthatpersonscanbecriminallyliablewithoutthe prosecutionbeingunderanyobligationtoaddresstheissueofmensreainrelationtooneor moreelementsoftheactusreusofanoffencewouldseemtobeindirectconflictwith

everythingthatwehaveconsideredabouthowthelawdoesand,indeed,shouldconstruct criminalliability Ifweconsideragainthepurposesofpunishment(whichisunderlyingtoallotherconcerns whenconsideringthedevelopmentandoperationofthecriminallaw)wecanidentifytwo centralconcernsthatneedtobeaddressedinrelationtostrictliability: 1.Canstrictliabilitybejustifiedintermsofdeterrenceorsomeotherutilitarian ground? 2.Isitadoctrinethatcanbejustifiedmorally? Packerhasattackedtheconceptofstrictliabilityonthebasisthatitfailsbothofthesetests: Topunishconductwithoutreferencetotheactorsstateofmindisbothinefficaciousand unjust.Itisinefficaciousbecauseconductunaccompaniedbyanawarenessofthefactors makingitcriminaldoesnotmarktheactorasonewhoneedstobesubjectedtopunishment inordertodeterhim(sic)orothersfrombehavingsimilarlyinthefuture,nordoesitsingle himoutasasociallydangerousindividualwhoneedstobeincapacitatedorreformed.Itis unjustbecausetheactorissubjectedtothestigmaofacriminalconvictionwithoutbeing morallyblameworthy.(AscitedinClarkson&Keating). 9.3.1UtilitarianArguments Onejustificationforthecreationofstrictliabilityoffencesmightbethatitisintheinterestsof societythatpersonsengagedincertainsortsofconductberequiredtoperformtothehighest standardsofcare.Theharmthatmightarisefromthemfailingtodosoissoseriousinnature astojustifynotallowingthemanydefencesuchas`reasonablemistake Inaddition,itmightbearguedthatintheinterestsoftheadministrationofjustice,itisjustified thattheprosecutionisnotrequiredtoadduceproofofthementalelementinquestioninorder tosaveonthetimeandotherresourcesofthecourts. Thisissometimesreferredtoastheexpediencyjustificationorargument.Ofcourse,itisnot averyeffectivejustificationforthecreationofstatutoryoffencesinwhichitisnotnecessary fortheprosecutiontoprovemensreainrelationtooneelementoftheactusreusbuttheneed toprovemensreainrelationtoalltheotherelementsremains. 9.3.2TheMoralJustifiabilityofStrictLiability? Thecentralityofmensreatothedevelopmentofandthinkingaboutcriminallawmeansthat somecommentatorshavearguedthatstrictliabilityoffencesareunacceptablebecause personswhotakeallpossiblecaretoavoidharmbutfailtodosoarenotmorally blameworthyandshouldnotbesubjecttothesanctionofthecriminallaw. Thiscriticismhasbeenaddressedontwolevels: 9.3.2.1StrictLiabilityoffencesarenot`realcrimes SuchapositionseemstobereinforcedintheUKwherestrictliabilityoffencesare

predominantlytriedinthemagistratescourtandwheretheyattractthemostlenient sentences,intheeventofaconviction,suchasfines. Butitisnotaverystrongargumentandhasbeencriticisedonmorethanoneoccasion.It seemslessthansatisfactorytoresorttoanargumentsuchasthiswithinadiscussionthathas atitsheartissuesofculpability,responsibilityandpunishment.Ifstrictliabilityoffencesare notrealcrimes,thensurelythecriminallawisaninappropriatemeansofpunishingthe conductinvolvedwhethersuchconducttakestheformofcommissionoromission. Inaddition,ifsuchanargumentisaccepted,thentheoffencesconcernedmaybecome marginalisedsothattheyarenottakenseriouslybyanyoneincludingthepeoplewhoare committingthemandthis,inturn,mustonlyundermineanydeterrenteffectthatthecreation ofsuchoffencesandenforcementofthelawinrelationtothemmighthave. 9.3.2.2StrictLiabilityoffencesfocusontheharmdone Woottonarguesthatitisjustifiabletoexpandthescopeofstrictliabilityoffencesonthebasis thattocreatesuchoffencesandsubsequentlytoprosecutethosewhocommitthemisinthe interestsofprotectingsocietyfromharm.Shemaintainsthatthemoralculpabilityofan individualoffenderisirrelevantinsuchanexercise: If,however,theprimaryfunctionofthecourtsconceivedasthepreventionofforbidden acts,thereislittlecausetobedisturbedbythemultiplicationofoffencesofstrictliability.If thelawsaysthatcertainthingsarenottobedone,itisillogicaltoconfinethisprohibition tooccasionsonwhichtheyaredonefrommaliceaforethought;foratleastthematerial consequencesofanaction,andthereasonsforprohibitingit,arethesamewhetheritisthe resultofsinistermaliciousplotting,ofnegligenceorofsheeraccident.Amanisequally deadandhisrelativesequallybereavedwhetherhewasstabbedorrunoverbyadrunken motoristorbyanincompetentone...(AscitedinClarkson&Keating). Whilstthereareelementsofsuchanargumentthatseembothpersuasiveandappealing,itis flawedintwoways.First,itpresumesthattheprimaryfunctionofthecourtsistopreventharm butitisnotnecessarilythecasethatallcommentatorswouldagreethatthisisindeedthe case.Neitherisitcertainthatthecourtsperceivetheirroleinsuchterms. Second,ifoneweretotakeWoottonsargumentfurtheritisevidentthatthelawwouldbe requiredtocriminalisepersonssuchasdoctorsforundertakingactssuchasexperimental surgeryintheeventthatapatientdiedregardlessofsuchotherissuesasthesocialutilityof theactivityinquestion. Itiscertainlythecasethatapreoccupationwiththecomplexitiesofmensreacanleadthe criminallawtobeoverlyconcernedwithanindividualoffendertotheexclusionofother relevantconcernssuchastheresultingharm. Butitisnotevidentthatreferringtosuchharmasthecentralifnotthesolefactorfor determiningcriminalresponsibilitynecessarilysolvesmoreproblemsthanitcreates. 9.3.3DefencestoStrictLiability Ashasalreadybeenmentioned,itwouldbeincorrecttodescribestrictliabilityoffencesas

absoluteassuchterminologywouldprecludethepossibilityofanaccusedpersonbeingable torelyonanydefencetosuchacharge. InthecaseofHillandBaxter[1958]1QB277,thedefendantsuccessfullypleadedadefence ofautomatismtoachargeofdangerousdrivingwhichisastrictliabilityoffence. Thereisnoreasontosupposethatanyofthegeneraldefencesthatwewillconsiderinlater topicswouldbeunavailabletoadefendantchargedwithanoffenceofstrictliability. Inaddition,itmaybethecasethatthestatutethatcreatesastrictliabilityoffenceactually providesadefencewithinthelegislationitself.Suchdefencesareoftenreferredtoasdue diligencedefencesandarebasedonademonstrationofanabsenceoffault. So,forexample,s.21oftheFoodSafetyAct1990(UK)createsadefenceofduediligenceto theoffence(createdins.14)ofsellingfoodwhichisnotofthenatureorsubstanceorquality demanded. Thedefenceiswordedinthefollowingterms: InanyproceedingsforanoffenceunderanyoftheprecedingprovisionsofthisPart...it shall...beadefenceforthepersonchargedtoprovethathetookallreasonableprecautions andexercisedallduediligencetoavoidthecommissionoftheoffencebyhimselforbya personunderhiscontrol. 9.3.4EnforcementofStrictLiabilityoffences Evenleavingasidethetheoreticalorprincipledobjectionstostrictliabilityoffencesthathave alreadybeenoutlined,inpracticaltermsfurthercriticismhasbeenlevelledatwhatappearsto beselectiveenforcementofsuchoffences.Thisisparticularlythecaseinrelationto regulatoryagencieswhopolicesuchcrimes(addingtotheperceptionthatsuchoffences arenotreallycrimesatallbecausetheydonotcomeundertheremitofnormalpolicing carriedoutbythepoliceservice).Anexampleofsucharegulatoryagencythatisoften criticisedinthisregardistheHealth&SafetyExecutive. Suchagencieshavejustifiedtheirpoliciesofselectiveenforcementbyreferencetothefact thatitwouldnotbepracticableorevenproductivetoprosecuteeveryinfringementofthe legislationthatcametotheirattention,andthiswouldseemtobeincontrovertiblytrue.In identifyingthosesituationsinwhichtheprosecutionrouteistakenbytheHSEreferencehas beenmadetodeliberatefloutingofthelaworrecklessnessasto(non)compliancewiththe relevantrules. So,eveniffaultisnotapartofthedefinitionoftheoffence,itcertainlyseemsthecasethat issuesoffaulthaveaparttoplayinthedecisionastowhetherornotaparticularoffencewill beprosecuted. Ofcourse,otheragenciesmayadoptdifferentapproachestoenforcementleadingtoeven moreselectivity. Suchselectiveenforcementisproblematic,notleastbecauseitreinforcestheperceptionthat strictliabilityoffencesarenotrealcrimesatallandarenottakenseriouslyevenbythose peoplewhosejobitistopolicethem.

SUGGESTEDFURTHERREADING Gairoev.DPP[1987]SPLR171. PublicProsecutorv.AndreMontaigne(19801988)1VanLR209. Allen;chapter4. Clarkson&Keating;pp.197216. HungerfordWelch,P.&Taylor,A.(1997)SourcebookonCriminalLaw;Cavendish: London;chapter14. Wasik,M.(1982)"ShiftingtheBurdenofStrictLiability"inCriminalLawReview; pp.567574. Peiris,G.L.(1983)"StrictliabilityinCommonwealthcriminallaw"inLegalStudies3: 117145. Richardson,G.(1987)"StrictLiabilityforRegulatoryCrime:TheEmpirical Research"inCriminalLawReview:pp.295306.

TODO
Readoverthenotesagainandmakesurethatyou understandeverythingthatiswritten.Inparticular,make surethatyouknowthemeaningsofthewordsand phrasesthatarewritteninboldtypeandunderlined. Makeanoteofanythingthatyoudonotunderstandand bringitwithyoutotheworkshopsothatyoucanASK thelecturertoexplainittoyou. SelectoneortwooftheSuggestedFurtherReadingsto readandthinkabout.Thiswillgiveyoumore informationaboutthistopic. PrepareoutlineanswerstotheReviewQuestionsto assistwithyourrevisionofthistopic. LookattherelevantlegislationinaSouthPacific jurisdictionandseeifyoucanidentifyanexampleofa

strictliabilityoffence.

CriminallawnotesPresentationTranscript
1.CriminalLawNotes 2.I.2MainFormsofLawA.CivilLawgovernsrelationshipbetweenindividualsor corporationsinasociety1.malpracticesuits,ownershipdisputes,breachofcontract,etc.2.The plaintiffusuallyseeksmonetarydamages 3.B.CriminalLaw1.Felonyseriouscriminaloffense,maybepunishablewithprisonfora yearormoreorbydeatha.1st,2nd,3rd,and4thdegreeb.DegreesofMurderi.1st premeditated(somedegreeofplanning),anddeliberated(doneonpurpose)ii.2ndonlymalice aforethought(intenttoinflictseriousbodilyharm,ortoactwithwantondisregardfor consequencesofactions). 4.iii.VoluntaryManslaughterhomicidewithoutmalice(maybeduringasuddenquarrel)iv. InvoluntaryManslaughterKillingsthatresultfromnegligencedidn'tmeanto,butshould haveknownbetter.(Mainlymotorvehicledeaths.) 5.2.Misdemeanoranycrimethatisnotafelony.Lessserious.a.Grossmisdemeanor punishablebyincarceration,usuallyinalocaljail,for30daysto1year.b.Pettymisdemeanor minoroffense,lessthan30daysinjailc.Violationticketableoffense,doesn'tgooncriminal record. 6.II.SourcesofCriminalLawA.Constitutionallaw1.SupremelawofthelandB.Statutory law1.Enactedbylegislativebodies2.Canbeoverturnedby(A)C.AdministrativeLaw1.rules andregulationsfromgovernmentagencies.a.pricefixing,healthcodeviolations,EPA violationsD.CaseLaw1.lawmadebycourtdecisionsbasedontheirinterpretationsofthe otherlaws 7.III.FinalNote:Lawsaresubjecttointerpretationandmaybemodifiedassocialnorms change.a.YouprobablynoticedinHelterSkelterthathomosexualactswereconsideredcriminal. TheUSSupremeCourtstruckdownremainingantisodomylawsin2003.Suchlawshad alreadybeenrepealedin37states. new

LECTURE NOTES FOR CRIMINAL LAW 1. FundamentalsofCriminalLaw 2.LimitsofCriminalLaw 3.PrinciplesofCriminalLiability 4.AccomplicesandPartiestoCrime 5.InchoateOffenses 6.DefensestoCrime 7.HomicideLaw 8.AdvancedHomicideLaw 9.AssaultandBattery 10.CrimesAgainstHabitation 11.TheftLaw 12.ForgeryandFraudOffenses 13.CrimesAgainstPublicOrder 14.CrimesAgainsttheGovernment 15.CrimesBytheGovernment 2.

FUNDAMENTALS OF CRIMINAL LAW: An Overview of Basic Ideas "Lawsweremadetobebroken"(JohnWilson) There'smoretruthtotheabovephrasethanyoumightthink.Criminallawisonlyasmallpartof theentirefieldoflaw,andoneofthemostrecent,inconsistent,andundevelopedareasoflaw.A longtimeago,tribalsocietieshandledtheirdifferencesinprivate.Somemodernsocietiesstilldo, likethecivillawsystemsofFranceorGermany.Thedecisionsoverwhatwaswrongandwhat wasrightwereleftinthehandsofthepeople.Thingslikefolkways,mores,customs,andnorms tookcareofmostproblems. Bycontrast,everythingaboutcriminallawinAmericatoday(defining,classifying,grading, prohibiting,andpunishing)isinthehandsofthelegislatureorlawmakingbodyforeach jurisdiction.Crimesare"owned"bythestate,prosecutedbythestateinitsownname,andthe onlythingseparatingaCivilWrongfromaCriminalWrongisafinelinethatexistsonlybecause thelegislaturesaysitexists. Tobefair,thegovernmentsaysit'sdoingitbecauseofadutyorobligationtoprotectcertain basic,underlying"societalinterests"thatcannotbetakencareofbycitizensthemselves,who shouldbefreetoenjoyother,moresublimepursuits.Thispaternalisticstanceisarather rudimentaryformoftheideaofSocialContract,arelativelyweakphilosophicalpositionthat doesn'tbenefitminoritiesverywell(majorityrule:minorityright).It'sindirectoppositiontothe ideaofNaturalLaw,amongotherthings,whichholdthattherearecertainuniversalelementsto moralityandindividualconsciencethatdon'tnecessarilyrequirethecoercivepowerofthestate norgovernmentinterventioninhumanaffairs.NaturalLaw,unfortunately,doesn'tprovidemuch specificguidanceforrulemakinganditdoesn'tbenefitwomenverywell(womanascaretakerto man).TheConstitutionoftheUnitedStatesislargelywrittenintermsofNaturalLawwhichacts asacheckonSocialContractorientedjudgemadelawwhichbyitspaternalisticnatureis designedforthebettermentofsociety,sometimescalledPositiveLaw. NaturalLaw PositiveLaw Congressshallmakenolaw...prohibitingthefreedomofspeechor otherformsofpersonalexpression. Thejudgeruledthatthedefendanthadviolatedparagraph101bof theCriminalCodeformakingobsceneremarksviaemailandwas sentencedtoaprecedentsetting2yearsinprison.

Thebestwaytounderstandthe"societalinterests"thatlawservesistolookattheClassification ofStatutoryLawsystem.Thisremarkablyconsistentschemevarieslittlefromjurisdictionto jurisdiction,and(withtheexceptionofEnvironmentalCrime)hasbeenaroundsincethe16th Century.

Crimesagainstthe Treason,Sedition,Espionage state Crimesagainst persons Crimesagainst habitation Crimesagainst property Crimesagainst publicorder Murder,Manslaughter,Rape, Kidnapping,Assault,Battery Burglary,Arson,HomeInvasion

ProtectionofNationalSecurity ProtectionofPersonsagainstViolence ProtectionofSafetyandSecurityin One'sHome

Theft,Larceny,Robbery,Vandalism, Forgery,Extortion,Fraud, ProtectionofPrivateProperty Embezzlement DisorderlyConduct,Vagrancy, IncitementtoRiot,MotorVehicle Offenses,Alcohol&Drugs ProtectionofthePublicPeace,Order, andSafety

Crimesagainst ResistingArrest,Obstructionof PreservingHonestandEfficient administrationof Justice,Bribery,Escape,Contemptof PublicAdministration justice Court Crimesagainst publicmorals Crimesagainst nature Crimesagainst environment Prostitution,Sodomy,Obscenity, Incest,IndecentExposure,Gambling, MaintainingTraditionalMorality Alcohol&Drugs Bestiality,AnimalAbuse Pollution,Fishing&Hunting, Smoking,ToxicWasteDumping MaintainingSeparationofSpecies, PublicHealth PreservingPublicHealthandNatural Environment

ItshouldbeapparentbynowthatALLCRIMEISANINJURYAGAINSTSOCIETY.Indeed, theredoesn'tevenhavetobeavictim(victimlesscrimes)orsomeonetocomplainaboutit (consensualsexacts).Societyasawhole,viaitslegislatures,haspresumablymadeacollective judgmentthatcertainbehaviorsareharmfultocertain"societalinterests".Thisbringustothe MOSTimportantcharacteristicofCriminalLaw: CRIMINALLAWISDISTINGUISHEDFROMALLOTHERKINDSOFLAW BECAUSEITCARRIESWITHITTHEMORALCONDEMNATIONOFALLOF SOCIETY. TheessenceofCriminalLawisitscommonpunishment(Hart1958).Nomatterwhattheoffense, fromfelonytomisdemeanortoinfraction(orviolation),thereactionexpressesthemoral contemptofsociety.Evenforaminortrafficviolation,there'salwaystheslightesthintofhaving injuredsocietyandbrokenthecollective,agreeduponrules.Nomatterhowmanytimesaparent scoldsachildbysaying"whatwouldsocietythink",itdoesn'tcarrythesameforceaswhenit's impliedbyofficialreaction. TheconceptofCrimeiscloselytiedtotheideaofCriminalLaw,butnotinanysimpleway.The

connectionsareexpressedintwoancientprinciples. nullumcrimensinepoena nullapoenasinelege nocrimewithoutpunishment nopunishmentwithoutlaw

Itwouldbeanimmenseoversimplificationtosaysomethinglike"CrimeiswhattheCriminal Lawisallabout."Thereasonsaretwofold.Firstofall,theCriminalLawisnotjustaboutCrime. Itdefinescrimeanditselements,tobesure,butitalsoprovidestheimpetusforvoluntary, positive,moralaction,andasSamaha(1999)putsit,"alastresortasamethodofsocialcontrol." It'susefultothinkofCriminalLawasasetofbothProscriptive(prohibited)ANDPrescriptive (preferred)rulesforconduct.Thisisbestunderstoodbytheoxymoron"crimesofomission"and here'ssomeexamplesoftheseprescriptiverules: Failuretoremainatthesceneofanaccident Failuretoaidapoliceofficerwhenrequestedtodoso Failuretoreportadeathorlocationofacorpse Failurebyaparentorguardiantoprovideadequatefood,clothing,shelter,medicalcare, supervision,etc.,forachild Failuretocometotheassistance,ortosummonpolice,foracrimevictim(Good Samaritanlaws) Failuretoleavetheareawhentoldbyapublicofficialtodoso Failuretoproperlyidentifyyourselfwhenlawfullyaskedtodoso Failuretosubmittoabreathanalyzer(orother)testwhenlawfullyrequired Failuretoobeyanorderofacourt

It'sbestnottothinkofthesethingsasCrimes.Theyaremoralorethicalcommitmentsknownas thelawbehindthelaw(Gardner&Anderson1996).Theyaresupposedtocompelpeopleto conformtoahigherstandardofconductwhichisprescribed,notproscribedbytheCriminalLaw. TheyareOmissions. ThesecondreasonwhyCrimeandCriminalLawarenotthesameisbecauseCrimeisallabout blameworthiness,culpability,andawholebunchofotherconceptstobeexplainedlater. "Breakingthelaw"mayinvolveamorallapse,accident,ormistake."Crime"ordinarilyinvolves somethingdeeperwhichisunjustifiableandinexcusable.Sometimesthedistinctionismadeby sayingthattheCriminalLawisamoral(asetofimpersonal,rationalrules)andthatCrime alwaysinvolvesmorality.AnotherwayofsayingthisisthatapersonaccusedofCrimeisbeing triedforbeingacertainkindofperson.SocalledStatusOffenses,likevagrancyandcurfew violation,makeitclearthatcertainstationsorconditionsinlifearecriminalinthemselves.The statusof"criminal"issupposedtobereservedfortheworstoutcastsfromsociety. TheoldestwayofClassifyingCrimeistomakethree(3)distinctions: 1. Crimes"malainse"Actswhicharewronginthemselves.Anythingwrongunder NaturalLawandvirtuallyeveryactproscribedunderCommonLawismalainse.The

conductisunlawfulbecausethetransactionorcontactbetweenpeopleisunnaturalor immoral.Examplesincludemurder,rape,burglary,andsoforth. 2. Crimes"malaprohibita"Actswhicharewrongbecauseprohibited.Anythingthat interfereswithPositiveLawandmuchofStatutoryLawismalaprohibita.Theconductis unlawfulbecauseitinfringesonother'srightsorjustbecauseitisprohibited.Examples includedrunkdriving,gambling,andsoforth. 3. Crimes"distinguishedfromtorts"Mostcrimesarealsotorts,thetechnicaltermfor civilwrongswhichareredressedbydamages.Victimscansuecriminalsintortaction,and doublejeopardydoesnotprohibittortandcriminalactionforthesameconduct.TortLaw grewoutofCriminalLaw,andinvolvestheconceptsoffaultandliabilitybutdoesnot carrythesocialcondemnationofCriminalLaw.That'swhyadifferentstandardofproof (preponderanceoftheevidence)existsfortorts,whereascrimerequiresprovingmoral certaintyorbeyondareasonabledoubt.Examplesincludelibel,slander,trespass, wrongfuldeath,andsoforth. AnotherwayofClassifyingCrimeistofocusonthepotentialpenaltiesimposed: 1. CapitalFeloniesCrimeswhicharepunishablebydeath,orinstateswithoutthedeath penalty,lifeimprisonmentwithoutparole.Anexamplewouldbeaggravatedmurder. 2. FeloniesBroadlydefined,crimeswhicharepunishablebyayearormoreinaprison. Historically,aseriouscrimeinvolvingforfeitureofallworldlypossessions,imprisonment, and/ordeath.Anotherdefinitionisaninfamouscrime,onewhichbyitsnatureor characterindicatesadepravityinperpetrationorintenttopervertjusticeandpropagate falsehoodthatforeverdestroystheaccused'scredibility.Examplesincludemurder, manslaughter,rape,larceny,robbery,arson,sodomy,mayhem,andinthecaseofinfamous crime,anythinginvolvingfalsehood,liketreason,forgery,perjury,orbribery. 3. GrossMisdemeanorsBroadlydefined,misdemeanorsarecrimespunishablebyjail sentences,fines,orboth.Agrossmisdemeanorisaverygreat,orhigh,misdemeanor, typicallycarryingasentenceofclosetoayearinjail.Theyofteninvolvemoralturpitude, whichbytheircommissionimplyabase,vile,ordepravednatureregardingtheprivate andsocialdutieswhichapersonowestoothersortosocietyingeneral.Itimplies somethingisimmoralinitself.Examplesincludeobscenity,profanity,andsolicitation.The doctrineofmergerrequiresthatifamisdemeanorispartofafelony,thelessimportant crimeceasestohaveanindependentexistenceandismergedintothefelony,butthisdoes notapplytolesserincludedoffensescommoninpleabargainingnorprosecutorial overchargingcommonincreatingtheimpressionofmultiplecountswhicharereally multipledegreesofthesameoffense. 4. OrdinaryMisdemeanorsMisdemeanorsthattypicallycarrysentencesinthe90to180 dayrange.Anexamplewouldincludedrunkdriving,butvariesbyjurisdiction.The higherthemisdemeanor,themoresubstantialtherighttoajurytrial. 5. PettyMisdemeanorsRelativelyminormisdemeanorsthattypicallycarrysentencesin the30dayrange.Anexamplewouldincludepublicdrunkenness,butvariesby jurisdiction.Ithasonlybeensince1972thatpeopleaccusedofminormisdemeanorshave hadtherighttorepresentationbycounsel.

6. Infractions(orviolations)Typicallythesearetrafficoffensesorthebreakingof municipalordinanceswhicharepunishableonlybysuspensionofprivileges (AdministrativeLaw)orfines(QuasiCriminalLaw).Technically,theyarenoteven Crimessincetheydonotresultinarecordofcriminalconvictioninmostjurisdictions. However,itispossibletobejailedonaviolationifthecityinquestionhasamunicipal court.Suchacourtcanimposeafine,buttheycannotimprisonforfailuretopaythefine, onlyforfailuretocomplywithacourtorder.Amunicipalityisalsonotalegitimatelaw makingbody.Onlystatelegislaturesare.Municipalitiesarecorporationsapprovedby statelegislatures,andtheyserveatthewhimofthestatelegislatureunlesstheyhave establishedhomerule.Municipalitiesaretheonlycorporationsallowedtochartertheir municipalordinancesastheirbylaws.Mostordinancesdonotstatethepenalties,butsome do(Chamelin&Evans1991). ThebestwayofClassifyingCrimeistouseajurisprudentialapproach.Jurisprudencehasmany meanings(seelist)butgenerallyreferstothescienceorphilosophyoflawasawhole.This methodelucidatesmanyofthemoreadvancedconceptsinCriminalLaw.Accordingtoatleast onelegalscholar(Hall,1949),anyCrimehas7elements,whichIwillfirstlist,andthengointo detailbynumber.Bydefinition,acrimeisany: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. legallyproscribed(theconceptofLegality) humanconduct(theconceptofActusReus) causative(theconceptofCausation) ofagivenharm(theconceptofSocialHarm) whichcoincideswith(theconceptofConcurrence) ablameworthyframeofmind(theconceptofMensRea) forwhichpunishmentisprovided.(theconceptofPunishment)

(#1)TheconceptofLegalitycombinesthetwoprincipleswelearnedearlier,andsaystherecanbe nocrimewithoutlaw.Theremustbepublicrespectforthelaw,fortheofficeifnottheoffice holders(whichistheconceptoflegitimacy).Lawsnotbasedonsocietalnormsareunlikelytogain generalcompliance.America'sexperimentwithProhibitionfrom19201933isanexample.Ifthe principleofLegalityismaintained,governmentscaninflictpainonitscitizensbecauseitwillbe seenthatthosewhoarepunishedarethosewhodeservedtobepunishedfromasocietal standpoint.SohowdoesagovernmentgoaboutcreatingLegality?(Classdiscussion) Theansweristhatthereareatleast3ways,2ofwhicharederivedfromthewritingsofclassical thinkerslikeJeremyBenthamandMaxWeber,andanotherderivedfromanunknown, mysterioussource. 1. Cognoscibility(Bentham)Thistermdescribesacognitivestatewhenthelawisso preciseandeasytounderstandthatcitizenscaneasilyadvisethemselvesonwhattheycan andcannotdo.Now,BenthambelievedinUtilitybeingmoreofanultimatevaluethan Justice(trulyaPositiveLawtheorist),butthebasicideaissimilartothethemeoftheold TVshow,Beretta,"Don'tdotheCrimeifyouCan'tdotheTime".Ifthelawsare selectivelyfewinnumberandthepunishmentsarecarefullycalculated,standardized,and wellknown,thenpeoplewill"know"thatthelawisfairandjustacrosstheland.That's

legality.Noloopholes,noexceptions,notravestiesofjustice.Everyonegetsafairdeal. 2. RationalLegalAuthority(Weber)Thisistheoppositeofkadijustice,whereabunchof judges,jurors,pundits,orotherexpertsmakeupthelawonacasebycasebasis.The essenceofrationallegalauthorityisthatthereisasystemofabstractrulesappliedto concretecases.There'sareasonorlogicbehindeverylegaldecision.Nopersonalities involved.Noappealstotradition.Juststonecoldprofessionals(kindofliketheoldTV show,Dragnet,"JusttheFacts")workingdiligentlytowardeverincreasingrationalization ofthemachineryofjustice. 3. RuleofLaw(unknownorigin)WelcometothefuzziestconceptofallinCriminalLaw. Lawyersclaimtohaveaninstinctforit,andit'ssaidthatonlypeoplewhogotolawschool caneverunderstandit(Fletcher1996).There'snotmuchtogoonwithdictionariesor encyclopedias(Classassignment:LibraryandInternetsearchfordefinition),exceptfor somethingextremelybrieflike"aprinciple,guideornormthatdecisionsshouldbemade bytheapplicationofknownprinciples,sometimescalledthesupremacyoflaw"(West 1984).Thatdefinitionisasham,andthisloftyconceptdeservesbetter;soheregoes.Rule ofLawconnotesLawwithacapitalL.There'snowordforthemeaningoflawwitha capitalLintheEnglishlanguage.OthercultureshavewordslikeRecht(German),Droit (French),Pravo(Russian),Derecho(Spanish),andMishpat(Hebrew).TheclosestEnglish equivalentwouldbe"Right",atermthatappearsinthetranslationofsomeimportant philosophicalworks,likeHegel'sPhilosophyofRight.Itdenotesavisionofgovernment basedonidealLaw,andwas,ironically,referredtoquiteextensivelyduringNaziGermany inthenotionofaRechtsstaat. (#2)TheconceptofActusReus(aphrasemeaningevilorbaddeed)isderivedfromanoldLatin phrase,andinmanyways,iswhatseparatesCriminologyfromTheologybecauseasmuchaswe mightliketo,thoseofuswhoworkwithcriminalsallthetimecannotbeconcernedwith,nor inclinedtopunish,badthoughts.Governmentisnotconcernedwithevilunlessitismanifestedin behavior.Religionisconcernedwithevilasmanifestedinthought. actusnonfacitreumnisimenssitrea: anactdoesnotmakeapersonguiltyunless themindisguilty

Itisimportanttounderstandthelegaldefinitionof"behavior".Aninvoluntaryjerkoftheknee whilehavingyourreflexescheckedisbehavior,butnotlegalbehavior.Psychologistsalsotalk aboutbeingabletoconditionsomeonetodosomething,likemakethembrushtheirhairback whilespeaking,withouttheirknowingaboutit.Thisisalsonotbehaviorinthelegalsense.The wordinsocialsciencethatcomesclosesttothelegaldefinitionofbehavioris"action".Actionis alwaysconscious,voluntary,andpurposivebehavior.There'salineinShakespeare'sHamlet wherethegravediggerpondersOphelia'sdrowning,andasks"DidthewatercometoOpheliaor didOpheliacometothewater."Thedifferenceisoneofaccidentaldeathvs.suicide.Ortake guns,forinstance,"Doesthefingerpullthetriggerordoesthetriggerpullthefinger."Totake anotherexample,lawyerswouldclaimthere'sagooddealofdifferencebetweensomeone thrustingtheirswordintosomeonewhoisstandingstill,andsomeoneholdingtheirsword outstretchedwhilethevictimcomesrunningintoit.The"action",yousee,isdifferentineach

caseandforeachpartytothecrime,andalthoughyouandImaythinkitseemslikesplitting hairs,it'squiteanimportantpartoflegalreasoning. Therearecertaincriminaloffenseswheretheactaloneisallthat'snecessarytoconvictsomeone. ThesearecalledStrictLiabilitycrimes(asopposedtoTruecrimeswhichrequirebothbodyand mind).Examplesofstrictliabilityincludeweaponoffenses,trafficoffenses,drug&alcohol offenses,publichealthlaws,corporatecrime,andlittering.There'snoneedtoprovean accompanyingmentalstatebecausetheCriminalLawimposesliabilitywithoutfault.Suchlaws cameaboutduringthe1930stobetterprotectthepublicandworkersfromunsafeproductsand unsafeworkingconditions.Thetradeoffinthisarrangementisthatstrictliabilityoffensesare usuallyonlypunishablebyafine.They'reacontroversialareaofCriminalLaw(casereview: Peoplev.Hager). There'smore.Fromalegalpointofview,"communication"isaformofaction.Awholesetof lawsexistforwhatarecalledInchoatecrimes(incompletecrimes),suchasconspiracy,attempt, possession,solicitation,terroristthreats,assault,sexualharassment,incitingtoriot,aidingand abetting,andbeinganaccompliceoraccessory.Onceagain,mentalstateisirrelevantbecausethe criminalstatuteshaveusuallydescribedthebehaviorsowellthattheprincipleofVicarious Liabilityapplies.Anybodywhoparticipatesintheplanning,design,orcoverupofacrimeis subjecttothesamepenaltiesasapersonwhoactuallycarriesitout.Thisisacontroversialarea, andinallfairness,somestatutuesrequireacombinationofcommunication(words)andconduct (deeds),butthenagain,onceyouopenthedoortocombinations,evidenceofbadthoughtsmay evenbeadmissible.Theclosesttermwehaveforwhenwickedthoughtsareassumedtoapplyto theact(andtheintent)isMalice. (#3)TheconceptofCausationisoneofthemoreadvancedconceptsinCriminalLaw.Anactby itselfisnotpunishableinitselfbecauseit'sassumedtobethecauseofsomethingelse,theeffect, orsocialharmthattheCriminalLawispresumablymoreconcernedwith,andallcrimesare causeandeffectrelationships.Establishingacauseandeffectrelationshipisnosimplematter withlegalreasoning,orforthatmatterinanysocialscience.Suppose,forexample,youbeatup somebody,knockedthemunconscious,andthrewtheminadumpster.Youwalkoff,andafew minuteslater,agarbagetruckcomesdownthealley,emptiesthedumpster,andcrushesthepoor fellowtodeath.Whokilledhim?Youorthegarbagetruckdriver?(Otherexamplesfor discussion:hospitalinfections,surgerycomplications,beingrunover,bittenbyadog,exposureto elements,struckbylightening)

ThemostimportanttypesofcausesinCriminalLaware"causesinfact"(alsocalleddirect causes),proximatecauses(alsocalledlegalcauses),interveningcauses,andsupercedingcauses. Eachofthesehavespecialrulesortestsdesignedforthem: Directcause Proximatecause The"butfor"testTheaccused'sactwillbethecauseinfactofaresultif, butfortheaccused'sact,theresultwouldnothaveoccured. The"foreseeability"testIfitisforeseeablethattheresultingharmmight occur,thenthepersondoingtheoriginalcriminalactisresponsibleforthe consequences.

Thegeneralruleisthattheaccusedwillremainresponsiblefortheoriginal Interveningcause criminalactevenifthereareinterveningcausesbetweentheactusreusand actualinjury. Thegeneralruleisthatthechainofcausationisbroken,andtheaccusedis Supercedingcause notresponsible,ifthereisasupercedingcausesounforeseenand unpredictablethatitwouldnotbefairtoholdtheoriginalactortoblame. (#4)TheconceptofSocialHarmisafairlyundevelopedconceptinCriminalLaw,andit'swhat separatesCriminologyfromVictimology.TheCriminalLawexistsforapublicpurpose,not privatepurposes.TheCriminalLawisnotconcernedwiththeprotectionorvindicationof individualvictims,butrathersocietyasawhole.Thegeneralrulehasalwaysbeenifavictim wantscompensation,theyshouldsuetheoffenderafterthestategetsdonewiththem.The problem,ofcourse,isthatmostoffendersarebroke.Therehasbeenatrendinrecentyearsto incorporatemorevictimassistance,compensation,andrestitutioninthepleabargainingstageof criminaljustice.TheadditionalproblemisthatthereareawholesetoflawscalledVictimless crimes,suchassodomy,fornication,adultery,cohabitation,obscenity,fortunetelling,dueling, loansharking,gambling,drunkenness,anddruguse,whereonlysomeoftheAmericanpeople believesocietyisthevictim.TheLawisnotsupposedtocaveintopublicopinion,buttakethe examplesofabortionordruglegalization,andyoubegintoseewhattheproblemsarefromnot clearlyarticulatingsocialharm.Progressonthevictimologyfrontisfine,buttherearemore serious"lawandorder"problemsthatcanonlybeaddressedbydevelopmentofthisconcept. It'sconceivablethatdevelopmentoftheconceptisstiffledbecauseofaonesidedfocusonStreet crimeattheexpenseofSuitecrime.Whiletheaveragetakeofastreetrobbermaybe$25, Americancitizenswon'trecoverfromtheeffectsofwhitecollarcrimesliketheSavings&Loan bailoutuntilSocialSecurityrunsout.(ClassdiscussionwithpossiblesidetripstoRadical Criminology) (#5)TheconceptofConcurrencerequiresthatanyact(actusreus)causingsocialharmmust coincide,orbeaccompanied,withacriminalstateofmind(mensrea).Bothactandintentmust concurinpointoftime.It'spartofaformulainCriminalLaw: ACT+INTENT+RESULT=CRIMEDEFENSES Theremustexistafusion,acomingtogetherofactandintent.Normally,theintentcomesfirstin

time,leadingtothecarryingoutoftheact.Forexample,itisnotmurdertoaccidentlyshoot someoneandrejoiceafterwardsbecausemensreafollowsactusreus.Anotherexample:suppose yourfriendtellsyoutomeetheratherhouse,andifshe'slate,togoaheadandbreakthelockon thedoor.OK,youdothat,andonceinside,youdecidetostealherVCR.Youhavenotcommitted burglarybecauseyourintenttostealcameafterbreakingandentering.Thereisnospecific lengthoftimethattheintentmustexistpriortotheact,onlythattheycometogether concurrently. ThelegalrequirementofconcurrenceisusuallytakencareofbyprovingMotive.Intentand motivearenotthesamething.InCriminalLaw,motiveisthatwhichleadsortemptsthemindto indulgeinacriminalact,suchasanimpulse,incentive,orreasonforcommitingthecrime.Intent isthemindbeingfullyawareoftheconsequences.Manycriminalstatutesrequireintentasan elementofthecrime,butmotiveisneverstatedasanessentialelementofacrimeinanycriminal statute.Motivecanbeusedtoassistinestablishingintent,butmorelikely,motiveisintroducedas apieceofevidence,oftencircumstantial,admittedalongwithevidenceofopportunity,toimpress thejudgeorjury.Thepresenceofmotiveisevidencetendingtopresumeguilt,andtheabsenceof motiveisevidencetendingtopresumeinnocence. (#6)TheconceptofMensRea(aphrasemeaningevilorbadmind)isawelldevelopedconcept, andperhapsthemostcomplexandconfusingconceptinCriminalLaw.Severalproblems contributetothiscomplexity.All50statesarefreetoestablishtheirownPrecedentwhichresults indisparaterequirementsofintentforsimilarcrimes,therearedistinctlydifferentcommonlaw andModelPenalCode(MPC)definitionsofmensrea,thenotionofBlameworthinessisnot preciselyattachedtocertaintypesofmensreaandindeedmaybemoreusefulindefensesto crime,andfinally,tosuccessfullyprosecuteacase,adifferenttypeofmensreamaybeneededto helpestablishtheactusreus,concurrence,orothercircumstanceelementstatedinthecriminal statute. Thebestwaytounderstandmensrea(oftenmislabeledIntent)istorealizethatitisalways invisible.Youcan'treallyproveintentlikeyoucanwithmotive.Youalsocan'treallyblame someonefortheirmotive(it'sunderstandable),onlyfortheirintent.Intentisdifferentforevery personandforeverycase,andit'simpossibleaswellasfutiletogetinsidethe"mind"ofeachand everycriminaloffender.Confessionsaretheclosestthingtodirectevidenceofmensrea,andeven then,theymustbecorroborated.Therefore,theCriminalLawhasestablishedcertainobjective testsforinferringthesubjectivementalstate(intent)ofcriminaloffenders.Todothisrequires certainassumptionsaboutResponsibility,andbyaddingintherulesforinferringintent,called determiningCulpability,wearriveatawaytoattachBlameworthiness. BLAMEWORTHINESS=RESPONSIBILITY+CULPABILITY Let'staketheassumptionsaboutresponsibilityfirst.It'seasy.ThisisagiveninCriminalLaw. TheentirecriminaljusticesystemoperatesontheassumptionofFreeWill.Muchtothechagrin ofpsychologists,sociologists,andsociobiologistswhohavearguedforyearsthathumanbehavior isdeterminedbyforcesbeyondindividualcontrol,thecriminaljusticesystemassumesthatevery humanbeingpossessesfreewillandmakeschoicesthattheymustberesponsiblefor.NoticeI

didn'tsay"accountablefor"becausewehaven'tyetreachedthepointwherewecanattach blame.ThefreewillassumptionhasbeencalledthetheoreticalunderpinningofCriminalLaw. It'simportanttounderstandthetheorybeforemakinganyassessmentofit. WithoutgettingintophilosophicalnotionsofJustice,therearetwodowntoearthreasonsforthe freewillassumption.Oneisthatthesystemcouldnotoperateefficientlyifwetookthetimeto closelyexaminethepsychologicalmakeupofeachandeveryindividual.Thesecondreasonisthat thereisawholeothersidetothejusticesystem,calledDefenses,whichoffermorethanenough safeguards,alongwiththingslikethePresumptionofInnocenceuntilProvenGuilty,tojustifyan assumptionthatcrimeisalwaysabehaviorthatisfreelychosen.(Classdiscussion:Arethese enoughsafeguards?)Nowallthisdoesn'tmeanthatjudgesandlawyersdon'tbelieveinthe influenceofgenetic,psychological,orenvironmentalinfluencesonhumanbehavior.Itjustmeans that,forpurposesofhavingaworkableoperatingassumption,wehavecarvedoutcriminal behaviorfromthedimensionofallhumanbehavioranddecreedthatthisthingwecallcrime shallbeconsideredasfreelychosenfromnowon. Traditionally,thisstancehasbeensoftenedsomewhatbymutuallyagreeduponrecognitions. NoticeIdidn'tsay"exceptions".Therearenoexceptionstothefreewillassumption.However, therearethe"ThreeI's":Insanity,Infancy,andInvoluntary.TheCriminalLaw"recognizes"to varyingdegreesthatinsanepeople,extremelyyoungpeople,andthosewithcertaininvoluntary "medical"conditionsshouldNOTbeassumedtoberesponsiblefortheiractions.Thesearebest understoodasSpecialDefensesthatgettotheideaofVoluntarinessofActs,orVolition(the abilitytoexercisefreewill).Insanityandinfancyarefairlyselfexplanatory,butthefollowingisa listofinvoluntary"medical"conditions:reflexivebehavior,unconsciousbehavior,behaviorwhile asleep(sleepwalking),convulsivebehavior(epilepsy),andinvoluntaryintoxication(drugged againstyourwill). Nowwe'rereadytotakeupthenotionofCulpability(faultingorblamingsomeonefortheway their"mind"works).ThatdefinitionI'veprovidedinparenthesesshouldstopandgiveyoupause astowhatprecariousgroundwe'reonwithconceptslikeMentalFault.Let'sstartwiththe commonlawapproachesandthenlookattheMPCapproach,bothintabularform.Mostlawyers aretrainedinthecommonlawapproachbecausetheMPCmethodisfairlyrecentandhasn't caughtonasmuchasitshould.

Atcommonlaw,basicdistinctionsaremadebetweenatleast6differenttypesofIntent:General Intent,SpecificIntent,StrictLiability,TransferredLiability,ConstructiveLiability,andScienter. Allcrimescontaingeneralintent,butsomecrimesonlycontainspecificintentorinvolveother formsofintent. Thekindofintentwhichajudgeorjurycaneasilyinferorpresumefromthe actitself.Theintendedresultdoesn'tmatter.Theprosecutionneednot establishwhythecrimeoccured.Itmustbeshown,however,thatthe defendanthadan"awareness"ofacriminalactbeingcommitted.Batteryis agoodexamplebecausetheextentofinjuriesorwhythefightstarteddoesn't matter. Thekindofintentthatlegislatureshaveputinthelanguageofthecriminal statute.Usuallyrequiresaparticularresultbeyondtheactitself,suchas "withpurposetodefraudaninsurancecompany"inthecrimeofarsonfor profit.Requiresprosecutiontoproveadditionalelementsandcannotbe presumedbyajudgeorjury. Involvesregulatorycrimeswhereintentdoesn'tmatteratall.Intentisnotan elementofthecrime.Itisimmaterialwhethertheaccusedactedingoodfaith orknewtheywereviolatingthelaw.Theprosecutiondoesn'thavetoprove thedefendantknewtheirmailorderpackagecontaineddrugsorchild pornography,forexample. Involvescaseswheretheaccusedintendedtoharmonevictimbutinstead harmedanother.Relievesprosecutionoftheneedtoprovechainofevents leadingtoharm.Basisoffelonymurderrule. Involvescaseswheretheaccusedshouldhaveknowntheirbehaviorcreateda highorunreasonableriskofinjury.Alsocalledcriminalnegligence,and replacesanyspecificintentcontainedinstatute,therebyconstructingor convertinganinnocentacttoacrime. Arequirementinsomestatutesthattheaccusedhadsomeadditionaldegree ofknowledgebeyondknowingapossiblecriminalactwasbeingcommiting. Examplesincludeknowingthatthevictimisalawenforcementofficer, knowingthatthematerialswerestolenproperty,orknowingthatthe hitchhikerwasanescapedfugitive.

Generalintent

Specificintent

StrictLiability intent

Transferred Liabilityintent Constructive intent

Scienter

SomewhatsimplerandeasiertounderstandistheMPCapproach.Notallstatesusethesewords, andwhereknown,I'veworkedthesynonymouswordintothedefinitionandindicateditby quotationmarks.Theyarearrangedfromthehighestdegreeofmentalfaulttothelowest.

Purposely

Whenaperson'sconsciousobjectiveistoengageinaparticularactor accomplishaparticularresult.Theyarebehaving"intentionally"with respecttotheattendantcircumstancestheyareawareoforbelievetoexistat thetime.Requiresprosecutiontoshowwhatwasgoingthrutheaccused's mindatthetime. Whenapersonknowsthenatureoftheirconductwillnecessarilyleadtoa particularresult.Itmeans"willfully"carryingoutadesignorplanasa consciousexerciseoftheirwill.Requiresprosecutiontoshowwhatwasgoing thrutheaccused'smindatthetime. Whenapersonconsciouslydisregardsasubstantialandunjustifiablerisk thatgrosslydeviatesfromastandardofcarethatareasonablepersonwould followunderthecircumstances.Requiresprosecutiontoshowwhatwasgoing thrutheaccused'smindatthetimeANDshowwhatareasonableperson woulddounderthecircumstances. Whenapersonfailstobeawareofasubstantialandunjustifiableriskthat dangerouscircumstancesexistoraprohibitedresultwillfollow.Suchfailure isalsoasubstantialdeviationfromthestandardofcarethatareasonable personwouldfollowunderthecircumstances.Requiresprosecutiontoshow whatareasonablepersonwoulddounderthecircumstances.

Knowingly

Recklessly

Negligently

(#7)TheconceptofPunishmentinCriminalLawmustsatisfyatleast4criteria.Anypenalty imposedmustbe: 1. painfulandunpleasant 2. prescribedbythelaw 3. administeredintentionally 4. administeredbythestate(Classbrainstormingbegins) Inaddition,itwouldbeniceifpunishmenthadaRationale,likeRetribution,Incapacitation, Deterrence,orRehabilitation(whichdoesn'tagreewith#1above).Thesearesometimesreferred toasthegoalsofCriminalLaw,anditwouldbeanamazingfeatofcivilizationifwecouldfinally settleononeortheother.Here'sabriefsynopsisoftheleadingcontenders:

Retribution

Assumesthatcriminalsdeservetobepunished,mostlybylong prisonterms,aslegalrevengefortheirharmtosociety.The modern"justdeserts"approachconsidersitpropertopunish becausetheydeserveitandthestatehasgonetothetroubleof prescribingapunishmentforthem. Attemptstomakeittheoreticallyimpossible,eitherthru incarceration,execution,castration,mutilation,banishment,or othermeans,forcriminalstopreyanyfurtheruponsociety. Assumesthatfearfulpenalties,mostlyinvolvingswiftrestraint, harshconditions,andcertainguilt,willpreventpeoplefrom choosingtoengageincrime.Specificdeterrencefocuseson individualcriminals,andgeneraldeterrencefocusesonpotential criminals. Emphasizesthepossibilityofchange,mostlyinvolvingtreatment programs,thathasasanendresulttheidealofbeingableto convertcriminalsintononcriminals.

Incapacitation

Deterrence

Rehabilitation

ItwouldalsobeusefultohaveaRangeofPenalties,andasystematicwayofsentencingsimilar casestosimilarpenaltiesinthatrange.Here'stherangeasitnowexists: DeathPenalty Incarceration Probation SplitSentence Restitution CommunityService Fines Lethalinjection,electrocution,exposuretolethal gas,hanging,orothermethod. Physicalconfinementinaprison,jail,orother lockedupfacility. Asetofspecificrulesofconductwhileinthe community,andsupervisionofcompliancewith thoserules. Abriefperiodofshockingconfinementfollowedby aperiodofprobation. Makingtheoffenderprovidefinancialrepayment orotherservicesforlossesincurredbythevictim. Makingtheoffenderperformpublicservicework, likepickinguptrash. Economicpenaltiesrequiringthepaymentoffixed sumsofmoney.

PRINTEDRESOURCES: Chamelin,N.&K.Evans(1991)CriminalLawforPoliceOfficers.5thed.EnglewoodCliffs,NJ: PrenticeHall. Fletcher,G.(1996)BasicConceptsofLegalThought.NY:OxfordUniv.Press. Gardner,T.&T.Anderson(1996)CriminalLaw:PrinciplesandCases.6thed.Minneapolis:West Publishing Hall,Jerome(1949)CasesandReadingsonCriminalLawandProcedure.Indianapolis:Bobbs Merrill. Hart,H.(1958)"TheAimsoftheCriminalLaw"LawandContemporaryProblems23:403405. Samaha,J.(1999)CriminalLaw.6thed.Belmont,CA:West/Wadsworth. WestPublishingCompany(1984)TheGuidetoAmericanLaw:Everyone'sLegalEncyclopedia.St. Paul:WestPublishing. Lastupdated:06/19/03 LectureListforCriminalLaw InstructorHomePage

THE LIMITS OF CRIMINAL LAW:


a focus on the void-for-vagueness doctrine "Althoughitisunlikelyacriminalwillconsiderthetextofthelawbeforehemurdersorsteals,itis reasonablethatafairwarningbegiventheworld,inlanguagethecommonworldwillunderstand, ofwhatthelawintendstodoifacertainlineispassed"(O.W.Holmes) AswesawinLecture#1,theCriminalLawhasmuchpower.Infact,it'stoopowerful.Weneedto havechecksorlimitsonthispower,whichiswhatthislectureisabout.Butfirst,let'sreviewthe powersthattheCriminalLawhas: Defining(whatcrimeis,aswellasquasicrimesofOmission) Classifying(crimesbystatutoryscheme,evil,penalty,orjurisprudence) Grading(crimesbyseriousness,oramountofsocialharm) Prohibiting(socialcontrolforthebettermentofsociety) Punishing(allowsagovernmenttoinflictpainonitsowncitizens)

ThefollowinglimitsonCriminalLawareinalphabeticalorder: AdversarySystemAlimitationonCriminalLawthatcontrolstheestablishmentof guilt.Itguaranteestheaveragecitizentherighttohaveaprosecutorandadefensecounsel opposeeachotherinatrialiftheyareunwillingorunabletodisposeofthecasepriorto trial.Theprosecutionalsohastheburdenofproof,initially. BillofAttainderThisreferstoanylegislativeactwhichinflictspunishmentwithouta criminaltrial.Ithasbeenprohibitedsince1867anditsoriginalpurposewastoeliminate lynching.It'smodernuseismostcloselyrelatedtogovernmentregulationofcertain professionsandtheprivilegesofexecutiveimmunity.Forexample,itprohibitsloyalty oathstopracticelaw,andallowsPresidentstorefusetoturnoverprivatedocumentsto specialprosecutors. BillofRightsThefirsttenamendmentstotheConstitutionlimittheabilityof governmenttodefinecertainactsascriminal,andalsohaveimportantthingstosayabout theenforcementofCriminalLaw. CorpusDelictiThisLatinphrasemeaning"bodyofthecrime"meansthatthe prosecutionmustproveALLelementsofacrime.Todothis,theprosecutionmustconsult thespecificstatuteofthestatethathasjurisdiction.Althoughtherearepresumptionsthat theprosecutionwillalsoprovetheidentityoftheaccusedandbeabletoproduceavictim, thosefactorsareNOTtechnicallypartoftheconceptofCorpusDelicti.Forexample,the corpusdelictiofburglaryconsistsofsixelements:(1)breaking(2)andentering(3)the dwelling(4)ofanother(5)atnighttime(6)withtheintenttocommitafelonytherein.In thelawofhomicide,however,oneoftheelementsis(1)thedeath,andinthiscase,the abilitytofindoraccountforthebodyispartofthecorpusdelictiofhomicide. CorroborationofConfessionThegeneralruleisthataconvictioncannotrestalone uponanaccused'soutofcourtconfession.Admissionoftheconfessionisonlypermittedif proofofCorpusDelictiwillbepresentedlater. CruelandUnusualPunishmentThisisan8thAmendmentprotectionwherethe

words"cruel"and"unusual"haveneverreallybeenadequatelydefined.Apiecemeal approachhasbeenfollowedinwhichthedistinctionismadebetween"ancient"and "modern"formsofpunishmentwiththeassumptionbeingthatancientmethodsare unconstitutionalandmostmodernmethodsareupheld.Recentissueshaveinvolvedthe questionofproportionality,wherehabitualoffenderswithpriorrecordsreceivestiffer sentencesforthesamecrimeasthosecommittedwithoutpriorrecords. DoubleJeopardyThesamesovereignentitycannotprosecutethesameindividual twiceforthesameactorthesamecrime.ThisgetsatthematterofJurisdiction,andwhat istheoreticallypossibleandwhatisdoneinpractice.Asapracticalmatter,bothfederal andstategovernmentsdoNOTprosecutethesameperson,althoughtheytheoretically could,unlesstherearesomedissimilaritiestobefoundinthenatureofthecrimeORthe firstjurisdictiontoprosecutedoessounsuccessfully. DueProcessofLawAphrasefoundinthe5th&14thAmendmentaswellasevery stateconstitutionwhichforbidsthegovernmentfromtakinglife,liberty,orproperty withoutdueprocessoflaw.Atthefundamentallevel,dueprocessensuresataminimum therighttofairnoticeandafairhearing.Onotherlevels,itguaranteescertaininalienable rightsandfreedoms.Onapracticallevel,itisusuallydeterminedbyvariousbalancing teststhatpittheneedsoftheindividualagainsttheneedsofthegovernment.Theimplied righttoprivacyalsoprohibitsmakingcrimesoutofbehaviorprotectedbytherightof privacy. EqualProtectionofLawThegovernmentcannotmakealawapplicabletoonlyone sex,race,orreligionortreatonegroupofcitizensdifferentlyfromothergroupswithouta rationalreason.ThisideaisrelatedtothenotionofDueProcessatthelevelof fundamentalfreedom,tyingtogetherfairnessandinalienableright.Theprincipleisthat allpersonsmustbetreatedalike,notonlyinlawenactmentbutinlawenforcement. Historically,itwasusedtostrikedownmiscegenationlaws,andcontemporaryexamples wouldincludethe"powderrock"cocainecontroversyforblacksand"sexualharassment" statutesforwomen.(Classdiscussion?) ExPostFactoLawsBoththefederalandstategovernmentsareprohibitedfrom alteringthelawinanywaysoastobedetrimentaltoanaccusedpersonretroactively.This canoccurinmanyways:(1)thelegislaturepassesanewlaw,andsomeoneisprosecuted forcommittingtheactbeforethelawwasenacted(unlessthereisa"savings"clauseinthe statute);(2)thelegislatureincreasesthepenaltiesforanexistinglaw,andsomeoneis punishedunderthenewpenaltywhentheycommittedtheactwhiletheoldpenaltywasin effect;(3)thelegislaturedecreasestheburdenofproof,orinanywaymakesiteasierfor theprosecutiontoconvict,personswhocommittedcrimeundertheoldsystemmustbe triedundertheoldrules.(Note:thisdoesnotapplytoevidentiaryrulechanges.);and(4) thelegislatureadjuststheamountofgoodtimecreditoreligibilityforparoletoalleviate prisonovercrowding,andthenrestorestheoldformulaoncetheovercrowdingproblem hasbeensolved. JurisdictionThecourtsystemisorganizedbythis,andtherearethreedifferenttypes ofjurisdiction:person,place,andtypeofcrime.Differentcourtsarelimitedby

jurisdictioninwhatcasescanbebroughtbeforethem. PresumptionofInnocenceAllthepresumptionsoflawindependentofevidenceare infavoroftheaccused,andeverypersonispresumedinnocentuntilprovenguilty.This conceptiscloselyrelatedtothereasonabledoubtstandardandthenotionofmoral certainty.Reasonabledoubtisthelastpresumptionofinnocenceincriminalprocedure, andactuallyit'san"entitlement"tothebenefitofacquittal.Moralcertaintyisatermfor thejudgmentcallthatremainstobemadeafterreasonabledoubthasbeeneliminated. StatusOffensesThelawcannotmakebeingacertainkindofpersonacrime.This determinationismadethroughanalogywithachronicmedicalcondition:thelawcannot criminalizehavinga"commoncold".Mostcasesofchronicalcoholismdon'tqualify,but druglawscriminalizingthestatusofbeingan"addict"do.Inpractice,thelawhasmany kindsofstatusoffenses.(Discussiononmedicalanalogy) StatuteofLimitationsThisplacesatimelimitontheperiodfromcommissionofthe offensetofilingofthecriminalcharges.TheSupremeCourthasdecidedthatitonly applieswhenthesuspectisincustody.Statesarefreetodevisetheirownstatutesof limitations,andthereiswidespreadvariation,butingeneral,misdemeanorsusuallyhave oneyear,andfelonieslonger.Therearetwowaystoextendthestatuteoflimitations:(1)an arrestwarrantextendsitindefinitelyorforaspecifiedperiodoftime;or(2)tollingthe statuteoflimitationsbynotcountingtheperiodoftimeequaltotheaccused'sabsence fromthejurisdiction. VoidforOverbreadthDoctrineThismakesastatuteorordinanceunconstitutional ifthemannerinwhichitiswrittenhasanunnecessarilybroadsweepandinvadesthearea ofprotectedfreedoms.Overbroadnessoccurswhenaprohibitionoverlapsona prescription,thatis,citizenssteerclearofgoodbehaviorbecausetheyareafraidof accidentallycommittingcriminalbehavior.When1stAmendmentissuesareatstake(an areaguardedcloselytopreventanycrimesbeingmadeoutoffreespeech),thecourtsmust considerthisdoctrineinconjunctionwiththevoidforvaguenessdoctrine,butinmany cases,thetwodoctrinesareappliedseparately.Ordinancesthatprohibitpanhandling,for example,areoverbroadiftheydescribetheoffenseas"annoying"passerbysbecausewhat isannoyingtosomepeopledoesnotannoyothers.(Discussion) VoidforVaguenessDoctrineThisrequiresthatlegislaturesuseclearandprecise languagesothatpeopleofcommonintelligencedonothavetoguessatthemeaningofa laworitsapplication.Ifthelanguageofastatuteorordinanceisvague,itis unconstitutional,andthelawmustbestruckdown.Sometimes,thedoctrineisappliedjust tothewords,like"illrepute"or"lewd",andatothertimes,whetherthelawentraps citizensorisdifficultforpolicetoenforceisconsidered.Amodernexamplewouldbethe "racialprofiling"controversy.

THEVOIDFORVAGUENESSDOCTRINE Thisdoctrine,soeloquentlyputbyJusticeHolmes(inMcBoylev.U.S.1931)intheopeningquote atthestartofthislecture,hasancientorigins.Themaximofuncertainlaw,thennolawcomes downtousfromtheRomans,andtherearenumerouscasesinAmericanjurisprudencethatlay claimtoestablishingthedoctrine.Frequentlycitedformulationsinclude: "Anystatutewhicheitherforbidsorrequiresthedoingofanactintermssovaguethat menofcommonintelligencemustnecessarilyguessatitsmeaninganddifferastoits application"(Connallyv.GeneralConstructionCo.1926) "Anystatute,onitsface,whichisrepugnanttothedueprocessclause,[where] specificationofdetailsoftheoffensewouldnotservetovalidateit...Noonemaybe requiredatperiloflife,libertyorpropertytospeculateastothemeaningofpenal statutes.AllareentitledtobeinformedastowhattheStatecommandsorforbids" (Lanzettav.NewJersey1939) "Tohaveavailable,throughasufficientlyprecisestatute,informationregardingthe standardofcriminalitybeforebeingchargedwiththeallegedcommissionofacrime" (Watkinsv.U.S.1957) "Astatemaynotissuecommandstoitscitizensinlanguagesovagueandundefinedas toaffordnofairwarningofwhatconductmighttransgressthem"(Raleyv.Ohio1959) Itisnotenoughtochallengealawonthebasisofimprecisewordsalone.Anumberoftestshave beendevelopedtotellwhensuchattackswillbesuccessfulornot: Shouldalayman,orcommonperson,knowthattheconductinquestionissowrongthatit islikelytocarryacriminalpenalty?Thisisthemostcommontest,andoneinwhich judgesmustresorttoanunderstandingofpublicopinion,culture,andcustoms. Isthestatutecapableofmorepreciselanguage,withoutaskingthelegislaturetodothe impossible?Thisissometimesknownastheconjecturetest,whichlooksatwhether lawmakersseemedtoleavethingstotheimagination. Isthestatutemoreuncertainthanotherstatutes,orispartofawholegroupofrelated unclearstatutes?Thistestgetsatthebulkofcriminallawinacertainarea. Lastupdated:06/19/03 LectureListforCriminalLaw InstructorHomePage

PRINCIPLESOFCRIMINALLIABILITY
CriminalLiabilityiswhatunlocksthelogicalstructureoftheCriminalLaw.Eachelementofa crimethattheprosecutorneedstoprove(beyondareasonabledoubt)isaprincipleofcriminal liability.Therearesomecrimesthatonlyinvolveasubsetofalltheprinciplesofliability,and thesearecalled"crimesofcriminalconduct".Burglary,forexample,issuchacrimebecauseall youneedtoprovebeyondareasonabledoubtisanactusreusconcurringwithamensrea.Onthe otherhand,therearecrimesthatinvolvealltheprinciplesofliability,andthesearecalled"true

crimes".Homicide,forexample,issuchacrimebecauseyouneedtoproveactusreus,mensrea,

concurrence,causation,andharm.Therequirementthattheprosecutormustproveeachelement ofcriminalliabilitybeyondareasonabledoubtiscalledthe"corpusdelictirule". Liabilityneedstobedistinguishedfromthefollowingconcepts: culpability(purposely,knowingly,recklessly,negligently)infersintent capacity(infancy,intoxication,insanity)capacitydefenses responsibility(volition,freewill,competency)presumptions

TherearefiveprinciplesofliabilityinCriminalLaw:
PrincipleofActusReus PrincipleofMensRea PrincipleofConcurrence PrincipleofCausation PrincipleofResultingHarm THEPRINCIPLEOFACTUSREUS:ISSUES involuntarinesssleepwalking,hypnoticbehavior,etc.areseenasexamplesofacting uponforcesbeyondindividualcontrol,andarethereforenotnormallyincludedinthe principleofactusreus.However,certain"voluntarilyinducedinvoluntaryacts"suchas drowsydrivingmightarguablybeincludedifthepriorvoluntaryactcreatedtheriskofa futureinvoluntaryact. manifestcriminalitycaughtredhanded,clearcutcaseofactusreusprovenbeyonda reasonabledoubt possessionthelawrecognizesvariousdegreesofthis.Actualpossessionmeans physicallyonyourperson.Constructivepossessionmeansphysicallyunderyourcontrol. Knowingpossessionmeansyouknowwhatyouarepossessing.Merepossessionmeansyou don'tknowwhatyouarepossessing.Unwittingpossessioniswhensomethinghasbeen plantedonyou.Theonlypunishabletypesofpossessionaretheonesthatareconscious andknowable. procuringobtainingthingswiththeintentofusingthemforcriminalpurposes;e.g., precursorchemicalsformakingnarcotics,"pimping"foraprostitute,andprocuring anothertocommitacrime("accessorybeforethefact")

statusorconditionsometimesachronicconditionqualifiesasaction,e.g.,drug addiction,alcoholism,ontheassumptionthatfirstuseisvoluntary.Sometimesthe condition,e.g.chronicalcoholism,istreatedasadiseasewhichexculpatesanindividual. Mostoften,it'sthepunishmentaspectofcriminallawinthesekindsofcasesthattriggers an8thAmendmentissue.EqualProtectionandotherconstitutionalissuesmaybe triggered. thoughtssometimes,notoften,theexpressionofangrythoughts,e.g.,"I'llkillyoufor that"istakenasexpressingtheresolutionandwilltocommitacrime,butingeneral, thoughtsarenotpartoftheprincipleofactusreus.Daydreamingandfantasyarealsonot easilyincludedintheprincipleofmensrea. wordstheseareconsidered"verbalacts";e.g.sexualharassment,solicitation, terroristicthreats,assault,incitingtoriot.

THEPRINCIPLEOFMENSREA:ISSUES circumstantialdeterminationofmensreathroughindirectevidence confessionsclearcutdirectevidenceofmensreabeyondareasonabledoubt constructiveintentonehastheconstructiveintenttokilliftheyaredrivingathigh speedsonanicyroadwithlotsofpedestriansaround,e.g. generalintenttheintenttocommittheactusreusofthecrimeoneischargedwith; e.g.,rapeandintenttopenetrate specificintenttheintenttodosomethingbeyondtheactusreusofthecrimeoneis chargedwith;e.g.,breakingandenteringwithintenttoburglarize strictliabilitycrimesrequiringnomensrea;liabilitywithoutfault;corporatecrime, environmentalcrime transferredintenttheintenttoharmonevictimbutinsteadharmanother

THEPRINCIPLEOFCONCURRENCE:ISSUES attendantcircumstancessomecrimeshaveadditionalelementsthatmust accompanythecriminalactandthecriminalmind;e.g.,rape,butnotwithyourwife enterpriseliabilityincorporatelaw,thisistheideathatboththeactandtheagency (mensrea)foritcanbeimputedtothecorporation;e.g.,productsafety yearandadayrulecommonlawrulethatthefinalresultofanactmustoccurno laterthanayearandadayafterthecriminalstateofmind.Forexample,ifyoustruck someoneontheheadwithintenttokill,buttheydidn'tdieuntilayearandtwodayslater, youcouldnotbeprosecutedformurder.Manystateshaveabolishedthisruleorextended thetimelimit.InCalifornia,it'sthreeyears. vicariousliabilitysometimes,undersomerules,theguiltypartywouldnotbethe personwhocommittedtheactbutthepersonwhointendedtheact;e.g.,supervisorsof employees THEPRINCIPLEOFCAUSATION:ISSUES actualcauseanecessarybutnotsufficientconditiontoprovecausationbeyonda reasonabledoubt;prosecutormustalsoproveproximatecause butfororsinequanoncausationsettinginmotionachainofeventsthatsooneror laterleadtotheharmfulresult;butfortheactor'sconduct,theresultwouldnothave occurred interveningcauseunforeseeneventsthatstillholdthedefendantaccountable legalcausationaprosecutor'slogicofbothactualandproximatecause proximatecausethefairnessofhowfarbacktheprosecutorgoesinthechainof eventstoholdaparticulardefendantaccountable;literallymeansthenextorclosestcause supercedingcauseunforeseeneventsthatexculpateadefendant

PRINCIPLESOFRESULTINGHARM:ISSUES Theseareissuesinvolvingthelawofaccessoriesandattempts(laterlecture). RESPONSIBILITYFORCRIME:PRESUMPTIONS Presumptionsarecourtorderedassumptionsthatthejurymusttakeastrueunlessrebuttedby evidence.Theirpurposeistosimplifyandexpeditethetrialprocess.Thejudge,forexampleat somepointintestimony,mayremindthejurythatitisOKtoassumethatallpeopleformsome kindofintentbeforeorduringtheirbehavior.Itiswrong,however,forthejudgetoorderthe jurytoassumeintentoraspecifickindofintentinacase.Presumptionsarenotasubstitutefor evidence.Presumptionsaresupposedtobefriendlyremindersaboutsafe,scientificassumptions abouthumannatureorhumanbehavioringeneral.Themostcommonpresumptionsare: remindersthattheaccusedisconsideredinnocentuntilprovenguilty remindersthattheaccusedistobeconsideredsane,normal,andcompetent Itisimportanttounderstandthatpresumptionsarenotinferences.Presumptionsmustbe acceptedastruebythejury.Inferencesmaybeacceptedastruebythejury,butthetrickistoget thejurytobelievetheythoughtofitfirst.Lawyersarenotallowedtoengageinthepracticeof "stackingofinferences",orbasinganinferencesolelyuponanotherinference.Lawyersarealso prohibitedbylogicfrommakingcertain"impermissibleinferences"andhere'sanexampleof howthelogicgoes: Evidenceadmitted: Inferencesthatcanbedrawn:

WitnessestestifythatXrepeatedlyhit Intenttokillorseriouslyinjure; Yontheheadwithaclubuntil PurposelyorKnowinglyusingclubas stoppedbypasserbys deadlyweapon. WitnessestestifythatXrepeatedlyhit Intenttokillcannotbeinferred; Yontheheadwitharolledup newspapercannotbeconstruedasa newspaper deadlyweapon Lastupdated:06/19/03 LectureListforCriminalLaw InstructorHomePage

ACCOMPLICE LAW
Anaccompliceissomeonewhoknowingly,voluntarily,andwithcommoninterest,participates inthecommissionofacrime,andcanbechargedwiththesamecrime(s)forwhichtheaccused willbetried;complicitymeansassociationinawrongfulact;principalmeansanyoneinvolved incommittingacrime;anaccessorybeforethefactaids,incites,orabetsbutisnotphysically present;anaccessoryafterthefactreceives,comforts,relieves,orassistsafelontoavoid apprehensionandconviction.

Inaccomplicelaw(complicity),thestatutorylawhasevolvedmuchbeyondthecommonlaw,and thecaselawisextensiveandconfusingaboutexactlywherethelinesaredrawn.Complicityisa conceptthatcanbeabusedbyprosecutors.Onlyafewbasicrestrictionsexist:(1)thelawdoesnot recognizeaccomplicestoanymisdemeanororthecrimeoftreason;(2)anaccomplicemust normallybephysicallypresentduringcommissionofthecrime,butadviceorwordsof encouragementbeforehandaswellasprovidingmaterialassistanceafterwardswillcreatea liability;(3)noonecanbeconvictedontheuncorroboratedtestimonyofanaccomplicealone; and(4)personsgivingpostcrimeaidarepunishedlessseverelythanthosefurnishingprecrime aid. Moststateshaveabolishedtheoldcommonlawdistinctionbetweenprinciples(inthefirstdegree, intheseconddegree)andaccessories(beforethefact,afterthefact),preferringinsteadtheword accomplicesforthelattergroupwhichtreatseveryoneasprincipalsbaseduponthedoctrine ofcomplicity(participationtransfersliability). BeinganaccompliceisNOTthesameas: accessoryafterthefactthisremains,insomejurisdictions,aseparateandless seriousoffenseforgivingaidandcomfort(harboring)toafugitive.Thelawseesitasa separateoffensebecauseit'sreallyhelpingsomeoneavoidarrestorescapepunishment morethanhelpingsomeonecommitacrime.Accessoriesalwayshaveaclaimtoless punishment. conspiracyconspiracyisacompletelydifferentcrime;accordingtothePinkertonrule, apersoncanbechargedwithbothconspiracytocommitacrimeandthecrimeitself underthelawofaccomplices(Example:twopeopleagreetocommitmurder,andoneacts asalookoutwhiletheotherkillssomebody;bothcanbechargedwithconspiracyto commitmurderandmurderitself). facilitationorsolicitationtheseareseparateoffenses,relatedtotheideas, respectively,ofmakingiteasierforsomeonetocommitacrimeandenticingsomeoneto commitacrimethatneveroccurs(Examples:aidingajuvenilewhoisusedincrimeto limitsomeone'sexposuretoprosecution;solicitingaprostitute;ofthetwo,facilitationis closesttoaccomplicelaw). Therearetwo(2)doctrinesinthisareatoremember: (1)thedoctrineofcomplicitythisestablishesthenotionof"accompliceliability"whichfor anyoneaiding,abetting,orgivingcounseltoaknownfelonhasthatfelon'sactusreusandmens reaattributedtothem.Theirparticipationiswhatcreatestheliabilityasiftheyhadcommitted thecrimealone. (2)thedoctrineofrespondeatsuperiorthisestablishesthenotionof"vicariousliability" whereamasterisresponsiblefortheillegalconductoftheirservant.Therelationshipiswhat createstheliability.Itdispenseswiththeelementofactusreusinthesamewaystrictliability dispenseswiththeelementofmensrea.Itoftencomesupinbusiness,whereacorporation(asan entity,notaperson)cannotcommitacrime(cannotformcriminalintent)butitcanbeheld

"criminallyliable"iftheonlypunishmentsoughtisafineorseizureofproperty.Officersofa corporationcanbepunishedbyimprisonmentonlyifthecorporationhasbeenheld"criminally liable"first,theofficerhasbeenfoundguiltyofmalfeasance,misfeasance,ornonfeasanceby theircorporation,and(unlessstatedotherwiseinstatute)theofficercauses,requests,commands, orinanywayauthorizestheillegalacttobecommitted.

ELEMENTSOFTHEOFFENSE
Therearethree(3)elementstoaccompliceliability: (1)proofthatsomeonecommittedtheunderlyingcrimeitisnotnecessary,however,forthe governmenttohavetriedandconvictedsomebody,oreventhattheprincipalisidentified;proof inthissensemeansprobablecausethatacrimewascommitted. (2)actusreusaccomplicelaweasestherequirementofprovingactusreus,butitdoessowith hardtodefinewords.Wordssuchas"aid","abet","assist","counsel","induce"or"incite" mayhavedifferentmeaningsdependinguponwhatjurisdictionyou'rein.Normally,youcan'tbe consideredasanaccomplicesimplyforbeingthereyoumustbeconstructivelypresentthisis knownastheMerePresencerule,butthereareexceptionsinplaceswithGoodSamaritanlaws whereyoucanbetriedasanaccompliceforjuststandingthereandwatchingsomeonegetbeaten, e.g. Caselawhasruledthefollowingareexamplesofaccompliceactusreus: actingasalookout providingguns,supplies,orinstrumentsofcrime(evenundercoloroffinancial transactionifsellerisawareofpurpose) drivingagetawayvehicle sendingthevictimtotheprincipal preventingwarningsfromreachingthevictim(butnotmerelyfailingtodisclosethe occurrenceofacrimetoauthorities) (3)mensreathisistheelementthatitallboilsdowntoinobtainingaconvictionforbeingan accomplice.Allthewordsusedinaccomplicelaw("abet"forexample)carryanimplicationof purposiveattitudetowardthecrime.Othercourtshaveheldtoalessstrictstandardthan "purposively"(eventhoughttheMPCrecommendsthisonly)suchas"knowingly"butstillother courtshaveallowed"recklessly". Caselawhasruledthefollowingareexamplesofaccomplicemensrea: anintentthatthecrimebecommitted;anaffirmativedesiretoseeitdone knowledgethattheyarecontributingtothecommissionofacrime,knowingthatthe outcomewouldhaveadangerousresultorcriminalconsequences recklessnessandnegligenceundersuchcircumstancesastoindirectlybenefitorsharein

thefinancialproceedsofthecrime;a"stake"intheoutcome

DEFENSES
Therearethree(3)waystoofferadefensetothecrimeofbeinganaccomplice: (1)Mistakeoffactthisisnotthesameas"Ididn'tknowitwasacrime"(mistakeoflaw)buta mistakeoffactgoodfaithclaimbecauseofthewayapersonperceivestheworldandmakes reasonedjudgments (2)Abandonmentthecomplicitywasabandonedinatimelymanner;theaccomplice terminatedtheirparticipationeithercompletelyorinpartsuchastodeprivetheprincipalof effectivenessatcommittingthecrime;"Ididn'thelpsotheycouldgetcaughtandlearntheir lesson" (3)Withdrawalthecomplicitywasrepudiatedvoluntarily(notmerelybecauseofafearof gettingcaught);"Ididn'thelpbecauseitwaswrong";someattemptsaremadetoneutralizeor thwartthecrimesuchasbynotifyingauthorities

Examples/CaseStudies/Exercises/Scenarios
(1)Davidhadbeentellingeveryoneintown,includinghisliveinmother,thathewasgoingtokill hiswife,thatshewasgoingtohaveanaccidentsomeday.Onenightaftergoingtobed,David chokedhiswifetodeathforrefusingtomakelovetohim.Hedraggedthebodydowntothefirst floortodismemberitinthebathtub.Hecalleddowntothebasement,wherehismotherslept, wokeherup,andaskedhertocomeupandlieonthefirstfloorcouch.Themothercame upstairs,halfasleep,anddozedonthecouch.Underoath,themotherclaimedtoseeherson dismemberingthebodyinthebathroombutturnedherheadawaysoshewouldnotsee.Dave cleanedupthebathroomabit,anddisposedofthebagsinalocallake.Onthewayout,heasked hismothertocleanupthebathroomtoiletandtub,andshedid.Thenextday,themotheralso agreedtocorroborateDavid'sstorythathiswiferanaway.Underoath,Davidsaidhetoldhis motherhekilledhiswifeandwasdisposingofthebodywherenoonewouldfindit.Hismother reportedlysobbedabitandsaid"itwillbeforthebest,son" ThiscasedoesNOTqualifythemotherasanaccomplice,thereasonbeingthatthemotherwas asleepwhenthecrimewascommitted.Nopresence,companionship,orcounselwasprovidedby themotherbeforeorduringtheoffense.Shecooperatedbycleaningupthebathroom,butis insulated(bystatestatute)fromaccompliceafterthefactbecauseofherrelationshipasaparent. Atmost,shepassivelyacquiescedorpassivelyapproved.Thestatement"itwillbeforthebest, son"doesnotqualifyasactiveencouragementorinstigation.Further,sincethere'snoGood Samaritanlaw(inthisstate),themotheraswellasDavid'scoworkersandpeopleabouttown cannotbeheldliablefornotpreventingthemurder. (2)Yourwifeoffortyyearsisdyingfromahorrible,incurabledisease.Becauseshecannotdoit herself,sheasksyoutogethersomepoisonsoshecankillherself.Youcomply,placingthepoison

inaglassbyherbed. YESyouareaidingandabettingasuicide,andtherealcriminalactisplacingthepoisonwithin reachofyourwife. (3)Oneofthepassengersinacaryou'redrivingrobsahitchhikeryou'vepickedupandareabout todropoff. NOnothingwassaidordonetoindicateyourapprovalordisapprovaloftherobberybysimply beingdriveroftheautomobile. (4)Youaretoodrunktodriveyourowncaranymore,soyouletyourbestfrienddrivetherestof thewayhome.He'sdrivingprettycarelessly,butstillbetterthanyoucoulddo.Unfortunately, yourcarcollidesheadonwitholdladywhodiesfromtheinjuries. YESyouareanaccomplicetovehicularmanslaughterandcanbechargedandpenalizedthe sameasthedriverbecause(a)youputyourvehicle(aninstrumentality)inthehandsofa criminal,(b)yousatsidebysidewiththecriminal,and(c)youpermittedthecriminalto continuedriving(committingcrime)withoutprotest. (5)Youaretheownerofarentalcarcompany,andtwoofyourcarshavebeenmissingforabout2 months.Theguysthatrentedthemwerekindashadybuttheypaidyouinadvancefora1month rental.Itturnsouttheyskippedtownandrackedup$50,000inunpaidparkingticketswithyour cars,andthecityissuingyouforthatmoney. YES,undertheprincipleofvicariousliability,you,theregisteredowner(master)oftheproperty areresponsibleforthefine. (6)Shouldparentsbeheldcriminallyliableforoffensescommittedbytheirchildren? DEPENDS,onwhetherstateconstitutionisinterpretedtodefineparenthoodasaninsulated (immunized)classorsoessentialtosocietythattheycannotbeexempted. (7)Shouldstoresthatsell"rollingpapers"(drugparaphernalia)beconsideredaccompliceswhen theybustpeopleandcanprovethatthepapers(instrumentalities)wereusedincommissionofa crime? DEPENDS,onwhichMPC(mensrea)standardisused.Afewjurisdictionsmayuselessthan "purposely". (8)PRACTICUM:Foreachofthefollowingcastofcharacters,indicatewhetherthecriminal justicesystemshouldprosecutethemasaccomplicesunderthecircumstancesandwhy;ifnot, whatadditionalcircumstanceswouldbenecessaryforprosecution?

Scenario#8:Anestrangedhusbandfindsouthiswifeissleepingwithanotherman,sohebuys
agunandtakesataxiovertothatman'sapartmentwherehewaitsoutsideandshootshiswife3 4timesinthebackwhileshecomesout.Shelaysthereandbleedstodeathwhilethehusband runsovertoafriend'shousetohidefrompolice.

CastofCharacters: (1)themanufacturerofthemurderweapon (2)themerchantwhosoldthemurderweapontothehusband (3)thetaxidriverwhodrovethemantotheapartmentcomplex (4)thirdpartiesintheapartmentcomplexwhomayhaveseenthehusbandwaiting (5)theothermanthewifewasseeing (6)thirdpartiesintheapartmentcomplexwhofailedtocallthepoliceoranambulance (7)thepolicewhodidn'tprovideprotection (8)theambulanceservicethateventuallyshowedup (9)theapartmentcomplexwherethecrimetookplace (10)thefriendwhoconcealedthehusbandfromthepolice INTERNETRESOUCES: CatholicEncyclopedia:AccompliceComplicity Complicity,byGeorgeFletcher,IsraelLawReview TheStructureofComplicity,byMiriamGurArye,IsraelLawReview Keri'sCalBarReviewNotes:AccompliceLiability NoloPressEncyclopedia,WhenYouCanbeChargedforNotDoingAnything PRINTEDRESOURCES: Cohen,N.&J.Gobert(1976)ProblemsinCriminalLaw.St.Paul:West. Fletcher,G.(1978)RethinkingCriminalLaw.Boston:Little,Brown. Samaha,J.(1999)CriminalLaw.6thed.Belmont,CA:West/Wadsworth. Lastupdated:06/19/03 LectureListforCriminalLaw InstructorHomePage

INCOMPLETE (INCHOATE) CRIMES


Anticipatory,incipient,incomplete,andpreliminarycrimesareallotherwordsforinchoate crimes,actsthatimplyaninclinationtocommitacrimeeventhoughthecrimeisnever completed.Theword"inchoate"meansunderdevelopedorunripened.Becauseofthesocialneed topreventcrimesbeforetheyoccur,thecommonlawlongagoestablishedthree(3)separateand distinctcategoriesofinchoatecrimesthecrimesofattempt,conspiracy,andsolicitation. Overtheyears,therehavenotbeenanynewcategoriesaddedwiththepossibleexceptionof possession(asinpossessionofburglartools,bombmaterials,gunarsenal,etc.)asaninchoate offensebasedonthenotionofpreparation,whichhasnotnormallybeenassociatedwith inchoatecrimes. Traditionally,inchoatecrimeshavealwaysbeenconsideredmisdemeanors,butovertheyears theyhavebeenmergedintofeloniesassocietyhasputmorepowerinthehandsoflaw enforcementandprosecutorstodealwithrecalcitrantproblemssuchasorganizedcrime,white collarcrime,anddrugcrime.Traditionalrulesthatexistare:(1)apersonshouldnotbecharged withboththeinchoateandchoateoffense,withtheexceptionofconspiracywhichcanbea separatecharge;(2)lesserpenaltiesshouldideallybeimposedforinchoatecrimes,butinmany cases,thepenaltyshouldbeexactlythesameasforthecompletedoffense;(3)inchoatecrimes shouldhavespecificintent,spellingoutclearlywhatthemensreaelementsare;and(4)some overtactionorsubstantialstepshouldberequiredinthedirectionofcompletingthecrime.This setofrulesissometimesreferredtoasthedoctrineofinchoatecrimes. It'sbesttodealwiththethreeinchoatecrimesinalphabeticalorder,ifonlyforthefollowing reasonattemptisconsideredtostandclosesttoacompletedcrime,conspiracyisconsideredto befurtherremoved,andsolicitationisconsideredthefurthestremoved.

ATTEMPT
Criminalattempt,inmanyways,isallaboutfailure(notbeingaverygoodcriminal),for example,shootingatsomebodyandmissing,holdingupacashregistertoonlyfind$5,stealinga CDbytakingitoutofitscase,stuffingitdownyourpants,andhavingitbreakinhalfbeforeyou getoutofthestore(thelawincludesstrokesofluckinitsconceptionoffailure).Thelawof attemptisalsoaboutnippingviolenceinthebud,soevencertainwords("threats","challenges") qualifyasattempts.There'snosuchthingasacrimecalled"attempt".Moststatesallowthe prosecutortopickwhatthecrimeisthat'sbeingattempted;thatis,moststatesdonottryto defineattemptedmurder,attemptedrobbery,attemptedrape,andsoforth.Moststatestypically haveageneralattemptstatutethatspecifiesapunishment(usuallythesameasforthecompleted offense)andallowstheword"attempted"tobeplacedbeforethetargetcrime. Theelementsofattemptinclude: (1)specificintentthismeansthat"purposely"istheonlymensreathatqualifies.Allinchoate crimesarespecificintentcrimes,andallspecificintentcrimesdonotallowsuchstatesofmindas

reckless,negligent,orstrictliability. (2)anovertacttowardcommissionthisisintendedtoweedouttheplottersfromthe perpetrators,butthestandardsvarywidelybyjurisdiction.Actsofpreparationdonotcount. Someplacesusefairlylooselanguagelike"somesteps"whileotherplacesusethemorerigorous "allbutlastact"standard.Thereareatleastfourtestsusedinvariousplaces: physicalproximitydoctrinethisfocusesuponspaceandtime,establishesthe"lastact" standardwhichrequireslookingattheremainingsteps probabledesistanceapproachthisconsiderswhethertheattemptwouldnaturallylead tocommissionbutforsometimelyinterferencenotrelatedtobadluck equivocalityapproachthislooksatwhethertheattemptcanhavenootherpurposethan commissionofacrime substantialstepstestthisisaMPCrecommendedapproachwhichlooksfor corroboratingevidenceintheformofconductwhichtendstoconcurorverifyacriminal purpose (3)failuretoconsummatethecrimethelawlooksatthereasonswhythecrimefailed,andin somecases,thereasonmitigatesthepunishmentorremovestheliability,asin: legalimpossibilityadefensethatwhatwasattemptedisnotacrime(rapinga mannequin,forexample,becauseraperequiresahumanvictim)Prosecutorshavethe burdenofprovinglegalpossibilityaswellasapparentability factualimpossibilityadefensethatsomeextraneousfactororoutsideforcemadeit impossibletocompletethecrime;mostjurisdictionswillnotacceptthisonthe presumptionthat"luck"doesn'tcount(sameasnodefense) renunciationthisistheideaofabandonment,andtobeasuccessfuldefense,theactor musthavegivenupformoralreasons,notjustbecauseoftheriskofapprehension

CONSPIRACY
Theessenceofconspiracyisanagreement.Itdoesn'thavetobeawrittenone.Usually,it's inferredfromthefactsorcircumstances.Whattheagreementhastobeaboutdoesn'tevenhave tobecriminal,only"unlawful".Undersomestatutes,aconspiracycaninvolveanyactinjurious topublichealth,publicmorals,freecommerce,oranyactpervertingjustice.Becausea conspiracybyitselfisalmosttreatedasasubstantivecrimeinitself,thisistheonlyinchoate offensethatthelawpermitsapersontobechargedwithinadditiontothetargetcrime(thatis,a personcanbechargedwithbothmurderandconspiracytocommitmurder,e.g.). Conspiracyisthefavoritetoolofprosecutors.There'salotofpresumptionsandproceduralrules thatfavortheprosecution.It'seasytogetaconvictionforconspiracybecause,basically,allthe prosecutorhastodoispresentalltheevidenceandletthejudgetellthejurywhattestwillbe usedtodeterminewhetheranagreementexisted.Inmostjurisdictions,proofoftheagreementis

sufficient;nofurther(overt)actisrequired.Injurisdictionsrequiringanovertact,thestandard isnotashighasthelawofattempt,andisbasicallyprovenbyshowingatleastoneofthe conspiratorshadatleasttheintenttocommitasubstantiveoffense.Conspiracyisstillaspecific intentcrime,so"purposively"mustbeused,notjustknowledge,althoughthere'sawholestring ofinconsistentcaselawthatindicateserosioninthisarea. Theelementsofconspiracyinclude: (1)mensreaaspecificintenttoattainaparticularcriminalobjectiveonthepartofatleastone personinthepartnership.Purposecanbeinferredfromcircumstancessurroundingthe combination,suchasfailuretokeeprecords,clandestinemeetings,quantitiesinvolved,continuity oftherelationship,etc.Therearedifferentrulesusedbydifferentjurisdictionsonthekindsof relationshipsthatqualify: unilateralruletheideathatamongagroupofconspirators,thereisatleastone individualwithcriminalintent bilateralruletheideathatonecannotconspirealone;atleasttwoguiltypersonsare required Wharton'sruletheideathatbecauseconspiracychargesimplyadangertosociety,there mustbemore(>2)partnersthantheminimumnumberrequiredtocommitthecrime(a thirdpartymustbeinvolved),sotherefore,conspiracytocommitadultery,bigamy,and incestwillrequire3people (2)actusreusproofofanagreementisproofoftheactusreusforconspiracy.Proofofan unwrittenunderstandingwillsuffice.Mostagreementsareoftwotypes,andthejudgeis obligatedtoinstructthejuryhowtodeterminethetypes: chainconspiracythisusuallyinvolvesthedistributionofsomething,likedrugs,where eachpersonintheconspiracyhandlesthecommodityatdifferentpointsintheprocess, likewiththestagesofmanufacture,distribution,andsale wheelconspiracythisiswhereahardcoregroupofparticipants("middlemen")handle mostofthetransactions,likeahub,protectingthoseatthetopandthoseatthebottom (thespokes)byonlyallowingthemtoparticipateissomeofthetransactions DefensesandOtherIssues:Policeofficerscannotinitiateaconspiracythatwouldautomatically beentrapment.Theycan,however,givesomebodyanopportunitytoenterintoanexisting conspiracywherethepoliceagentisafeignedaccomplice.Thedefensesofimpossibilityand abandonmentareofnouseinconspiracylawastheyareconsideredthesameasnodefense. However,somejurisdictionswillpermitabandonment,butthestandardishigh,thedefendant hastoshowtheircompleteandtotalwithdrawalbynotifyingtheauthoritiesabouttheirown involvementandtakingstepstothwarttheconspiracy.Conspiracydoesn'trecognizeanything sacrosanctaboutthehusbandwiferelationship,andacorporationcanalsobechargedasa personwithconspiracyifmorethanonecorporationisinvolved.

SOLICITATION
Solicitationisbestthoughtofasasubstantivecrimeinitself,remotefrombeingthoughtofasan attemptatasubstantivecrime.Solicitationoccurswhenthesolicitationismade.Anotherwayof sayingthisisthatthecrimeofsolicitationisoverwiththeasking.Thecrimeofsolicitationis inherentlyincomplete(inchoate)becausethelawdoesn'tevencareifthesolicitationwas influentialornot.Italsodoesn'tmatterifit'sacrowdoranindividualbeingsolicited,andit's evenpossibletoperpetratesolicitationthroughanintermediary.Whatdoesmatteristhething beingsolicitedthecrimeofsolicitationshouldberestrictedtocertainseriousfelonies.At commonlaw,thesewouldbecrimesthatbreachthepeaceorobstructjustice. Solicitation(specificallytheactusreusofit)consistsofwords;wordsthatcreateaninducement, definedasadvising,commanding,counseling,encouraging,enticing,entreating,importunes, incites,induces,instigates,orders,procures,requests,solicits,orurgesanothertocommita seriousfelonywiththespecificintentthatthepersonsolicitedcommitthecrime.Thislistis sometimescalledthelistofproperutterancesforthecrimeofsolicitation. Theelementsofsolicitationinclude: (1)mensreanotintenttocommitacrime,butspecificintenttopersuadesomeoneelseto commitacrime;alsonotjokingaroundormakingcasualcomments("Iwishthatpersonwould dropdead")but"purposely"wantingtopersuadesomeone. (2)actusreuswordsthatcontainsomesortofinducement;wordsthatareonthelistofproper utterancesforthecrimeofsolicitation;utteringthewordsistheactusreus,anditdoesn'tmatter ifthemeansofutteranceisoral,written,orelectronic. Defenses:Impossibilityofanytypeisthesameasnodefense.Somejurisdictionsallowwithdrawal orrenunciation. CONTROVERSIALISSUES/CASES/SCENARIOS: (1)ThespreadofAIDS:AttemptedMurder? Shouldcriminalliabilitybeimposedonthosewhoknowingly,recklessly,ornegligentlyengagein behaviorthatmightleadtounsafesex,exposingotherstopossibletransmissionoftheHIVvirus? (Rememberthattraditionally,"purposely"hasbeenthespecificintentofinchoatecrimes)Some cases: aTexascorrectionalofficerwasspitinthefacebyaninmatewithAIDSwhosaid"I'm takingasmanywithmeasIcan"(Weeksv.U.S.)Theinmate'sconvictiononattempted murderwasupheld. aFloridaHIVpositiveprostitutewasconvictedofattemptedmurderforbitingaman afteradisputeaboutmoney(Morrisonv.State)ThemantestedpositiveforHIVsix monthslater,buttheCDChadtobecalledintoverifythattheHIVstrainwasexactlythe sameastheprostitute's. aGeorgiacourtupheldaconvictionforattemptedmurderwhenanHIVpositivemanbit

apoliceofficerwhowasadministeringachokehold(Scrogginsv.State).Thekeypieceof testimonywasthatthemansuckedupexcesssputumbeforebitingtheofficer,evidencinga deliberate,thinkingact. (2)Friendsthatletfriendsdodrugs:ConspiracyorJustGoodBuds? agroupofcollegestudentsalldodrugsexceptforJohnwhoabstainsandisthedesignated driverofthegroup(Statev.Smith).Onenightwhileoutpartyingoutdoors,Johnfinds himselfalonebehindthewheelofthecar.UndercoverofficerDickcomesoverandstrikes upaconversation,saying"Hey,you'rethefriendsofthoseguys,aren'tyou.Oneof'em's overtherenowofferingtosellsomeofhisstashandIwasgonnamaybescoopsomeup. Howisit?"Johnsays"Man,Idon'tdothatstuff,itreallymessesyouup.Thatguyselling itreallyflippedouttheotherdayonit".OfficerDickthenbuststhewholegroup, includingJohnforconspiracytodelivercontrolledsubstances,andtheconvictionstood becauseJohn(a)drovethegrouptothesiteofthesale,and(b)Johnprovidedwordsof encouragementforthesaleofthedrug. TomandJerrywerebothchargedwithpossessionofcocainewithintenttodistributeAND conspiracytodistributecocaine.Jerrygotoffonallchargesduetoalenientjury,butTom onlygotoffonthepossessioncharge.Inconsistentverdictsarecommonindrugcases,and Tom'sconspiracyconvictionstood. INTERNETRESOURCES: ALISOnline:RenunciationofAttempt,Conspiracy,Solicitation CriminalLawReviewQuestions:MarquetteUniv.SchoolofLaw HaejiHong'sLectureNotes:InchoateCrimes InternetResourceLinksforJUS293 KentLawSchool:ABriefHistoryofConspiracy QuidProQuo'sCriminalLawOutline PRINTEDRESOURCES: Cohen,N.&J.Gobert(1976)ProblemsinCriminalLaw.St.Paul:West. Fletcher,G.(1978)RethinkingCriminalLaw.Boston:Little,Brown. Samaha,J.(1999)CriminalLaw.6thed.Belmont,CA:West/Wadsworth. Lastupdated:06/19/03 LectureListforCriminalLaw InstructorHomePage

DEFENSESTOCRIME
Bothstatutorylawandthecommonlawprovidemanydefensestocrime.Otherthanhavingan alibi(whichisnottechnicallyadefensebutadenial),therearetwomaintypesofdefenses:(1) Justificationsand(2)Excuses.Thesetermsarenoteasilydefined,andthedistinctionislessthan perfect.Justificationsrefertosituationsinwhichthedefendantdoesn'tdenytheydiditbutthat theydiditforalltherightreasons,anappealtohigherloyaltyorideals(asinselfdefense)or moreimportantreasons(asinnecessity),forinstance.Excusesrefertosituationsinwhichthe defendantalsodoesn'tdenytheydiditbutthattheyarenotresponsibleforit(asininsanityor diminishedcapacitydefenses),typicallyongroundsoflackingvolitionovertheirfreewill. Sometimes,it'ssaidthatJustificationsinvolvedenyingmensreaandExcusesinvolvedenying actusreus,butthemindbodyconnectioniscomplicatedinthisregard,andthissayingcan confuseyou.Takesleepwalking,forinstance,whichmightbetreatedastheinabilitytoform mentalintentalthoughit'sthebody(whichisasleep).Thelawalsotendstothinkof"mental" disorderasbraindisorder,toavoidmetaphysicaldebatesoverwhetherornotit'spossiblefor somethinginvisiblelikea"mind"togetsick. Althoughinthislecture,wewillsimplydividethedefensesintoJustificationsandExcuses, conceptually,onecanformulateatleastfivedifferentclassesofdefenses: defensesthatinvolveprotectingcompetinginterests;selfdefense,defenseofothers,etc. wheresocietyexcuseswhatwouldotherwisebeacrime defensesinvolvingavoidanceofagreaterevil;necessityorduress,e.g.,wheresocietyviews thesourceofthepredicamentascomingfromoutsidethedefendant defensesthatattempttodisproveornegatemensrea;infancy,intoxication,mistake,and consent,e.g. defensesinvolvingignorance,wheresocietyrecognizesthattheremightbesincere, genuine,andlegitimatecasesofnotknowingthelawor(naively)believinginsomething thatnegatesanelementofthecrime. defensesrelatedtoinsanity,whichmayormaynotberelatedtothevarietyofdiminished capacity,stressrelated,anddomesticrelateddefenses.

JUSTIFICATIONS SELFDEFENSE
Selfdefense,orselfhelp,hasalwaysbeenarecognizedjustification,andithasmany,many variations.Itdoesnotapplytopreemptivestrikesorpaybacks,butitdoescoverawiderangeof behaviorsthatmakethecrimeseemjustified,infact,sojustifiedthatselfdefenseiscalleda perfectdefense(thedefendant"walks").Otherjustificationsandexcusesmayonlybeimperfect defenseswhicharetreatedasmitigatingcircumstancesresultinginalesserpunishment.Manyof thevariousdomesticviolencedefensesareexamplesofthedefenseofselfdefense. Thelawofselfdefenserevolvesaroundthenotionofreasonableness.Thepersonclaimingitmust havehadareasonablebeliefinimminentdangerandusedareasonabledegreeofforce.Some stateshavespecificallymentionedselfdefensecanbeusedwhenthedangerisaspecificfelony, suchasrape,sodomy,kidnapping,androbbery.Reasonableforcemeansthatifsomeoneslaps yourfaceandyoushootthem,that'sunreasonablebecauseyouescalatedforceabittoofarwhen justreturningaslapinthefacemighthavebeenmorereasonable. Imminentisawordmeaninginprogressorabouttohappenrightnow.Youcan'tuseselfdefense forcontinuingandongoingdanger,althoughafewstateshaveallowedthis.Moststatesusean objectivetesttodeterminethesenseofbeingimminent,andtheirstatuteseitherspelloutthe groundsforareasonablebeliefortheyuseareasonablemanstandard.Otherstatesusea subjectivetest(honestbelief). Moststatesalsoadheretotheretreatdoctrine.Thisistherulethatdefendersmusthavetaken allmeanstoavoidorescapebeforeattackinginselfdefense,althoughinsomejurisdictions,the lawviewsthisascowardly,andastandardcalledthetruemandoctrineisapplied.Moststates, however,adheretothecastledoctrine,theideathatwhenattackedinone'shome,youshould holdyourgroundandnotberequiredtoretreat.Thisiscalleddefenseofproperty. Selfdefensecanincludeprotectingfamily,friends,andlovers;i.e.,indefenseofothers.Anti abortionactivistsoftenclaimthis,butit'smoretypicallyassociatedwiththingsliketheMother Lionsyndromeorthelike.

PUBLICDUTY
Anothertypeofjustificationisapublicdutydefense.It'sthebasisforalotofmilitaryjustice, diplomaticimmunity,andcoversanumberofthingsthatpolicedo,suchasshootinglootersafter adisaster.Theideahereisthatthere'sahigherloyalty,andit'slocatedinupholdingthelaw. Adilemmainlawariseswiththenotionofresistingunlawfularrest.Whycan'tcitizens,for example,appealtoahigherdutywhentheythinktheirarrestisunlawful?

NECESSITY
Theprincipleofnecessityisbestexplainedbytheprototypicalcaseofcannibalisminthe lifeboat.ThefamouscaseofTheQueenv.DudleyandStephansinvolvedtwomenwhoatea17 yearoldweaklyyouth,aftersayingaprayerforhim,becausetheywerestarvingtodeathoutina

lifeboat.Thisisanexampleofthechoiceofevilsdefensetheessenceofwhichisinchoosing thelesseroftwoevilsoravoidingagreaterevil(inthecaseofcannibalism,choosingtoeatthe weeklyyoungmaninsteadoflettingthewholegroupstarve).TheMPCextendsthenecessity principletoincludethefollowing: destroyingpropertytopreventthespreadofafire violatingthespeedlimittogetadyingpersontoahospital throwingcargooverboardtosaveasinkingvesselanditscrew dispensingdrugswithoutaprescriptioninanemergency breaking&enteringamountaincabintoavoidfreezingtodeath

Anothertypeofnecessitydefenseistheclaimtoeconomicnecessity.Thiswouldbestealingto avoidhunger,forexample,buttheclassicaldilemmaiswhetherornotitwouldberightfora fathertostealaloafofbreadtofeedhisstarvingchildren.Conflictingopinionscanbefoundin thelawandit'sapproachtothisproblem.TheextremelypowerfulandinfluentialCommentaries (bySirWilliamBlackstone)forexamplestateflatlythateconomicnecessityisnodefense.The AngloAmericanapproachhasthereforebeenthatthestate'spowerofpardonisenoughtodeal withpoorpeoplewhocommitcrimeoutofneed,soitwoulddependoncaselawandjudicial opinioninaspecificjurisdictionifthiskindofdefensewouldbesuccessful.

CONSENT
Courtstendtorecognizethedefenseofconsentwhenpeopleexercisetheirautonomyand choosetodieorinflictinjuriesonthemselves.Thedefensecannotbeusedifsomeonehassolicited orauthorizedsomeoneelsetoinflictinjuriesonthem.Thisdefensecanbeusedincaseswhere twopeopleareengagedinaconsensualattackwithoneanother(e.g.,"fighting"),casesof injuriesinsportingevents,andcasesinwhichemergencymedicalcarehadtobegivenwhich resultinginmoreharmthangood.Condonation(forgiveness)bythevictimandnegligencebythe victimarenotgenerallyconsideredasdefenses.

EXCUSES DURESS
Themaintypeofexcuseisthedefenseofduress.Theprincipleisthatwhenpeopleareforced todosomethingwrong,itoughtnottocountagainstthem.Thereiswidespreaddisagreement, however,overhowduressisdefinedandwhatkindsofcrimescanbeexcusedbyduress.States differ.Somepermitonlyhavingagunpointedtoyourhead;otherspermitthreatsofbodilyharm ("I'llhurtyouifyoudon'tdothat");andstillothersarefairlylenientispermittingsuchthingsas "Ifyoudon'tdothat,I'lltellotherpeoplesomethingnastyaboutyou".Whateverthethreat,it mustbeimmediate,notsomeongoingsituationofextortionorblackmail.And,whateverthe threat,thecrimemustbeminorandnotserious.Murder,forexample,canneverbeexcusedby duress. Somemodernformsofduressstatuteshaveincludedthespecificdefenseofbrainwashing,a typeofduressinvolvingbreakingdownsomebody'swill.Ifapersonisconfined,pressuredfor

months,givenhypnoticdrugs,narcotics,orothersubstances,thelawlooksuponandcrime committedunderthesecircumstancesaslackingtheelementofactusreus.

INTOXICATION
Therearedifferentwaystogetintoxicated,andthelawrecognizestwoways:voluntaryand involuntary.Voluntaryintoxicationgoestotheelementofmensrea(abilitytoformthecapacity tounderstandpurposeorintent),andislogicallyajustification.Involuntaryintoxication,onthe otherhand,isanexcusebecausetheperson'sbodydidnotknowitwasundertheinfluence. There'salsoanassumptionofduresswithinvoluntaryintoxication.It'snotthatonewouldhave hadtobeenhelddownandhadtheliquorpoureddownthembyforce(it'salmostlikethatifsay someoneinsistsyoudrinkwiththem),butit'smorelikeafriendtellsyoutotryoutthesesugar pillsandtheyturnouttobeLSDsoyouthinksomeonelookslikearabiddogandyoushootthem. Theoretically,theprincipleofintoxicationgetsattheconceptofvolition.Sometimes,it's arguedthatwatchingtelevisiontoolongisaformofintoxication.

MISTAKE
Mistakeorignoranceoffacthasalwaysexcusedcriminalresponsibilityundersome circumstances,andinallcircumstances,it'salwaysacceptablethatanyoneholdingagenuineand sincerebeliefinsomethingwhich(iftrue)wouldnegatetheircriminalliabilityshouldbe somethingthatdoes.Theprincipleofmistakeoffactexcuseswhenitnegatesamaterial elementinthecrime.Forexample,takingthewrongumbrellawhenleavingtheroombecauseit resembledyourownumbrellanegatestheelementofmensrea(formingcriminalintenttosteal). Theprincipleofmistakeoflaw(ignoranceofthelaw)excusescriminalbehaviorifapersonhas madeareasonableefforttolearnthelaw.Inpractice,it'sdifficulttodistinguishbetween mistakesoffactandlaw,andthelawmustbecarefultonotopenthedoortoallowingeverybody toclaimignorance.

INFANCY
ThisisoneofthethreeI's(Intoxication,Infancy,andInsanity)thatmakeupthecapacity defensestocrime.Theprincipleisthatagealwaysaffectscriminalliability.Atcommonlaw, underage7,there'sanirrebuttablepresumptionthatsomeoneisincapableofcommittinga crime.Underage14,there'sarebuttablepresumptionthatsomeoneisincapableofcommittinga crime.Changesinjuvenilelawandtheincreasingpracticeofwaiverstoadultcourthave substantiallychangedthiscommonlaw,however,associetyseemsincreasinglyreadytorecognize thatyoungpeoplecan,anddo,commitseriouscrimes.

ENTRAPMENT
Entrapmentisaperfectdefense(thedefendant"walks"),butit'softenjustawaytoshiftthe burdenofpersuasiontotheprosecution.It'snotaconstitutionalright.It'sa20thCentury inventionthathasit'soriginsinsympathyfortheaccused.Theprinciple,ifthere'sone,of entrapmentisthatthere'slimitedsympathybecauseoftheneedtobalancetheneedsoflaw abidingcitizens.Italsodependsonthecrime.Thelawlooksnegativelyatpoliceentrapmentin

casesofconsensual,victimlesscrimes.Inorderforentrapmenttooccur,policemustinitiatethe encouragementofcrime,specificallybyanyofthefollowing: pretendingtobevictims enticingsuspectstocommitcrimes communicatingtheenticementtosuspects influencingthedecisiontocommitcrimes makingrepeatedrequeststocommitacrime formingpersonalrelationshipswithsuspectsandappealingtothepersonal promisingbenefitsfromcommittingthecrime supplyingessentialmaterialsand/orcontrabandtocompletethecrime AvariationoftheentrapmentdefenseisOutrageousGovernmentConduct.Inthiscase,the focusisonthegovernmentratherthanthemindofthedefendant.Theprincipleisthatwhen governmentbehaviorissooffensiveandsooutrageous,itcannotbethebasisforcollecting evidencetoconvictasuspect.Examplesmightincludepoliceinfiltrationandinstancesof undercoverpolicinginvolvingromanticliaisons.Somestatesrecognizethedefensewhileothers don't.

INSANITY
Theinsanityprinciplebestowsuponthegovernmenttheauthoritytoincarceratewithout convictionpeoplewhoareabnormalandnotaverage,everydaycriminals.Thedefenseisusually onlyseenwhenthecrimesareveryseriousandthepunishmentquitesevere.Asuccessfulinsanity defenseisnotaboutgoingfree("walking")butquitetheopposite.Insanityimpairsmensreabut itoperatesbyaffectingthebrain(thebody)viaamentalillness.Thisissometimesexpressedas Insanitybeingalegalconceptandmentalillnessamedicalcondition.Thelawreservestheright tonothavetoconformitsdefinitionstothoseofthemedicalcommunity,andtotreatthewhole issueofcureabilityasirrelevant.Insanityisanaffirmativedefensethedefensehastoproveitif theyraiseit,butinpractice,whomeverbringsuptheissuefirstincourthastheburdenof persuasion.Overtheyears,varioustestshavebeenusedtodetermineinsanity,including: M'Naghtenrule,orrightwrongtestfocusisontheintellectualcapacitytoknowright fromwrong,pureintellectualawareness,cognition,beingabletograsptheact'strue significance,notjustafeelingoremotionalsensationthatsomething'swrong. IrresistibleImpulsetestarevisedtypeofM'Naghtenruleinwhichthefocusinon volition,whetherthedefendantexercisedanyfreewillinanattempttoinhibittheir criminalbehavior,oriftheysufferedfroma"diseaseofthemind"sostrongthatthey suddenlylostthepowertoavoiddoingtheact.Ifthecrimewastheproductofamental illnessitself,thisisconsideredsatisfactionoftheDurhamrule. SubstantialCapacitytestafocusonthelossof"substantial",not"total"mental

capacity;themajoritytestinmostjurisdictionsbecauseitisrecommendedbytheMPC andconformstotheALI(AmericanLegalInstitute's)definitionas"ifatthetimeofsuch conductasaresultofmentaldiseaseordefect,helackssubstantialcapacityeitherto appreciatethewrongfulnessofhisconductortoconformhisconducttotherequirements oflaw".Itsubstitutestheword"appreciate"for"knowing",andallowsforthepossibility ofaffectiveoremotionalunderstanding.Thephrase"conformhisconduct"isintendedto replacetheideaof"suddenness"inothertests,andthecode'sdefinitionof"mental diseaseordefect"excludesantisocialpersonalitydisorders,psychopaths,andsociopaths.

AUTOMATISM
Thisisthepreferreddefense,insteadofinsanity,wheneveritisclaimedthedefendantacted unconsciouslyorsemiconsciouslyeitherduetoaphysicalproblem(epilepsy,concussion,or unexplainedblackout)ormentalproblem(childhoodtrauma,mentalthingsotherthaninsanity, intoxication,andbrainwashing).

DIMINISHEDCAPACITY
Thesearesyndromesthatarealwaysemerging,butingeneral,areperhapsbestexemplifiedby thevariousstressandstressrelateddisorders.Theprincipleofdiminishedcapacityisthat therearesomementaldiseasesanddefectsthatdonotaffectpeoplesufficientlyenoughtomake theminsane,butthelawrecognizesthemnonetheless.Thelawhasreallybackeditselfintoa cornerbecauseitreservedtherighttodepartfromdefinitionsofthemedicalcommunity,soall sortsof"legaldiseasesanddefects",sotospeak,arepossible.Somejurisdictions,however,are quitetough,andwillnotevenrecognizeanythingshortofinsanity.JurisdictionsinCalifornia,for example,areknownforhavinga"you'reeithersaneorinsane"policy,butmuchofthisiscaving intopublicopinion.TheMPC,ontheotherhand,recommendsadmittingevidenceofdiminished capacityand/oranyimpairedmentalabilitiesaffectingthemensreaelementinallcrimes.The diseaseordefectsupposedlypossessedbythepersonsufferingfromthedisorderistreatedthe sameasinsanity(affectingthebody,hencedenyingactusreus,andbeinganexcusetocrime).The standardsofproofarealmostalwayslowered,frombeyondareasonabledoubttopreponderance oftheevidence,butthisiscommonininsanitycasestoo.Theneteffectofasuccessfuldiminished capacitydefenseistypicallyalesserpunishmentorachargereduction(murdertomanslaughter, e.g.). Syndromesaremedicallysupportedcomplexesthatdiminishcapacityandreducetheperson's responsibility.Theyareattheheartofscientificevidenceandevidencelaw.Theexpertsmust testifytoboththescienceandthelaw.Theremightbescientificevidencethatsugar,forexample, candiminishcapacity,butanexpertormetaexpertneedstobefoundthatcanapplythat scientificevidencetothefactsinanyindividualcasetoaddressthematerialissueof responsibility.Manydifficultiesstandinthewayofgettingthiskindofevidenceadmitted,most recentlytheDaubertrule,thatthesyndrome'seffectsmusthavebeenstudiedsoscientifically thatit'spossibletocalculateTypeIandTypeIIerrors,forexample,ortoestimatethepoweror qualityofresearch.NotallstatesusetheDaubertrule.SomerelyupontheFryeTestorsome variationofit,whichiswhetherornotthesyndromeinquestionhasreceivedgeneralacceptance

inascientificdiscipline,whichgetsathowmuchresearchhasbeenconductedanditsreviewor receiptinaprofessionalassociation,forexample,althoughsciencewhichtendstoattract controversycanbeassessedunderadifferent,butrelatedtest,theCoppolinoTest.Stillother jurisdictionsmayusetheMarxTest,whichsimplyallowstheexperttoeducatethejuryabout thescienceandletthemformtheirowninferences. INTERNETRESOURCES: TheDaubertRuleanditsApplications EmergingDefensestoCrime TheEvidenceSite PRINTEDRESOURCES: AmericanLawInstitute(1985)ModelPenalCodeandCommentaries.Philadelphia:ALI. Blackstone,W.(1978)CommentariesontheLawsofEngland.NY:Garland. Dershowitz,A.(1994)TheAbuseExcuse.Boston:Little,Brown&Co. Fletcher,G.(1978)RethinkingCriminalLaw.Boston:Little,Brown&Co. Fletcher,G.(1983)"Justification"pp.94146inS.Kadish(ed.)EncyclopediaofCrimeand Justice. Goldstein,A.(1983)"Insanity"pp.73542inS.KadishEncyclopediaofCrimeandJustice.NY: Free. Lastupdated:06/19/03 LectureListforCriminalLaw InstructorHomePage

THELAWOFHOMICIDE Homicideisaneutralterm.Itdescribesanactwithnomoraljudgment.Murderisthetermthat isnonneutral.Itdescribesanactwithmoraljudgment.Thelawofhomicidehasthemost complexdegree(grading)systemofanyareainCriminalLaw.Thisgradingsystemisreproduced below.Thefirsttwo(2)fallinacategorycalled"perfect"defenses.Thelastfour(4)fallina categorycalled"imperfect"defenses.Perfectdefensesalwaysinvolvejustificationsandexcuses. (1)JustifiableHomicidestheseare"nofault"homicides.Theyordinarilyinvolvethedeathof someoneundercircumstancesofnecessityorduty(commandedorauthorizedbylaw).Examples wouldbeselfdefense,capitalpunishment,andpoliceshootings. (2)ExcusableHomicidesthesearemisadventures,accidents,oractsofinsanity.Theyordinarily involveactsofcivilfault,error,oromission.There'snotenoughfaulttobecriminalnegligence. There'salegaldefensetothisact. (3)1stDegreeCriminalHomicide(Murder)Theseareactsinvolvingthedeathofsomeonein "coldblood"orby"lyinginwait".TheyaredistinguishablebytheMPCmentalstateof "purposely"whichisdefinedinHomicideLawashavingthree(3)elements:(a)premeditated meaningfixedorobsessed;(b)deliberatemeaning"cool";and(c)maliciousmeaning schemingorclever.Also,thecrimeoffelonymurder(someonediesduringcommissionofa felony)isautomatically1stdegreehomicide. (4)2ndDegreeCriminalHomicide(Murder)Theseareactsinvolvingthedeathofsomeonein the"heatofpassion".It'sbasicallyacatchallcategorytodayforactssuchasshootingbulletsup intheair,buthistorically,anumberofoldertermswereassociatedwiththisgrade;termssuchas the"yearandaday"rule(forwhenthedeathhadtooccur)andtheideaof"malice aforethought"(whichmeantwicked,evil,depraved,spiteful,orwithdepravedheart).Ofthese terms,onlythephrase"depravedheartmurder"isstillused.Heatofpassionmurderdoesn't requireprovocation,butitstillrequiresproofofintent. (5)VoluntaryManslaughterManslaughter,ingeneral,involvesactsinvolvingthedeathof someonewithoutthinking.Itinvolves"suddenpassion".There'snopremeditateddeliberation. Therequirementis"adequateprovocation"andthere'sthree(3)tests:(a)thepersonlosesthe abilitytoreflectcooly;(b)there'snosufficienttimetocooloff;or(c)theprovocationmusthave causedaction.Voluntarymanslaughterisoftenwhatthejurywillreturnasaverdictwhenthey aredeadlockedonthehomicidecharges.Historically,there'ssomeinterestingconceptsassociated withthisgrade,suchastheinflagranteorparamourrule(whichistheonlyexceptiontothemere wordsrule,whichrulesoutwordsasprovocation,ifthespousetaunts). (6)InvoluntaryManslaughterThisisthecrimeofCriminalNegligence,sometimescalled misdemeanormanslaughter.It'stheleastseriousoffenseinthelawofhomicide.Ittypically involvesactsrelatedtopublicsafety,suchasoperatingamotorvehicle,railroad,orbus. Specifically,itinvolvesthecarelessuseoffirearms,explosives,animals,medicine,trains,planes, ships,andautomobiles.ManystateshavesortedoutaseparatecategorycalledVehicular Manslaughterforcasesinvolvingautomobiles.It'salsointerestingtoknowthat,bytradition, mostprosecutorswilldrawthelineatthispoint(meaningit'sallthey'llprosecutefor)forcasesof

corporatecrime. PremeditatedDeliberation: Thisistheideaofplannedinadvance,coolness.There'ssomeinconsistencyindefinition,butthe phrasegenerallyreferstoanything"coldblooded".It'sdefinedas"acarefulthoughtand weighingofconsequences,ajudgmentorplan,carriedoutcoolyandsteadily,accordingtoa preconceivedplan"."Planning"inthelongtermisNOTrequired.Afewsecondswillsufficeat law,aslongasthere'ssufficientmaturityandmentalhealth.There'salsosomethingcalledthe deadlyweapondoctrinewhichallowstheinferenceofintentifadeadlyweaponisused. AdequateProvocation: Thisistheideaofextenuatingcircumstances.Onlycertainkindsofcircumstanceswillreducethe crimeintermsofdegree.Thereasonablepersonstandardisusedtodetermineifthere'sa reasonablebeliefinbeingofdangeroflosingone'slifeorsufferinggreatbodilyharm.Thelawon thispointalsorecognizesthefrailtyofhumannature(reactingwithoutthinking).Thefollowing tablemightbeinstructivebygivingexamplesofadequateprovocation: Adequate: seriousfights scuffles Inadequate:

suddenpassionwithnotime slappingorshoving tocooloff pistolwhipping,fistsinface, insultinggestures staggeringbodyblows waivingagunaround Lastupdated:06/19/03 LectureListforCriminalLaw InstructorHomePage abusivewords Thelastexampleofwaivingagunaroundmightbeinadequatealso.Itdepends.

ADVANCEDTOPICSINTHELAWOFHOMICIDE:INTENTION
Therearecertainkindsofcrimesthathaveharmfulconsequences,andthereareotherssortsof crimesthatconsistofharmfulactions.Withthesesecondsortsofcrimes,likerape,robbery, larceny,andfraud,it'sfairlyeasytotellthattheharmhappenedinthehereandnowthere'san immediateconnectionbetweenactionandharm;someonewasviolatedordispossessedofan object,andthesethingsdon'tnormallyhappenbynaturalcausesorbyaccident.Bycontrast, crimesofharmfulconsequences,likehomicide,arson,mayhem,andassault,usuallypresentus withthepossibilityofagapintimebetweenactionandharmdeath,destruction,andinjury mightoccurbynaturalcausesorbyaccident.Incasesofhomicide,then,wemustalwaysinferor attributethecauseofdeaththatis,wemustexaminetheelementsofcausationandintent.This lectureisaboutintent,withminorreferencestocausation. Tounderstandthecomplexityofhowintentandcausationintertwine,considerthefollowing scenarios: A.SusandecidestokillTom,soshedrivesovertoTom'shouse,andjustassheisabouttoknock onthedoor,Tomdropsdeadofaheartattackinside.DidSusankillTom?[Noshehadtheintent butnotthecausation] B.SusandecidestokillTom,soshedrivesovertoTom'shouse,andjustassheisabouttoknock onthedoor,Tomseesherthroughthewindowandbecomessofrightenedhedropsdeadofa heartattack.DidSusankillTom?[Itdepends;azealousprosecutorwouldsayYes.Shehadboth intentandcausation.AnygooddefenseattorneywouldsayNo.Tomcouldbeenreadytodrop deadatthatmoment] Inbothcases,aftertheactionensues(Susanabouttoknockonthedoor),there'snoguarantee thattheharmfulconsequencesareevenattributable(muchlessliable)totheactorwithoutthe elementofINTENT(SusanintendedtokillTom).There'sadifferencebetween"intendingtokill somebody"and"killingsomeoneintentionally".Susanmaynotbeguiltyofkillingsomeone intentionally(forlackofcausation),butshecertainlyhadtheintenttokill.The"butfor"testis mostcommonlyusedtodeterminecausation,buttherulesfordeterminingintentaremuchmore complicated. WhenwetalkaboutINTENTIONALCONDUCT,we'retalkingaboutsituationsinwhichpeople setouttoaccomplishsomethingandtheytrytorealizethataccomplishmentexactlyasplanned. Theyhaveamentalpictureintheirminds,sotospeak,ofpreciselyhowtheywantthingstoturn out.There'snoaccidents,nocomplications,nosideeffects,justtrueintent.Intentisalegal conceptthatgoesbeyondPurpose. ProbablythebestwaytounderstandIntentionistounderstandit'soppositeNegligence.The ironyisthattheconceptofIntentcomesintocriminallawfromtortlawandnotionsofliability. Butevenlongago,Romanlawyersdistinguishedbetweenthetermsdolus(intention)andculpa (fault,negligence).Thesetermshavebecomethebasisforcriminalandcivilresponsibility, respectively.It'swidelyassumedthatcommittingacrimeintentionallyismuchworse,more culpable,moreblameworthy,thancommittingacrimenegligently.Butwheredowedrawtheline betweenintentionandnegligence?Theansweristhatintentionisclosertomotive,theideathat

therewasaspecialinducementtocommitthecrime.Motive,consideredalongwithIntent,help useasilydistinguishharmfulconsequencesfromblameworthyandnonblameworthyaccidents. Negligenceisablameworthyaccidentinwhichapersondidn'texerciseareasonabledegreeof care.Negligencelacksamotive,however,andtheonlydefensestoitaremistakeandjustification. Justificationisthemoreimportantconcept.Apersonisblameworthyfornegligence(criminal negligence)onlyifitcanbeshownthattheysizeduptherisks,andbalancedthecostsand benefitsoftherisktaking(justifiedtherisktaking).Thisbalancingofcostsandbenefitsiscalled theLearnedHandformula(namedafterJudgeLearnedHandwhodefinednegligenceastaking anunreasonablerisk).TheMPCmakesacleardistinctionbetweenrecklessness(onewho perceivesbutignoresarisk)andnegligence(onewhofailstobesufficientlyattentivetotherisks orcosts).SowearebacktoIntentaonesidedfocusonthebenefitsofacourseofaction. ThepresumptionofIntentisthatifapersondecidestodoharm,knowstherisks(and punishments),anddecidestodoitanyway,theiractionismoredeservingofcontemptbecause theydidn'tconsidertheinterestsofothers,onlythemselves.Intentisalwaysselfish,andit'snever sloppy.Thepersonknowswhatthey'redoing.Theyarecunningandtryingtobeclever.Thinkof itasthesinofarrogance,orexcessivepride,sotospeak.Orthinkofitintermsofcommunity expectations.That'swhatthe"reasonableman"standardisallabout. TheproblemwithIntentandtheLawofHomicideishowtoindividualizeit.Therearesomany infinitedegreesoftemperamentandintellectthatnogradingsystem,nomatterhowcomplex,is probablyevergoingtodojusticeforeachandeveryindividual.Theproblemwiththe "reasonableman"standardisnotthatit'ssexist.Ithasjustbeenstretchedtoothintobeuseful anymoreasawayofjudgingindividualbehavior.And,it'snotmuchbettertoknoweachand everylittlethingabouteachdefendant.Ifwecomprehendedthemperfectly,wewouldprobably excuseeverycriminalact,oratleastmitigatethecrime.Instead,whatweneedisasystemof gradingthelustforaccomplishments,thrills,sensations,outcomes,ambitions,adventure.It's propertoholdpeopleaccountableforcontrollingtheirlustforadventure.That'sthesocial controlfunctionoftheLawofHomicide. Intentionissomethingharboredinthemindbeforetheactisdone.Onecanalwaysreflecton theirintentions,andchangetheirintentionsbeforeharmisdone.Thedifferencebetweenriskand intentisthatriskexistsintherealworldwhileintentexistsinthemindsofactors.Intent, consideredasamentalconstruct,canalsoincludeunrealizedintentions.Thelawusuallyregards theseasaggravatingfactors,buttheyalsomakeupsubstantivelaw,asinoffenseswhereweadd theprefix"Intenttocommit..."infrontofacrime.Trespassbecomesburglary,forexample, whenthere'sintenttocommitafelonytherein. IntoxicationbearsaninterestingrelationshiptoIntent.Evenvoluntaryintoxicationmightbean excuseorjustification.Thegeneralrule,however,isthatintoxicationnegatesaspecificintent,but notthegeneralintent.Generalintentistheintentrequiredforthebasecrime,andspecificintent isthefactorthataggravatestheoffense.Anintoxicationdefensemightmitigateahomicidetoa manslaughter,butitcan'tgenerateanexcuseforthefelonyofmurder. Psychologicaltheorycomestobearonthesubjectwhenwestoptoconsiderthatthelawistrying tocontrolcognitions,notnecessaryattitudes.Thecognitiveapproach(whichinlegalpracticeis

oftenreducedtoaprobabilisticapproach)requiresthatweknowwhattheactorreallywanted.In manycasesofhomicide,it'snotevenclearifthepersonsthemselvesknewwhattheywanted. Therefore,thelawassumesthatmotivesmatterandprovideabasisfordistinguishingbetween goodandbad.CriminalLawrecognizesdifferentmotivesforhomicidepremeditation, deliberation,andkillingforprofit.Motives,whenestablishedincourtasevidence,tendto aggravateintentionalcriminalactsandoverridedefenses.Theyputthedefendantinabadlight, atleast. Intheend,allwecandoispresumeliabilityforhomicide,andbecausewehavetoproveintent beforetheactoccurs,thatleavesopenallsortsofpossiblejustificationsandexcuses. Lastupdated:06/19/03 LectureListforCriminalLaw InstructorHomePage

ASSAULT,BATTERYANDRELATEDCRIMES
Theideabehindthesecrimes,commonlycalled"offensesagainsttheperson",isthatevery personhasapersonalspacethatshouldnotbeviolatedwithoutconsent.Thereareoldcommon lawtraditionsprotectingpersonalsecurityandbodilyintegrity.ItgoesbacktotheMagnaCharta andinvolvesthepracticeoftouchingpeoplewithouttheirpermission.Itusedtobe(andstillis, accordingtosomenonverbalbehaviorexperts)thathigherstatuspeople(thewealthy)could touchlowerstatuspeople(thepoor)whenevertheywanted,butthepoorcouldnottouchthe wealthyforanyreasonwhatsoever.Allthathaschangedorischanging,andthecriminallaw exertsapositiveinfluenceinhelpingcreateamoreegalitarianandpeacefulsocietyinthisregard. Manyformsofviolencearepunishedatlawtopreserveorderinsociety,andthetrickisto determinethepunishmentproportionaltothecrime. Oneofthethingsthatthelawlooksatisthevictim.Itmattersagreatdealwhothevictimis. Traditionally,felonieshavebeenreservedforvictimswhowerepoliceofficers,paramedics,or otherpersonsactinginthelineofduty.Asmoststudentsofcriminaljusticeknow,thelawhas beenslowinhelpingthevictimsofspousalabuse,butitisnowafelonyismanystates.Childabuse isdifferentbecausetraditionally,ithasalwaysincludedneglectasaformofabuse.Elderlyabuse isanewareacopyingitselfonthechildabusemodel.Hatecrimeisalsoanewareaofconcern. ASSAULT Assaultiseither(1)anattemptedbatteryor(2)theplacingofthevictiminapprehensionof receivinganimmediatebattery.ENDANGERMENTisarelatedoffensetoassault(butusuallya misdemeanor)thatinvolvesrecklesslyendangeringthesafetyofothers.HAZINGisaformof endangermentinvolvinginitiationriteswhichposeathreattothehealthoftheapplicant. AGGRAVATEDASSAULTisagenerictermforthemostseriouskindsofassaults,andthiscrime existsinordertotailorthepunishmentmoreefficiently. BATTERY Batteryistheunlawful,unconsentedtouchingofonehumanbeingbyanotherhumanbeing.A fewstateshavetheoffenseofAGGRAVATEDBATTERY,butnotall.

MAYHEM Mayhemistheintentionalpermanentdisfigurementofonehumanbeingbyanotherhuman being.Historically,itwastiedtotheimportanceofhavingablebodiedsoldierstoengagein defenseofthekingdom.Scarringandinvoluntarytattooingareincludedinmoststatestatutes. Consentisnotadefenseformayhem.NorthCarolinahasdifferentdegreesofmayhembasedon maliciousnessandtheextentofinjuries.SomestatesalsocallthisoffenseMAYHEMand TORTURE. RAPE Rapeistheunlawful,unconsented"carnalknowledge"ofawomanbyaman.Sexcrimesare treatedasespeciallyseriousmattersincriminallaw,onlyonestepbelowmurder.Criminalsexual conductdoesnothavetoinvolvephysicalinjurytothevictim.Historically,theonlysexcrimes wereRAPEandSODOMY.From1600to1970,thelawofrapeconcentratedontheelementof consent.Womenhadtoshowsomeresistance.Beforethe1950s,therewastheutmostresistance standard;inthe1950s,therewasthereasonableresistancestandard.In1970,moststates abolishedtherequirementthatthevictim'stestimonyofresistancehadtobecorroborated.In addition,moststatespassedrapeshieldlawsprohibitinganytestimonyaboutawomen'spast sexualhistory.Manystatesalsoabolishedtherequirementthatarapehadtobereported promptly.And,manystateshaveabolishedthemaritalexception.Allformsofsexualpenetration vaginal,anal,andoralfallundertoday'scriminalsexualassaultstatutes.Andthelawisnow genderneutral. TheelementsofRAPEare:(1)actusreusofpenetration;(2)actusreusofuseofforceorthreatof force;(3)thecircumstanceofnonconsent;and(4)mensreaofengaginginsexualactivitybyforce orthreatofforcewithoutconsent.Penetrationisdefinedas"howeverslight".Merelyputtinga fingerbetweenthefoldsofskinoveravaginaispenetration,andaccordingtotheintrinsicforce standard,theactofpenetrationsubsumes,orincludesbyinference,theactofforce.Threatsof forcemusthavecreatedanobjectivelyreasonablefearORarealfearofimminentbodilyharm. WordsdoNOThavetobeexchangedtoexpressathreat.Thelawlooksattheage,size,and mentalconditionofbothperpetratorandvictim.Thephysicallocationandrelationship(if positionofauthorityordomination)isalsolookedat.ProofofnonconsentdoesNOTrequirethe prosecutiontoproveordisprovethevictimannouncedanyconsent.Thelawlooksatthephysical actionsratherthanwords.STATUTORYRAPErequiresneitherforce,norintent,nor nonconsent.Immaturityinagesubstitutesforalltheseelements.CaliforniaandAlaskaarethe onlystatesthatpermitadefenseofmistakeofage. Toprovethemensreaelementofrape,theprosecutionlooksatthepriorbehaviorofthe perpetrator,iftheywereinthehabitof"scoringwithgirls",forexample.Thetypeofintent requiredbylawisaspecificintenttohaveintercoursebyforceandwithoutconsent.Thisoften requiresportrayingtheperpetratoras"kinky",into"roughsex",orifhe/shelikesitwhentheir sexpartner"struggles".Theurgetotwistnipplestoinflictpainsatisfiesthemensreaelement, forexample.

CRIMINALSEXUALCONDUCT Thesearefairlynewcrimesthatattempttogradethedegreeofforce;e.g.: 1stdegreethedefendantwasarmedwithaweapon,aidedbyanotherperson(gang rape),orcausedphysicalinjury 2nddegree"sexualcontact"withan"intimatearea"whereatleastoneotherelementof 1stdegreeispresent. 3rddegreesexualpenetrationaccomplishedwithforce(roughsex) 4thdegreesexualcontactaccomplishedwithforce(roughtouching) ABORTION Abortionistheactofintentionallycausingamiscarriageinapregnantwoman. FALSEIMPRISONMENT Falseimprisonmentistheunlawful,unconsentedconfinementofahumanbeing. KIDNAPPING Kidnappingistheunlawful,unconsentedmovementofapersonofapersonfromoneplaceto anotherplace. THREATS ThecrimeofTHREATENING,sometimescalledMENACINGorTERRORIZINGisthemaking ofunequivocal,immediate,andspecificthreatswiththeintenttocreatefearinthevictim. Dependingonthestate,theintenttocreategreatbodilyharmisrequired,butthemainfocusis thevictim'sfear.Thethreatcanbeconveyedbyathirdpartyorinanyform.It'scommonlyused toprosecutebombthreatswhichcauseevacuationsofpublicplaces.COERCION,alsocalled INTIMIDATIONisarelatedoffenseinvolvinginducingapersontodosomethingagainsttheir will,suchasparticipateinacrimeorrefrainfromoperatingacompetingbusiness.Intimidation doesn'trequirethethreatofviolence,onlythedesiretocontrolthebehaviorofsomebody. EXTORTION,forexample,doesn'tnecessarilyrequiretheelementofviolencebuttheusual paymentofmoneyorblackmail.STALKINGisarelatedoffensethatrequiresproofofintentand repeatedattemptstofollowthevictimorengageinotherformsofHARASSMENTwherethereis nolegaljustificationtodoso.Somestates,likePennsylvania,haveacombinedstalkingand harassmentstatute. Lastupdated:06/19/03 LectureListforCriminalLaw InstructorHomePage

CRIMESAGAINSTHABITATION: BURGLARY,ARSON,ANDRELATEDCRIMES Crimesagainsthabitationarenotcrimesagainstproperty.Acrimeagainsta"house"wouldbea crimeagainstpropertybecauseahouseisworthmoney,ithassomematerialvalue.Instead, crimesagainsthabitationarecrimesagainsta"home",andthelawseekstoprotectinstancesof theconceptof"home"fromthesocialharmsofINVASION,INTRUSION,DAMAGE, DESTRUCTION,andINSECURITY."Ahouseisnotahome"astheoldsayinggoes. BURGLARYandARSONshareimportantcommonlaworigins.Bothwereseriouscrimes punishablebydeathinbothEnglandandcolonialAmerica.Thesentimentthat"aman'scastleis hishome"runsdeepinAngloAmericanculture.ManyoftheearlysettlerstoAmericaalsocame fromtheEnglishtownofColchester,wherein1575,armedtownspeoplefirstchallengedthe Queen'ssoldiersfromenteringhomeswithoutawarrant.Here'sanexcerptfromLordPitt's famousspeechintheHouseofCommonsaboutthattime: "Thepoorestmanmayinhiscottagebiddefiancetoalltheforcesofthe Crown.It[Hishome]maybefrail,itsroofmayshake,thewindmayblow throughit,thestormmayenter,buttheKingofEnglandhimselfcannot enter.AlltheKing'sforcesdarenotenter,norcrossthethresholdofthe tenement."(LordPitt) BURGLARYhasevolvedfromamedievalconceptofTRESPASS(abroadoffenseintendedto protectchurches,walledtowns,andplaceslikelytoattractpeople)toCOMMONLAW BURGLARY(limitedtodwellings,atnightime,andwithintenttocommitafelonytherein)to MODERNBURGLARYSTATUTES(breakingandentering,butalsoremaining,withintentto commitanycrime).It'snecessarytounderstandthesix(6)commonlawelementsof BURGLARYbecausesomeoftheseelementscontinuetofunctionascoreoraggravatingfactors todayeventhoughthecrimenolongercarriesthedeathpenalty.I'veincludedcommentsabout moderntrendsamongtheseelements.

COMMONLAWELEMENTSOFBURGLARY 1.BreakingTheterm"breaking"referstoanyforcefulparting,separating,piercing,or
disintegrationofasolidsubstance.Breakingisnotthesameascausingdamage.Breakingis closertotheconceptoftrespass.Allthat'srequiredisthatsomepartofthestructurewasmoved, adoorknobwasturned,adoorwasopened,orawindowwasraised.Itdoesn'tmatterifthe structurewaslocked,butitdoesmatteriftheopening(doororwindowleftajar)islargeenough forapersontosqueezethroughwithouttouchinganything.Openinganunlockeddooris breaking;squeezingthroughanopendoorisnotbreaking.Tosomedegree,thelawconsiders whetherthethinginvolvedisusedforsecuritypurposes,butthatisnotadefiningcharacteristic. Howmuchsomethingservesasanobstructionisamuchmoreimportantconsideration.For example,acaseinNebraska(Statev.McDowell1994)overturnedtheconvictionofadefendant whowasabletojumpoverafencetostealtransmissionpartsfromajunkyardbecauseno breakingoccurred.Consentbytheownerisaonlyvaliddefense,butiftheconsentwasforlimited purposesorforparticulartimes,andentryoccursforotherpurposesoratothertimes,a

breakingissaidtohappen.Also,atcommonlaw,itisnotaburglaryifapersonremains concealedorhiddenwithinadwellingeventhoughtheymustcommitabreakingtogetout(thisis aburglaryundermodernlawandmoretypicalofcommercialburglaries).Breakingissometimes brokendownintotwotypes:actualinvolvingsomeminimaluseofforce;andconstructive involvingentrybymeansoffraud,conspiracyusinganaccomplice,orfalsepretenses.Entering structuresinanunusualmanner,suchasviaachimney,isalsoconsideredconstructivebreaking.

2.EnteringThiselementinvolvestheplacingofanyportionofthebodyoritemconnectedto
thebodyinsidetheslightestportionofthedwelling,evenmomentarily.Itisintendedtogetat variousitemscalled"burglarytools"(prybars,augers,picks,etc.),butoffensescanincludejust placingafingerorstickingthepointofaguninsideawindowsillordoorway.Theentryitemcan beconnectedtothebodyindirectly,forexample,asinabullet"entering"ahomeduringadrive byshooting,abrickthrownthroughajewelrystorewindow,oraremotecontrolusedtoopena dwelling'sgaragedoor.Theentryrequirementissatisfiedconstructivelyifsomeonesendsa traineddog,monkey,oranimal(notaninfant,insaneperson,orsomeoneincapableofcommiting acrime)intothehome.Entryitemscanbeinanimateoranimate,andthey'reconnectedtoa person'sbodyviathemensreas(orintent)ofburglary.Thepointofentryisdeterminedby "breakingtheclose",animaginarygeometricplanethatdefinesthephysicalconfinesofthe house.A"close"isdifferentfroma"curtilage".Eachstatehasslightlydifferentversionsofthe "entering"element,withsomestateslikeNorthCarolina,notevenrequiringentryitisenough thattheytried.Here'sabreakdownofdifferentstateversions: strictentryrequirementthisisthekinddescribedabove,e.g.,tipoffinger unprivilegedentryrequirementthislooksattherelationshipbetweentheownerandan intruder surreptitiousremainingrequirementthislooksatwhenit'slawfultobesomewhereand whenit'sunlawful(afterclosingtime,forexample) eliminatedentryrequirementthisisthekindthatincludesattempt(NC)

3.DwellingAtcommonlaw,anystructureintendedforsleepisconsideredadwelling.
Modernstatutestendtodefineitasanystructureorbuildingadaptedfortheaccommodationof personsorthecarryingonofbusiness,whetherornotoccupied,andsomestates,likeCalifornia, includevehicles.Abandonedpropertiesdonotordinarilyqualifyasdwellings,butit'snotthe presenceorabsenceofpeoplethatmatter,butratherthecharacteroruseofthebuilding(suchas ifit'ssomeone'ssummerhomeorvacationcabin).Statesnormallypunishtheburglaryofan inhabiteddwellingmoreseverelythanthatofanuninhabiteddwelling.Anyadjacentbuilding withinthe"curtilage"ofamainstructureisconsideredpartofthedwelling,suchasagarage, barn,stable,cellar,orshed.Vacantapartmentsareconsideredthesameashouses,butlike housesunderconstruction,thecommonlawruleisthatastructurebecomesadwellingwhenthe firstoccupantsmoveinandceasestobecomeadwellingwhenthelastoccupantsmoveout (becauseofthebuildingbeingcondemned,permanentlyvacated,orscheduledfordemolition). Fourwallsandaroofdon'tconstituteadwelling.Moststateshaveexpandedtheconceptto includemotorvehicles,boats,airplanes,tents,campingareas,andunenclosedspotsinayard.

4.OfAnotherThestructuremustbeusedasadwellingbysomeoneotherthantheaccused.

Ownershipdoesnotmatter,asanownercancommitburglaryoftheirownstructureifitis rentedandusedbyanother.Whetherornotadwellingbelongstoanotherdependsontherightof possession,iftheytakecareofit,fixitup,maintainit,orhavesome"sweatequity"init.Incases ofhusbandandwifedissolutionorseparation,animportantconsiderationistheunauthorized entryrequirement.Thespousekeepingthehousemustcontrolaccess(suchasbychangingthe locks)tothehomeinorderforthe"ofanother"elementtobesatisfied.Thefactofmarriageonly givesanestrangedhusbandaneconomicinterest,notapossessoryone.

5.NighttimeTechnically,thisbeginsonehalfhouraftersunsetandendsonehalfhourbefore
sunrise,butlegally,it'sdefinedaswheneverit'stoodarktodiscernaperson'sfaceortorecognize them.Thiselementisintendedtogetatthecharacteristicsofstealth,disguise,orcoverup commontoburglaries.Onlyabouthalfofallburglariesarecommittedatnight,however,andall statestodayrecognizedaytimeburglarieswithnighttimeintrusionsasanaggravating circumstance.Somestateshaveeliminatedthenighttimeelementcompletely.Burglarydoesnot requireonenightaction;apersoncancommita"breaking"ononenightandan"entering"on anothernight.Ascrimesofstealth,burglariestypicallylastnomorethanfourminutesandno morethan$1000worthofitemsaretaken. 6. IntenttoCommitaFelonyFeloniousintentmustbepresentatthetimeofentry,not atsomepointonceinsidethedwelling.Themostcommonreasonforcommittinga burglaryistoplaceoneselfinapositiontolookaroundandcommitatheft.It'stheintent tostealsomethingofvalue,nottheactoftheft,whichsatisfiesthiselementofburglary. Burglaryisnotthesameastheft.Theactofbreakingandenteringatnighttimewiththe intenttocommitanyfelony(e.g.,homicide,rape,larcenyormischief)isburglary.Thelaw wishestoavoidargumentsoverexactlywhatandhowmuchtheburglarintendedtosteal onceinside.Therefore,moststateshavemodifiedthismensreaelementtotheintentto commitanycrime,thusavoidingtheargumentofwhetherornottheintendedcrimewasa felony.Amentalstateofpurposely,knowingly,orrecklesslyintendingtoinflictinjuryor commitharmwillusuallysuffice.It'simmaterialwhethertheintendedcrimewas committedornot;whatmattersiswhetherthere'saspecificintenttocommitacrime (otherthanburglary)priortoactuallygainingentrance.Thisleavesopenthequestionof whattodowithoffenderswho,say,breakintokeepwarmorescapefromharm,andwho, onceinside,seeanitemofvalueanddecidetostealit.Suchoffenderscannotbecharged withburglary,andmoststateschargethemwithrobberyorsomeotherattemptedfelony, althoughaburglaryconvictionmaystillholdbecausecompletionofacriminalactis presumptionofamensreaforburglary.Ontheotherhand,theintenttostealcannotbe inferredfromtheactofunlawfulentry.Intentcanonlybeinferredfromasetof circumstances:forcibleentry;pointofentry(rearorsideentrance);typeofbuilding (itemsaburglarmightbeinterestedin);timeofentry;andhidingorattemptingtoescape wheninterrupted. 7.

MODERNBURGLARYLAW
Burglaryissometimesgradedinto1stdegree(assaultsapersonpresent),2nddegree(carriesa weapon),3rddegree(intendsafelonyorgrossmisdemeanor),and4thdegree(intendsany misdemeanor),butmorecommonlythedistinctionismadebetweenSIMPLEBURGLARYand AGGRAVATEDBURGLARY.Burglariesofthe1stand2nddegreewouldbethesameas aggravatedbecausethesegradesallinvolveinhabiteddwellingsandtheoffenderbeingarmed withadeadlyweapon.NewYorkstategradesallitsburglariesintermsofthepotentialfor dangertothevictim.Illinoishasaspecial,moreseriousthanburglary,offenseforbreakinginto inhabiteddwellingscalledHOMEINVASIONwithintenttorob.Allburglariesarefeloniesin everystate,however,andpenaltiesareharsh,rangingfromfivetotwentyyearsentences.The penaltiesforburglaryareoftenmoreseverethanthepenaltyfortheintendedcrime.Conviction forthree(3)burglaries(unauthorizedentries)ofanytypeusuallyqualifysomeoneforalife withoutparolepenaltyunderThreeStrikesYou'reOutlaws. BREAKINGANDENTERINGisatermthatsomestatesusewhohavenotmodifiedtheir burglarystatutestodefinewhatadwellingis.Breakingandentering(B&E)isusuallyreserved forstructuresotherthanresidenceswherepeoplesleep;e.g.,offices,stores,shops,warehouses, factories,andvehicles.Ifthetargetedlocationisusedforconductingbusiness,theoffenseis sometimescalledCOMMERCIALBURGLARY.SomestatesalsousethetermsBREAKAND RUN,CRASHANDCARRY,SMASHANDGRAB,andCARBURGLARY(thesameasthe crimeofrobberymighthavetherelatedcrimesofhighwayrobbery,orcarjacking). POSSESSIONOFBURGLARYTOOLSisarelativelyminoroffenseinmoststates,andas seriousafelonyascommercialburglaryinsomestates.Tobeconvictedofthisoffense,thetools involvedwouldhavetobedescribedonalistcontainedinthestatestatute,andtheprosecutor wouldhavetoshowintenttousethetoolsforunlawfulpurposes.Anyonemanufacturing,altering, orsupplyingsuchtoolsmaybecoveredbythestatuteaswell. FEDERALLAWcontainsnoburglarystatutes,atleastnotintheresidentialsense.Breakinginto abank,pharmacy,orpostofficecanbeprosecutedunderstateorfederallaw,andthesensible thingtodoisprosecuteunderstatelawbecausetheelementsofthecrimeatfederallawmaybe quitedifferentfromwhat'snormallyconsideredburglary. CRIMINALTRESPASSinvolvesenteringorremainingonpropertywithoutpermission.The propertymustbemarkedinsomeway(NoTrespassingsigns)ortheoffendermusthavebeentold toleave.Anyonewhoremainsundertheseconditionsisusuallychargedwiththerelatedoffense ofDEFIANTTRESPASSwhichhasitsoriginsingrownupchildrenwhorefusetoleavethehome oftheirparentsafterbeingrepeatedlytoldtodoso.Trespassingonvacantlandisusuallya misdemeanor,butacommondefenseisthattheareaisanestablishedandwelldefinedpathway, trail,orpublicbeach.Anhonestbeliefthattheownerwouldhavegrantedpermission,ifasked, alsoservesasagooddefense.Necessity(anyoldportinastorm)isalsoadefense,andsomestates excludeabandonedbuildingsfromtrespasslaws,althoughotherstatesincludethemtogoafter homelesssquatters.

ARSONLAW
Settingafirethatreachesastructureandburnsaretheessentialelementsofarson.Explosions arealsotreatedasburningsforthepurposesofarsonlaw.Itdoesn'tmatterhowmuchburning takesplace.Thecommonlawruleisthathoweverslighttheburning,thearsoniscomplete.Afew statesdistinguishbetween"sooting"(smokedamage),"scorching"(blistering),"charring" (externalsurfacesdestroyed),andsoforth,butthemainpointisthatastructuredoesnothaveto burntotheground.Thekindofstructureandamountofdamagearecircumstancestobe considered.Anarsoncanoccurinsideahouseiftheitemdamagedqualifiesasapermanent fixture.Sinks,lighting,andappliancesqualify;personalpropertysuchasfurniture,clothing,or documentsdonot. There'sadifferencebetween"settingafire"and"burns"inthatitispossibletosetfireto something,butitgetsextinguishedbeforeanyburningoccurs.Forthisreason,it'simportantthat youreadtheprecisewordingofthestatestatute.Ifthestatutorylanguagecontainstheword "OR"sandwichedinbetween"settingafire"and"burns",thenthatparticularstateconsiders theactofsettingafireanarsonevenifnoburningoccurs. Arsonisacrimeofgeneral,ratherthanspecific,intent.Atcommonlaw,themensreaofarsonis "willfullyandmaliciously",butasacrimeofgeneralintent,malicecanbeinferredfromthe actitself.Allthat'snecessaryisproofthatthepersonintentionally(atanyMPClevelofintent, evenrecklessly,althoughthat'scalledRECKLESSBURNINGinsomestates)startedthefire. Thecriminalintentwitharson,therefore,isintentorpurposetostartafire,evenifthere'sno intenttoburnastructure.Thefiredepartment,notthepolice,gettodeterminethis,whichis oftencalledafireofINCENDIARYORIGIN(asopposedtooneofunknownorigin).Afire inspectormustthentestifyincourtthathe/shealsosuspectedarson,andthenanexpertwitness mustbecalledtocorroboratethefireinspector'sopinion. Arsonistypicallygradedinto1stdegree(homes,schools,churches),2nddegree(unoccupied structures,vehicles),and3rddegree(personalproperty).Arsonisacrimeagainstpossession,not ownership,soit'spossibleforapersontobechargedwithburningtheirownhouse,or committinganarsonagainstthemselves.Statestatutesdonotgradearsonsintermsofmotive, althoughtheyoughtto.There'sclearlydifferencesbetweenarsonforprofit,revengearson,and pyromania.SomestatesreservetheirharshestpunishmentsforARSONWITHINTENTTO DEFRAUD(arsonforprofitorarsonforhire).SomestateshavetheoffenseofAGGRAVATED ARSONwhichiskindoflikefelonymurder,butcarriesadditionalpenaltiesifafirefightergets injuredwhiletryingtoputoutthefire.Apersonwho'spartytothecrimeistypicallycharged witharsonratherthanbeinganaccomplicetothecrime.Actionspreliminarytoarson,like pouringaccelerantonthefloorofabuildingorpossessingfirebombs,maybeoffensesrelatedto arsonundersomestatestatutues.Makingafalsebombthreatorfalsefirealarmisalsoa separate,butrelatedoffenseinmoststates.Arsoninvolvingdamagetofederalpropertyisalmost alwaysprosecutedinfederalcourt,asisanything(warehouses,truckfacilities)involving interstateorforeigntransport.

MALICIOUSMISCHIEF
Thisisthecrimeofdamagingordestroyingthepropertyofanother,andit'scalledCRIMINAL DAMAGEorVANDALISMinsomestates.It'snotgenerallymorethanamisdemeanor,butit canbeafelonyinsomecaseswherethere'slargefinanciallossesoraseriousinconveniencetothe generalpublic.Completedestructionofpropertyisnotrequired,buttheremustbesomephysical damagewhichimpairstheutilityofthepropertyormateriallydiminishesitsvalue.Theproperty canbeinanimateoranimate;thefamilypetcanbevandalized.Most,butnotall,statesattemptto gradetheoffensebytheamountoffinanciallossinvolved,withfeloniesstartinginthe$2500 range. Becausethisisprimarilyajuvenilecrime,thelawfirstconsiderswhetherthereareany justifications,excuses,ormitigatingfactorsforthebehavior.Thementalstaterequiredisatleast recklessnessinageneralintentapproachto"malice",but"willfulorwantondisregard"for propertyisoftenspelledoutinsomestatutes.Somestatesandcitieshaveseparatedout GRAFFITIVANDALISMandPOSSESSIONOFGRAFFITIMATERIALSasmoreserious crimes,andmostjurisdictionstreatCEMETARYVANDALISMandHIGHWAYSIGN VANDALISMasquiteserious.Interruptionofpublicservice(suchasknockingoutstreetlights, cuttingtelephonelines,throwingstinkbombsinschool,etc.)isalsomischief,butsomestatestreat itasCRIMINALTAMPERING.Thetrendistowardstatestatutesthatspelloutspecifictypesof mischief;INSTITUTIONALMISCHIEF,forexample,whenschoolsorchurchesareinvolved, andENVIRONMENTALMISCHIEF,whenenvironmentaldamageiscaused.Manystatesand citieshavepassedlawsmakingparentsresponsibleforthefinancialcostsoftheirchildren's mischief. INTERNETRESOURCES: InterestingFactsAboutBurglaryLaw:BurlingtonPoliceDepartment CombattingtheNation'sArsonProblem:FEMAandFEMA'sNAPI 2000PenalCode(Texas):TheCopShop PRINTEDRESOURCES: Cromwell,P.,J.Olson&D.Avery(1991)BreakingandEntering:AnEthnographicAnalysisof Burglary. Gardner,T.&T.Anderson(1996)CriminalLaw.Minneapolis:West. Inciardi,J.(1970)TheAdultFiresetter:ATypology.Criminology8:14555. Maguire,M.(1982)BurglaryinaDwelling:TheOffense,theOffenderandVictim.London: Heinemann. Samaha,J.(1999)CriminalLaw.Belmont,CA:Wadsworth. Shover,N.(1991)Burglary,pp.73113inCrimeandJustice,M.Tonry(ed.),Vol14.Chicago: Univ.Press. Skelton,D.(1998)ContemporaryCriminalLaw.Boston:ButterworthHeinemann. Unknownauthor(1951)"StatutoryBurglary:TheMagicofFourWallsandaRoof"Pennsylvania LawReview100:41120. Lastupdated:06/19/03 LectureListforCriminalLaw

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THEFTLAW:
CRIMESAGAINSTPROPERTY&HYBRIDCRIMES
Justasallmoderncrimesagainsthabitationhavetheiroriginsintheancientlawoftrespass,all moderntheftlawshavetheiroriginsintheancientlawoflarceny.Trespasswasdesignedto protectrealproperty(itemsofpossessionaffixedtotheground)frominvasion,damage,and destruction.Larcenywasdesignedtoprotectpersonalproperty(itemsofpossessionthatwere moveable)fromMISAPPROPRIATIONandSTEALING.UpuntiltheIndustrialRevolution, larcenywastheonlykindoftheftonthebooks,andafelonypunishablebydeath(a"hanging offense"). Moderntheftlawrecognizesmanydifferentkindsofcrimesagainstpropertyaswellashybrid crimes(bothagainstpersonANDproperty,likerobbery).Underfederallaw,forexample,there arewellover100differentkindsoflarcenytheftsrecognized.Thestatesdon'toftenrecognizeas manyoffenses,andnotallofthemfollowthefederal"consolidated"(UCR)approachofusingthe hyphenatedphrase"larcenytheft".About30ofthestatesuseaconsolidated"theft"approach, droppingthewordlarceny,andlistingtheftsbythetypeorvalueofpropertyinvolved;e.g.,theft ofgoods,theftofservices,grandtheft,pettytheft.About20ofthestatesusea"larceny" approach,subdividedintolarceniesbytrickandlarceniesbyforce,relyinguponcommonlaw definitions.Mostlarceniesandtheftsarespecificintentcrimes(extortionistheexceptionasa generalintentcrime)whichmeansthatthementalstateispreciselyspelledoutincriminal statutes. AnydiscussionofTheftLawisgenerallyadiscussionaboutthefollowingcrimes:(1)Larceny Theft;(2)EmbezzlementTheft;(3)FalsePretensesTheft;(4)ReceivingStolenProperty;(5) Robbery;and(6)Extortion.Numbers13aretypicalofcrimesconsolidatedintogeneraltheft statutes. ELEMENTSOFLARCENY Larcenyisthewrongfultakingandcarryingawayofpersonalpropertywhichisinthepossession ofanotherwiththeintenttoconvertitorpermanentlydeprivetheownerthereof.

1.WrongfultakingThestatemustshowthattherewasanelementofcontrol,howeverbrief,
oversomeoneelse'spropertybythedefendant.Controldoesn'tmeantouching.Ifyousell someoneelse'sbicycletoapasserby,evenifyoudidn'ttouchit,youhavetakenit.Thesamewith financialtransactions;youdon'tneedtoactuallyhandlemoneytotakeit.Acommondefenseto thiselementis"borrowing".Sincelarcenyisaspecificintentcrime,thelawrequiresconsidering whetherthere'sanintenttostealoragenuineintenttoreturnsomething. There'snosuchthingas"finder'skeepers"forlostormislaidpropertyunderTheftLaw.All stateshavelittleknownstatutesestablishingthestandardsbywhichareasonableeffortmustbe madetofindthetrueowner.However,ifthere'snorealwayofeverfindingthetrueowner(like findingadollarbillonthesidewalk),thetakingdoesnotconstitutelarceny.Manystateshave

constructedthreelevelsoftaking: larceny(theft)bytrickcongames,schemes,andswindles larceny(theft)bydeceptionstings,scams,pricealtering larceny(theft)byfraudinsidetrading,telemarketing,creditcard

2.CarryingawayInlegaljargon,thisiscalledasportation.Itmeansthatthepropertywas
completelymoved(howeverslightly)fromtheplaceitwastaken.Partial,orincomplete, movements,suchasshufflingorrearranginganobjectdoesnotcount.Carryingawaycanbe donebyaninnocentthirdperson,ifsay,theitemwasstashedonthemwithouttheirknowledge.A commondefenseinshopliftingoccurswhentheshopliftersensestheywillbestopped,and thereforedropsorabandonstheitembeforeleavingthestore.Somestatelawswillsaythisisstill carryingawaysincetheitemleftit'smerchandisearea;otherstateswillrequiretheshoplifter havepassedbeyondthefinalpointofpurchase.Theelementofasportationissettledonthebasis ofcommonsense. Theabovetwoelementsareoftendecidedonthebasisofsomethingcalledtrespassorytaking, whichlooksatwhetherthepersoninvolvedhas"larcenyintheirheart".Therearefourrules (exceptions)associatedwiththis,andthefollowingtypesofpersonscannottakeanythinginlegal sense: Employeescannotnormallypossesstheiremployer'spropertybecausetheyhavecustody overit(thus,employeesarenotusuallychargedwithshoplifting,butwithpilferingor embezzlement) Peoplenormallyconsentto"loan"theirpropertytorepairmenbutdonotrelinquish possession(thus,repairmencanonlybechargedwithlarcenybytrickorfalsepretensesif there'satransferoftitle) Banktellers(orothersauthorizedtohandlemoney)areinvolvedintransfersofcustody, notpossession(thus,cashierscanonlybechargedwithlarcenybytrickorfalsepretenses) Parkinglotattendants(whohavetheircustomer'skeys)cannotwrongfullytakeandcarry awaypropertybecausetheypossessit.

3.PersonalpropertyUndertheoldcommonlaw,onlymoveablepropertycountedas
personalproperty,butundermodernstatutes,almostanythingqualifiesaspersonalproperty. Therearegenerallysevencategoriesofproperty: Realpropertyrealestate,trees,itemsattachedtotheland Tangiblepropertymoveable,anythingnotaffixedtotheland Documentsmoney,tickets,paper,anythingofvalue Serviceslabor,utilities,lodging,food,transportation Informationrecords,computerfiles,someservices Intellectualskills,talents,abilitiesorproductsthereof

Contrabandillegalitems,unlikelytobereportedstolen Thevalueofthepropertystolendetermineswhetherthechargeisamisdemeanororfelony. Grandlarceny,afelony,involvespropertygenerallyworthmorethan$400onaverage,butthe dividinglinediffersineachstate.Pettylarceny,amisdemeanor,generallyinvolvesanythingworth lessthan$400onaverage.Somestatesalsohaveparticularinterestsincertainkindsofproperty. InTexas,theftofoil,nomatterhowlittle,isautomaticallyagrandlarceny;inCalifornia,it's avocados.Somestatesalsousea"marketvalue"approachtodeterminingworth;othersuse "replacementcost".Evidencerulessometimerequireexpertsorappraiserstotestifyastothe worthofproperty.

4.InpossessionofanotherThelawrequiresthattheownerofthepropertytestifythatthe
takingwaswithouthisorherconsentandtoidentifythestolenpropertyinopencourt. Sometimes,asinthecaseofjewelry,it'sdifficultfortheownertomakeanidentification.Forthis reason,lawenforcementinvestigatorsoftenhaveapolicyofmarkingobjectsofstolenpropertyat thetimeofsearch&seizure.Itmustalsobeproventhattheownerdidnotabandontheproperty, leavingopenthehonestbeliefthattheydidnotcareifitwastaken.Thingsthatareinawildstate, likewildlife,cannotbethepropertyofanother.

5.WiththeintenttoconvertorpermanentlydepriveLarcenyisaspecificintentcrime.
Theintentmaybeprovenbydirectorcircumstantialevidence,andataminimum,bya substantialriskofpermanentloss,butmoretypicallyifthethiefiscountingon,butnothoping for,some"reward"orgainbythesaleorreturnoftheproperty.Thesubstantialriskoflossisa fairlynewelementintendedtoencompasscaseslikejoyriding,wherethethiefplanstoeventually returntheproperty,buttheriskofpermanentlossispresent.Ifitturnsoutthethieftruly believesthepropertyistheirs,thisiscalledtheclaimofright,acommondefensetolarceny.

EMBEZZLEMENT
Embezzlementistheconversionoflawfullyacquiredpropertyintosomethingforunlawful purposes(personaluseorprofit).Thepropertyconvertedmusthavecomeintothesuspect's possessionviaapositionoftrust,commonlycalledafiduciaryrelationship.Forexample, employees,parkinglotattendants,drycleaningservices,autoshops,andbankerstypically occupysuchpositionsoftrust.Theactusreuselementsofembezzlementarethesameaslarceny exceptthattheelementoftakingisrelaxedandtheelementofbreachoftrustisadded.Allthat's necessarytoprovebreachoftrustisthatthepropertywashandledinamannerinconsistentwith thetrustarrangement. Embezzlementisaspecificintentcrime.Therequisitementalstateisanintenttodefraudand convertproperty.Thismentalstateissometimesprovenbyconsideringwhathappenedafterthe actoflarceny.Ifthepersonclaimstheyintendedtoreturntheexactsameproperty,itisfalse pretenses.Ifthepersonintendedtoreturnsimilaroridenticalpropertybecausetheyhave alreadyspenttheprofit,orcoveredupthelossesinsomewaybecauseofthephysical impossibilityofreturningtheoriginalproperty,itisembezzlement.

FALSEPRETENSES
Falsepretensesisthecrimeofdeceivingownersintowillinglygivinguprightfulpossessionof theirpropertywithanintenttoconvertthepropertytopersonaluseorprofit.Personswho commitfalsepretensesdonothaveanylawfulrighttopossessionoranytrustrelationship.They simplylie,andthisistheprimaryactusreusoffalsepretensesalie,somekindofactual misrepresentationofthetruth.Italsomustbeshownthatthevictimrelieduponthe misrepresentationsomuchthattheywerewillingtogiveuptheirproperty,notjustpossessionof it,butownershipaswell.Thisisthedifferencebetweenlarcenybytrickandfalsepretensesin larcenybytrick,theownerjustgivesuppossession.Withfalsepretenses,there'susuallya transferoftitle,deed,orownership.

RECEIVINGSTOLENPROPERTY
Receiving,concealing,possessing,buying,ortransferringstolenpropertyaretypicallythe behaviorsassociatedwiththecrimesoffencingortraffickinginstolengoods.Receivingis generallydefinedasasingleact,whileconcealing,possessing,buying,andtransferringare conceivedofascontinuingacts.Fencingortraffickingarethecontinuingactsofbeinga middlemanordistributor.Thecrimeofreceivingstolenpropertyisaspecificintentcrime requiringproofthatthepersongainedcontroloveranitem,knewthattheitemwasobtainedina criminalmanner,and(atanylevelofintent)intendedtopermanentlydeprivetherightfulowner ofhisorherinterestintheproperty.Controlofthepropertycanbeactualorconstructive,and it'sthematerialfactoftheitembeingstolenthatmatters,notthebeliefthatit'sstolen.If someonehidessomethingtheythinkisstolen,butitisnotinfactstolen,thentheyhavenot receivedanythingstolen.Thelevelofmensreaislessenedinthiscrimetoincludenegligence becauseapersonshouldknow,forexample,thatwhentheyget"toogood"adealonsomething, it'sprobablystolen.Thisloweredculpabilityrequirementisaimedatjunkdealersand pawnbrokers.

ELEMENTSOFROBBERY
Robberyandextortionarehybridcrimes,bothagainstpersonandproperty.It'salsosometimes saidthattheseare"aggravated"formsoflarceny.Robberyisforcefulstealingandextortionis blackmail.RobberyisthemostcommoncrimeintheUnitedStates.Theelementsofrobberyare:

1.TakingThegeneralruleisthatvictimandoffendermustconfrontoneanother.Theremust
beimmediatepossessionanddirectcontrol,not"control"intheloosersenseassociatedwith larceny.

2.CarryingawayTheoffendermustgainimmediatepossessionofthepropertyandretainit
insuchawayastomakeitimmediatelyimpossiblefortherightfulownertoregainpossession. Onlyaslightmovementofthepropertyisnecessarytofulfillthisrequirementiftheelementof impossibilityispresentorthethreatofharmaccompaniesthetaking.Victimsmustrelinquish theirpropertybecausetheyhonestlyandreasonablyfeartherobbers'threats.Thevictimis compelledtoacquiesceinthetakingoftheproperty.

3.PropertyofothersActualownershipofthepropertybythevictimdoesnotmatter;mere

possessionissufficient.

4.FromtheirpersonorintheirpresenceThegeneralruleisthatthepropertymustbe
onthepersonorintheimmediatevicinity.Otherroomsinthehouseinwhichthevictimis locatedisconsideredwithintheirpresence.

5.ByimmediateorthreatenedforceThisisthekeyelementinrobbery.Theremustbe
forcefulintimidation(forceorthreatofforcetoinflictharmtotheperson,property,orrightsof another).Thethreatcanbetothevictim,thevictim'sfamily,thevictim'sdwelling,oranother personpresent.Threatstodwellingsdon'tcountinsomejurisdictions.Ifthereisnoforceor threatofforce,thecrimeislarceny,notrobbery.Ifthereisastruggle,theforcemustbesufficient toovercomethevictim'sresistance;otherwise,thecrimeisattemptedrobbery.Somestatesdon't requireforceatthetimeoftaking,onlyatthetimeofescape.

6.WiththeintenttopermanentlydepriveTheintentrequiredforrobberyisthesameas
forlarceny. Moststateshavedividedrobberyintodegrees: 1stdegreerobberyalsocalledstrongarmrobberyormugging.Thisrequiresthe presenceofadeadlyweapon(playweaponsuffices),seriousinjury,ortheintenttocreate seriousinjury.Avariant,calledHomeInvasionRobbery,occurswhentherobberfollows thevictimhome,knocksonthedoortogainentry,orliesinwaitafterabreakin. 2nddegreerobberythisrequiresthepresenceofanaccompliceoraccomplices,any displayofweapon,anyinjuryorthreatofinjury. 3rddegreerobberyalsocalledsimplerobbery,unarmedrobbery,orforciblestealing. Thissimplyrequiresuseorthreatofforce. EXTORTION Extortionistheonlygeneralintentcrimeagainstproperty.It'ssynonymouswiththeterm blackmail.It'stheunlawfultakingofpropertyfromanotherbythreatsoffutureharm.The elementoftimeiswhatdistinguishesextortionfromrobbery.Extortionisthethreatofsome futureharmratherthanimmediateharm.There'salsononeedforvictimandoffenderto confrontoneanother.Extortioncanbecommittedoverthephone,bymail,orbyemail(butthis ofcoursemakesitafederalcrime).Asageneralintentcrime,themotivesforitdon'treally matter.Italsodoesn'tmatterifthevictimcooperates(i.e.,there'snosuchthingasattempted extortion).Here'ssometypicalextortions: threatstodrivesomeoneoutofbusiness threatstodestroysomebody'sgoodname threatstoexposesomebody'sfamilyorpersonalsecret threatstokidnaporinjuresomebody'sfriendsorfamily threatstocollectadebtbyillegalmeans

threatstohurtsomebodyiftheydon'tdosomething threatstotamperwithsomethingthatbelongstosomebody Extortionisthemostcommoncriminalchargeagainstcorruptpoliceofficers.Otherthanfiling falsestatements/reports,LarcenyTheftisthemostcommonreasonfordecertificationofpolice officers. INTERNETRESOURCES TheArmedRobberyPage FinancialCrimes PreventingCrimeatPlaces UniformCrimeReports PRINTEDRESOURCES Gardner,T.&T.Anderson(1996)CriminalLaw.St.Paul:West. Samaha,J.(1999)CriminalLaw.Belmont,CA:West/Wadsworth. Webb,G.(1981)PlainLanguageLaw:CriminalWrongs.Atlanta:Prof.Impressions. Lastupdated:06/19/03 LectureListforCriminalLaw InstructorHomePage

CRIMESAGAINSTBUSINESS: FORGERYANDFRAUDOFFENSES
Theworldofbusinessand/orcommerceoperatesonthebasisofdocuments(paperorelectronic). It'sbeenthiswayeversincethemerchantclassbecameliterate,anddocumentstookonthe qualityofexpressinglegalrightsandobligations.Intoday'sworld,weproveimportantthingsby producingdocuments(e.g.,birthcertificates,drivers'licenses,titles,invoices,billsofsale).False

documentsrepresentathreattosocialstabilityandorder.Theyundermineconfidenceinthe
authenticityofdocuments.

Forgeryandfraudoffensesrefertoavarietyofcriminalbehaviorsdesignedtocheataperson,a business,orgovernmentagencyoutoftheirmoney,goods,orservices.Thisaspectofthecriminal behaviorcheatingordeceivingistheresemblancebetweentheseoffensesandproperty crime.Indeed,manystatesdon'thaveseparatefraudstatutes;theyincludesuchcrimesunder theftorlarcenybyfraudstatutes.Anotheraspectoffraudulentbehaviorisit'ssimilarityto whitecollarcrime.Indeed,becauseitofteninvolvesthefalsificationofdocuments,it'sagood exampleofthis,butsimplefraudsaren'toftencommittedbypersonsofhighorrespectablesocial status(whichfitsthedefinitionofwhitecollarcrime,seefootnotebelow).Anotheraspectof forgeryandfraudoffensesisthattheycorrupttheveryfoundationofpublicadministrationand/ orgovernmentregulation.Thinkabouttheharmdoneforamomentsocietyisreallythevictim allthepeoplewhohadalegitimateclaimtomoney,goods,orserviceswillnowhavetogo without,withless,orburdensocietymoretogowiththesameinordertomakeupforthelosses incurredfromthosewhohadnolegitimaterighttothemoney,goods,orservices.Inmanyways, forgeryandfraudoffensesarethehybridofallhybridcrimes. Althoughmostcrimesagainstbusinessaredistinguishedbythemeansusedtocarrythemout, forgeryisaspecificintentcrimewhilefraudisageneralintentcrime.Forgeryrequiresarather unusualmentalstatewhicheasilydistinguishesitfromothercrimesoftheft.Withfraud,it's sometimessaidthatitmustalwaysbeintentional,asdistinguishedfromnegligent,butthereare somanydifferentformsoffraud,spellingoutsomanydifferentcircumstances,thatit'sprobably bettertorefertofraudasrequiringconstructiveintent.

ELEMENTSOFFORGERY
Forgeryisthefalsemakingormaterialalterationofawritingwherethewritinghastheapparent abilitytodefraudandisofapparentlegalefficacywiththeintenttodefraud.

1.FalsemakingThepersonmusthavetakenpaperandinkandcreatedafalsedocument
fromscratch.Forgeryislimitedtodocuments.Therecanbenosuchthingasaforgeryofartor forgeryofmachinebecausetheseitemsarenotwrittendocuments."Writing"includesanything handwritten,typewritten,computergenerated,printed,orengraved.

2.MaterialalterationThepersonmusthavetakenagenuinedocumentandchangeditin
somesignificantway.It'sthewritingitselfwhichmustbefalse,notthedocument.Thiselementis intendedtocoversituationsinvolvingfalsesignaturesorimproperlyfillinginblanksonaform.

3.AbilitytodefraudThedocumentorwritinghastoatleastlookgenuineenoughtofool
people.Forgeriesofcompletelyridiculousthings,liketitlestoswamplandinFlorida,deedsto landonthemoon,oralicensetokill,donotqualifyashavingtheapparentabilitytofoolmost people.

4.LegalefficacyThedocumentorwritinghastohavesomelegalsignificanceaffectingat
leastanotherperson'srighttosomething,usuallysomepropertyright,broadlydefinedtoinclude intellectualpropertyliketheformofasignature.Legalsignificanceisdistinguishedfromsocial significance.Awritingofsocialsignificancecannotbethesubjectofforgery;e.g.,aletterof introduction.Similarly,ifyoufoundanoldbookbyafamousauthorandwrotetheirsignature insidethefrontcovertomakeitlooklikeanautographededition,youwouldnotbeguiltyof forgerybecausethishassocial,andnotlegalsignificance.But,ifyouweretoselltheautographed bookatanauction,youwouldbeguiltyoffalsepretenses.

5.IntenttodefraudThespecificstateofmindforforgerydoesnotrequireanintenttosteal,
onlyanintenttofoolpeople.Thepersonmusthaveintendedthatotherpeopleregardsomething falseasgenuine.Aforgeryiscompleteuponhavingcreatedsuchadocumentwiththisrequisite intent.Nouseneedeverbemadeofthedocumentnordoesiteverneedtobetriedoutor circulatedbytheoffender("Possessionis9/10thsofthelaw").Thetestiswhetheranyonemight havebeendefrauded.

ELEMENTSOFUTTERING
Utteringaforgedinstrumentisthepassingormakinguseofaforgedwritingordocumentwith knowledgeofitsforgednature.Thisisthemoreusualpatterntochargetheoffenderwithboth forgeryandutteringbecausetheforgeryisusedtoaccomplishsomeothercrime,likefalse pretenses,someotherpropertyoffense,orsomethingassimpleaspurchasingalcoholwithafake ID.Falsificationofinformationonemploymentapplicationshasalsobeenheldtoinvolve uttering.

1.PassingormakinguseThisisanyputtingintocirculationawritingordocumentthat
involvesforgery.Anyformofmaterialgainmaybethemotive,butgenerallyfinancialgainisthe motive,asinthecommonpracticeofpassingabadcheck.Motiveisnotthedistinguishingfactor, however.Theremustbesomelegalsignificancetothecirculation.

2.IntenttodefraudThisisthesameasintenttodefraudunderforgerylaw. 3.KnowledgeofforgeryThisisheldtoexisteveninthecaseofthepersonpassing
somethingwithoutsayinganything,like"Thisisn'tmyrealname,ortheremightnotbeenough moneyinthebalancetopaythis,butcanyoucashthecheckanyway?"Inotherwords,silence (whenknowingaboutsomethingunusual)qualifiesassatisfyingthiselement.Merelyattempting tooffersomethingasgenuinewhichissuspectedtobefalsequalifiesasofferingortransferring (i.e.,uttering).

BadchecksareperhapsthenumberonecrimeproblemintheUnitedStates.Everyday,1.3
million"badchecks"arepassed,andthere'snowayforthelawenforcementapparatustokeep

up.Therefore,theU.S.hasdevisedaratherunusualmixofcriminal/civillawinthisarea, allowingbusinessestolettheperson"makegood"withinacertainnumberofdays(from37 days)orelsetheyareliableforuptotripletheamountofthecheck.

ELEMENTSOFFRAUD
Fraudconsistsofvariousdeceitfulmeanstoconvertorpermanentlydepriveaperson,business, orgovernmentagencyofproperty,goods,orservices.Thestatutoryelementsareusuallythe sameasunderTheftLaw,althoughsomestateshaveseparatefraudstatutesthatspelloutthe actusreus(like"baitandswitch")moreprecisely.Fraudisalwaysintentional(fraudulentintent), intentionalbyappearance(constructiveintent),orintentionalbyinferencefromtheact(general intent). Theinvestigationoffraud,likepublicorderoffenses,oftenrequireslawenforcementtoengagein certainunethicalpractices,likeinfiltration,entrapment,andstingoperations.Thevarietyof fraudoffensesissometimesamazing,andconstantlygrowing.Theyalsovaryintheirlevelsof sophistication.Here'sanalphabeticallistofthemorecommonfrauds: BankfraudWhencustomersaretoldtheirsavingaccountsareinvestedinoneplace whentheyreallyareinanotherplace ConsumerfraudWhenhomeownersorshoppersaresoldservicesorgoodsthey don'treallyneed ContractfraudTakingadvantageofgovernmentprocurementprocedures, bidrigging,bribes,orkickbacks InsurancefraudFalselyclaiminglost,damaged,orstolenpropertyinordertoreceive insurancesettlements MailfraudUseoftheU.S.mailsforfraudulentpurposes PyramidSchemefraudMultilevelmarketingploysinwhichemployeesmustrecruit otherinvestorsoremployees StockMarketfraudInsidetradingorinvestmentinstartupstomakefortune overnightinapublicofferingthatneveroccurs TelemarketingfraudHighpressurephonecallstobuynowbeforeitstoolateor otherbargaintricks WelfarefraudReceivingbenefitswhenoneisnoteligible FOOTNOTE:WHITECOLLARCRIME [definition:]Plannedillegalorunethicalactsofdeceptioncommittedbyanindividualor organization,usuallyduringthecourseoflegitimateoccupationalactivitybypersonsofhighor respectablesocialstatus,forpersonalororganizationalgainthatviolatesfiduciaryresponsibility

orpublictrust.(ProceedingsoftheAcademicWorkshop1996;Morgantown,WV:NationalWhiteCollarCrime
Center)

Thistablegivesanoverviewof"sophisticated"(Albanese1999)crimes: Conspiracy: WhiteCollar Crimesagainst Thefts: PublicAdmin: Bribery, perjury, obstructionof justice Regulatory Offenses: Labor,trade, manufacture, environment violations CyberCrimes: Damage, alteration, threats,theft Organized Crime: Illicitservices, infiltration

Crimesof Embezzle planningand ment, organiz. extortion, forgery,fraud

INTERNETRESOURCES CrimeBite(CheckFraud)HomePage EconomicCrimePreventionWebPage NASDSecuritiesRegulationHomePage NationalFraudInformationCenter NationalWhiteCollarCrimeCenter PreventionandDetectionofBusinessCrime ReportingOnlineConsumerFraud PRINTEDRESOURCES Albanese,J.(1999)CriminalJustice.Boston:Allyn&Bacon. Gardner,T.&T.Anderson(1996)CriminalLaw.Minneapolis:West. Samaha,J.(1999)CriminalLaw.Belmont,CA:West/Wadsworth. Skelton,D.(1998)ContemporaryCriminalLaw.Boston:ButterworthHeinemann. Lastupdated:06/19/03 LectureListforCriminalLaw InstructorHomePage

CRIMESAGAINSTPUBLICORDER&MORALS
Crimesagainstpublicorderandmoralsareintendedtoupholdminimumstandardsofdecency andcivility.Mostofthemhaveancientroots,butinmoderntimeshavecometobeassociated witheffortstoimprovethequalityoflife,asinwatchmanstylecommunitypolicing.Therangeof behaviorsthatqualityoflifelawsgovernisvastfrompublicnuisances,topublicindecencies,to publicimmoralities,tocontrolledsubstanceuse.Theyareusuallygeneralintentcrimeswherethe inferenceofintent(purposely,knowingly,recklessly)istypicallymadebyajudgmentof offensivenesstosomereasonableperson'ssensibilities.Inothercases,likethoseinvolving substanceabuse,theyareusuallystrictliabilitycrimes.

PUBLICNUISANCES
Thecrimeof"makingapublicnuisance"istypicallydefinedasanoffenseagainst,orinterfering with,thecomfortableenjoymentoflifeorpropertybyaneighborhoodorconsiderablenumberof people.Thelawinthisregardisoftenaimedatcontrollingunlawfulcongregationsand assemblies.TheFirstAmendmentrighttoassemblyisnotabsolute. Undercommonlaw,anunlawfulassemblyisagatheringofthree(3)ormorepersonsforany unlawfulpurposeorundersuchcircumstancesastoendangerthepublicpeaceorcausealarm andapprehension.Thefullsetofrelatedcrimesincreaseinseriousnessasthenumberofpeople goup: Affray2ormorepeoplespontaneouslyquarrelingorfighting Duelingorfighting2ormorepeoplegatheringforafight;withduelingreservedfor personsofhighsocialstatus Unlawfulassembly3ormorepeople,foranyunlawfulpurpose RoutWhenunlawfulassemblersmovetowardaplacewheretheycouldcarryoutany unlawfulpurposeorplan Riot10ormorepeople,andanytumultuousdisturbance(tumultuousisawordwith manymeaningsnoisy,disorderly,excited,rowdy,unruly,wild,hysterical,frantic, uproarious,chaotic) Anothercommonnuisancecrimeisbreachofpeace,commonlycalled"disturbingthepeace"or disorderlyconduct.Disturbingthepeaceusuallyinvolvesminoroffensesinvolvingnoiseat decibelsgreaterthan85;suchasplayingastereotooloudly.Disorderlyconduct,ontheother hand,caninvolveawiderangeofbehaviors,suchas: fighting,threatening,orengagingintumultuousbehavior loud,unreasonablenoisesthatwoulddisturbasensibleperson vulgarwordsorgestureslikelytoprovokeaviolentreaction obstructingapublicaccessrouteorconveyance

interferingwithalawfulmeeting,procession,orgathering creatingachemicallynoxiousandunreasonableodor lasciviouslookingintothewindoworopeningofadwelling exposingone'sanusorgenitalstotheviewofothers urinatingordefecatinginanyplaceopentopublicview Oftenacityorstategovernmentwillusepublicnuisancelawstocontrolgangbehavior.Other statesrelyuponorganizedcrimestatutes.Harshpenaltiesexistforencouragingminorstojoina gangandaggravatingfactorsexistforgangrelatedfelonies.Thefollowingisasampleofpublic nuisancelawsaimedatthecrimeofengagingingangactivities: confronting,intimidating,annoying,harassing,threatening,challenging,provoking,or assaultinganyresidentsorpatronsingroupsof3ormore standing,sitting,walking,driving,orgatheringwithanyknowngangmember usingwords,phrases,gestures,clothing,orsymbolscommonlyknownasgangsigns usingorpossessingpagersorbeepersinamannertendingtoindicateparticipationinthe possessionand/orsaleofnarcotics usingorpossessingmarkerpens,spraypaint,orotherobjectscapableofdefacing property approachinganyvehicles,engaginginconversationwiththeoccupantsofanyvehiclesand doingnothingtopreventtheobstructionordelayofvehicularorpedestriantraffic possessinganyweaponscapableofinflictingseriousbodilyinjury trespassingorencouragingotherstotrespass blockingfreeaccessoregresstosidewalks,streets,driveways,ordoorways signalingtooractingasalookouttowarnothersofpoliceapproach Tobesure,manyjurisdictionsprefernottoevenrecognizegangactivitybymakingalegaloffense aboutit.Gangsoftenthriveonarenegadestatusbestoweduponthembytheadversepublicityof lawenforcementcrackdowns.Therefore,manyjurisdictionsprefertoincorporatetheabovegang activityindicatorsintocivilabatementstatutes.Thisinvolvesusingcourtorderedinjunctions tocommandagrouptostopdoingsomething,orbeheldincontempt. Useofcivilabatementhasadvantagesforothertypesofpublicnuisancesrelatedtopublichealth concerns,suchas: Closingdownbars,bathhouses,andtheaterswherehighrisksexualactivitieshavebeen observed(AIDSvirusbreedinggroundlaws) Quarantineofplacesandpersonsassociatedwithunsafesexpractices,suchas"perhour" hotelsandprostitutes(mandatorytestinglaws)

Regulationandrezoningofadultbookstores(urbanblightlaws) Bulldozingcrackhouses(condemnedpropertylaws)

PUBLICINDECENCIES
Forcenturies,vagrancyandloiteringlawshavebeenusedtoprotectsocietyagainstthemoral pestilenceofvagabonds,paupers,andbeggarsjustasifsocietywasguardingitselfagainst physicalpestilence.Thecrimeofvagrancyiscommittedbywanderingaboutfromplacetoplace withoutanyvisiblemeansofsupport,refusingtoworkeventhoughabletodoso,andlivingoff thecharityofothers.Vagrancylawsaremuchbroaderthandisorderlyconductlaws.Somestates usethetermloiteringratherthanvagrancy,whichisoftendefinedasbeinginaplace,atatime, andinamannernotusualforlawabidingindividuals,andundercircumstancesthatwarrant alarmforthesafetyofpersonsorpropertyinthevicinity. Mostvagrancyandloiteringlaws(withtheexceptionofcurfewandtruancylaws)havebeenheld voidforvagueness.Theyalsotendtomakethestatusofbeingpooracrime.Accordingtothe equalprotectionclauseoftheConstitution,thingswiththeprotectionofstatusarenotactsthat canbecriminalized.Indecencylawsthatremainonthebooksarealwaysatriskofinfringing uponastatusgroup,butsomethathavenotyetbeendeclaredunconstitutionalare: AbuseofanimalsManystates,likeNorthCarolina,havealargenumberofcrimes againstnaturestatutes.Mostoftheseareforabusesagainstanimalsand/orprotectingthe petsofone'sneighbors. AbuseofcorpseThisisthecrimeoftreatingacorpseinanywaythatwouldoutrage familysensibilities.Mostcemeterycrimeisalsocoveredby"desecrationofvenerated objects"lawswhichallowtheelementofoutrageagainstthesensibilitiesofanyonelikelyto observeordiscovertheactions. AppearingnudeinpublicThisistheprototypicalpublicindecency.Somestates requireitbe"lewd"or"suggestive"whichmeansobscenedisplayofgenitalia. PanhandlingorbeggingBlanketprohibitionsagainsttheseactsarenot constitutional;prohibitionsagainstaggressivepanhandlingare.Abelligerent,angry panhandlerwhofollowsapersonwhohasrefusedtogivemoneywouldbeanexampleof aggressivepanhandling.Courtshavealsoupheld"unfriendly"panhandlingasaggressive. PublicintoxicationTheCourtshaveruledthatchronicalcoholanddrugaddiction areacts,notstatuses.Somestates,however,haveruledthatjailingdrunksviolatesthe stateconstitution.Otherstatesmaintainthecriminalstatutebutemphasizetreatmentor rehabilitation. SleepinginpublicThishasbeenchallengedonthegroundsthathomelessnessisa statusdeservingofstrictscrutinyunderequalprotectionanalysisasafundamentalright totravelasoneseesfit.Theissueholdsaprecariouspositioninthecourts,somost jurisdictionsusedisorderlyconductorcivilabatementwiththeirhomelessproblems.

UrinatinginpublicThisisacrimethatisenforcedwithdiscretion,beingtoleratedin somerundownpartsoftownandnotinothers.

PUBLICIMMORALITIES
Mostjurisdictionshopetoregulatepublicimmoralitiestosomeextent,buttheycommonlyfall backonsimplyprohibitingsomethingandthenfailingtoenforcetheirprohibitions.Thismeans thattherearetolerated"vice"zonesinmostAmericancities,andalsoproblemsinherentwith "unenforceable"lawsthaterodelegalityandlegitimacy.Mostofthecrimesinthisareaare privateandconsensual.Theyarecriminalnotbecausethere'sa"victim"intheusualsense,but becausethevolitionalbehaviorofbothpartiestothecrimeoffendssocietalnotionsofmorality. Crimesinthisareatendtofallintotwomaincategories:(1)regulationofmaritalstatusand sexualbehavior;and(2)regulationofsexrelatedvice. REGULATIONOFMARITALSTATUS&SEXUALBEHAVIOR

AdulteryandFornicationinvolvedthesameactofsexualintercoursewhenbeingoutof
wedlock,theformeroffensewhenatleastoneofthepartnersismarried.Prosecutionofthese crimesissorareastomakethelawsnonexistent.

Bigamylawprohibitsapersonfromhavingmorethanonespouseatthesametime.Moststates
allowagoodfaithexceptionifitwasbelievedapreviousspousewasdeadorapreviousmarriage dissolved.Nomensreaisrequiredforthisoffense.MuslimsandMormonshavehistorically practicedpolygamy,buttheformerusuallydonotdosointheU.S.andauthoritiesaresometimes reluctanttoprosecutethelatter.

BuggeryorBestialityisanytypeofsexualintercoursewithananimal,or,insomestates,anal
intercoursewithamanorwomen.

Cohabitationrequiresnoproofofsexualintercourse.It'sjust"livingtogether"outsideof
wedlock.It'stheleastprosecutedpublicordercrime.

Incestlawprohibitssexualintercoursebetweenamaleandafemalewhoaretoocloselyrelated.
Typically,anyrelationship(orconsanguinity)ofbeingfirstcousinsorcloserisincludedasincest. Thelawtendstobaserelationshiponfamilyties,notgeneticties.Therefore,adoptedand"step" relativesareincluded.

Miscegenationistheintermarriage(andinsomestateslivingtogether)ofpersonsofdifferent
races,generallywhiteandblack.AllsuchstatuteshavebeenstruckdownbytheSupremeCourt.

Sodomyhastraditionallybeenacatchalltermforany"unnatural"sexualintercourse,and
similarly,foranytypeofhomosexualactivity.Somestateshaveabolishedtheirsodomystatutes, andinthosestateswheretheyarestillonthebooks,questionsaboutdiscriminationagainst homosexualsremain.

REGULATIONOFSEXRELATEDVICEBEHAVIOR

ProstitutionislegalinpartsofNevada,butillegal(althoughtolerated)throughouttherestof
theU.S.,especiallyincertain"vicezones"wheresomecommunitieshaveapproachedthe problembychargingprostituteswithtrespassiffoundoutsidethetoleratedareas.Prostitution lawsvary,asdodefinitionsoftheterm"prostitute". Thetypicalelementsofprostitutionare:

1.OfferingtoengageorsolicitinginThisisanyofferofagreement,orinthecaseof
soliciting,gettinganothertomaketheofferofagreement.

2.AnysexualcontactThisgenerallyincludesanykindofcontactwiththegenitals;it's
questionablefromaconstitutionalstandpointifselfmasturbation(asinpeepshow)constitutes prostitution.

3.ForafeeThisisgenerallyaccomplishedbyexchangeofmoney. Obscenitylawsareenforcedwithvariablesuccess,andareunofficiallytoleratedifkeptwithin
certain"vicezones"wheresomecommunitieshaveapproachedtheproblembymanipulating zoningordinancesandbusinesspermits.TheSupremeCourtinrecentyearshasbeenaccepting numerousobscenitycases,andtheCommunicationsDecencyActof1996doublesthepenaltiesif computersareusedtotransmitchildpornography,amongotherthings. Thetypicalelementsofobscenityare:

1.AveragepersonThisisthereasonablemanstandard. 2.ApplyingcontemporarycommunitystandardsThisreferstolocalnormsaboutwhat
ispatentlyoffensive.Thematerialorperformancemust,asawhole,lackseriousliterary,artistic, political,andscientificvalue.

3.AppealtoprurientinterestinsexThismeansthatthere'saonesided,almostobsessive,
fascinationwithsex.Generally,thisinvolvesmasturbation,excretoryfunctions,sadism, masochism,lewddepictionsofgenitalia,genitaliainastateofarousalorturgidstate,ordepiction ofadevicedesignedprimarilyforgenitalstimulation.

CONTROLLEDSUBSTANCES
Thefederalgovernmentandall50stateshavecontrolledsubstanceactsthatarequiteuniformin nature.Undersuchlaws,it'sacrimetodoanyofthefollowing: manufactureordeliveracontrolledsubstance possessacontrolledsubstance possesswithintenttomanufactureordeliver create,deliver,orpossesswithintenttodeliveracounterfeit offeroragreetodeliverandthendeliversomethingnotasubstance

keepadwellingorpropertyresortedtobypersonsusingsubstances acquirepossessionofasubstancebymisrepresentationordeception Somestatesfollowa"traceamount"rulewhichdoesn'trequiretheamounttobeusable;other statesfollowa"usableamount"rule.Possessioncanbeeitheractualorconstructive(ifwithinan accessibleareaofcontrol).Intenttodeliverisdeterminedbythequantityofdrugs(and,among otherthings,ifbaggiesarepresentandanylistsofcustomers).Deliveryisgenerallythetransfer ofdrugsfromasuppliertoadealerordistributor,andfromadealerordistributortoauser. Possessionisusuallyamisdemeanorwhiledeliveryisusuallyafelony. INTERNETRESOURCES: AGuidedTouroftheWaronDrugs Ain'tNobody'sBusinessifYouDo PanhandlingandAggressivePanhandling SanFranciscoTaskForceonProstitution SummaryofKeyObscenityCases PRINTEDRESOURCES: Gardner,T.&T.Anderson(1996)CriminalLaw.Minneapolis:West. Reid,S.(1998)CriminalLaw.Boston:McGrawHill. Samaha,J.(1999)CriminalLaw.Belmont,CA:West/Wadsworth. Skelton,D.(1998)ContemporaryCriminalLaw.Boston:ButterworthHeinemann. Lastupdated:06/19/03 LectureListforCriminalLaw InstructorHomePage

CRIMESAGAINSTGOVERNMENT ANDTHEADMINISTRATIONOFJUSTICE
Crimesagainstthegovernmentareinfamouscrimes(withoutfameorgoodreport),and undercommonlaw,peoplecommittingsuchcrimeshavenotevenhavetherighttodefend themselvesattrial(a"firingsquad"offense).TheConstitutionoftheUnitedStates(Article3, Section3)doesnotspecificallyruleoutorruleintherighttorepresentation,butitdoestalk abouttreason(andattemptingtooverthrowthegovernment)asabreachofallegianceandthe

mostaggravated,seriousfelonythatonecouldcommit.TerrorismagainsttheUnitedStatesis anothersuchoffense.Thepurposeofthecriminallawinthisareaistoprotecttheinnocentand preservethepoliticalprocessofrepresentativedemocracyandfreeelections. Crimesagainstjustice,ontheotherhand,arecommonlawmisdemeanorsthatwould hinder,corrupt,orimpedethefunctioningofthejudicialbranchofgovernment.Crimessuchas bribery,subornationofperjury,andtamperingwithwitnessesorevidencearetypical

examples,butthentherearecrossovercrimes,liketaxevasion,wheretaxessupportnotonlythe judicialbranch,butthewholegovernment.Theaimofthecriminallawistocriminalize subversionofthesystem.Bothcrimesagainstgovernmentandagainstjustice,withtheexception

oftreason,areusuallygeneralintentcrimeswheretheactionsspeakfor,orallowtheinferenceof, culpability.

CRIMESAGAINSTGOVERNMENT
Overtheyears,theUnitedStateshashadnumerouslawsrelatingtotreason;e.g.,numerous AlienandSeditionActs.TheseditionlawnowineffectistheSmithActof1940whichwasmade bindingonthegovernmentin1956bytheSupremeCourt.TheSmithAct,likeallpreviousActs inthisarea,hasbeenbothnarrowlyandbroadlyinterpretedinguidingwhoorwhatthe governmentcaninvestigateandprosecute,asthefollowingtableillustrates: Narrowinterpretation: Broadinterpretation:

1.Advocatingtheforcefuloverthrowofthe 1.Anyof(1),(2),or(3)inthecolumnto U.S.government theleft 2.Distributingwithdisloyalintent 2.Activitiesofanyonewhomight materialsteachingoradvisingtheforceful reasonablybeexpectedtouseforceor overthrowoftheU.S.government violenceagainsttheU.S.government(as 3.Organizingorhelpinganygrouphaving opposedtothosewhomerelyadvocateit) apurposein(1)or(2) ELEMENTSOFTREASON

1.BreachofallegianceThepersonmustoweanallegiancetotheUnitedStates.Theymust
becitizens,naturalizedaliens(permanentimmigrants),or"nationals"(Samoa,Hawaii,Puerto Rico)andnotaliens,ontemporaryvisas,orforeignnationalswhomayresideintheU.S.Thetest iswhetherornotapersonowesanallegiancetotheU.S.governmentforanyprotectiontheymay receive,notwhethertheyareacitizenorresident.

2.OvertactofbetrayalThepersonmustcommitsomeovertact,whichisgenerallydefined
asany"material"aidorcomforttotheenemy.Simplythinkingdisloyalthoughtsisnottreason. Wordssometimesqualify;justas"fighting"wordsarenotprotectedbythe1stAmendment,so are"treasonous"wordspunishableunderArticle3,Section3andmoststateconstitutions.

3.IntenttobetrayThisisaspecificmensreaelementwhichrequiresthatthegovernment
showthepersonengagedintheequivalentofpurposelyknowing.It'snotexactlyexpressedthis way,butArticle4,Section2oftheConstitutionprohibitsconvictionfortreasonunlessthe governmentcancallatleasttwo(2)witnesseswhocantestifyastointentortheoffenderconfesses inopencourt. Othercrimesrelatedtotreasoninclude: EspionageThisisthecrimeofspyingorbeingapartytospying.Therearevarious motives,butthemostcommonpatternissaleofsecretsformoney.Espionageactscanalso involvethedestructionofgovernmentrecords,obstructionofaccesstogovernment buildings,ordisruptionofgovernmentfunctioning.

InsurrectionAlsocalledrebellion;thisinvolvesarmingoneselforone'sgrouptothe pointthatmakesitcreatesareasonableexpectationthatforceorviolencewouldbeused againsttheU.S.government. MutinyThisistheoffenseofunlawfullytakingovercommandoftheU.S.government, anypartoftheU.S.government,oranypartofthearmedforces. SabotageThisisdamagingortamperingwithanynationaldefensematerialor nationaldefenseutilities.Disgruntledworkersatdefensedepartmentairplanefactories whorecklesslyleavelooseboltsonequipmenthavebeenconvictedofthis. SeditionThisisanycommunicationintendedtostiruptreasonorrebellionagainstthe government.Controversyexistsinthisareawiththecrimesofflagburningandother formsofunprotectedfreespeech. SubversionThisisthecrimeofengaginginsubversiveactivities,whichisoftena matteroffreespeechgoneoverboardortransmittingblatantlyfalseinformationinhopes ofhelpingtheenemy(seeTitle18excerptbelow). SyndicalismThisisthecrimeoforganizingapoliticalpartyorgroupadvocatingthe violentoverthrowoftheU.S.government. TerrorismThisisthesystematicuseofviolenceorthreatsofviolencetointimidateor coercethegovernmentorwholesocietiesbytargetinginnocentnoncombatants. UNITEDSTATESCODETITLE18CRIMESANDCRIMINALPROCEDUREPARTI CRIMESCHAPTER115TREASON,SEDITION,ANDSUBVERSIVEACTIVITIES Section2388. Activitiesaffectingarmedforcesduringwar (a)Whoever,whentheUnitedStatesisatwar,willfullymakesorconveysfalsereportsorfalse statementswithintenttointerferewiththeoperationorsuccessofthemilitaryornavalforcesof theUnitedStatesortopromotethesuccessofitsenemies;orWhoever,whentheUnitedStatesis atwar,willfullycausesorattemptstocauseinsubordination,disloyalty,mutiny,orrefusalofduty, inthemilitaryornavalforcesoftheUnitedStates,orwillfullyobstructstherecruitingor enlistmentserviceoftheUnitedStates,totheinjuryoftheserviceortheUnitedStates,or attemptstodosoShallbefinedunderthistitleorimprisonednotmorethantwentyyears,or both.

COUNTERFEITING
Themakingoffalsemoney,bonds,postagestamps,andpostalmoneyorders,whetherornot forpersonaluse,isthecrimeofcounterfeiting.Likeforgery,there'saseparateoffensecalled "uttering"forpassingcounterfeitdocuments.Counterfeitingisgenerallyregardedasa governmentthreatbecause,intimesofwar,enemiesoftendroplargeamountsofcounterfeit moneyintotheothercountryinanattempttodestroytheireconomy.

TAXEVASION
Drugdealers,gangsters,spies,andotherorganizedcriminalsoftenlivelavishly,andtodothis, theymust"launder"dirtymoneyinordertomakeitlooklikea"legitimate"sourceofincome. Theymustthenpaytaxesontheirdeclaredincomes,buttheIRSusesa"networth"methodof determiningtaxevasionwhichordinarilycatchesmostcases,eventhebestmoneylaundering schemes.Taxevasionandfraudarecrimesbecausethegovernmentneedsmoneytooperate.

CRIMESAGAINSTTHEADMIN.OFJUSTICE
Thereareanumberoflawsintendedtoprotectthejudicialsystem.Themostcommonformof prohibitedbehaviorinthiscategoryisresistingarrest(whichinvolvespoliceofficersactingin

thejudicialcapacityofbringingadefendantintothejudicialsystem,orescape,iffromalawful detention).Theoldercommonlawoffense(fromwhichresistingarrestsprungfrom)is obstructionofjustice.Statestatutessometimeslistdozensofdifferentwaystoobstructjustice, butthemostcommonwaysareto"frame"someonebyplantingevidenceor"fix"someone's problembywithholding,destroying,orremovingevidence.Relatedtoobstructingjusticearetwo (2)crimesofkeepingsilent: CompoundingacrimeAcrimeis"compounded"whenthevictimagreestonot prosecuteforavaluableconsiderationfromtheoffender.It'sthesameaswithholding evidence,butinreturnforreceivingsomethingofvaluefromtheoffender,evenifit'sjust thestolenpropertyback.Usually,onlyseriousmisdemeanorsorfeloniescanbe compounded. MisprisionoffelonyThisisanold(hueandcry)failuretoreportacrimeifoneisa witnessorvictimtoit.Modernstatutesrequire,inadditiontoafailuretodisclose,some positiveactofconcealment,suppressionofevidence,harboringofafelon,orintimidation ofwitnesses.

ELEMENTSOFPERJURY
Perjuryisthewillfultakingofafalseoathinajudicialproceedinginregardtomaterialmatter atissuebeforethecourt.Theessentialelementsare:

1.WillfultakingoffalseoathAn"oath"orsomeotherformofoathallowedatlaw,isan
essentialelement.Thereasonsarehistorical.Throughouthistory,perjurywasaminor misdemeanorbecausethesupernaturalconsequencesoflyingunderoathwereconsideredmore severethanwhateverthelawcoulddotoaperson.

2.JudicialproceedingHistorically,thecrimeofperjurycouldonlybecommittedinopen
court,butstateshaveexpandedittoincludeaffidavits,depositions,testimony,andstatementsin otherproceedings.

3.MaterialmatteratissueThepersonmustlieaboutasubjectthathasasignificant
outcomeattrial.Thesignificantoutcomedoesn'thavetobeguiltorinnocence,butitmustbe

morethansocialsignificance,suchaslyingaboutyourageorplaceofbirth.

4.[Generalorconstructiveintent]Thepersonneednotknowpositivelythattheir
statementisfalse.Itissufficientifproventheyaremerelyuncertainabouttheirstatement,but wentaheadanywayandmadethestatement.It'samatterofdeterminingifthepersoncaredor didnotcareabouttellingthetruth.Undercommonlaw,therequirementwasthattwo(2) witnesseswereneededtosupporttheintenttocommitperjury,butmodernlawallowsasingle witnesspluscircumstantialevidence,orcircumstantialevidencealone.

SUBORNATIONOFPERJURY
Procuringorinducinganothertocommitthecrimeofperjuryissubornationofperjury. Thesubornermustknowthatthetestimonytobegivenisfalseandthatapersonwouldwillingly andknowinglytestifyfalsely.Crimesthataresomewhatrelatedtosubornationare: Embracerywrongfulinfluencingofjurors Barretrystirringuplawsuitsbetweenpeople Champertywrongfullyinducingapersontobringalawsuit

ELEMENTSOFBRIBERY
Briberyisthetender(orreceipt)ofanythingofvalueto(by)apublicofficeholderwiththe intentthatthepublicofficeholderwillbeinfluencedintheperformanceofhis/herofficialduties. Inadditiontobribery,publicofficerholderscanbeadditionallychargedwithconflictof

interest(personallyprofitingfromoffice)and/orcriminalmisconduct(whereapplicable).
It'salsoacrimetofailtoreportabribe.

1.Tender(orreceipt)Atlaw,itdoesn'tmatterhowsomethingofvalueistransferredoreven
ifanythingisexchangedatall.Making,giving,oracceptingabribeareallthesame.There'sno suchthingasattemptedbribery.

2.AnythingofvalueThelawdoesn'teventrytodefinethislooseterm;generally,anything
willsuffice.

3.PublicofficeholderSomestateswillspecifytheexactofficeholdersthatcanbeinvolved
inbribery;otherstatesidentifycertainlegalcategories(legislators,judges,jurors,law enforcementofficers);otherstatesincludecorporateofficers,athletes,etc.);andstillotherstates justrefertoanyone,publicorprivate,thathasinfluenceoveranything. 4. [Generalorconstructiveintent]Althoughthedefinitionofbriberyspellsoutan intenttoinfluencetheperformanceofpublicoffice,becausesomestateshavewatered downthe"public"officerequirement,ageneralintent(inferredfromtheactofbribery) toinfluenceisusuallythecase.Somestates,however,requirea"mutual"intentbetween twoparties.

5.

ELEMENTSOFCONTEMPT
Contemptisthewillfuldisregardoftheauthorityofacourtorlegislativebody.Anythingthat frustratesthedignityoftheseinstitutionscanbeheldincontempt.Contemptofalegislativebody typicallyoccursbyprotestersoutsideofCapitolHillwhentheyintimidatewitnessescalledto testifybeforeCongressionalcommittees.Allordersandjudgmentsofacourtmustbecomplied withpromptly.Apersoncanappeal,butabsentastay[ofjudgment],thepersonmuststillcomply eveniftheyhaveappealed.Ifapersonisobstinateenough,theymaybeheldincriminal contempt,whichisaformofpunishment."Civil"contemptisusedtocompelpeopletodothings untiltheydoit.

1.WillfuldisregardThereisnocontemptunlessthereissomesortofwillfuldisregard,some
degreeofintentionalwrongdoing.Fallingasleepincourtorbeinglateforreasonsnotyourown, forexample,cannotbesubjecttocontempt.Failuretopayafine,forbeingunableor unemployed,isnotadefensetocontempt.

2.[Generalintentdirectcontempt]Directcontemptoccursinfullviewofopencourtor
thelegislativebody.Itmaybepunishedsummarily,meaningthere'snoopportunityforahearing aboutit.AnexamplewouldbewhenLarryFlyntstartedshoutingobscenitiesathistrial.The generalruleisthattheremustbeapersonalattackonatrialjudgeintheformofavicious slanderorangryinsult.Isolatedusesofstreetvernacular,like"chickenshit",havenotbeenheld sufficienttosupportcontemptcharges.

3.[Constructiveintentindirectcontempt]Indirectcontemptoccursoutofthepresence
orhearingofacourtorlegislativebody.Apersonsochargedisentitledtoahearingonitbefore submittingtopunishmentforit. INTERNETRESOURCES: AShortHistoryofPerjury CenterforDemocracyandTechnology CenterforNationalSecurityStudies TheLiteralTruthDefensetoPerjury NorthCarolinaProcedureonCrimesAgainstJustice TerrorismLaw&CriminalProcedure(UK) USDept.ofState:BureauofDiplomaticSecurity PRINTEDRESOURCES: Gardner,T.&T.Anderson(1996)CriminalLaw.Minneapolis:West. Samaha,J.(1999)CriminalLaw.Belmont,CA:West/Wadsworth. Skelton,D.(1998)ContemporaryCriminalLaw.Boston:ButterworthHeinemann. Lastupdated:06/19/03 LectureListforCriminalLaw InstructorHomePage

CIVILLIABILITY
SuingthegovernmentisthesecondmostpopularindoorsportinAmerica,andpoliceareoften thetargetsoflawsuits,withover30,000civilactionsfiledagainstthemeveryyear,between48% ofthemresultinginanunfavorableverdict,wheretheaveragejuryawardis$2million.Thisisn't evencountingthehundredsofcasessettledthruoutofcourtsettlements,whichprobablyrunsin thehundredsofmillionsandinvolvesabouthalfofallcasesfiled.Itmaytakeuptofiveyearsto settleapoliceliabilitycase. Whenpolicefailtoperformtheirduties,performthemnegligently,orabusetheirauthority, thepossibilityofcivilliabilityexists.Unlikecriminalcases,liabilitycasesaretriedincivilcourt. It'scommontonameeveryoneassociatedwiththeinjuryordamageasthedefendant(officers, supervisors,agencies,eventhegovernmententity)inordertoreachthe"deeppockets".Chances arethehigherupswillhavetheabilitytopaylargerawardseitherpersonallyorbyraisingtaxes. Therearetwo(2)waystosuethepolice.One,thelawsuitmaybefiledinstatecourtasatort

lawclaim.Thisisthepreferredmethodsincetortscanonlybesettledbymoneyawardsandthe
standardofproofispreponderanceoftheevidence,astandardmuchlowertoconvictthanina criminalcase.Two,thelawsuitmaybefiledinfederalcourtasaviolationofTitle42oftheUnited StatesCode,Section1983.Thisisreferredtoasacivilrightsclaim,andisessentiallyacharge thatsomeonehashadtheirconstitutionalrightsviolated.Statescannotbesuedinacivilrights claim,butmunicipalitiesandsheriffscanbesuediftheyare(a)actingundercolorofstatelaw, and(b)violatingaspecificAmendmentrightintheConstitution.Thestandardsunderfederal lawarecustomorpolicy,anddeliberateindifference,aratherpoorlydefinedconceptwhichis similartototalityofcircumstances.Althoughfederallawsuitscanresultinmoneyawards,the amountisusuallylesssincethemainpurposeistowinandgettheagencytochangethewayit operates;i.e.,obtaininjunctiverelief. STATE(TORT)LIABILITYLAW Therearethreetypesoftortsunderstatelaw,eachwithdifferentlevelsofproofandfocusing upondifferentelementsoftheinjuryordamage.Evidencerules,precedent,andjudicial discretionplayaroleindeterminingwhattypeoftortlawwillbeapplied. STRICTLIABILITYInthiscase,theinjuryordamageissosevereandit'sreasonablycertain thattheharmcouldhavebeenforeseenthatthelawdispenseswiththeneedtoproveintentor mentalstate.Theonlyissueiswhethertheofficerordepartmentshouldpaythemoneyaward, andsinceofficersdon'tusuallyhaveanymoney,thedepartmentalmostalwayspays.(Examples: recklessoperationofvehicle;excessiveSWATtactics) INTENTIONALTORTInthiscase,theofficer'sintentmustbeproven,usingaforeseeability testinvolvingwhetherornottheofficerknowinglyengagedinbehaviorthatwassubstantially certaintobringaboutinjury.(Examples:wrongfuldeath;assault;falsearrest;false imprisonment) NEGLIGENCEInthiscase,intentormentalstatedonotmatter.Whatmattersiswhether someinadvertentactorfailuretoactcreatedanunreasonablerisktoanothermemberofsociety.

(Examples:speedingresultingintrafficaccident;notrespondingto911call)Moststateshave threelevelsofnegligence:(1)slightormere(absenceofforesight);(2)gross(recklessdisregard); and(3)criminal.Tobeprosecutedundertortlawfornegligenceusuallyrequiresatleastlevel2 sincetobeprosecutedformerenegligencerequiresconsideringforeseeabilitywhichwould supportchargingthepersonwithanintentionaltortornot. Thereareadditionaldetailsofstatetortliabilityassociatedwithspecifictypesoflawsuits,such as: WrongfuldeathThesearetypicallycaseswhentheofficerthinksasuspectisreaching foraweapon,shootsthesuspect,andthennoweaponisfoundonthesuspect.Courtshave ruledthatthetotalityofcircumstancesmustbelookedat,especiallythereasonwhythe suspectcameintocontactwiththeofficerinthefirstplace.Merelyallegingthatasuspect appearedtobereachingforaweaponisnodefense. Assault&BatteryApoliceassaultwouldbeifaninterrogatorthreatenstothrowa suspectoutasecondfloorwindow;apolicebatteryis(paradoxically)definedmoreloosely asanyoffensivecontactwithoutconsent;e.g.,amaleofficerperforminganillegalsearch ofafemaleoverherprotests. FalsearrestTheunlawfulrestraintofaperson'slibertywithouttheirconsent;e.g., usingthecagedareaofapatrolcarasaholdingarea,severalofficerssurrounding somebody,ororderingsomeonetoremainatthestationcouldallbeinterpretedasfalse arrest. FalseimprisonmentThisisdifferentfromfalsearrestinthatanofficermayhavehad probablecausetoarrest,butlaterviolatescertainpretrialrights,suchasaccesstoajudge orbondsman. HOTPURSUITS:Thishighliabilityareatypicallyinvolvesrecklessornegligent operationofamotorvehicle.It'salsotypicallyastrictliabilityarea,andherearesome oftheactsusedbythecourtstoinferintentorstateofmind:notusingflashers& sirens;notconsideringalternativetochase;usingold,beatuppolicecars;excessive disregardoftrafficcontroldevices;notsecuringthechasepath;notwarningthe public;usingcutoffmaneuvers&roadblocksthatcreatethepossibilityfor overreaction;notstoppingtoassistanyinnocentinjuredbystanders.Thedutiesare threefold:Towarn&protect;Tosecurethescene;Torenderassistance. FEDERALLIABILITYLAW Twoelementshavetobepresentsimultaneouslyunderfederalliabilitylaw.Ifapersonlosesin federalcourt,theystillhaverecourseunderstatelaw. ACTINGUNDERCOLOROFLAWThismeansthatthebehaviorofofficersnotrelatedto employmentarenotactionable.Itdoesnotmeanthatoffdutyofficerscannotbesued.Anofficer moonlightinginasecurityjobcanbeheldliablesincetheyareactingundercoloroflawin performingapolicefunction.And,itsoundslikeacontradiction,butpolicebehaviorthatis clearlyillegalandviolatesdepartmentalprocedure,likebeatingupacitizen,isregardedbythe

courtasactingundercoloroflaw. VIOLATIONOFACONSTITUTIONALRIGHTTheseinvolvewhateverthecourtbelievesto bespecificallyprohibitedconductregardingfreedomofreligion,speech,press,orassembly(1st Amendment),freedomfromunreasonablesearchandseizure(4thAmendment),freedomfrom doublejeopardyandselfincrimination(5thAmendment),rightstoaspeedy,public,impartial jurytrial,andtobeinformedofthecharges,confrontandcompelwitnesses,andtohave assistanceofcounsel(6thAmendment);freedomfromexcessivebail,fines,andcruelandunusual punishments(8thAmendment);andfreedomfromdeprivationsoflife,liberty,orproperty withoutdueprocess(14thAmendment). TheleadingcaseinpolicedepartmentliabilityunderfederallawisMonellv.Dept.ofSocial Services(1978).Underthisruling,itmustbeshownthatthedepartmentadoptedorpromulgated (howeverinformal)a"custom"orpolicythatwasthedrivingforcebehindtheofficer'sviolation ofconstitutionalrights.Inessence,thisisthedoctrineofrespondeatsuperior,sinceapolicymaker (or"custommaker")hastobefoundtodeclarethedepartmentliable.A"pattern"of constitutionalviolationsandanawarenessofthembyhighrankingofficialsmustbe demonstrated.However,thereisprecedentholdingdepartmentsaccountableforonesingleactas fulfilling"pattern"requirement. Examplesofgrossnegligenceoraccumulationsofmerenegligenceconstitutedeliberate

indifference.Thisstandardisusuallysatisfiedbylookingatwhetherornottheagency

administrationengagedinsupervisorynegligence.Virtuallyeverydecisionapoliceadministrator makessubjectsthemtopossibleliability.Thefollowingareexamplesofsupervisorynegligence: Negligenthiringhiringpersonsunfitforpolicework;notconductingpsychological exams;notconductingfullbackgroundchecks Negligentsupervisioninadequatemonitoringofemployeeperformance;failureto reprimandwhenappropriate;toleratingsloppypolicework;hearingrumors&notacting; beingnewtosupervisorjob Negligentretentionkeepingemployeesonthejoborpromotingthemonthebasisof favoritismorfriendshipwhentheyclearlyshouldhavebeenseverelydisciplined,demoted, ordismissed Failuretotraininadequatelypreparingemployeestoperformtheirduties;minimalor tooeasyacademytraining;littleornoinservicetraining;noeducationaltuition reimbursement Negligententrustmentinadequatelypreparingemployeespriortoentrustingthem withresponsibilities;asynergisticcombinationoffailuretotrainandnegligent supervision Negligentassignmentassigningknownproblememployeestocriticalor inappropriateduties;recklessdriverstopatrol;racistofficerstoghettoareas;sexist officerswithafemalepartner Failuretodirectnotgivingofficersclear,articulatedguidanceinhowtoperform

theirduties;nothavingpoliciesandprocedures;havingofficers"signoff"onsame withoutunderstandingthem Failuretodisciplinenothavinganeffectivedisciplineprocess;notfollowing progressivedisciplineprinciples Failuretoinvestigatealsoaliabilityofofficers;withsupervisors,it'snothavingan effectiveInternalAffairsunit,inspectionsorintegritychecks,adifficult(forcitizens) complaintprocess,oradifficult(foremployees)grievanceprocess Failuretoprotectalsoaliabilityofofficersandjailmanagers;it'snotinspecting safetyconditions;allowingvictimsorwitnessestocomeincontactwithsuspects; (protectionofpublicisanindividualliabilityaddressedwithfailuretodirectfor supervisorsorwritofmandamus) Failuretotreatalsoaliabilityofofficersandjailmanager;notprovidingfirstaid, ambulanceservice,orcounseling(giventheforeseeabilityofsuicide) Negligentclassificationajailmanagerliability;throwingadultsinwithchildren,or dangerousinmatesinwithnondangerousones DEFENSESTOLIABILITY

Contributorynegligencethisiswherethegovernmentshowsthattheplaintiffwasalso
negligent,andcontributedtotheirowninjuryordamage.Nomoneyawardisgrantedifthis defenseissuccessful.

Comparativenegligencethisiswhenthecourtdecidesonapercentagesplit(say6040)in
termsofwhoisnegligent.Thisdefensetendstomitigate,orreducethesizeofthemoneyaward.

Assumptionofriskthisiswhenthecourtdecidesthatthesuspectengagedinbehaviors(e.g.,
fleeingfrompolice)thatassumedtheriskofdamagesorinjuries,andcannotexpecttosuethe policetorecover.

AbsoluteImmunityThisisaSection1983lawsuitdefensethatislimitedtoparticipationin
thejudicialprocess;i.e.,testifyingincourt.Ifapoliceofficercommitsperjuryonthestand,they cannotbethreatenedwithcivilliability,onlythecriminaloffenseofperjury.Thecourtsreason thatit'sdifficultenoughtogetpeopletotestifywithoutthethreatofcivilliability.

QualifiedImmunityThisisaSection1983lawsuitdefensecoveringdutiesofadiscretionary
nature,suchaswhenapoliceadministratordecidestoincreaseordecreasethenumberofpatrols fordrunkdrivers.Amotoristhitbyadrunkdriverchargingthatthedepartmentdidnothave enoughpatrolcarsoutprotectingherwouldnotwinherlawsuit.

ProbableCauseThisisthestandarddefensetofalsearrestcharges. GoodFaithThiscoversawiderangeofbehaviors,evenunconstitutionalones,iftheofficeris
executingawarrantbelievingingoodfaiththatthewarrantwasvalid,butitlaterturnsoutthe warrantwasdefectiveorinvalid.

CollegeEducationWhenadepartmenthasa4yearcollegedegreestandardforallits

employees,thisprotectssomewhatagainstvariousformsofsupervisorynegligence,suchas chargesrelatingtothefailuretosupervise,direct,train,orentrust,sinceitcanreasonablybe expectedthatcollegeeducatedofficersarebetterpreparedtounderstandabroaderrangeof motivationandcontrolissues,morelikelytoreadandunderstandpolicymanuals,temperpolice powerswithgoodjudgmentordemocraticvalues,andhaveamoreprofessionalorientation. INTERNETRESOURCES AmericansforEffectiveLawEnforcement,Inc. AELE:CaseLawLibrary TheLiabilityReporter PoliceLiabilityAssessmentGuide PoliceLiabilityConcerningHumanRights PRINTEDRESOURCES Carter,D.&A.Sapp(1990).HigherEducationasaPolicyAlternativetoReducePoliceLiability. PoliceLiabilityReview2:12. DelCarmen,R.(1991).CivilLiabilitiesinAmericanPolicing.EnglewoodCliffs,NJ:PrenticeHall. Kappeler,V.(1993).CriticalIssuesinPoliceCivilLiability.ProspectHeights,IL:WavelandPress. Lastupdated:06/19/03 LectureListforCriminalLaw InstructorHomePage