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Fallacies of Reasoning

Material and Linguistic Fallacies: 1. Fallacy of Emotive Language When an argument depends upon the stimulation of emotions rather than conveying logical information. i.e. Iglesia ni Manalo,Burn Again

2. Fallacy of Ambiguity A person hides behind words which lack precise meaning, or words whose definition is unknown wither to one or to both parties in discussions. i.e. My GF asked me in its true that Im a two timer. I replied; One two, tie my shoe

3. Fallacy of Equivocation The use of a term in more than one sense, while the impression is given that it is being used to express only one and the same meaning throughout an argument. i.e. Elephants are large. Large is adjective. Therefore, elephants are adjectives

4. Fallacy of Amphibology The use of statement which permits of two interpretations. i.e. The mother told her sister that she must stop loving her husband.

5. Figure of Speech Fallacy Failure to distinguish between variant meanings of sentence elements such as suffixes. i.e. Writer is a person who writes; Dancer is a person who dances; Typewriter is a person who typewrites.

6. Fallacy of Composition The false assumption that a statement about an integral part of something necessarily holds true for the composite whole. i.e. A government composed of all presidents of different countries will be the ideal government in the world.

7. Fallacy of Division What holds true of composite whole is true for each component part considered separately. i.e. The Lakers are the best in the world. Therefore, the team must have the best center, the best forward, the best guard, etc.

8. Fallacy of Vicious abstraction The removal of a statement from its context thereby changing the meaning of an argument.

i.e.

St. Paul said, Money is the fruit of all evil.

Fallacies of Irrelevant Evidence: 9. Fallacy of Irrelevance To prove or disprove the wrong point is to commit the fallacy of irrelevance often referred to as irrelevant conclusion or ignorantio elechi. i.e. Why do you install a hidden camera in your bedroom? Answer: Its because when I was in college, I was a victim of hidden camera also.

10. Argumentum Ad Ignorantiam The appeal to ignorance. i.e. Psychic phenomena are facts for no one can absolutely disprove them.

11. Argumentum Ad misericordiam The appeal to pity. i.e. Teacher, I did not do my home assignment because my baby sister cried all night. 12. Argumentum Ad Verecardiam The appeal to prestige. I have a wonderful idea which you should accept because I learned it from a seminar at PNU. 13. Argumentum Ad Baculum The appeal to force. i.e. Dad, I dont believe in giving. His father replies, You should or I will not give you your allowance. 14. Argumentum Ad hominem The appeal to personal ridicule. i.e. Dont stoop to debate with this man, for he is nothing but an ignorant savage. (Marcos and Cory loyalists.) i.e.

15. Argumentum Ad Populum Appeal to the masses. i.e. Hitlers Nazis and the superiority of the Aryans.

Miscellaneous Material Fallacies: 16. Fallacies of Accident (Dicto Simpliciter) Attempt to apply a general rule to special cases which are exemption to the rule. i.e. Your vote has no bearing because we only allow right hand. Since you dont have a right hand, your left hand is not allowed.

17. Converse Fallacy of Accident (Hasty Generalization) Consist of an attempt to establish a generalization by a simple enumeration of instances.

i.e.

I saw a black cat. It belongs to Maria. Another black cat belongs to Maria. All black cats belong to Maria.

18. False Cause (Post Hoc) Reasoning from mere sequence to the assumption of a causal connection. i.e. Twice in succession, I raised my hand and lightning flashed; therefore, the raising of my hand causes lightning.

19. Non Sequitor It does not follow. i.e. Roses are red, violets are blue; When I flushed the toilet I remember you.

20. Compound Question (Positioning the Wells) The error consist of combining several questions in such a manner as to preclude all opposing arguments, thus placing ones opponent in a self-incriminating position. i.e. Have you stopped beating your wife?

21. Petitio Principii (Begging the question) Circular reasoning. i.e. DepEd prefers PNUans. How did you know? Because DepEd told me so. How did you know he is from DepEd? Because he prefers PNUans.

22. Tu Quoque (You yourself do it) Often an individual who is being criticized will defend his actions by accusing his critic of doing the same thing himself. i.e. Son, it is your bedtime. Go to bed. But Dad, you are also staying up. (The boy requires more sleep than his father does.)

23. The Fallacy of Misplaced Authority It is an error to cite an authority in matters foreign to his field of specialization. i.e. Principle of teaching? Why dont you consult Atty. Vargas?

24. Genetic Error Confuses the validity with the causes or origin of a thesis. 5 and 5 are 10 remains true and logically valid whether meds by an insane person or by a normal person. 25. False Analogy Argument which do not resemble each other. i.e. Women could make better congressmen, for government is merely good housekeeping. 26. Insufficient Evidence Acceptance of inadequate data as a basis for a conclusion. i.e.

i.e.

3 present in a scene 1 of them is criminal.

27. Pathetic Fallacy (Anthromophism) Ascribe human feelings and qualities to non-human animals of to inanimate objects. i.e. The mad sea looked angrily at the sky.

28. Contrary to Fact Conditional Errors Alters historical facts and then draws conclusion from them. i.e. If Rizal was not executed, then he was probably the first President.

29. Contradictory Premises Self-contradictions are necessarily false. I.e. Can God make a stone so heavy that he cannot lift it.