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| Flare as a Factor of Climate Changes | Ayatulloh M.

R, Danar Kurniadi, Elsa Rahmatyah |

Abstract

Petroleum activities include upstream and downstream activities, which focus on upstream activities of exploration and exploitation, while the downstream activities include the processing and marketing. These activities are important to the product will be produce because this activity is basically to produce the best quality of oil and natural gas. These activities produce something that is not useful as residual production activities, in the form of gas or liquid. Residual products of oil and gas production results in the production of both the unit of production (upstream) and in the processing unit (downstream) will be released by the unit that we can called it the flare, where the flare activity was dump the refinery, petrochemical, and other operating results subsequently distributed to fire into the air. However, exhaust gas from the flare stack directly impact on air pollution and it can be affect global climate change. Word Bank stated, in 2007 Indonesia had burned about 215 MMSCF (Million Metric Standard Cubic Feet per Day) and it was ranked-13 in the world. From the combustion, Indonesia contributes around 12 million tons of CO2 into the atmosphere and dispose of more than U.S. $ 400 million per year. Based on data from Directorate General of Oil and Gas, in 2008 Indonesia flare gas volume of about 113 MMSCFD which around 109 MMSCFD from upstream oil and gas activities and the rest of the downstream oil and gas activities. Turns out gases such as CO2 still can used, it was wasted. Flare gas utilization is constrained from relatively minimal amount of gas volume in each well, the content of impurities in the gas composition, the location of the spread, as well as infrastructure constraints in which much of the distribution or transmission pipeline. These things led to the high cost of processing the gas, so it is not economical for use by investors. Because the flare gas discharged into the atmosphere, it will be impact on another issue, like greenhouse gas emissions. Government by Ministry of Energy and Human Resources (ESDM) with Global Gas Flaring Reduction (GGFR) and World Bank work together to realize the zero flare in 2025 to achieve an environmentally friendly oil and gas industry. Flare gas recovery by reducing loss of combustion gas flaring recapture to be used as hydrogen plant feedstock, fuel or liquefied natural gas products. With the

| Flare as a Factor of Climate Changes | Ayatulloh M.R, Danar Kurniadi, Elsa Rahmatyah |

installation of these gas recovery units, the fuel consumption and steam from an oil refinery will decrease emissions of greenhouse gases. In addition to lowering carbon emissions, utilization of flared gas can reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide. Potential reduction of CO2 emissions from gas flaring utilization estimated at 5.7 tons every year. A fuel gas utilization units with the capacity of 1 million standard cubic feet every day to prevent the greenhouse gas emissions by 600 thousand tons CO2 every year. The cost of investment needed is about U.S. $ 7 million every units and cost of emissions reduction of approximately U.S. $ 12 every tons CO2. By utilization of flared gas expected to reduce the greenhouse the gas emissions up to 50% - 99%, and the gas can be allocated to alternative energy that it can be utilized for power generation, cogeneration and fuel transportation. So that the gas flaring that were previously discarded can be fully utilized.