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International Journal of Engineering Inventions

ISSN: 2278-7461, www.ijeijournal.com


Volume 1, Issue 6(October2012) PP: 49-54
49
Optimum Power Dispatch Problems: An Overview
F. R. Pazheri
1, 2
, N. H. Malik
2
, M. F. Othman
3
and M. Babar
2


1
Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, 81310 Johor, Malaysia.
2
Saudi Aramco Chair in Electrical Power, EE Department, College of Engineering, King Saud University,
P. O. Box 800, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia.
3
Centre for Artificial Intelligence & Robotics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,
Jalan Semarak 54100, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.



AbstractAn efficient operating policy for committed units (CU) in order to meet the load demand is very important for
power system operators. Optimum Power Dispatch (OPD) problems help to find such suitable operating policies for CUs
without violating system and unit constraints. Minimization of fuel cost or reduction of amount of pollutants emission or
optimization of both fuel cost and emission are the objectives of OPD problems. Based on the objectives, OPD problems
are classifieds and are briefly discussed in this paper. The OPD problem of hybrid power system with and without solar
and wind energies is considered and this paper illustrates the OPD with MATLAB simulations.

Keywordseconomic dispatch, environmental friendly dispatch, multi-objective, optimization, renewable energy.


I. INTRODUCTION
Optimum power dispatch problem is to find the optimum scheduling for committed units in order to meet the load
demand while satisfying all unit and system constraints [1-4]. World consumption of energy was about 84 million barrels per
day (MBD) in 2008. According to International Energy Agency it will reach 113 MBD by year 2030. According to
Executive Director for Exploration & Production for Royal Dutch, the world energy demand could double by 2050 [5]. The
energy consumption of developing countries has increased more than four times over the past three decades. The annual
demand growth of developing countries is 2.7 % while that of industrialized countries is 1.2 % [6]
The existing energy production is not clean. About 63% of world electricity is obtained by burning fossil fuels;
40% of which is from coal-fired electric power stations. Most of the coal-fired power stations were built two decades before
and emit 80-85% of NO
x
generated by utilities. Some older power plants operate with pollution rates of up to 70 to 100 times
greater than the new plants [7-10]. Due to the increased cost and dwindling supplies of fossil fuels, awareness on carbon
footprint and effect of global warming, the utilities have been forced to use renewable energy sources in hybrid power
systems and to modify their operation strategies in order to reduce fuel cost, fuel demand, and atmospheric emission
pollutions by power plants. OPD is the suitable tool for the same. Economic Dispatch (ED), Environmental Friendly
Dispatch (EFD) and Economical and Environmental Dispatch (EED) are some of the important OPD problems that are
discussed in this paper.
Minimizing the fuel cost is the objective of ED problems while the minimization of pollutants emission is the
objective of EFD [11, 12]. The EED problem minimize both fuels cost and amount of emissions. EED distributes active and
renewable production among the available power stations to meet the minimization of both fuel cost and pollutant emissions
simultaneously [13, 14]. However, this distribution in case of ED is only for minimizing fuel cost while in EFD; it is only for
reducing the amount of emissions. ED and EFD are treated as single objective problems while EED is treated as a multi-
objective problem [1, 12].
Renewable energy resources depend on the climate data such as the wind speed, solar radiation, and temperature.
The uncertainty and the variation of the renewable resources create issues in OPD problems. Different methodologies were
illustrated in several articles to overcome these issues [11-17]. One of the methods is to treat renewable power as a negative
load and formulate demand equation on this basis [11, 16, 18]. The amount of dispatching active and renewable power is
calculated based on the data conveyed by the Environmental Information Systems and Load Dispatch Centers, using any
commercially available software package [8]. In this paper, the OPD is formulated with and without renewable sources. The
objective functions and constraints of OPD problems are described next.

II. OBJECTIVE FUNCTIONS AND CONSTRAINTS
The main objective of ED is to minimize fuel cost. Hence, the objective function is fuel cost function.

The fuel cost function F
f
(P
gi
) in $/h is represented by a quadratic equation of the type as;

( ) ( )

=
+ + =
g
N
1 i
2
gi i gi i i gi f
P c P b a P F (1)
Optimum Power Dispatch Problems: An Overview
50
In (1), a
i
, b
i
and c
i
are the appropriate cost coefficients for individual generating units, P
gi
is the real power output of the i
th

generator and N
g
is the number of total generators.

Main emissions in thermal power plants are SO
2
and NO
x
. The emission of SO
2
depends on fuel consumption and
emission quantity has the same form as the fuel cost function. The emission of NO
x
is related to many factors such as the
temperature of the boiler and content of the air. The objective function of EFD is emission function F
e
(P
gi
) and can be
expressed in ton/h as;

( ) ( )

=
+ + + =
g
gi i
N
1 i
P
i
2
gi i gi i i gi e
e P P P F (2)
Here
i
,
i
,
i
,
i
and
i
are emission coefficients of the i
th
generating unit. The EED problem optimizes both fuel cost and
emissions simultaneously. Hence, its objective functions contain both fuel cost and emission functions.

The power extracted from the renewable source varies and can be considered as a variable load. Therefore solar power P
s

and wind power P
w
are deducted from the total demand ( )
t
D
P . The net actual demand is thus expressed as;

( )
w s
t
D
a
D
P P P P + = (3)


The main constraints of OPD can be formulated as follows:

- The total power generation must cover the actual demand and the power loss (P
L
) in transmission lines so as to ensure
power balance, i.e.
-
0 P P P
g
N
1 i
gi L
a
D
= +

=
(4)

- The generated real power of i
th
unit is restricted by the lower limit
min
gi
P and the upper limit
max
gi
P i. e.

max min
gi gi gi
P P P s s , i=1, 2, .., Ng (5)

- Active power loss of the transmission line is positive, i.e.,
-
0 >
L
P (6)

- The dispatched amount of renewable power is limited to some part (x) of the total actual demand, i.e.

( )
a
D w s
xP P P s + (7)


III. OPD FORMULATION
The optimization of OPD problems based on their objectives and constraints are formulated as follows;

The optimization of ED can be summarized as;
Minimize [F
f
(P
gi
)]
Subjected to the constraints given in (4) to (7).

EFD can be summarized as;
Minimize [F
e
(P
gi
)]
Subjected to the constraints given in (4) to (7).

EED optimization can be summarized as;
Minimize [F
f
(P
gi
), F
e
(P
gi
)]
Subjected to the constraints given in (4) to (7).

A comparative analysis of OPD problems are carried out using MATLAB simulations and are discussed next.

Optimum Power Dispatch Problems: An Overview
51
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The simulations of OPD problems with given constraints were performed using MATLAB. The values of the fuel
and emission coefficients which were used for illustration are given in Tables 1. Optimization is done in presence of with
and without renewable energy sources. The lower and upper limits of generated power of each generator are given as;
pu P pu
gi
5 . 1 05 . 0 s s ; i=1, 2, .., 6 (8).

TABLE 1: Generator Cost and Emission Coefficients [1]
a b c

P
g1
10 200 100 4.091 -5.554 6.490 2x10-4 2.857
P
g2
10 150 120 2.543 -6.047 5.638 5x10-4 3.333
P
g3
20 180 40 4.258 -5.094 4.586 1x10-6 8.000
P
g4
10 100 60 5.326 -3.55 3.380 2x10-3 2.000
P
g5
20 180 40 4.258 -5.094 4.586 1x10-6 8.000
P
g6
10 150 100 6.131 -5.555 5.151 1x10-5 6.667

The variation of fuel cost for a specified power demand is shown in Fig. 1. The cost without the use of renewable
power (C
N
) is always more than that of with renewable power (C
R
). The percentage reduction in the fuel cost %C with
power demand is shown in Fig. 2. More than 30% of fuel cost can be reduced while dispatching 3 pu power demand in
presence of renewable power.
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
Power Demand (pu)
C
o
s
t

(
$
/
h
)


C
N
C
R

Fig. 1 Variations of Fuel Cost with Power Demand
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Power Demand (pu)
%
A
C
%AC = (1-C
R
/C
N
)x100

Fig.2 Variation of %C with Demand

The variation of pollutants emission for a specified power demand is shown in Fig. 3. If the demand is high then
the emission without the use renewable power (E
N
) is more than that obtained with the use renewable power (E
R
). At low
power demand the dispatched power from renewable source is negligible. The percentage reduction in the fuel cost %E
with power demand is shown in Fig. 4.
Optimum Power Dispatch Problems: An Overview
52
0 1 2 3 4 5
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
Power Demand (pu)
E
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

(
t
o
n
/
h
)


E
N
E
R

Fig. 3 Variations of Emissions with Power Demand
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Power Demand (pu)
%
A
E
%AE=(1-E
R
/E
N
)x100

Fig. 4 Variation of %E with Demand

The variation of fuel cost and emissions with power demand is shown in Fig. 5. With increase in power demand
the cost is always less for EED when renewable source is used. However, the amount of emissions is slightly higher for low
demand if renewable sources are used, but it is lesser for higher demand. Te percentage reductions of both fuel cost and
amount of emissions are show in Fig.6.
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5
0
500
1000
C
o
s
t
(
$
/
h
)


0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
Power Deman (pu)
E
m
i
s
s
i
o
n
(
t
o
n
/
h
)


C
N
C
R
E
N
E
R

Fig. 5 Variations of Fuel Cost and Emissions with Power Demand
Optimum Power Dispatch Problems: An Overview
53


Fig.6. Variation of %C and %E with Demand

The values of C
N
and C
R
obtained by ED optimization are slightly less than the corresponding values obtained by
EED optimization. Similarly, Comparing EFD and EED, less values of E
N
and E
R
are obtained from EFD optimization. In
other words, best saving of fuel cost only obtained with ED optimization while best reduction in emission obtained by EFD
optimization. However, the optimum values of both fuel cost and emission are achieved by minimizing EED problems.

V. CONCLUSION
OPD problems are formulated in this paper for a hybrid system which includes thermal generating units as well as
solar and wind based generations. Analyses were carried out using MATLAB simulation for each OPD problem with and
without the use of renewable sources. From the analysis it is clear that the efficient use of renewable power can help to
reduce both fuel cost and the amount of pollutants emissions.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors would like to acknowledge Research Center, King Saud University and CAIRO, Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia, for supporting this work.

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