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You are on page 1of 49

1, February 2012

H. Vic Dannon

H. Vic Dannon vic0@comcast.net September, 2010

Abstract

impulse in Radar circuits, is a Hyper-Real function which definition and analysis require Infinitesimal Calculus, and Infinite Hyper-reals. The controversy surrounding the Leibnitz Infinitesimals derailed the development of the Infinitesimal Calculus, and the Delta Function could not be defined and investigated properly. For instance, it is labeled a Generalized Function although it generalizes no function. Diracs intuitive definition by Deltas sampling property

x =

x =

(x )dx = 1 ,

that avoids specifying (0) , remains the main definition of the delta function, although the Delta Function is not Riemann integrable in the Calculus of Limits, integrable in Measure Theory. In fact, in the Calculus of Limits, only the Cauchy Principal Value and is not Lebesgue

H. Vic Dannon

Integral of the Delta Function exists, and it equals zero. Only in Infinitesimal Calculus, can the Delta Function be defined, differentiated, and integrated. Infinitesimal Calculus allows us to resolve open problems such as What is (0) ? How is x (x ) defined at x = 0 ? How is the Delta Function the derivative of a Step Function? How do we integrate the Delta Function? What is (x 2 ) ? What is 2 (x ) ? What is (x 3 ) ? What is 3 (x ) ? The Delta Function enables us to define the Fourier Transform with minimal requirements on the transformed function.

Keywords: Infinitesimal, Infinite-Hyper-Real, Hyper-Real, Cardinal, Infinity. Non-Archimedean, Non-Standard Analysis, Calculus, Limit, Continuity, Derivative, Integral, 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification 26E35; 26E30; 26E15; 26E20; 26A06; 26A12; 03E10; 03E55; 03E17; 03H15; 46S20; 97I40; 97I30.

H. Vic Dannon

Contents

Introduction 1. Hyper-real Line 2. Delta Function Definition 3. Delta Function Plots 4. Delta Function Properties 5. Delta Sequence n (x ) =

n 1 2 cosh2 nx

[0, )

(x )

12. The Principal Value Derivative of Delta: The Dipole Function 13. 2nd Principal Value Derivative of Delta: the 4-Pole Function 14. Higher Principal Value Derivatives of Delta References

H. Vic Dannon

Introduction

0.1 Cauchy, Poisson, and Riemann

Cauchy (1816), and Poisson (1815) derived the Fourier Integral Theorem by using the sifting property of the Delta Function. By Fourier Integral Theorem

k = = ikx 1 ik f (x ) = e f ( )e d dk 2 k = = k = 1 ik ( x ) = f ( ) e dk d 2 k = = =

Denoting

1 eik( x )dk ( x ) , 2 k =

the Delta Function is the Fourier Transform of the constant function 1 , And Fourier Integral theorem states the sifting property for the Delta Function

=

k =

f (x ) =

f ( )( x ) . d

In the derivation of his Zeta Function, Riemann (1859) uses this sifting property repeatedly, without using a function notation for

H. Vic Dannon

1 the integral 2

k =

k =

The derivations were not supplied by Riemann. Riemanns 1859 paper, as well as much of Riemanns published writings, outlines ideas, and states results without proof. In particular, the representation of Delta that follows from the Fourier Integral Theorem does not hold in the Calculus of Limits. Indeed,

= x e ik ( x ) = 1 ,

and the integral

1 2

diverges.

k =

k =

eik ( x )dk

Avoiding the singularity at = x does not recover the Theorem, because without the singularity the integral equals zero. Thus, the Fourier Integral Theorem cannot be written in the Calculus of Limits. In other words, the indeterminate nature of singularities in the Calculus of Limits does not allow the Fourier Integral Theorem to hold.

H. Vic Dannon

0.2 Dirac

The Delta Function can be realized as a Radar transmission Pulse. A Radar Transmission has to be pulsed because a continuous wave train will not allow us to measure the time interval between transmission and reception, and determine the range of the target by r = 1 c . 2 Thus, a transmission lasts very short time. system converts into a receiver for Then, the Radar This

process of transmitting and receiving repeats thousands of time per second, in order to follow a moving target. The Radar pulse envelops a carrier wave of very short wavelength. Radar carrier waves went down from centimeters to micrometers of light wavelength. Since the illuminating power dissipation is proportional to

1 r2

, the

short electromagnetic wave-train has an electric field that seems nearly infinite, although the pulse power is finite. Dirac (1930) was familiar with Radar Pulses when he defined the Delta Function in [Dirac, p.71] through the sifting property,

x =

x =

(x )dx = 1 ,

and

H. Vic Dannon

(x ) = 0 , for all x 0 .

Dirac definition left open the question of the nearly infinite amplitude at x = 0 . That is, (0) was left undefined. Then, the sifting property does not hold. Indeed, since (0) is infinite, the integration of (x ) has to skip the point x = 0 , and only the Cauchy Principal Value of the

x =

integral

x =

1 x =n x = lim (x )dx + (x )dx = 0 , n 1 x = x= n

x =

in contradiction to

x =

(x )dx = 1 .

Laurent Schwartz presents his Delta Distribution as follows [Schwartz, p. 82]

Then, for any (x ) infinitely differentiable, that

vanishes at , and at ,

H. Vic Dannon

x =

x =

x =

x = x = x =

Y (x ) '(x )dx

x =0

'(x )dx = (x ) x =0

= (0)

x =

=

Thus,

x =

(x )(x )dx

Y ' = .

Since Y (x ) is not defined at x = 0 , Y '(0) is not defined, and the conclusion Y ' = , avoids (0) . That is, Schwartz Definition is as incomplete as Diracs. Furthermore, the equality

x =

(0) =

x =

(x )(x )dx

is the definition of the Delta Function by its sifting property that does not hold. Since (0) is not defined, the integration has to skip the point

x = 0 , and the integral is the Cauchy Principal Value Integral

H. Vic Dannon

Like the Dirac Delta, the Schwartz Delta avoids postulates the sifting property.

(0) , and

Attempts to get back to the singular Delta Function, replaced the Delta Function by a Delta Sequence of functions that converge to the Delta Function. For instance,

n (x ) = n

n, x [ 1 , 1 ] 2n 2n . 1 , 1 ](x ) = [ 0, otherwise 2n 2n

(x ) = lim n (x ) .

n

The sequential approach is reviewed in [Mikusinski], and is used in Mathematical Physics texts. However, the Delta Sequence contradicts Diracs definition. Indeed, as n , (0) = lim n (0) = lim n = .

n n

H. Vic Dannon

x =

x =

1 x =n x = lim (x )dx + (x )dx = 0 . n 1 x = x= n

x =

x =

n

The above attempts failed because the Delta Function is a hyperreal function. reals. By resolving the problem of the infinitesimals [Dan2], we obtained the Infinite Hyper-reals that are strictly smaller than , and can serve to supply the value of the Delta Function at the singularity. The attempts to get by with Calculus restricted to the real line, deprived Calculus of its full power. In Infinitesimal Calculus, [Dan3], we differentiate over a jump discontinuity of a step function, and obtain the Delta Function. We can integrate over a singularity, and obtain a finite value. A function from the hyper-reals into the hyper-

10

H. Vic Dannon

Here, we present the Delta Function, and the properties of the Delta Function in Infinitesimal Calculus. In particular, we resolve open problems such as What is (0) ? How is x (x ) defined at x = 0 ? How is the Delta Function the derivative of a Step Function? How do we integrate the Delta Function? What is (x 2 ) ? What is 2 (x ) ? What is (x 3 ) ? What is 3 (x ) ?

11

H. Vic Dannon

1. Hyper-real Line

Each real number can be represented by a Cauchy sequence of rational numbers, (r1, r2 , r3 ,...) so that rn . The constant sequence (, , ,...) is a constant hyper-real. In [Dan2] we established that, 1. Any totally ordered set of positive, monotonically decreasing to zero sequences (1, 2 , 3 ,...) constitutes a family of infinitesimal hyper-reals. 2. The infinitesimals are smaller than any real number, yet strictly greater than zero. 3. Their reciprocals

1 1 1 , , 1 2 3

4. The infinite hyper-reals are greater than any real number, yet strictly smaller than infinity. 5. The infinite hyper-reals with negative signs are smaller than any real number, yet strictly greater than . 6. The sum of a real number with an infinitesimal is a non-constant hyper-real. 7. The Hyper-reals are the totality of constant hyper-reals, a family of infinitesimals, a family of infinitesimals with

12

H. Vic Dannon

negative sign, a family of infinite hyper-reals, a family of infinite hyper-reals with negative sign, and non-constant hyper-reals. 8. The hyper-reals are totally ordered, and aligned along a line: the Hyper-real Line. 9. That line includes the real numbers separated by the nonconstant hyper-reals. Each real number is the center of an interval of hyper-reals, that includes no other real number. 10. In particular, zero is separated from any positive real

by the infinitesimals, and from any negative real by the infinitesimals with negative signs, dx . 11. Zero is not an infinitesimal, because zero is not strictly

greater than zero. 12. 13. We do not add infinity to the hyper-real line. The infinitesimals, the infinitesimals with negative

signs, the infinite hyper-reals, and the infinite hyper-reals with negative signs are semi-groups with respect to addition. Neither set includes zero. 14. The hyper-real line is embedded in

, and is not

homeomorphic to the real line. There is no bi-continuous one-one mapping from the hyper-real onto the real line.

13

H. Vic Dannon

15.

can be assigned uniquely to the infinitesimal hyper-reals, or to the infinite hyper-reals, or to the non-constant hyperreals. 16. an 17. No neighbourhood of a hyper-real is homeomorphic to

n

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H. Vic Dannon

2.1 Domain and Range

The Delta Function is a hyper-real function defined from the hyper-real line into the set of two hyper-reals

1 0, . dx

The hyper-real 0 is the sequence The infinite hyper-real

1 dx

0, 0, 0,... .

1 n

1 n2

1 n3

vector addition, and includes all the scalar multiples of the generating sequences that are non-zero. That is, the family includes infinitesimals with negative sign. Therefore,

1 dx

1 2n

1 22n

1 23n

, Then,

1 dx

Once we determined the basic infinitesimal dx , we will use it in the Infinite Riemann Sum that defines an Integral in

15

H. Vic Dannon

Infinitesimal Calculus.

Proof: Since dx > 0 ,

1 < . dx

We define,

(x ) 1 dx

dx , dx 2 2

(x ) ,

where

1, x dx , dx 2 2 . dx , dx (x ) = 2 2 0, otherwise

1 , dx

1 . x dx , dx , (x ) = 2 2 dx (0) = 1 dx

1 to 0 . dx

at x = 0 ,

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H. Vic Dannon

where dx = in .

1 , x in , in in 2 2 0, otherwise

Namely, as a hyper-real function the value of Delta at the singularity is the infinite hyper-real

1 dx

which is a sequence, an

17

H. Vic Dannon

3.1 Delta Plot for dx =

1 n 1 If in = n , Delta is the infinite Hyper-Real number,

(x ) =

1 1 2 2 1 1 3 3

Similarly, we use

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H. Vic Dannon

(x ) = 2

We use

1 2n

is

1 1 8 8 1,1] 16 16

[ , ](x ), 4[ , ](x ), 8[

1 1 4 4

(x ),...

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H. Vic Dannon

Similarly, we use

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H. Vic Dannon

4.1

x (x ) = 0

Proof: x 0 (x ) = 0 x (x ) = 0 .

x = 0 x (x ) = 0(0) =

0 = 0 , since dx > 0 . dx

4.2

(x x 0 )

=

1 d (x x 0 )

1 dx

x

0

dx ,x + dx 2 0 2

(x )

x

0

dx ,x + dx 2 0 2

(x )

4.3

n (x ) =

1 (dx )n 1

dx , dx (x ) , 2 2

n = 2, 3,...

1 . dx

(dx )n

4.4

(x , y ) (x )(y ) =

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H. Vic Dannon

5. Delta Sequence n (x ) = n

1 2 cosh 2 nx

Depending on the choice of the infinitesimal dx = in , there are many Delta Sequences that lead to the Delta Function, (x ) .

5.1

Each

n (x ) = n

1 2 cosh2 nx

x =

x =

x =

n (x )dx = 1

n 2

x =

Proof:

tanh nx n 2 cosh2 nx dx = n 2n x = 1

=

x =

1 ( 1 (1) ) = 1 . 2

5.2 If in =

2 , n

(x ) =

,...

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H. Vic Dannon

23

H. Vic Dannon

6.1

Each n (x ) = ne nx [0,)

x =

x =

n (x )dx = 1

x = x =

Proof:

x =

ne

nx

[0,)(x )dx =

x =0

ne

nx

e nx dx = n n

x =

= 1.

x =0

6.2 If in =

24

H. Vic Dannon

25

H. Vic Dannon

7.1

Proof:

g(0) g(0 dx ) 0 (1) 1 = = dx dx dx

g '(0) =

1 . dx

g(0 + dx ) g(0) 1 0 1 = = dx dx dx

g '(0+) =

1 . dx

26

H. Vic Dannon

Since the right and left derivatives are equal, the derivative at

x = 0 is

g '(0) =

1 = (0) . dx

g '(x ) =

1 dx dx , . dx 2 2

Proof: For any dx ,

h(0) h(dx ) 0 = =0 dx dx

h '(0) = 0 .

h '(0+) = 1 . dx

h(dx ) h(0) 1 0 1 = = dx dx dx

h(dx ) h( dx ) 2 2 dx

10 1 , = dx dx

p.v.h '(0) = 1 . dx

1 dx dx , . dx 2 2

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H. Vic Dannon

8.

( f (x ))

8.1

Proof:

(ax ) = 1 (x ) a

We divide both sides by adx , and put a , because the Deltas on both sides are positive.

8.2

( f (x )) = 1 (x 1 ) f '(1 )

Then,

Proof:

( f (x )) = ( f (x ) f (1 ) )

For x 1 = infinitesimal ,

= ( f '(1 )(x 1 ) )

By 8.1,

= 1 (x 1 ) . f '(1 )

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H. Vic Dannon

8.3

1 1 (x 1 ) + (x 2 ) f '(1 ) f '(2 )

Proof:

( f (x )) = ( f (x ) f (1 ) ) + ( f (x ) f (2 ) )

= 1 1 (x 1 ) + (x 2 ) . f '(1 ) f '(2 )

8.4

(x 2 a 2 ) =

1 1 (x a ) + (x + a ) 2a 2a

8.5

( (x a )(x b) ) =

1 1 (x a ) + (x + a ) a b b a

8.6 If 1,...n are the only zeros of f (x ) , and f '(1 ),.., f '(n ) 0

Then, ( f (x )) =

1 1 (x 1 ) + ... + (x n ) f '(1 ) f '(n )

29

H. Vic Dannon

8.7

If

1 1 (x 1 ) + (x n ) + ... f '(1 ) f '(n )

Then, ( f (x )) =

8.8

30

H. Vic Dannon

9.

(x n )

9.1

Proof:

(x 2 ) =

1 d (x 2 ) 1 2xdx

x >0

(x 2 ) =

d (x 2 ) d (x 2 ) , 2 2

(x )

d (x 2 ) d (x 2 ) , 2 2

(x ) ,

x > 0.

9.2

1 2xdx

xdx ,xdx (x ) x =

xdx,xdx (x ) x =

1 2

= (x )

9.3

1 2xdx

dx 2

1 (dx )

2

(dx )2 (dx )2 , 2 2

(x )

2 (x )

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H. Vic Dannon

9.4

(x n ) =

1 d (x

n

d (x n ) d (x n ) (x ) , 2 2

1 nx n 1dx

n x n 1dx , n x n 1dx (x ) , 2 2

x >0

9.5

1 nx n 1dx

n n 1dx , n x n 1dx 2 2

1 (x ) x =( 1 )n 1 n

= (x )

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H. Vic Dannon

10.

(x n (dx )n )

While x 2 (dx )2 is infinitesimally close to x 2 , 2 different from (x 2 ) .

( x 2 (dx )2 ) is 2

10.1 Proof:

( x 2 (dx )2 ) = 2

1 1 (x dx ) + (x + dx ) 2 2 dx dx

1 1 1 1 dx (x dx ) + (x + dx ) ( dx ) + ( ) = 2 2 2 dx dx dx dx 2 x =0

= 1 (dx )

[dx ,0](x ) + 2

1 (dx )2

[0,dx ](x ) .

( (x dx ) + ( x e 3(dx )

1

2

i 23

dx + x e

) (

2i 23

dx

)) .

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H. Vic Dannon

x1 = dx , x 2 = e 3 dx ,

2

i 2

and

2

x3 = e

2i 2

3

dx .

( x 3 (dx )3 ) = 1 3(dx )2

(x dx ) + x e 3 dx + x e

i 2

) (

2i 23

dx

)) .

10.4 ( x n (dx )n ) =

1 n(dx )n 1

( (x dx ) + ( x e dx ) + ... + ( x e

2 n

(n 1)2n

dx

))

x1 = dx , x 2 = e n dx ,, xn = e

Since f '(x ) = nx n 1 , and since x1 by 6.6 we obtain

( x n (dx )n ) = 1 n(dx )n 1

n 1

i 2

(n 1)i 2

n

dx .

= ... = x n

n 1

= (dx )n 1 ,

( (x dx ) + ( x e dx ) + ... + ( x e

2 n

(n 1)2n

dx

)) .

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H. Vic Dannon

11. Integral of (x )

11.1 Integral of a Hyper-real Function

Let f (x ) be a hyper-real function on the interval [a, b ] .

bounded. At each

a x b,

there is a rectangle with base [x dx , x + dx ] , height f (x ) , and area 2 2

f (x )dx .

We form the Integration Sum of all the areas for the x s that start at x = a , and end at x = b ,

x [a ,b ]

f (x )dx .

If for any infinitesimal dx , the Integration Sum has the same hyper-real value, then f (x ) is integrable over the interval [a,b ] . Then, we call the Integration Sum the integral of f (x ) from x = a , to x = b , and denote it by

35

H. Vic Dannon

x =b

x =a

f (x )dx .

If the hyper-real is infinite, then it is the integral over [a, b ] , If the hyper-real is finite,

x =b

x =a

In [Dan1], we established the equality of all positive infinities: We proved that the number of the Natural Numbers,

Card , equals the number of Real Numbers, Card

= 2Card , and

we have

Card

= 22

Card

= ... .

In particular, we demonstrated that the real numbers may be well-ordered. Consequently, there are countably many real numbers in the interval [a, b ] , and the Integration Sum has countably many terms. While we do not sequence the real numbers in the interval, the summation takes place over countably many f (x )dx .

36

H. Vic Dannon

11.3

x [a ,b ]

dx inf dx f (t ) dx x t x +

2 2

The Upper Integral is the Integration Sum where f (x ) is replaced by its largest value on each interval [x dx , x + dx ] 2 2

11.4

upper integral and its lower integral are finite, and differ by an infinitesimal.

x =

11.6

x =

(x )dx = 1 .

1 dx = 1 . dx

Both the upper integral, and the lower integral are equal to

1 dx = 1 . dx

37

H. Vic Dannon

We have seen in 2.3 that at x = for

1 dx , (x ) jumps from 0 to , dx 2

1 1 . In particular, (0) = x dx , dx , (x ) = 2 2 dx dx

dx 1 , (x ) drops from to 0 . 2 dx

at x =

Here, we show in 12.1, that (x ) has no derivative at x = 1 dx , but the 2 Principal Value Derivative over the jump at x = 1 dx , is a 2 Positive Impulse Function. in 12.2, that (x ) has no derivative at

x = 1 dx , but the 2

38

H. Vic Dannon

Namely, (x ) has no derivative at x = 0 , but the Principal Value Derivative over the two jumps is a Dipole Function. That Dipole function is a positive Impulse Function followed by a negative Impulse function. Both the positive, and the negative impulses have jumps far greater than the jump of the generating delta function.

(x ) has no derivative at x =

dx . 2

1 (dx )2

[dx , 0] .

( dx ) (dx ) 2

dx + dx 2

1 dx

0

dx 2

2 (dx )2

(0) ( dx ) 2

0 ( dx ) 2

1 dx

1 dx dx 2

= 0.

(x ) has no

39

H. Vic Dannon

1 dx

0 dx

1

1 (dx )

2

(dx )

[dx , 0] .

(x ) has no derivative at x = 1 dx . 2

dx 2

1 (dx )2 [0, dx ].

(dx ) (0) 2

dx 2

1 dx

1 dx dx 2

0 = 0. dx

(dx ) (dx ) 2

dx dx 2

1 0 dx dx 2

2 (dx )2

(x ) has no

40

H. Vic Dannon

1 0 dx 1 (dx ) (0) = = . 2 dx ) dx (dx )

1 (dx )

2

[0, dx ].

(x ) has no derivative at x = 0 .

The Principal Value Derivative of (x ) , p.v.D(x ) is the Dipole Function

Dipole(x ) = 1 (dx )

2

[dx , 0]

1 (dx )

2

[0, dx ] .

Proof:

(0) (dx ) = dx

1 dx

0 dx

1 (dx )2

1 0 dx 1 (dx ) (0) = = . dx dx (dx )2

Since the left and right derivatives are unequal, derivative at x = 0 . The Principal Value Derivative of (x ) is

(x ) has no

41

H. Vic Dannon

(x + dx ) (x dx ) 2 2

dx

It is the Dipole Function

1

1 1 (x + dx ) (x dx ) . 2 2 dx dx

1 (dx )2 [0, dx ] .

(dx )2

[dx , 0]

If dx =

1 n

1 1 Dipole(x ) = n 2[ n , 0] n 2[0, n ] .

42

H. Vic Dannon

13. The 2nd Principal Value Derivative of Delta: the 4-Pole Function

The 2nd Principal Value Derivative of (x ) is the 4-pole Function

13.1 (p.v.D)2(x ) =

=

1 (dx )2 1 (dx )

3

( (x + dx ) 2(x ) + (x dx ) )

Proof: (p.v.D) (x ) =

= 1

Dipole(x + dx ) Dipole(x dx ) 2 2 dx

(dx )2 1 (dx )

3

( (x + dx ) 2(x ) + (x dx ) )

1 (dx )2

(x + dx ) centered at x = dx ,

43

H. Vic Dannon

1 (dx )2

1 (dx )2

(x ) centered at x = 0 ,

(x dx ) centered at x = dx .

If dx =

1 n

4 pole(x ) = n 3[ 23 , 21 ] 2n 3[ 21 , 21 ] + n 3[ 21 , 23 ] . n n n n n n

Then, a Maple plot of a component of 4 pole(x ) is

1 n

44

H. Vic Dannon

14.1 The 3rd Principal Value Derivative of (x ) , (p.v.D)3(x ) is the 8-pole Function

8pole(x ) = 1 (dx )4

If dx =

1 n

2 1 1 1 1 2 8pole(x ) = n 4 [ n , n ] 3n 4 [ n , 0] + 3n 4 [0, n ] n 4 [ n , n ] .

1 n

45

H. Vic Dannon

14.2 The 4th Principal Value Derivative of (x ) , (p.v.D)4(x ) is the 16-pole Function

16pole(x ) = 1 (dx )

5

+ 6[ dx , dx ] 4[dx , 3dx ] + [ 3dx , 5dx ] ) . 2 2 2 2 2 2

If dx =

1 n

16pole(x ) = ( n 5[ 25 , 23 ] 4n 5[ 23 , 1 ] + n n n 2 + 6n 5[ 21 , 21 ] 4n 5[ 21 , 23 ] + n 5[ 23 , 25 ] ) . n n n n n n

Then, a Maple plot of a component of 16pole(x ) is

1 n

46

H. Vic Dannon

Using the Binomial coefficients, 14.3 The kth Principal Value Derivative of (x ) , (p.v.D)k (x ) is

2 pole(x ) =

k

2k 1 pole(x + dx ) 2k 1 pole(x + dx ) 2 2 dx

If dx =

1 n

k +1

(k +1) (k 1) [ 2n , 2n ]

k +1

n (n 1)dx (n 3)dx [ 2 , 2 ] + 1

47

H. Vic Dannon

References

[Dan1] Dannon, H. Vic, Well-Ordering of the Reals, Equality of all Infinities, and the Continuum Hypothesis in Gauge Institute Journal of math and

Physics, Vol.6 No 2, May 2010; [Dan2] Dannon, H. Vic, Infinitesimals in Gauge Institute Journal of math and Physics, Vol.6 No 4, November 2010; [Dan3] Dannon, H. Vic, Infinitesimal Calculus in Gauge Institute Journal of Math and Physics, Vol.7 No 1, February 2011; [Dan4] Dannon, H. Vic, Riemanns Zeta Function: the Riemann Hypothesis Origin, the Factorization Error, and the Count of the Primes, in Gauge Institute Journal of Math and Physics, Vol.5 No 4, November 2009; [Dirac] Dirac, P. A. M. The Principles of Quantum Mechanics, Second Edition, Oxford Univ press, 1935. [Hen] Henle, James M., and Kleinberg Eugene M., Infinitesimal Calculus, MIT Press 1979. [Hosk] Hoskins, R. F., Standard and Nonstandard Analysis, Ellis Horwood, 1990. [Keis] Keisler, H. Jerome, Elementary calculus, An Infinitesimal Approach, Second Edition, Prindle, Weber, and Schmidt, 1986, pp. 905-912 [Laug] Laugwitz, Detlef, Curt Schmiedens approach to infinitesimals-an eyeopener to the historiography of analysis Technische Universitat Darmstadt, Preprint Nr. 2053, August 1999 [Mikusinski] Mikusinski, J. and Sikorski, R., The elementary theory of distributions, Rosprawy Matematyczne XII, Warszawa 1957.

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H. Vic Dannon

[Rand] Randolph, John, Basic Real and Abstract Analysis, Academic Press, 1968. [Riemann] Riemann, Bernhard, On the Representation of a Function by a Trigonometric Series. (1) In Collected Papers, Bernhard Riemann, translated from

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