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# Motion >> The Motion of Vehicles on land

In this chapter, you are expected to: * Analyse the motion of vehicles on hand. * Analyse the concepts of speed, velocity and acceleration. * Understand the concept of inertia * Apply the concept of momentum. * Synthesise the concept of pressure. * Apply he principle of the hydraulic system in everyday life. * Analyse the motion of vehicles in the water. * Analyse the motion of vehicles in the air. * Appreciate the ability and creativity of mankind in inventing and designing vehicles for betterment of life. 1.0 The Motion of Vehicles on land 1.1 A bicycle - has a diomand-shaped frame, two wheels of equal size and is driven by the turning of the rear wheel. The crank wheel and pedals form a crank system that provides a rotary motion. 1.2 Vehicles with engine. - Petrol engine are classified as internal combustion engines because the burning of petrol takes place inside them. Two main type - four-stroke engine and two-stroke engine. - Petrol Engine are more efficient than petrol engines. However, less powerful and use less fuel. Release less harmful exhaust gases.

2.0 The Concepts Of Speed, Velocity And Acceleration 2.1 Distance Define as a path taken by an object from one point to another point 2.2 Speed * The rate of changes in distance * @ Distance per time taken Speed = Distance Time taken The S.I unit is m s -1 2.3 VELOCITY - Define as : a rate of change in distance - Formula = displacement time taken - S.I units m s-1 - It has direction

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1. The Motion of Vehicles on land 2. The Concepts Of Speed, Velocity And Acceleration 3. The concept of Inertia - Note 1 (Form 5) 4. The concept of Inertia - Note 2 (Form 5) 5. The concept of Inertia - Note 3 (Form 5) 6. The concept of momentum 7. The concept of pressure 8. Principles of the Hydraulic System 9. The Principle Of Operation Of Vehicles In Water 10. The principle of operation of vehicles in water 11. Motion Of Vehicles In The Air 12. Appreciate the ability and creativity of mankind in inventing and designing vehicles for betterment of life.
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Motion >> The Concepts Of Speed, Velocity And Acceleration

2.4 Acceleration - Define as a rate of change in velocity - Formula : change in velocity time taken - S.I unit : m/s2.

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## Motion >> The concept of momentum

4.0 The concept of momentum The momentum of an object is defined as the product of its mass and velocity. 4.1 Applying the concept of momentum * Momentum is the product of mass and velocity. Momentum = mass x velocity * The S.I unit for momentum is kgms-1 4.2 Relationship between momentum, mass and velocity Momentum of an object is big if: a). The mass is big b). The velocity is high.

Examples the application of momentum in everyday life 1. The passenger space is built with tough material. 2. Front and the rear part of a car is built from a collapsible material.

## Motion >> The concept of pressure

5.0 The concept of pressure * Pressure is defined as the force per unit of surface area. * Pressure = force/surface area * S.I unit = Nm-2 @ Pa 5.1 The relationship between pressure, force and surface area The pressure that apply to the surface area increases if : a. A force increases b. The surface area is reduced. Examples of application of pressure in everyday life 1. The sharp knife can cut easily because the force that apply to the surface area is tiny and produce a large pressure.

2. A hammer comes with a broad wooden handle to reduce the pressure exerted to the hand. 3. A sharp nail is easier to hammer compare to a blunt nail

## Motion >> Principles of the Hydraulic System

Simple Hydraulic System * The even transmission of pressure throughout the liquid enables a smaller force at a smaller piston to balance a greater force at a bigger piston.

## Motion >> The Principle Of Operation Of Vehicles In Water

7.0 The Principle Of Operation Of Vehicles In Water * In order for a vehicle to move on water, - It must be able to float on water - It must have forward thrust - There must be a small water resistance Pressure at small piston = pressure at big piston

## 9.0 Motion Of Vehicles In The Air

Forces that enable vehicles to move in the air are the upthrust and forward thrust - Large upthrust is required to overcome the weight of the vehicle - Forward thrust is require to overcome the air resistance so that the vehicle is able to move forward
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Motion >> Appreciate the ability and creativity of mankind in inventing and designing vehicles for betterment of life.

10.0 Appreciate the ability and creativity of mankind in inventing and designing vehicles for betterment of life. 10.1 Some of the good habits in the handling of vehicles; * * * * Make sure that the vehicles are in good condition. Obey all safety procedures and rules when using the vehicles. Posses all the skills need to handle the vehicles safely. Be physically fit and in a healthy state of mind when operating the vehicles.

10.2 The following are some caring attitudes that should be practiced. * Allowing passengers to alight from the vehicles before boarding them. * Lining up properly and in an orderly manner when boarding or alighting from a public transport vehicles. One should never jump queue. * Giving up ones seat to pregnant women, the handicapped and the aged.