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Ajeesh Moidutty Roll No: 510829270 BCA 2nd Semester 4 BC0039 5 DISCRETE MATHEMATICS

## 1. If U= {a,b,c,d,e,f} , A= {a,b,c} B={d,e} C={b,c,e} Evaluate the following.

Ans: Solution:

Solutions :

Solutions :

2. If f is a real valued function find the domain of x x a a i y = fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff ii y = fffffffffffffffffffff 2 2 x @5x + 6 1+x Ans: Solution:

## x a ` a ii Clearly, y = f x = fffffffffffffffffffis defined for all real values of x . 1 + x2 ` a So domain of y = f x = R

3. Find the nth term of the following series 1 1 + fffffffffff + ffffffffffffff+ 2.5 5.8 8.11 Solution: The given series is neither in A.P., G.P. nor in H.P. This is special type of series. In this series in each term numerator is 1 and in denominator the corresponding figures are 2.5, 5.8, 8.11 As before the first figure in each term viz 2, 5, 8. forms an A.P. An A.P. nth term
f1fff ff fff ff

where is first term, d is common difference. Now nth term of viz. 2, 5, 8,.... is = 2 + (n -1) 3 = 3n 1 Now, Second, figure in each term viz., 5, 8, 11, forms an A. P. whose nth term is = 5 + ( n -1 ) 3 = 3n + 2 Hence the nth term of given series is

## 4. Prove by mathematical induction that 1 + 2 + 3 + + n = n Solution: i) For n = 1, left side = 13 = 1

3 3 3 3 2

` a2 nfff+ffffffffffffff ff ff 1 ff f

ii)

## Assume the result to be true for n = m

(induction hypothesis)

5. Briefly explain in your own words with example the principle of inclusion and exclusion. Ans: Principle of Inclusion and Exclusion: For any two sets P and Q we have

This can be extended to any finite number of sets, which is known as principle of inclusion and exclusion, given following. If A1, A2, A3,An are finite sets, then

We will understand by this example: Determine the number of integers between 1 to 250 that are divisible by any of the integers 2, 3, 5 and 7. Solutions:

Among the permutations of {1, 2, 3, , n}, there are some (called derangements), in which none of the n integers appears in its natural place. In other words: (i1, i2, .in) is a derangement if i1 !=1, i2 != 2 and In != n. If Dn denote the number of derangements of {1, 2, 3, , n}, then for n = 1, 2, 3, we have, D1 = 0, D2 =1 , D3 =2 (that is, the only derangements of (1,2,3) are (2,3,1) and (3,1,2)). The formula for Dn for any positive integer n

Let U be the set on n! Permutations of {1, 2, 3, ., n}. For each i, let Ai be the permutation (b1, b2, ., bn) of {1, 2, 3, ., n} such that bi = i.

6. Explain the problem of tower of Hanoi in your own words. Ans: The problem of tower of Hanoi Given a tower of eight disks, initially stacked in decreasing size on one of three pegs. The objective is to transfer the entire tower to one to the other pegs, moving only one disk at a time and never moving a larger on to smaller (these rules are called Lucas Rules).

Let Tn be the minimum number of moves that will transfer n disks from one peg to another under Lucas rules. Then clearly T0 = 0, since no moves are needed to transfer a tower of n = 0 disks. By observation, T1 = 1, T2 = 3

Now transfer the top disks to the middle peg, then move the third, then bring the other two onto it. So we get T3=7 = 2.3 + 1 = 2 T2 +1. Induction Hypo: Assume for n-1 disks. That is, Tn-1 =2. Tn-2 + 1. Suppose that there are n-disks. We first transfer the (n-1) smallest disks to a different peg. It requires Tn-1 moves. Then move the largest ( It requires one move.), and finally transfer the (n-1) smallest disks back onto the largest ( it requires another Tn-1 moves.).

We must move the largest disk. When we do, the n-1 smallest disks must be on a single peg, and it has taken at least Tn-1 moves to put them there ( we might move the largest disk more than once). After moving the largest disk for the last time, we must transfer the n-1 smallest disks (which must be again on a single peg) back onto the largest.