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Dynamics Fundamentals: Mathematics, Vectors and Point Kinematics

1. Scalar kinematics

a) Differentiation

b) Integration

c) Sample problems

2. Vector operations

a) Addition and subtraction

b) Dot (scalar) products

c) Cross (vector) products

d) Moments about points

e) Projections of vectors

f) Writing a vector in terms of a new set of unit vectors

g) Sample problems

3. Vector kinematics

a) Cartesian components

b) Path components

c) Polar components

d) Sample problems

4. Solutions of sample problems (to be provided later)

Fundamentals Exam review material 2 ME274

Suppose that a point P travels on a straight-line path

(rectilinear motion) whose position on the path is

given by the distance variable s. The speed v of P is

s

given by: v = ds/dt.

Case 1:

On this path, we are given the speed v of point P in terms of time, t: v = v(t). From this

we want to determine the acceleration of the point. The acceleration can be found by

directly differentiating v with respect to t; that is,

dv

a=

dt

Case 2:

On this path, we are given the speed v of point P in terms of its position s: v = v(s). Here

we need to employ the chain rule of differentiation (see below).

Suppose y = y(x) where x = x(t). The derivative of y with respect to t can be

found from the chain rule of differentiation to be:

dy dy dx

=

dt dx dt

dv dv ds dv

a= = =v

dt ds dt ds

where v = ds/dt.

Fundamentals Exam review material 3 ME274

Again, suppose that a point P travels on a straight-line

path (rectilinear motion) whose position on the path is

given by the distance variable s. The speed v of P is

given by: v = ds/dt. s

Case 1:

On this path, we are given the acceleration of point P in terms of time, t: a = a(t). From

this we want to determine the speed of the point at some instant in time t. The

acceleration can be found by directly integrating a with respect to t; that is,

t v t

dv

a=

dt

! " a (t ) dt = " dv ! v ( t ) = v ( 0 ) + " a ( t ) dt

0 v( 0 ) 0

Case 2:

On this path, we are given the acceleration a of point P in terms of its position s: v = v(s).

Here, prior to using separation of variables, we need to use the chain rule of

differentiation to produce:

dv dv ds dv

a= = =v

dt ds dt ds

where v = ds/dt. Now, we can write:

v s s

1 2 1 2

v dv = a ds ! " v dv = " a ds ! v # v ( 0 ) = " a ds

v( 0 ) 0

2 2 0

Fundamentals Exam review material 4 ME274

Example 1

Suppose that the speed of P is given by: v ( t ) = 3t 2 . Find the acceleration of P.

Example 2

() ( )

Suppose that the speed of P is given by: v s = 5sin 3s . Find the acceleration of P.

Example 3

Suppose that the acceleration of P traveling on a straight-line path is given

()

by: a ( t ) = 6 sin ( 2t ) , with v 0 = 4 . Find the speed of P as a function of time.

Example 4

Suppose that the acceleration of P traveling on a straight-line path is given by:

( )

a ( s ) = 8 s 3 with v s = 0 = 5 . Find the speed of P as a function of position s.

Fundamentals Exam review material 5 ME274

Vector operations

a+b

Addition

The addition of two vectors a and b is found through the

“parallelogram” rule: move the tail of b to the head of a

with a + b being the vector extending from the tail of a b

to the new position of the head of b (as shown in the

figure to the right).

a

If a and b are given in terms of sets of xyz components

as:

a = a x i + a y j + az k

b = bx i + by j + bz k

then the components of the vector a + b are found from the scalar sum of the components

of a and b:

( )

a + b = ( ax + bx ) i + ay + by j + ( az + bz ) k

Subtraction

The subtraction of two vectors a and b is found

through the “parallelogram” rule on a and -b: move

b

the tail of -b to the head of a with a - b being the

vector extending from the tail of a to the new a

position of the head of -b (as shown in the figure to

the right).

-b

a-b

If a and b are given in terms of sets of xyz

components as:

a = a x i + a y j + az k

b = bx i + by j + bz k

then the components of the vector a - b are found from the scalar difference of the

components of a and b:

( )

a ! b = ( ax ! bx ) i + ay ! by j + ( az ! bz ) k

Fundamentals Exam review material 6 ME274

The dot product of two vectors a and b is the following SCALAR:

b

a i b = a b cos! θ

a

where θ is the smallest angle between vectors a and b.

a = a x i + a y j + az k

b = bx i + by j + bz k

( )(

a i b = ax i + ay j + az k i bx i + by j + bz k )

( ) ( )( ) (

= ( ax i ) i bx i + by j + bz k + ay j i bx i + by j + bz k + ( az k ) i bx i + by j + bz k )

= ax bx ( i i i ) + ax by ( i i j ) + ax bz ( i i k ) +

az bx ( k i i ) + az by ( k i j ) + az bz ( k i k )

= ax bx (1) + ax by ( 0 ) + ax bz ( 0 ) +

aybx ( 0 ) + ayby (1) + aybz ( 0 ) +

az bx ( 0 ) + az by ( 0 ) + az bz (1)

= ax bx + ayby + az bz

HINT:

In finding the dot product, you do not need to go through all of above steps; simply recall

that the dot product of a and b is found by the sum of the products of the like components

of a and b.

1

From the above dot product definition, note that: i i i = j i j = k i k = 1 and

ii j = j i k = k ii = j ii = k i j =ii k = 0.

Fundamentals Exam review material 7 ME274

The cross product of two vectors a and b is given

by a VECTOR whose magnitude is given by:

curl of

a ! b = a b sin " fingers

and whose direction is found through the “right

hand rule”: sweep the fingers of your right hand

FROM a TO b (through the smallest angle b

between vectors a and b) and your right thumb θ a

points in the direction of a ! b .

components as:

a = a x i + a y j + az k

b = bx i + by j + bz k

( ) (

a ! b = ax i + ay j + az k ! bx i + by j + bz k )

( ) ( ) ( ) (

= ( ax i ) ! bx i + by j + bz k + ay j ! bx i + by j + bz k + ( az k ) ! bx i + by j + bz k )

= ax bx ( i ! i ) + ax by ( i ! j ) + ax bz ( i ! k ) +

az bx ( k ! i ) + az by ( k ! j ) + az bz ( k ! k )

= ax bx ( 0 ) + ax by ( k ) + ax bz ( " j ) +

aybx ( "k ) + ayby ( 0 ) + aybz ( i ) +

()

az bx j + az by ( "i ) + az bz ( 0 )

( ) (

= aybz " az by i " ( ax bz " az bx ) j + ax by " aybx k )

i j k

= ax ay az

bx by bz

2

From the above cross product definition, note that: i ! i = j ! j = k ! k = 0 ,

( ) ( )

i ! j = " j ! i = k , j ! k = " k ! j = i and k ! i = " ( i ! k ) = j .

Fundamentals Exam review material 8 ME274

Recall that the moment about a point O due to a force F acting at point P is found through

the cross product:

M O = r P /O ! F F

rP/O

O P

Vector projections

The projection of vector b onto the line of action of a second b

vector a is found by placing vectors a and b tail-to-tail and

drawing a line from the head of b that is perpendicular to a (as θ

a

shown in the figure to the right). From this figure, we see that

this projection is given by:

line of action of a

Say we determine a unit vector ea = a / a (where ea = 1 )

that points in the same direction as a. Using the above, we see that:

Fundamentals Exam review material 9 ME274

Suppose that you are given a vector a in terms of its J

XY components (unit vectors I and J): j

its xy components (unit vectors i and j):

θ

a = ax i + ay j ( ax and ay are UNKNOWN )

I

where the coordinate axes are shown in the figure

above.

One way to do this is to first find i and j in terms of their I and J components (see

projections in the above figure):

i = cos! I + sin ! J

j = ! sin " I + cos" J

ax = a i i

= ( a X I + aY J ) i i

= ( a X I + aY J ) i ( cos! I + sin ! J ) = a X cos! + aY sin !

and

ay = a i j

= ( a X I + aY J ) i j

= ( a X I + aY J ) i ( ! sin " I + cos" J ) = !a X sin " + aY cos"

Fundamentals Exam review material 10 ME274

( )

a = i ! 3 j + 5 k ft

b = ( !2 i ! 4 j + 6 k ) ft

Example 5: Find a + b

Example 6: Find a - b

Example 7: Find a • b

Example 8: Find a x b

Example 9: Find b x a

c = ( !2 I + 4J ) ft / sec . Find the xy components of c where the xy coordinate axes are

oriented with respect to the XY axes as shown below.

( )

d = 3i ! 5 j ft / sec 2 . Find the XY components of d where the XY coordinate axes are

oriented with respect to the xy axes as shown below.

J

j

36.87°

i

36.87°

I

Fundamentals Exam review material 11 ME274

Vector kinematics

The following are the three sets of vector kinematical equations for describing the motion

(velocity and acceleration) of a point P moving in a plane using Cartesian, path and polar

coordinates:

path of P

Cartesian coordinates

v = xi

! + y! j

a = !!

xi + !!

yj j

P

y

i

v = vet

v2 C

a = ve

! t+ e et

! n en

ρ

Note: Since the rate of change of speed v! is the projection of P

the acceleration vector a onto the unit tangent vector,

we can find v! from: s

! v$

v! = a i et = a i # &

" v%

path of P

Polar coordinates

! r + r!! e!

v = re

( )

r " r!! 2 er + ( r!!! + 2 r!!! ) e!

a = !!

er

P

θ r

eθ

O

Fundamentals Exam review material 12 ME274

()

Example 14: A point P travels on a path given by y x = 0.3 + 0.5x 2 (both x and y in

meters). The x-component of velocity of P is known to be x! = 4 m / sec = constant . Find

the velocity and acceleration vectors for point P in Cartesian components when x = 2

meters.

Example 15: At one instant in time, the speed of a point P traveling on a plane is 10

2

m/sec with this speed decreasing at a rate of 3 m/sec . The radius of curvature for the

path of P at this instant is 50 meters. Find the acceleration of P in terms of its path

variables.

Example 16: Point P travels on a path given in polar coordinates as: r = 3sin ! , where r

is in feet, θ is in radians and !! = 2 rad / sec = constant. Find the velocity and acceleration

of P in terms of its polar coordinates when θ = π/2.

Example 17: Make a sketch of the velocity and acceleration vectors for Example 14.

Include the unit tangent and unit normal vectors in your sketch. Is the speed increasing or

decreasing?

Example 18: Make a sketch of the velocity and acceleration vectors for Example 16.

Include the unit tangent and unit normal vectors in your sketch. Is the speed increasing,

decreasing or constant?

Fundamentals Exam review material 13 ME274

Example 1

()

Suppose that the speed of P is given by: v t = 3t 2 . Find the acceleration of P.

dv

The acceleration of P on its straight-line path is found from: a = = 6t .

dt

Example 2

() ( )

Suppose that the speed of P is given by: v s = 5sin 3s . Find the acceleration of P.

dv dv ds dv

a= = = v = !" 5 sin ( 3s ) #$ !"15 cos ( 3s ) #$ = 75 sin ( 3s ) cos ( 3s )

dt ds dt ds

Example 3

Suppose that the acceleration of P traveling on a straight-line path is given by:

() ( ) ()

a t = 6 sin 2t , with v 0 = 4 . Find the speed of P as a function of time.

v t

dv

= 6 sin ( 2t ) ! " dv = " 6 sin ( 2t ) dt !

dt v( 0 ) 0

t

v ( t ) = v ( 0 ) + " #$ 6 sin ( 2t ) %& dt

0

6

= v (0) ' cos ( 2t ) 0 = 4 ' 3 #$ cos ( 2t ) ' 1%& = 7 ' 3cos ( 2t )

t

2

t

v ( t ) = v ( 0 ) + % !" 6 sin ( 2t ) #$ dt

0

6

= v (0) & cos ( 2t ) 0 = 4 & 3 !" cos ( 2t ) & 1#$ = 7 & 3cos ( 2t )

t

2

Example 4

Suppose that the acceleration of P traveling on a straight-line path is given by:

( )

a ( s ) = 8 s 3 with v s = 0 = 5 . Find the speed of P as a function of position s.

Fundamentals Exam review material 14 ME274

dv dv ds dv

a= = =v !

dt ds dt ds

v s

" v dv = " a ds !

v( 0 ) 0

s

1 2 1 2

v # v ( 0 ) = " a ds

2 2 0

Therefore,

s

v = v ( 0 ) + 2 ! a ds

2

0

s

= v 2 ( 0 ) + 2 ! 8s 3 ds

0

8 4 s

= ( 5 )2 + 2 s = 25 + 4s 4

4 s=0

( )

a = i ! 3 j + 5 k ft

b = ( !2 i ! 4 j + 6 k ) ft

Example 5: Find a + b

( ) ( ) (

a + b = i ! 3 j + 5 k + !2 i ! 4 j + 6 k = ! i ! 7 j + 11 k ft )

Example 6: Find a - b

( ) (

a ! b = i ! 3 j + 5 k ! !2 i ! 4 j + 6 k = 3i + j ! k ft) ( )

Example 7: Find a • b

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )

a i b = i ! 3 j + 5 k i !2 i ! 4 j + 6 k = 1 !2 + !3 !4 + 5 6 = 40 ft 2

Example 8: Find a x b

Fundamentals Exam review material 15 ME274

( ) (

a ! b = i " 3 j + 5 k ! "2 i " 4 j + 6 k )

i j k

(

= 1 "3 5 = 2 i " 16 j " 10 k ft 2 )

"2 "4 6

Example 9: Find b x a

(

b ! a = "2 i " 4 j + 6 k ! i " 3 j + 5 k ) ( )

i j k

(

= "2 "4 6 = "2 i + 16 j + 10 k ft 2 )

1 "3 5

" !2 i ! 4 j + 6 k %

(

a i eb = i ! 3 j + 5 k i $ ) '=

40 2

ft

# 22 + 42 + 62 & 56

" i ! 3j +5 k %

(

b i e a = !2 i ! 4 j + 6 k i $ ) '=

40 2

ft

# 1 +3 +6 &

2 2 2 46

( )

c = !2 I + 4J ft / sec . Find the xy components of c where the xy coordinate axes are

oriented with respect to the XY axes as shown to the

right. J

From the figure, we see that: j

36.87°

i = cos36.87° I + sin 36.87° J = 0.8 I + 0.6 J

Therefore: i

36.87°

( ) (

cx = ci i = !2 I + 4J i 0.8 I + 0.6 J )

= ( !2 ) ( 0.8) + ( 4 ) ( 0.6 ) = 0.8 ft / sec I

Fundamentals Exam review material 16 ME274

Therefore:

( ) (

c y = ci j = !2 I + 4J i !0.6 I + 0.8 J )

= ( !2 ) ( !0.6 ) + ( 4 ) ( 0.8) = 4.4 ft / sec

In summary:

( ) ( )

c = cx i + c y j = 0.8i + 4.4 j ft / sec

( )

d = 3i ! 5 j ft / sec 2 . Find the XY components of d where the XY coordinate axes are

oriented with respect to the xy axes as shown to the

right. J

j

From the figure, we see that:

36.87°

I = cos36.87° i ! sin 36.87° j = 0.8i ! 0.6 j

i

Therefore:

36.87°

( )(

d X = d i I = 3i ! 5 j i 0.8i ! 0.6 j )

( )( ) ( )( )

= 3 0.8 + !5 !0.6 = 5.4 ft / sec 2 I

Therefore:

( )(

dY = d i J = 3i ! 5 j i 0.6 i + 0.8 j )

( )( ) ( )( )

= 3 0.6 + !5 0.8 = 2.2 ft / sec 2 = !2.2 ft / sec 2

In summary:

( ) ( )

d = d X I + dY J = 5.4 I + ! 2.2J ft / sec 2

Fundamentals Exam review material 17 ME274

()

Example 14: A point P travels on a path given by y x = 0.3 + 0.5x 2 (both x and y in

meters). The x-component of velocity of P is known to be x! = 4 m / sec = constant . Find

the velocity and acceleration vectors for point P in Cartesian components when x = 2

meters.

dy dy dx

y! = =

dt dx dt

( ) ( )( )

= x x! = 2 4 = 8 m / sec

d!y d

y=

!! =

dt dt

( )

xx! = x!x! + x!!

2

( ) ( )( )

x = 4 + 2 0 = 16 m / sec 2

Therefore,

v = xi ( )

! + y! j = 4i + 8 j m / sec

a = xi y j = (16 j ) m / sec 2

!! + !!

Example 15: At one instant in time, the speed of a point P traveling on a plane is 10

2

m/sec with this speed decreasing at a rate of 3 m/sec . The radius of curvature for the

path of P at this instant is 50 meters. Find the acceleration of P in terms of its path

variables.

v2 102

a = ve

! t+

!

( )

e n = "3 et +

50 n

(

e = "3et + 2e n m / sec 2 )

Example 16: Point P travels on a path given in polar coordinates as: r = 3sin ! , where r

is in feet, θ is in radians and !! = 2 rad / sec = constant. Find the velocity and acceleration

of P in terms of its polar coordinates when θ = π/2.

dr dr d!

r! = =

dt d! dt

( ) ( )( )( )

= 3cos! !! = 3 0 2 = 0

d !

r!! =

dt

( )

3! cos! = 3!!!cos! " 3!! 2 sin ! = 0 " 3 2 ( )( )2 (1) = "12 ft / sec

Therefore,

( ) ( )( ) ( )

! r + r!! e! = 0 er + 3 2 e! = 6 e! ft / sec

v = re

# 2&

$ '

= ( "24er ) ft / sec 2

Fundamentals Exam review material 18 ME274

Example 17: Make a sketch of the velocity and acceleration vectors for Example 14.

Include the unit tangent and unit normal vectors in your sketch. Is the speed increasing or

decreasing?

( )

v = 4i + 8 j m / sec = vet et

a

v2

a = (16 j ) m / sec 2 = ve

! t + en v

!

θ

en v!

The unit tangent vector et must point in the same

direction as the velocity vector. The unit normal vector

en is perpendicular to et and is directed in a way that the

v2 / !

component of a in the en is positive. Note that the

projection of a onto et is positive. Therefore, the rate of

change of speed is positive, and the speed is increasing.

Example 18: Make a sketch of the velocity and acceleration vectors for Example 16.

Include the unit tangent and unit normal vectors in your sketch. Is the speed increasing,

decreasing or constant?

( )

v = 6 e! ft / sec = vet

er

v2

( )

a = "24er ft / sec 2 = ve

! t+

# n

e v

et, eθ

The unit tangent vector et must point in the

en θ

same direction as the velocity vector. The unit

normal vector en is perpendicular to et and is a

directed in a way that the component of a in

the en is positive. Note that the projection of a onto et is zero. Therefore, the rate of

change of speed is zero, and the speed is instantaneously constant.

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