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UNIT I

1. What are the components of a power system?


The components of power systems are
1. generating stations
2. step up transformer stations
3. transmission lines
4. switching stations
5. step down transformer stations
6. primary distribution lines
7. service transformer banks
8. secondary distribution lines
2. What is meant by transmission and distribution system?
A large network which is used to deliver bulk power from power stations to the
load centers and large industrial consumers is called distribution system.
3. What are the transmission level voltages we have in India?
Primary transmission level voltage is 132 KV, 220KV or 400KV and secondary
transmission level voltage is 33KV or 66KV.
4. In India generation voltages are usually ___________.
3.3KV,6.6KV,11KV or 33KV.
5. The voltages for primary distribution are
11KV,6.6KV or 3.3KV.
6. The voltage for secondary distribution in our country is _________.
400 volts.
7. What is an one-line diagram?
Schematic representation of the elements of electric power system is called as
one line diagram.
8. What is meant by primary and secondary transmission?
Transmission of electric power at 132KV by 3 phase 3 wire overhead system is
known as secondary transmission.
Transmission of electric power at 33KV by 3 phase 3 wire overhead system is
known as secondary transmission.
9. What is meant by primary and secondary distributions?
The secondary transmission lines terminates at the substations where voltage is
reduced from 333KV to 11KV lines which run along the road sides of the city forms the
primary distribution.
Primary distribution lines terminates at the distributing substations where voltage
is reduced from 11KV to 400 volts. Thus 3 phase 4 wire system which connect the
distributing substation and the consumer point forms the secondary distribution
10. Distinguish between a feeder and a distributor.

SI.NO Feeder Distributor
1. a)
b)
Feeder are conductors or
transmission lines which carry
current from the stations to the
feeding points.
No tapping is taken from the
feeders.
Feeders terminate into distributors
So distributor is also a conductor from
which current is tapped off for the
supply to the consumer.
2. Current carrying capacity plays a
major role in designing a feeder.
Whereas voltage drop plays a major
role in designing a distributor.
3. Current loading remains the same
along its length.
Current loading factor varies along its
length.
11. What is a feeder?
Feeder is a conductor or transmission line which transmits current from the
generating stations to different distributing substations.
12. What are service mains?
Conductors which connect consumers premises with the distributor are called
service mains.
13. Define the term distributor?
Distributor is a conductor from which current is tapped off for the supply to the
consumers. Feeders terminate into distributor.
14. Why is electrical power preferably to be transmitted at a high voltage?
Electrical power is transmitted at high voltage because,
1.) it reduces the volume of conductor material used.
2.) It increases transmission efficiency.
3.) It decreases line drop.
15. What are the advantages of the HVDC transmission system over HVAC
transmission?
Advantages of HVDC transmission are
1.) It requires only two conductors as compared to three for ac transmission.
2.) There is no inductance, capacitance, phase displacement and surge
problems in dc transmission.
3.) Due to the absence of inductance, the voltage drop in a dc transmission line
is less than ac line for the same load and sending end voltage. Hence dc
transmission has a better voltage regulation.
4.) There is no skin effect in a dc system. Therefore entire cress section of
conductor is utilized.
5.) For the same working voltage the potential stress on the insulation is less in
case of dc system than that in ac system. Therefore dc line requires less
insulation.
6.) DC line has less corona loss and reduced interference with communication
circuits.
7.) HVDC transmission line is free from dielectric loss, particularly in the case
of cables.
8.) No stabilizer is required for HVDC transmission over long distances.
16. What are the demerits of HVDC transmission?
1.) Electric power cannot be generated at high dc voltages
2.) The dc voltages cannot be stepped up for transmission of power at high
voltages.
3.) The dc switches and circuit breakers have their own limitations.
17. What are the advantages of high voltage AC transmission?
1.) The power can be generated at high voltages.
2.) The maintenance of ac substations is easy and cheaper.
3.) The ac voltage can be stepped up or stepped down by transformer with ease
and efficiency. This permits to transmit power at high voltages and
distribute it at safe potentials.
18. What are the disadvantages high voltage AC transmission?
1.) An ac line requires more copper than a dc line
2.) The construction of an ac line is more complicated than a dc transmission
line.
3.) Due to skin effect in the ac system the effective resistance of the line is
increased.
4.) An ac line has capacitance. Therefore there is a continuous loss of power
due to charging current even when the line is open.
19. What are terminal equipments necessary in HVDC system?
The terminal equipments necessary in HVDC system are converters, inverters
mercury are valves, thyristors etc.
20. What are the elements of a distributor.
A distribution system consists of feeders distributions and service mains.


UNIT II
1. What are the primary constants of transmission lines?
(or)
What are line parameters?
Resistance, inductance, capacitance and conductance distributed uniformly
along the length of the line are called constants or parameters of transmission line.
2. Define resistance of transmission line?
Resistance of transmission line in a single phase is defined as the loop
resistance per unit length of line. (loop resistance is nothing but the sum of
resistances of both the wires for unit line length )
In a 3 phase it is defined as the resistance per phase. (ie) resistance of one
conductor
3. Define inductance of transmission line. Give its unit.
Inductance is defined as loop inductance per unit length of line (loop
inductance is the sum of inductances of both the wires for unit line length).
Its unit is henry per meter.
4. Define capacitance of transmission line.
Capacitance is defined as shunt capacitance between the two wires per unit
line length. (or) The capacitance between the conductors in a transmission
line is the charge per unit potential difference.
Its unit is farad per meter.
5. What is skin effect? Is it applicable to DC current also?
An alternating current when flowing through the conductor, does not
distribute uniformly, rather it has the tendency to concentrate near the
surface of the conductor. This phenomenon is called skin effect.
It is not applicable to DC current.
6. What is the effect of skin effect on the resistance of transmission line?
Due to skin effect the effective area of cross section of the conductor
through which current flows is reduced. Consequently the resistance of line
is increased when carrying an alternating current.
7. What is the cause of skin effect?
A solid conductor may consists of large number of strands, each carrying a
small portion of the total current. The inductance of the individual strands
will vary according to their positions. Thus the strands near the centre are
surrounded by a greater magnetic flux and hence have a larger inductance
than that near the surface. The presence of high reactance near the centre
causes the alternating current to flow near the surface resulting in skin
effect.
8. On what factors does the skin effect depend?
The skin effect depends upon the following factors:-
1.) nature of material
2.) diameter o wire
3.) frequency and
4.) shape of wire
9. Give an expression for the loop inductance of a single phase, two wire system.
Loop inductance
=
1
]
1

r
d
r
ln 2 10
7


r
= relatively permeability of the material
d =Distance between two conductors
r =radius of the first conductor.
10. How inductance and capacitance of a transmission line are affected by the
spacing between the conductors?
If the conductors of a 3 phase transmission line are not equidistant from
each other the flux linkages, inductances and capacitances of various phases
are not different. This causes unequal voltage drops in the three phases and
transfer of power between phases due to mutual inductance even if the
currents in the conductors are balanced. Thus spacing between the
conductors play a major role in overhead transmission.
11. What is transposition? Why is it done?
(or)
Why transmission lines are transposed?
When three phase line conductors have unsymmetrical spacing the flux linkages
and inductances of each phase are not the same. This results in the unequal voltage
drops in the three phases even if the currents in the conductors are balanced.
Therefore the voltage at the receiving end will not be the same for all phases. To
avoid the unbalancing effect the positions of the line conductors are interchanged at
regular intervals along the line so that each conductor occupies the original position
of every other conductor over an equal distance. This exchanging of positions of
conductors is called transposition.
12. What is the necessity for a double circuit line?
The necessity for a double circuit line in overhead transmission system is to reduce
the inductance perhaps
13. Write an expression for the inductance of each conductor for a 3 phase overhead
transmission line in which the conductors are unsymmetrical spaced but
transposed.
If the current carrying conductors A,B,C are spaced asymmetrically
and are transposed to avoid the unbalancing effect then the inductance of each
conductor for a 3 phase overhead transmission line is
=
m H
r
d d d
/ 10 ln 2 5 . 0
7
3
3 2 1

1
1
]
1

,
_

+
Where d1,d2,d3 are the distances between the conductors
r- radius of the conductors
14. Distinguish between GMD and GMR.

S.NO GMD(Dm) GMR(Ds)
1.) GMD is also called as mutual GMD GMR is also called as self GMD
2.) GMD is defined as the geometrical mean
of the distances from one end of the
conductor to the other end. (i.e. between
the largest and smallest)
GMR is defined as the limit of
geometric mean of distances
between all the pairs of elements in
that area as the number of elements
increase without limit
3.) Mutual GMD depends only upon the
spacing and is independent of the exact
size, shape, orientation of the conductor.
Self GMD of a conductor depends
upon the size and shape of the
conductor and is independent of
spacing between the conductors.
4.) For a single phase line Dm=spacing
between conductors=D.
For a single phase line Ds=0.7788r
5.) For a single circuit 3phi line
Dm=(d1*d2*d3)
1/3
For a single circuit 3 phi line
Ds=0.7788r
6.) For a double circuit 3phi line Dm-
=(D
AB
*D
BC
*D
CA
)
For a double circuit 3phi line
D
s
=(D
S1
*D
S2
*D
S3
)

15. Write an expression for electric potential at a charged single conductor?
Electric potential at a charged single conductor A is

r o
A
A
x
dx Q
V
2
Where Q
A
=charge per meter length
o

= permittivity of free space


r = radius of the conductor
x = distance
16. Write an expression for electric potential at a conductor in a group of charged
conductors?
Let A,B,C etc be the group of conductors operating at potentials such that
charges Q
A
;Q
n
;Q
c
etc coulomb per metre length.
1
]
1

+ + +

.....
1
ln
1
ln
1
ln
2
1
2 1
d
Q
d
Q
r
Q V
c B A
o
A

Where r-radius of the conductor A


d1,d2 -distance between the conductor A and other conductor B,C
etc.
o- permittivity of free space.
17. Explain proximity effect on conductors.
The alternating magnetic flux in a conductor caused by the current flowing
in a neighbouring conductor gives rise to circulating currents which cause
an apparent increase in the resistance of a conductor. This phenomenon is
called proximity effect.
18. What is the effect of proximity effect?
Proximity effect results in
1.) the non uniform distribution of current in the cross section
2.) the increase of resistance
19. What is ACSR conductor?
ACSR conductor is an aluminum conductor with a steel core reinforced. It
consists of central core of galvanized steel strand surrounded by a number
of aluminum strands.
ACSR is a composite conductor which combines the lightness, electrical
conductivity and rustle ness of aluminum with the high tensil strength and
has a larger diameter. So to minimize the conona losses they are now used
as overhead conductors in the long distance transmission lines.
20. What is a composite conductor?
A conductor which operates at high voltages and composes of two or more
elements or strands, electrically in parallel is called as a composite conductor.
21. What is bundle conductor?
A bundle conductor is a conductor made up of two or more sub conductors
and is used as one phase conductors.
22. What are the advantages of using bundled conductors?
1.) reduced reactance
2.) reduced voltage gradient
3.) reduced corona loss
4.) reduced radio interference
5.) reduced surge impedance
unit III
characteristics and performance of transmission lines
1. Give the lengthwise classification of transmission lines.
Transmission lines are classified as
1.) short transmission lines (length <80 km)
2.) medium transmission lines (80km<length < 250km)
3.) long transmission lines (length > 250 km)
2. Define regulation of a transmission line.
Regulation of a transmission line is defined as the change in voltage at the
receiving end when full load is thrown off the sending end voltage
remaining the same.
It is usually expressed as a percentage of receiving end voltage
100 %
'

R
R R
V
V V
regulation
Where
'
R
V

- no load voltage at the receiving end


V
R
- receiving end voltage
3. Define efficiency of a transmission line.
Efficiency of a transmission line is defined as the ratio of power received to
the power sent.
100 100
s s s
R R R
Cos I V
Cos I V
out sent Power
delivered Power

Where V
R
, I
R
, Cos
R
are the receiving end voltage, current and power
factor respectively.
V
s
, I
s
, Cos
s
are the sending end voltage, current and power factor
respectively.
4. Explain the influence of power factor on the refulation of a transmission line.
1.) when the load PF ( cos
R
) is lagging or unity or leading that IR cos
R
> IX
L
sin
R
then voltage regulation is positive (receiving end voltage is
lesser than the sending end voltage) and increases with the decrease in
power factor for lagging loads (for a given V
R
and I.
2.) when the load PF is leading to this extent that IR cos
R
< IX
L
sin
R
the voltage regulation is negative and decreases with the decrease in PF for
leading loads (for a given V
R
and I)
5. Under what circumstances, the receiving end voltage may be higher than that
of the sending end?
When load PF cos
R
is leading, IX
L
sin
R
>IR cos
R
then regulation is negative (i.e.). the receiving end voltage may be higher
than that of the sending end.
Where I load current
X
L
-loop reactance
cos
R
- receiving end power factor(leading)

6. Explain how capacitance effects are taken into account in medium
transmission lines.
Medium transmission lines have sufficient length (80-250km) and operate
at voltages greater than 20kv. In such lines the capacitive current is
appreciable and hence cannot be neglected. So to obtain reasonable
accuracy the effects of capacitance must be taken into account.
7. What are the methods that are used for obtaining the performance
calculations of medium lines?
The methods that are used for obtaining the performance calculation of
medium lines are
1.) end condenser method
2.) nominal T method
3.) nominal method
8. Draw the T equivalent circuit of a medium transmission line.
Where - load current per phase
- resistance per phase
- inductive reactance per phase
- capacitance per phase
- receiving end power factor(lagging)
- sending end voltage
- voltage across capacitor C.
9. Draw the equivalent circuit of a medium line.
10. What is Ferranti effect?
The phenomenon of rise in voltage at the receiving end of the lightly loaded
or unloaded line is called as Ferrantis effect.
11. What is the difference between nominal T and nominal configuration?

S.NO Nominal T
Nominal
1.) In this the whole line capacitance is
assumed to be concentrated at the
middle point of the line and half the line
resistance and reactance are lumped on
its either side
In this the whole line capacitance is
assumed to be divided into two
halves, one half being connected at
the receiving end and other half at
the receiving end.
2.)
Full charging current flows over half the
line
Capacitance at the receiving end has
no effect on the line drop. But the
charging current of the second half
capacitance is added to obtain the
total sending current
3.) T-equivalent circuit
-equivalent circuit
12.) What are the limitations of nominal T and methods in transmission
lines problems?
Generally the capacitance is uniformly distributed over the entire length of
the line. But for easy calculations in nominal T and the capacitance is concentrated at
one or two points also in nominal method the capacitance connected in the load side has
no effect on voltage drop. Due to all these there may be considerable error in calculation.
13. How the capacitance effects are taken into account in a long transmission line?
Long transmission lines have sufficient length and operate at voltage higher than
100kv the effects of capacitance cannot be neglected. Therefore in order to obtain
reasonable accuracy in long transmission lines calculations, the capacitance effects must be
taken into account.
14. what is surge impedance?
The square root of the ration of line impedance(Z) and shunt
admittance(Y) is called the surge impedance(Z) of the line.
15. Define surge impedance loading or natural power of the line?
Surge impedance loading is defined as the load of unity PF that can be
delivered by the line of negligible resistance.

o
RL
SIL
Z
V
P
2

Where
2
RL
V -line voltage at the receiving end
Zo-surge impedance in ohms
P
SIL
-surge impedance loading.
16. What are the ABCD constants?
ABCD constants are generalized circuit constants of a transmission line.
They are usually complex numbers. Input voltage and current are expressed
in terms of output voltage and current. The constants A and D are
dimensionless B and C are ohms and mhos respectively.
17. What are the units for A,B,C and D in the ABCD parameters?
A and D are dimensionless B and C are ohms and mhos respectively.
18. What are the methods use for voltage control of lines?
The methods used for voltage control of lines are
1.) by using over compound generator
2.) by excitation control
3.) by use of tap changing transformers
4.) auto-transformer tap changing
5.) booster transformer
6.) induction regulator and
7.) by improvement of power factor.
19. What are the voltage regulating equipments used in transmission system?
Synchronous motors, tap changing transformers, series shut capacitors,
booster transformers, compound generators, induction regulator.
20. What is a power circle diagram?
A power circle diagram is a diagram drawn for the transmission line network
involving the generalized circuit constants and the sending end voltage V
s
and receiving end voltage V
R
.
21. What is the use of power circle diagram?
Power circle diagram is used to determine the maximum power that can be
transmitted over the line both at the receiving end and sending end.
22. Define attenuation in a transmission lines?
Attenuation is defined as the power loss in line. It is nothing but the
transmission loss (i.e.). the difference between the sending end power and
receiving end power.
23. What is steady state stability limit?
Steady state stability limit is the maximum flow of power through a
particular point of power system without loss of stability when the power is
increased very gradually.

24. Define critical disruptive voltage.
It is the minimum phase to neutral voltage at which corona occurs
25. Define visual critical voltages
Visual critical voltage is defined as the min. phase neutral voltage at which
corona glow appears all along the line conductors
26. Write an expression for the power loss due to corona.
( )
2
25
2 . 242
c
V V
d
r
f
P

,
_

X 10
-5
KW/km/ph
where f - supply frequency Hz
V phase to neutral r.m.s voltage in kV
Vc critical disruptive voltage (r.m.s) per phase
UNIT IV
1. What are the advantages of underground cables over overhead lines?
1.) underground cables are less liable to any interruptions caused by
lightning or storms, birds and other severe weather conditions.
2.) They reduce accidents caused by the breaking of the conductors
3.) They provide better general appearance
4.) They have small voltage drop across them.
2. What are the usual insulating materials for cables?
1.) rubber
2.) polyethylene
3.) polyvinyl chloride
4.) fibrous material such as paper or jute etc
5.) enamel
6.) gutta-percha
7.) vulcanized Indian rubber
8.) varnished cam brie etc.
3. What is vulcanization?
A compound of pure rubber with mineral matter such as sulphur,
zinc oxide etc is rolled into thin sheets and cut into strips, that
rubber compound is then applied to the conductor and is heated to a
temperature of about 150C. this process is called vulcanization.
4. What is empire tape?
Empire tape is a cotton cloth impregnated and coated with varnish.
It is nothing but varnished cam brie.

5. How are cables classified based on an operating voltage?
According to operating voltage cables are classified as
1.) low tension cables (LT) up to 1000 volts
2.) high tension cables (HT) up to 11,000 volts
3.) super tension cables (ST) from 22,000 volts to 33,000volts
4.) extra high tension cables (EHT) from 33 to 66K volts
5.) extra super voltage cable beyond 132 KV
6. What is the purpose of a metallic sheath in a cable?
The purpose of a metallic sheath in a cable is to prevent the entry of
moisture or gases or other damaging liquids into the insulating
material.
7. What do you understand by the term bedding in a cable
Over the metallic sheath there is a layer of bedding which consists
of paper tape compounded with fibrous material like jute or Hessian
tape etc. its purpose is to protect the metallic sheath from corrosion
and from mechanical injury due to armouring.
8. What is serving in a cable?
Like bedding, a layer of fibrous material is provided over the
armouring in order to protect the armouring from atmospheric
conditions. This is called serving.
9. What are the different types of cables that are generally used for 3 phase
service?
The different types of cables that are used for 3 phase service are
1.) belted cable up to 11KV
2.) screened cables from 22KV to 66KV
3.) pressure cables Beyond 66KV
10. Up to what voltage range are belted cables used?
Belted cables are used for voltages up to 11KV in some extra
ordinary cases they are used up to even 22KV.
11. How will you overcome the limitations of solid types cables in pressure
coils?
Solid types cables are limited to a voltage of 66KV. For voltages
beyond 66KV solid type cables are unreliable because there is
danger of break down of insulation due to the presence of voids.
These voids are eliminated by increasing the pressure of the
compound in pressure coils. So pressure coils can be used for
voltages greater than 66KV.
12. What are the methods of laying of underground cables?
Laying of underground cables can be done in 3 methods.
1.) direct laying
2.) draw in system
3.) solid system
13. Define insulation resistance?
The opposition offered by insulation to leakage current is called
insulation resistance.
14. Write the expression for the insulation resistance of a single core cable?
Insulation resistance of a single core cable is given by
1
2
ln
2 r
r
l
R


Where R - insulation resistance
-resistivity of the insulation
l-length of the cable
r1-conductor radius in a single core cable
r2-internal sheath radius
15. Write the expression for the capacitance of a single core cable?
Capacitance of a single core cable is
d
D
l
C
r o
ln
2

farad
Where - capacitance of the cable in farad
l- length of the cable in metres
D-inner sheath diameter in metres
d-conductor diameter in metres
r
relative permittivity of the insulation
16. What is dielectric stress in a cable?
Under operating conditions, electrostatic forces act along the layer
of insulation. This is known as dielectric stress. The dielectric stress
in the cable is equal to the potential gradient in a cable.
17. What is inter sheath grading?
The process of achieving uniformity in dielectric stress by using
homogenous dielectric is known as inter sheath grading. But the
dielectric divided into various layers, by suitably placing the
metallic inter sheaths.
18. List the characteristics of insulators?
Insulators used for over head transmission
1.) should have high mechanical strength in order to withstand the
load due to weight of conductors
2.) should have high relative permittivity in order to provide high
dielectric strength
3.) should have high insulation resistance to prevent leakage of
currents to strength
4.) should have high ratio of puncture strength to flashover voltage
5.) should be non porous free from impurities and cracks otherwise
the permittivity will be lowered.
19. What is safety factor of insulation?
The ratio of puncture strength to flash over voltage is known as safety
factor
20. What is a strain insulator and where is it used?
When there is a dad end or a corner or a sharper curve the
transmission line is subjected to a greater tension. The insulator
which are used to relieve the line of excessive tension are called
strain insulators.
For high voltage transmission lines the strain insulators consisting
of an assembly of suspension type insulators are used.
21. Define string efficiency?
String efficiency is defined as the ratio of voltage across the whole
string to the product of number of discs and the voltage across the
unit nearest to the conductor.
conductor to nearest disc the across voltage n
string the across voltage
efficiency string

Where n= number of discs in the strings.


22. List the various methods by which voltage across the units can be
equalized?
(or)
List the various methods of improving string efficiency.
The various methods of improving string efficiency are
1.) longer cross arms method
2.) capacitance grading method
3.) static shielding method or guard ring method
23. What is a guard ring?
A guard ring is a metal ring electrically connected to the conductor and
surrounding the bottom insulator.
UNIT-V
1. How will you classify distribution systems?
Distribution systems can be classified as follows:
1) Depending upon the supply system it can be classified as
a) AC distribution system
b) DC distribution system
2) According to the type of construction it can be classified as
a) Overhead distribution system
b) Underground distribution system
3) According to the scheme of connection it can be classified as
a) Radial system b) Ring main system c) Interconnected system
4)According to the no. of conductors used it can be classified as
a) 2-wire system b) 3-wire system c) 4-wire system
2. Distinguish between a feeder and a distributor.

Sl. No. Feeder Distributor
1 Feeders are conductors or transmission
lines which carry current from the
stations to the feeding points
No tapping is taken from the feeders
Feeders terminate into distributors
So distributor is also a conductor
form which current is tapped off for
the supply to consumer
2 Current carrying capacity plays a major
role in designing a feeder
Whereas voltage drop plays a major
role in designing a distributor
3. Current loading remains the same along
its length
Current loading factor varies along
its length
3. What is a ring distributor?
A ring distributor is a distributor which is arranged to form a closed circuit and is fed
at one or more than one point
4. State the advantages of interconnected system?
The advantages of interconnected system are
Any area fed from one generation station during overload hours can be fed from
another power station and thus reserved capacity required is reduced, reliability of
supply is increased and load factor, efficiency in increased.
5. What is the purpose of interconnector in a ring main distributor?
The purpose of interconnector in a ring main distributor is to reduce the voltage drops
in the various sections of the distributor.
6. Explain ring main system.
In ring main system of distribution the primaries of distribution transformers form a
loop. The loop circuit starts from the substation bus bars, makes a loop through the
area to be served and returns to the substation. The distributors are tapped form
different points of the feeders through distribution transformers.
7. State the advantages of ring main system?
1) Less voltage fluctuation at consumers terminals
2) Ring main system is more reliable. In the event of fault on
any section of the feeder, the continuity of supply can be
maintained by isolating the faulty section
3) Less copper is required as each part of the ring carries less
current than in radial system
8. Draw the diagram of ring main system.
9. What is the difference between 3wire and 3phase 4
wire distribution system?

Sl. No. 3 phase 3 wire distribution 3phase 4wire distribution
1
2.
3phase 3 wire is employed for balanced loads
It is used for transmission
3 phase 4 wire system is
employed for unbalanced
loads
It is used for distribution of
power to consumers
10. What will be the consequences of disconnecting the
neutral in a 3phase 4 wire system?
When the neutral is disconnected in a 3phase 4wire balanced system no change
produced. But in case of unbalanced 3phase 4wire system if the neutral is disconnected
the loads which are connected between any two line conductors and the neutral, are
connected in series and potential difference across the combined load becomes equal to
line voltage. The potential difference across each load is thus changed as per rating of
the load.
11. Write the classification of substation.
Depending upon the purpose
1) Generating or step up substation
2) Grid sub station
3) Secondary sub station
4) Distribution sub station
5) Special purpose sub station
Depending upon the physical feature
1) Indoor sub station 2) Outdoor substation 3)pole mounted substation
4) under ground sub station
12. Name the equipments used in a substation.
Bus bars, insulators, isolating switches, circuit breakers, load interrupting switches,
power transformers, Instrument transformers, Current transformer, Potential transformer,
indicating and measuring instruments, grounding.
13. List the types of bus bars?
1)single bus bar system, 2) double bus with double breaker scheme 3) double
bus with single breaker scheme 4) Breaker and a half scheme 5) main and
transfer bus bar scheme 6) Ring bus 7) Double bus bar with bypass isolator
14. Define screening coefficient.
The screening coefficient for n electrodes in parallel is defined as,

n parall in electrodes n of ce sis
electrode one ce sis

) tan (Re
tan Re