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Tip English I) a)

i)

VERB RULES, STRUCTURES AND EXPRESSIONS Verb usage


Simple Present Rule When it is true all the time use When it is permanent When it is routine When it is of geographical location When it is emotions, senses Example The Sun rises in the East I live in London I go by bus to work Delhi lies on the Yamuna It tastes good I love this movie River It is tasting good-is wrong I am loving this movie-is wrong Explanation only till my car gets Explanation It is true always "live" is true all the time everyday you go to work by bus

ii)

Present continuous Rule When the action is Temporary fixed When it is for changes or current trends Example I am going by bus

iii)

Simple Past When it was long term in the past

I lived in the countryside when I was a child this is a long-term situation in the past.

If you are explaining something that is always continuing or true even it was told in the past use simple present to that part. Example The professor told us that Jupiter was the largest planetincorrect The professor told us that Jupiter is the largest planet-correct

iii)

Past Continuous -ing form Rule When it was Temporary continuing When past simple continuous Are combined To give description &

or

past

Example When I was living in London,I often went to the theatre When I lived in London,I worked with them When he got home, the children were playing in the garden The girl was wearing a yellow dress She was eating ice-cream and was watching television I was wondering if you had time to see me I was hoping we could discuss a pay rise

Explanation Temporary Longtime

To make polite requests

iv)

Present Perfect or Simple Past Depends on whether the event is still connected with the past, or it is completed. When you use past, you mean the event as finished in the past, mostly used along with time eg., in 1997, this morning, last night, etc., With Present Perfect, you mean the event started in past, but still connected with present eg., I have lived here for 2 years. (you started living before 2 years and still continue

living there) Announcing news: Experience: I have passed the exam I have been to Singapore Have you ever been to Singapore? Recent past: I have just finished the report I have not finished yet. We often use, yet, still, just, recently with this type of sentences If you are reporting something told by somebody in past tense.

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Tip English
Jack said, "My wife went with me yesterday" ! Jack said his wife had gone with him the week before. Dave asked, "Where did you go last weekend?" ! Dave asked me where I had gone the previous weekend He said, "I have visted London twice." ! He said he had visited London twice. He said, "I had already eaten." ! He said he had already eaten. He said, "I must give Ken a call." ! He said he had to give Ken a call. Jack said, "He must be guilty!" ! Jack said he must have been guilty. vi) Present Perfect Continuous : Similar to Present Continuous; Temporary situations, Unfinished situations, Repeated & continuous actions viii) Future For predictions - will, going to eg., I think the Labour party will lose the next election I think the Labour party are going to lose the next election. If the prediction is based on current event use going to eg., I think you are going to hit a car, if you drive like this. For plans and arrangements - going to with the verb eg., I am going to take my exams next month. He is visiting a client on Thursday (or) present continuous

Unplanned future - If the decision is based on current speaking eg., The phone is ringing, I will answer it Schedules - Present Simple tense eg., The plane leaves at 7.00 'o clock eg., I leave to India next week. This time in future - use will be doing eg., Next week this time, I will be in London finished events in future - will have done eg., Tomorrow evening I will have done with this document viii) Connecting different times Past perfect Use to express an activity that happened before another past activity past perfect past tense eg., The movie had begun when we arrived I had already left when he called He had studied law before he met her he studied law before he met her, but we don't know when. Present Perfect eg., Future perfect present perfect I have lived here for two years I started to live here two years ago and I still live here. eg., I will have finished the report before next week some time before next week, but I don't know when.

b)

Verbs that will take

infinitive form(to ) in complement

Agree Appear Arrange

Ask Claim Consent

decide demand deserv e

expect fail forget hesitat e hope intend

learn manage mean

need offer plan

prepare pretend promise

refuse seem tend threate n wait want

Example :

Subject

Verb

Complement

Object

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Tip English
I I He agree decided was expected to what to go to be here you say tomorrow yesterday

c)

Verbs that will take --ing form in complement

Admit Complet e

deny

finish keep

miss

Recall Risk

suggest

tolerate understand

Appreciat e Avoid

Conside r Delay

discus s enjoy

mention

postpon e quit

Stop

recommen d regret

forbid can take -ing or infinitive Object the car coffee.

Example

:He He He

Subject admits considered enjoys

Verb steeling not going drinking

Complement

d)

Verb phrases that will take --ing form in complement

Approve of forget about

Be better off Get through

can't help count on

think of think about

Insist on Look forward to

object to

keep on

do not mind

e)

Advise : Had better is an idiomatic phrase meaning ought to, must.


Correct forms You had better take You had better not take this semester

had better

Chemistry 600 this semester less than 600 in Chemistry

Though had is a past form, it refers to future time in this pattern. Incorrect forms You had better to take Chemistry 600 this semester You had better not took less than 600 in Chemistry this semester You had better not taken less than 600 in Chemistry this semester You had better do not take less than 600 in Chemistry this semester

avoid using, infinitive, or a past form of verb instead of verb. avoid using, don't instead of not

f)

Invitation and Customs :

would and Do

For invitation use WOULD, + infintive For customs use Do

Would you like to watch television now? Do you watch television at home every day?

g)

Preferences:

would rather

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Tip English
1st form: I 2nd form: I would rather + verb would rather drive. avoid using an infintive or an -ing would would avoid avoid instead of verb drive.

rather + that + past rather that you drove using present verb instead of past. using should and a verb word

3rd

form

: I

would rather + that + did not + verb would rather that you did not drive. avoid using don't or does not instead of did not.

h)

Unfulfilled desires of the past:


: We We had hoped had hoped had hoped + that that

had hoped
+ subject + would + verb she would change avoid omitting would her changing her mind

1st Form

her mind incorrect

2nd form

Subject WISH THAT Subject had/could have/would have participle I wish that you had called yesterday I wish that you could have called yesterday I wish that you would have called yesterday Though WISH is present, this pattern refers to desires in the past : WISH custom/future Subject WISH I wish I wish I wish

3rd form

THAT that that that

Subject past verb/could + verb/would verb you called every day you could call tomorrow you would call tomorrow avoid using will instead of would

i)

Contrary to fact statements

& Wishes

Wish & were

1st form:

Present wishes are expressed in the past tense WISH that perfect Ralph wishes that he had $1000 (but he does not) I wish that I joined (but I did not)
Use were in present wishes Subject WISH I wish that I wish that He has often wished that for to be. that Subject were the party was on Friday incorrect the party were on Friday correct avoid changing were to agree with the subject he were older

2ndt form:

3rd form

: Past wishes are expressed in the past perfect Subject WISH that Subject past perfect Sita wishes that she had studied more English before arriving Kathy and Bob wish If Subject were If the party were that they had gotten married before she went to Europe.

in the US.

on Friday, we could go avoid changing were to agree with the subject

j)

Past custom: - correct

used to/am used to

I used to live in this town

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Tip English I + BE + VERB + -ing I am used to live in this town correct


k) Verb subject pattern negative Never auxiliary have Subject Verb I seen so much snow avoid using I before auxiliary

- incorrect !

I am used to living in this town

l)

Conditions:
If If + present form you heat ice + present form , it melts - here heat and melts are present tense

if

1ST form:

In this type of sentence WHEN can replace if 2nd form: 3rd form: 4th form: If If If If If If + present form it rains, + past form I got a pay rise, + will, can or may it will be slippery. + would, could, or might I would buy a new car.

+ past perfect + would/might/could have + participle I had revised, I would have passed my exams first part - did not happen

m)

Impersonal expressions:
It is It is It is It is adjective infinitive important to verif essential/imperative/necessary adjective important that that

it is

1st form:

the data

2nd form:

Subject verb word the data be verified avoid using a present verb of a verb word

n) Subjunctives Verbs:
1st form: Subject I

ask/advise/demand/prefer/recommend/require/suggest/insist/urge be necessary/be required/ be essential/be important


Verb prefer that that I Subject verb word speak to him pesonally. avoid using past or present form of verb

word The doctor recommended that I suggested that She asked that that The doctor advised The restaurant suggested reservation It 2
nd

she have surgery he be ready on time all employees attend the meeting that I go on a diet that We arrive on time for our money Subject that we be collected for the event. verb word be evaluated was approved. avoid using a present or past verb

is important that that recommendation requirement suggestion

form:

noun The

o)

Affirmative agreement

and/so

1st form:

Subject

BE/VERB

AND

SO

BE/DO

SUBJECT

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Tip English
They My wife 2nd form: Subject They My wife were surprised, and so talked to them, and avoid also BE/VERB , surprised, and talked to them, we and were so we did I SO

were

AND Subject BE/DO were so I did so avoid be instead of do

p)

Causatives

get/let/help/make/had

1st form:

Subject My English teacher Subject My English teacher Subject I want

HAVE had MAKE made HAVE to have LET Let us

someone verb word give oral reports avoid infintive or -ing

2nd form: 3rd form:

someone verb word take his assignment. avoid infinitive or -ing something participle this book renewed, please avoid infinitive or ing us someone me verb word explore this avoid infinitive or -ing

4th form: Please

Verb GET LET HELP Make/made Have/had

Followed by

Verb Y Y Y Y Y

-ing N N Y N N

to + verb N N Y N N

Participle Y N N N Y

q) Negative agreement
1st form: Subject My roommate 2nd form: Subject have/ do/be will not won't have/ do/be will not won't anyone, participle/ -ing form go, and neither and neither avoid I will have/ Subject do/be will will I

participle/ -ing form go,

My roommate Please don't tell anyone. Would you please not tell of not

and Subject have/ either do/be will not and I will not either

avoid using infinitive avoid using infinitive; avoid using don't instead

r)

Adjectives & Adverbs

Remember(f,l,s,s,t)

Other than the below 5 senses, when something modifies a verb use adverb else use adjective I I run am well. good. here run is verb well is adverb here am is not verb so use good. take Adjective not Adverb ly adverb

Senses like feel; look, seem, smell, taste eg., I feel badly

is wrong

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Tip English
I feel bad If it is health related good with feel is ok.

s)
a) b) c)

Logical Conclusions:
Must be + -ing Events that repeat Events in the past

must

! Must + verb (no -ing) ! must have + participle

t) Pronouns Possessive pronouns


My -our Your -your her, his, its their

Subject pronouns
I - we you - you she, he, it - they This/It is he avoid using object pronoun after the verb BE

Object pronouns
me - us you - you her, him, it - them Preposition with object pronoun

Relative pronoun

among, of, between, to , for, with, from Avoid using subject pronoun after preposition

u)

Usage of article

The

THE will not come before Gods names, Sports names, Subject Names, Holiday names, Peoples names, Titles, Planet Names, Countries with one word Names Names of small bodies water like Lake and Pond, single mountain names, the following words(Abstract noun) Patience, Knowledge, self-confidence, Humility Cardinal Numbers like One, Two, Three Specific names of institutions Smith college

THE will come before ONE and ONLY in the world like The world, The sun, The moon, The Himalayas, The Bible, The Gita Names of large bodies of water Names of Mountain ranges Ordinal Numbers
Plural family names

The Indian Ocean, The Pacific The Himalayas

like the first, the second, the third


like, The Smiths

Plural Nationality
Famous Documents or books Government/Political units Superlatives

like The Chinese, The French,


The Constitution The University of Nebraska The best, The quickest

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Tip English

v) " "

Comparatives Dont compare Apples and oranges. Compare a person to person; persons talent with another persons talent; a group with a group; a place to a place; one quality to another quality. When comparing 2 things/persons use Comparative degree, instead of Superlative degree. eg., Ramu is the most intelligent than Ravi. incorrect Ramu is more intelligent than Ravi - correct

1st form: Verb the same as I believe that this coat is the same as avoid using to, that, or like instead of as 2nd form: Fresh fruit costs We have 3rd form: Football in the US 4rd form:

that one

multiple nos as much/many as twice as much as canned fruit half as many as we need avoid using more instead of as much as is different different from that from that of other countries avoid using than instead of from between X and Y between rice and wheat avoid using from instead of and but rather for similarities for differences

distingush Distinguish

5th form: 6th form: Note:

Compare A to B Compare A with B not little, less, the least

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Tip English

w) Count and Non count Nouns


i) Singular countable nouns WILL HAVE DETERMINERS (a, an, the, some, Murali's, 1, 2, 3) before it Plural countable nouns are usually NOT preceded by DETERMINERS in general statements like ! Musicians must practice a great deal ! Newspapers contain a lot of information Plural countable nouns are followed by The, when referring ! to something that has been referred before ! to something that is very obvious like; The stars are shining brightly The children are put to bed. ! before nationality(that ends with ch, sh, z); The French ! refer a group of people as a class. The blind; The rich ! Plural names and plural place names The Smiths are living in this house. I know the Harrsions for years The United States, The British Isles, The Himalayas ii) Non countable noun will not have determiners in general Statements like ! Butter is flattening ! Courage and honesty are admirable qualities Non countable nouns are followed by The, when referring ! to something that has been referred before eg., We were served bread and cheese. The bread was tasty. ! to something that is very obvious like; The weather , which means the local weather The butter is hard, which means the butter inside referigerator The music means, the music that is playing ! The + non count noun + of (qualifying phrase) ! The + non count nound + which vi) vii) viii) viii) ALL ALL SOME OF THE SOME OF THE + + + + non count noun ART + is count noun non count noun is followed by + good singular verb

is followed by singular/plural verb accordingly is followed by singular verb and it is singular

Much will be used for non countable nouns See this link and also

http://www.fortunecity.com/bally/durrus/153/gramch15.html
http://webster.commnet.edu/grammar/determiners/determiners_printout.htm

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Tip English

II

TO REMEMBER

English Prepositions

i) spaces

IN : in a room / in a building / in a garden / in a park : : : in the water / in the sea / in a river

bodies of water lines Time/Season

in a row / in a line / in a queue

in a century There have been many inventions in the twentieth century in a year She left school in 1987 in a month He's leaving in January in a season We usually go on holiday in summer in a part of the day I'm leaving in the morning, not in the evening, BUT at night

in the twenties future period


Country / state / city : in India, in TN, in Madras

in a few weeks/

in a couple of days

during or in is used to say when something happens Muslims fast during / in Ramadan It rained during / in the night for is used to say how long something takes She played tennis for an hour mood member of ii) ON : on the ceiling / on the wall / on the floor / on the table : : : I stayed on Maui. : : in doubt; in a hurry; in secret; in anger in that club; in the orchestra; in the navey; in that class

surfaces: small islands: directions: time

on the left /on the right / straight on on a day on a date on a street The appointment is on Monday. I'm leaving on 12 December.

specific calendar days


on the weekend

on Christmas day/ on October 22nd


(American)

iii)

AT

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Tip English
specific places work/ at home exact addresses places on a page groups of people for Christmas/Easter Time at the bus-stop /at the door /at the cinema /at the end of the street /at at 3711 Faulkner dr at the top of the page /at the bottom of the page at the back of the class /at the front of the class Christians celebrate at Christmas and at Easter. I play tennis at the weekend. (British) I go to sleep at night. The appointment is at four o'clock in the afternoon."

at the weekend at night at a time at 555-7234 at piece, at war; at rest at play; at work

phone no condition activity toward ii) Place

look at someone; wave at some one

Above (higher than) Under or underneath Beneath Below (lower than)

Look at the clock above the mantelpiece he keys are under the mat. old fashioned word to mean under) he chart below shows the annual figures. It was below freezing last night. Next to A is next to B in the alphabet. between B is between A and C in the alphabet. opposite The bank is opposite the supermarket. If you walk outside the bank, you can see the supermarket in front of you, on the other side of the road. across Walk across the road, to the other side. round / around It's round the corner - you can't see it from here. Note : We say 'in the corner of a room', but 'at the corner (or 'on the corner') of a street' We say 'in the front / in the back' of a car but We say 'at the front / at the back' of buildings / groups of people but We say 'on the front / on the back' of a piece of paper

Donts Dont use ON before exact address; like ON 511 SURFSIDE DR, #121 instead Dont use AT before addresses that dont have numbers instead
iv) Transport

- Use at - Use ON

on a train, a bus, a plane, a bicycle get on / off a train / a bus / a plane / a bike in a car get in / out of a car go by car / train / plane / bus go on foot

Very useful site: http://www.fortunecity.com/bally/durrus/153/gramch26.html

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Tip English

II)
Rule 1

Sentence Rules
: are not followed by to I will go to shopping ! - incorrect words like can, could, may, might, will, would they are followed by ! I will go shopping - ing form - correct

Rule 2

: There are lot of people - incorrect There are a lots of people - incorrect : convince

a lot of / lots of ! There are a lot of people - correct There are lots of people - correct Convince and persuade is followed by to

Rule 3

is followed by

that

persuade

Rule 4

: prevented him from going prevented his going - correct - correct prohibit & from doing ! THAT + .+ present is almost certain between/among ! Among - three or more forbidden to

Rule 5 forbid

: prohibited

Rule 6 That Rule 7 she

: will win

: Between - between two : Despite In spite of Although

Rule 8

Despite/In spite of/Although is followed by noun/pronoun/gerund. Despite is not followed by of is followed by noun/pronoun/gerund. is followed by verb.

Rule 9

: If something has a place in history, it is historic If something has to do with the subject of history it is historical

historic & historical

Rule 10 : ought/ought to

ought ought to
Rule 11 another

negative positive
each other/one

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Tip English Use each other Use one another when two people or things are involved when more than two people or things are involved.

each another and one other are bad and incorrect forms of this phrase
Rule 12 : blame blame in verb form (like blamed) should be followed by for not If you use blame as noun Rule 13 : - incorrect - correct

ON ON

is ok

Ramu has proposed both to Sita and Ramya Ramu has proposed both to Sita and to Ramya

Rule 14 to/had to
had to is

:
past form of have to / must

have

Rule 15
He He

:
tell tells say says Complement us how to do it that how to do it

tell & say

Rule 16 : few/little/many/much few and many will come before count nouns programs, seats) little and much will come before non-count nouns homework, news) Only a few dollars - correct incorrect Avoid using few instead of a few Only a little homework - correct incorrect Avoid using little instead of a little When the question is How many ? use few ! (books, friends, classes, dollars, (advice, information, hair, money,

Only

few dollars

Only little home work

When the question is

How much ? use little

Rule 17 Any

Some and
- Do you have any milk in the refrigerator? - He does not have any friends. - Yes there is some milk left. - He has some friends. - Would you like to have some

Any is used in questions for both count and uncountable Any is used in negative sentences Some is used in answers Some is used in positive sentences Some is used in offering/request kind of questions coffee?

Rule 18
Raise a) b)

:
rise raise raised when the sun is up rose raised risen

Rise &

Rise can not take an object Raise must have an object Complement/Object He rises The raised the water level

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Tip English Rule 19


& lay a) b)

:
lie lay lay laid lain laid

lie

lie wont take an object lay must have an object

Rule 20
to/for a) b) for to + +

:
noun verb to Newyork to Newyork to Newyork for getting a better job for a better job to get a better job - incorrect - correct - correct

He moved He moved or He moved

Rule 21

singular/plural Following are singular anyone no one its Collective nouns are singular like; audience staff police prose class band majority family series grouop faculty chorus public committee orchestra variety anything nothing each what either everyone everything whatever whoever neither her his

For these words use its. Dont use theirs Phrases separated by and are plural, phrases separated by or are singular NONE can be singular or plural eg., If it means, none of it eg., If it means, none of them One of the If that or who follows this, it is plural eg., One of Authors says it is best eg., He is one of the authors who say it is best - singular - plural

- singular - plural

Neither/Either are singular when they appear with out their kick backs (nor, or) eg., Either of the students is good eg., Neither of the students passed When Neither/Either is used with correlative conjunctions (NOR, OR), the subject that is closer to the verb determines the number(singular are plural) eg., Either the students or the teacher is telling the truth. eg., Either the teacher or the students are telling the truth. eg., Has either the president or his aides in touch with you Have either the aides or the president in touch with you Singular subjects separated by comma are singular like accompanied by, in addition to eg., Ram, accompanied by his student, was at the conference. eg., Ram, as well as Kumar , is good boy A pair of is singular Jeans are fashionable A pair of jeans is expensive. ii) These words are plural ! - plural - singular

few, people, the rest, the staff, cattle

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Tip English Rule 22 than/instead of : rather

These two are not replaceable with each other. Rather than is followed by base form the verb. It is not followed by infinitive or gerund e.g., I decided to skip lunch rather than eat in the cafeteria again - correct I decided to skip lunch rather than to eat in the cafeteria again - incorrect I decided to skip lunch rather than eating in the cafeteria again - incorrect

If you need to use ing use Instead of. If the purpose is to select between two things use instead of. Sooner than is equivalent of rather than Rule 23 which/that
" "

That is used with out comma. Which is preceded by comma. Which is removed wont alter the sentence much. That is essential in the sentence.

E.g., The clause which is hard to follow does not indicate which text is being complained about. Removing which will still convey the meaning that the phrase the textbook refers to the text in Chemistry 101.
" house. " Which is used when something is already identified and it gives some additional information on it That is used when it identifies a person or thing it refers about, like, The house that Ram built has been torn down that identifies the

The students in Chemistry 101 have been complaining about the textbook, which is hard to follow. If the essential clause starts with that, those, this, these, use which to connect Those ideas, which were discussed on Tuesday, will be put in the minutes-of-meeting. Rule 25 : meet/see Meet is used when it is FIRST time See is used from there onwards Rule 24 hyphenate : "

Numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine are hyphenated Compound color adjectives are hyphentated a red-gold sunset, a cherry-red sweater

When the element following a prefix is capitalized (anti-American) or when the element preceding a suffix is a proper noun( America-like) Rule 25 : He has good command over people who work under him He has good command over English language He has good command of English language Rule 25 Idioms
Avoid these errors Accede on, by

command over/command of - correct - incorrect - correct

Prefer these idioms Accede to

Avoid these errors Hope something

Prefer these idioms Hope for something Hope to do something

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Tip English
According After now on Anxious of Approve for Ashamed with At the near future Bored of Capable to Compete together Composed from Concerned of Conform with Congratulate for Conscious for Considered to be Discourage sb to do Effects in Equal as Ever since Excepting for Exchange with Frown to Glance According to From now on Anxious about Approve of Ashamed of In the near future Bored with Capable of Compete with Composed of Concerned with Conform to Congratulate on Conscious of Considered Discourage sb from doing Effects on Equal to Since Except for Exchange for Frown on Glance at/through Identical to In Contrast of In opinion In the habit to Incapable to Independent from Inferior with Knowledge on Near to On conflict Opposite over Prohibits sb to do Related with Respect of Similar as So that to Substitute to Such like Surprised at up until With regard of Identical with In Contrast with Of the opinion In the habit of Incapable of Independent of Inferior to Knowledge of Near ; next to In conflict Opposite Prohibits sb from doing Related to Respect for Similar to So as to Substitute for Such as Surprised by Until With regard to

Rule 26 with Verbs


Verb Accuse sb of sth Agree with sb/sth Agree to do sth Agree on sth Apply for Apologize for sth Ask sb to do sth Ask sb for sth Believe in Belong to Blame sb for doing sth Blame sth on sb Borrow sth from sb Care about sth Care for sb

Preposition

Example He accused her of stealing I agree with you. She agreed to wait for him We have agreed on all the major points. I'm going to apply for a new job. She apologized for being late.

Verb Listen to sb Look at sth Look for sth/sb Look after sb Pay sb for sth Prefer sth to sth

Example The students listened to their teacher Look at that view - it's wonderful I cant find my book will you look for it? I need to take a day off to look after my mother? Can you pay me for the shopping later? I prefer coffee to tea

She asked him to do the shopping for her She asked her boss for a day off I believe in hard work This pen belongs to me He blamed her for driving too fast He blamed the accident on her

Protect sb from sth Provide sb with sth Regard sb as Rely on sb/sth Search sb/sth for

A scarf will protect you from the cold The state provides low-income families with affordable housing She regarded her sister as her best friend Can I rely on you to get the shopping? The police searched the building for bombs I spent all my money on books as a student I think about you all the time They thought about the problem and found a solution

He borrowed some money from the bank I don't care about the money it's the principle that matters She really cares for her

Spend money/time on Think about sb/sth

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Tip English
Take care of sb/sth Complain to sb about sth Concentrate on sth Congratulate sb on doing sth Consist of sth explain sth to sb grandmother. Please take care of yourself on holiday He complained to the manager about the bad customer service The student concentrated on her homework Her father congratulated her on passing her exam The department consists of five people The manager explained the new system to the staff Think about/of doing sth Think of sth Translate from sth into sth else Wait for sb I'm thinking about / of buying a new car I've just thought of a new idea. Don't translate from English into your own language all the time I waited an hour for him, then went home The doctor warned her about the dangers of smoking She depended on her friends.

Warn sb about Depend on sb

Rule 27 forms

Incorrects forms and correct

Incorrect A good person does not boast for his victory A group of people were standing on the road A pen is mightier than a sword A rolling stone gather no mass All of my brothers live in India Almighty is merciful Antony declared his love for Cleopatra Anxious to go Anyways, Basicaly As far as As of yet As soon as I will find an apartment Charles was crowned as King of France Citizens obey to the law Cows feed with grass Dont get panic Each and everyone Early rising is good for health Everyone should show their tickets Five Kilometers are a great distance to walk From tomorrow onwards, we shall do homework Give attention to your work good in heart

Correct A good person does not boast of his victory A group of people was standing on the road The pen is mightier than a sword A rolling stone gather no moss All My brothers live in India The Almighty is mercifl Antony declared his love to Cleopatra Anxious about going Anyway, Basically As far as is concerned As yet As soon as I find an apartment Charles was crowned King of France Citizens obey the law Cows feed on grass Dont panic Everyone Early rising is good to health Everyone should show his tickets Five kilometers is a great distance to walk From tomorrow, we shall do homework Pay attention to your work Good at heart

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Tip English
He acted with my suggestion He arrived early so that to get a seat He called in me yesterday He has been appointed as a peon He is a coward boy He is authority for Indian philosophy He is elder to me He is in night duty He is relation to me He is taller than me He observed a fast He wants to take photograph with me He was operated for ulcers His grand father is died How long can you walk in 3 hours How long was the statement true I know to drive I am disgusted of city life I am pleased in accepting your offer I am quickly cured from cold I arrived Madras on July 27th I believe in you I bought this table in an auction I congratulate for your achievement I consider him as a fool I got a prize in lottery I have an urgent business I have applied for the post of a typist I have been awaithng for you I have done many goods to the people I have no issues I have no liking to cards I have no prejudice regardingyou I have ordered for a Dosa I have used all my leaves. I heard this news from a friend I hope you will succeed at your task I invested on share marked I left smoking I must send reply for your letter I prayed to God I prefer a serous play than humorous one I request you to kindly grant me leave for I shall attend the function without failure I want to drink a tender coconut I was surprised by your behaviour I will join with you I will speak with my son about this. I will think on the matter I wish that my desire will fulfill I work 5 hours in a day I would appreciate if I write with Indian ink In the two subjects I am studying, I find Economics the easiest Is your going to Madras depend upon money It is easy to find fault in others It is of no use doing this It is years since I seen him Kindly bear on me for the delay Leela promised to come on today Let us go to office Magics Mary is the tallest of the two girls Money should go to the needful My brother has cut the finger He acted upon my suggestion He arrived early so as to get a seat He called on me yesterday He has been appointed a peon He is a cowardly boy He is authority on Indian philosophy He is elder than me He is on night duty He is relation of me He is taller than I He fasted He wants to photographed with me He was operated upon ulcers His grand father has died. How far can you walk in 3 hours How far was the statement true I know driving I am disgusted with city life I am pleased to accept your offer I am quickly cured of cold I arrived Madras on July the twentyseventh I believe you I bought this table at an auction I congratulate on your achievement I consider him a fool I got a prize in a lottery I have some urgent business I have applied for the post of typist I have been awaiting you I have done many good deeds to the people I have no issue I have no liking for cards I have no prejudice against you I have ordered a Dosa I have used all my leave I heard this news through a friend I hope you will succeed in your task I invested in share market I gave up smoking I must spend reply to your letter I prayed to the God I prefer a serious play to a humorous one I request you kidly grant me leave for I shall attend the function without fail I want to drink some tender coconut I was surprised at your behaviour I will join you I will speak to my son about this I will think about the matter I wish that my desire will be fulfilled I work 5 hours a day I would appreciate it if I write in Indian ink In the two subjects I am studying, I find Economics the easier Does your going to madras It is easy to find fault with others It is no use doing this It is years since I saw him Kindly bear with me for the delay Leela promised to come today Let us go to the office magic Mary is the taller of the two girls Money should go to the needy My brother has cut his car

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Tip English
My brother returned quick My classmate accused me for cheating him. My daughter is fond to play My father gave me good advices My father has been discussing about the matter My father was angry against me My friend is a man of helpful nature My mother spoke loudly in the house My teach gave me many good advices Oil is good to burns Our team won over the Kerala team Our travel to Delhi was tedious Out of seven questions, I attended two Rahim is a cheater Sceneries Several of my clothing has been damaged She is a virtuous woman She is a voluminous writer She is accomplished with music She is afflicted by cancer She is allergic for sweets She pretends as a rich woman She stick to nothing She told him to leave at 10 pm She was impressed by my speech Sita married to my brother Smoke spreaded Staffs The car was going with high speed The cattle is grazing in the field The charity begins at home The cost of this pen is $1 The dog barked on the thief The Earthquake caused many damages The Everst is a tall peak The factory bought some new machineries The fruit tastes bitterly The lawyer did not come yet The man is a social animal The man should love the nature The nation admired at his courage The news spreaded throught the world The officer has sent words to me The owood cutter felled the tree by a sharp axe The patient was operated in for cancer The police were searching the missing thief The population of Banalore is more than Mysore The price depends upon the quality The reason why I hate him because he is a rogue The river flows below the bridge The scissor belong to me The sun ripened the fruit The tabels leg is broken The tea is very strongly The trouser is new Ther is a large number of students here Ther is no place in this compartment There is no solution for this problem There is no use to cry over spoilt milk These candidates have appeared in the exam These things are belong to me They acclaimed him as king This book is key for My brother returned quickly My classmate accused me of cheating him My daughter is fond of playing My father gave me good advice My father has been discussing the matter My father was angry with me My friend is a man of helping nature My mother spoke aloud in the house My teacher gave me much good advice Oil is good for burns Our team defeated the Kerala team Our journey to Delhi was tediou Out of seven questions, I attempted two Rahim is a cheat Scenery Some of my clothing has been damaged She is a woman of virtues She is a prolific writer She is accomplished in music She is afflicted with cancer She is allergic to sweets She pretends to be a rich woman She stick at nothing She told him that he should leave at 10pm She was impressed with my speech Sita married my brother Smoke spread Staff The car was going at high speed The cattle are grazing in the field Charity begins at home The price of this pen is $1 The dog barked at the thief The earthquake caused much damage The Eversest is a high peak The factory bought some new machines The fruit tastes bitter The lawyer has not come yet Man is a social animal Man should love nature The nation admired his courage The news spread through out the wourld The officer has sent word to me The wood cutter flled the tree with a sharp axe The patient was operated on for cancer The police were searching for the missing thief The population of Bangalaore is more than of Mhsore The price depends on the quality The reason why I hate him is that he is a rogue The fiver flows under the brdige The scissors belong to me The sun has ripened the fruit The leg of the table is broken The tea is very strong The trousers are new The are a large number of studnts here There is no room in this comparment There is no solution to this problem There is no use crying over spoilt milk These candidated have appeared for the exam These things belong to me They acclaimed him king This book is key to

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Tip English
This is a convenient house to live This is an extract taken from This is one of best Hotel This is the most ideal hotel Three kilos of sugar cost 30 rs Two and Two makes four Two boys are absent in the class We accompanied him till the station We climbed the peak inch by inch We listened his lecture We made him as our captain We repeat what he has taught to us We should all aim for the first rank We should not enroach the rights of other We will discuss about politics to day What are you heading for What is he looking Whom do you wish to speak? Would you please don't tell You must attend on your duties This is a convenient house to live in This is an extract from This is one of the best hotels. This is an ideal hotel Three kilos of sugar costs 30 rs Two and Two make four Two boys are absent from the class We accomponied him upto the station We climbed the peak by inches We listened to his lecture We made him our captain We repeat what he taught us We should all aim at the first rank We should not encroach upon the rights of others We will discuss politics to day What are you heading to What is he looking for? Whom do you wish to speak to ? Would you please not tell Your must attend to your duties

Rule 28 meaning
Phrases Acting up Add up Back up Bang-up Beat up Beef up Blow up Break up Break it up Build up Bugged up Buck him up Button up Calls up Clear up Come up Conjure up Cook up Cry up Cut up Chin up Clammed up Cough it up Meaning

phrases and

Phrases Fed up Feel up Followup Give up Grown up Hold up Hang up Join up Keep up Knock down Knock up

Meaning Bored Check for weapons Continuation (eg :follow-up to my previous note) Allow admit vittu koduthal Mature Strength Cutting the telephone conversation Enroll recruit Carry on Defeat destroy demolish Make pregnant

Behave badly, misbehavior Count Make stronger Superior Abuse Strengthen Explode Dissect Stop the fight disperse Establish Irritated Cheer him, give him encouragement Be quiet Attracts Acquire more light

Phrases Rack up Raise up Ring up Roll up Round up Screw up Send up Shoot up Shape up Show up Soak up Speak up Spit up Stand up Stick up This is a stick up Stuck up Sum up Take up Tear up Turn up Use it up Used up Work up

Meaning Score Boost Make a call Accumulate Bring together Make a mistake Find guilty Give a shot Follow the rules

Digest

Vomit Endure Look down at Robbery Proud Calculate Adopt Cut to pieces Occur Consume all of it Used completely Produce

Lick up Lift up Light up Line up Look up Made up Make up Mess up Mix up Pick up Pull off

Drink noisily

Imagine Prepare; fabricate Praise Chop Have courage Became silent Give it to us

Assemble arrange See, talk Fabulous Style Disorder Mistake

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Tip English
Crop up Dig up Do up Dry up Eat up Happen Expose, not covered Bend back Quiet Pull over Pull up Push up Put up Write up Stop Accommodate Workout Work out Working on Whipped up Promote Tryout Resolve

Agitated

Rule 29

Tips

i)

for the reason, on account of Being that Due to Due to Example correct
Since Lighted and lit Gerund (-ing) e.g:-

should not be used to mean because/since. should not be used to mean because/since is incorrect to mean because/since should not be used to mean since/because should go along with noun not verb The concert was canceled due to the rain The cancellation of the concert was due to the rain

ii)

- in - correct

vi)
vii) viii)

can be used to mean because. Make sure the meaning is not confused. can be used if preceded by a noun or pronoun, that pronoun must be possessive form I appreciate you coming to dinner - in correct I appreciate your coming to dinner - correct if followed by a pronoun, it must be subject form like I, she, he, they - are not suffixed with s

than, as ix) x) xi)

onward, downward, forward, backward, upward, Toward


all right alright

is correct form is informal form dont use it in exams.

therefore, however, thus, also, in addition, otherwise, instead, as a result , meanwhile, on the other hand, consequently will take semicolon before it and a comma after it, if they joine two clauses Example: ; therefore,

xii)

Even though Even if

can not be used with unreal conditions like, Even though were can be used

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xiii) Hopefully

Tip English does not mean, it is hoped. So dont use that to mean it is hoped. Use it is hoped instead. Hopefully CAN NOT modify a sentence, it can modify only a word. is non standard is incorrect is to tell them is to discuss something with them can not be used to mean appeared

xiv) xv) xvi)

Doubt whether Irregardless Speak to Speak with

xvii) Looked like

xviii)It is difficult to say, but I would guess I am not really sure, but I think Above two should be considered as two phrases xix) xx) Such as WITH Eg., means for example

should not be used to mean along with or by means of With the intricacy of the Tale of Genji's depiction - in correct Given the intricacy of the depiction in the Tale of Genji are - correct

xxi)

When you mean to refer "the bark of a tree" use "THE BARK" "a bark " will mean "a bark of a dog"

IV a)

MISCELLANEOUS what they say and what they mean


What they mean Get started Did not make sense Progress is excellent He is jealous Stay here or near Occassionally He will die Anxious and fearful (Troubled feeling) Thank you Out of date Former lover He is right How did it end This ends it He is silly Support him Confused Made serious errors He is confident He went bankrupt, failed Bad disagreement Empty your glass Total it Fail, quit Prepare yourself Alert, be careful What they say It is a piece of cake He had a brain storm He is on a toot What could top this Don't smooth talk me He is a snake in the grass It is a snap His hands are full Hang on Hang around That their hangout Hang loose Let us hang it up Hang up So long I smell a rat He is a real shoe Shak a leg Roll out He is chasing rainbows Stay put We are in a pickle Blue ribbon group It is on the qt I'll pop the question Quick and dirty What they mean It is easy A brilliant idea He is drunk Be better than this Don't fool me Treacherous person It is easy He is busy Wait Stay here Gathering place Be patient Quit Delay Farewell Situation is suspicious He is a gentle man Hurry Start moving Pursuing vague schemes Remain where you are We are in trouble Prestigious It is secret Propose marriage Rushed , improvised

What they say He is set about It did not add up I am going great guns He is green Stick around Every now and then His number is up He has butterflies in his stomach Much obliged That is old hat He is her old flame He is on the beam How did it wind up This wraps it up He is a cut up We'll back him up It He He He is balled up goofed up is up beat went belly up

They had a blow up Bottoms up Let us figure it up It will fold up Gear up Heads up

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Tip English
This is a hold up He is hopped up He is laid up Lighten up, Live it up Jack up Mix up Pipe up Pull up Robbery Very excited Ill Relax Enjoy yourself Increase the prices Mess, confuse Say what you have to say Stop, wait I pass HE IS A YES MAN Zilch He zonked out He is a live wire We got whipped Say when He went bonkers It is off the top of my head Up beat He is two faced Break it up They had a blow up They snuck up on us Worm's eye view Bird's eye view It is a toss up He on his toes He is square We are on the spot He is sppofing us Let get spliced Somehow or another So far so good I am afraid so Take the plunge We are on his tail All of a sudden He needs as square meal He eats 3 squares a day Snap to I put the monkey on his back It is a real Mccoy Meat head It is a lulu It will give it a go He flunked Have at it By and large It is jerry built Queerfish Stonge broke Pull out all the stops He is a funk Take a hand He is over his head Get back at him Keep back I won't participate , NO He always agrees Notching Went into deep sleep A very active person Defeated Tell me when to stop filling your glass He went crazy I'm just guessing Enthusiastic Disloyal Dispense Bad disagrremnt Approached secretly Low level perspective High level perspective Uncertain Alert, active Not current, very formal We are under trouble, He is fooling us Married In some way Right until now That is the situation Get started We are followign him With out warning Good meal He eats well Pay attention I gave the responsibility It is genuine Fool Extraordinary Try it He failed Try it, do it Generally Poorly constructed Strange person With out money Make a full effort Male with fine figure Join us Beyond his capacities or experiment Have revenge Stay where you are

OFF phrase I am off Back off He is off base He is off beat He bit my head off Bug off Call it off He will carry it off Cast off It was off color It did not come off as expected Things dropped off Finisht it off kill it off get off it I work my butt of finish him off get off your butt head them off get off my back he will get off it will never get off the ground he is goof off let us goof off my hat is off to you Hold off set off We'll hold tHem off We're off the hook When is the kick off When did he kick off Knock it off Lay off He is off his noodle It is a pay off We'll pay them off They pull it off

Meaning I am leaving Move away He is wrong Unusual Severly criticised me Go away Cancel it Succeed Get move Improper Disappointement Became quiet Eat , use it all Stop that nonsense, don't act that way I work hard Kill him Start moving Intercept, divert them Stop bothering me Charges will be dropped, he will escape punishment It will never start Good for nothing person Stop work and have fun Congratulate you Wait, keep your distance Start a journey Delay their arrival No longer responsible When is the start, when is the beginning When did he die Stop it, quit doing it Terminated He is crazy Payment fully Bribe them Succeed

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Tip English
He was put off It is a rip off We will run him off We'll see him off He is a show off I will sign off Take off They will stand them off I told him off He will toss off his illness He is off the wagon He is well off He has got He has gotten Drop It is a drop in the bucket I will drop by He has the drop on us He dropped the ball Things dropped off asas as neat as a pin as plain as the nose on your face as clear as mud as tight as the bark of the tree as tough as nails he is frosty Delayed Very bad bargain, unethical profit We will chase him away Seay farewell to him He likes to disply his abilities End my session or broadcast Leave, go Resist them I gave him my views in strong term Recover quickly He is drinking again Wealthy Has them possession Acquired or obtained them Very small amount Come to see you He has the advantage over us He lost the opportunity Became quiet very neat, clean and orderly quite obvious He is in our back pocket He is a bean pole Le me BE It's off beat He is a dead beat Stop beefing He is a bone head He is a knuckle head He laid an egg We have crossed the brdige The jury is still out He is stewed He was snockered He has a snoot full He is knocked Stick to your guns Level with us On the level Died in harness Run that by me turn my stomach bakers dozen a) testing the waters; We control him Very tall fellow Leave me as I am Uncommon Does not pay his bills Stop complaining Ignorant, stupid Stupid He failed We have mdade the decision No decision yet He is drunk He is drunk He is drunk He is drunk Maintain your position Tell the truth Is that true Died while working repeat what you said makes me sick 13 numbers knowing the opinion of people before you go and do it for real working very hard individual with old fashioned idesas and attitude laying off individual who leads a luxurious life

b) trial baloon c) feelers


not clear ; not easy to understand very stingy strong and hardy he is unfriendly working yourself into a lather fuddy-duddy walking papers high off the hog

rides the gravy train b)


Friendly HELLO How have you Hi partner What is cooking What is happening What is up How is it going Look who is here Long time no see What gives What is good word Put her here How is it tricks UnFriendly Goodbye Drop dead Hit the Road Hit the trail Get going Friendly GoodBye I am checking out Farewell Must run Have a good on I am out of here I am off See you in the funny papers You all come back YES Your bet; You betcha, Ill buy that Check, I check on that I concur Darn; You got it Granted Roger It works for me Yup; yeah You can say that against well Way to go; Why not Unfriendly Hello Look what the cat dragged in

Expressions to say
"GOD" Great guns In heavens name Holy cats Holy moses Holy smokes How cow Heavens above So help me In his name HELL Blast Son of a gun What the devil Oh heck Toilet Head Can Commode The facilities Jiffy John Outhouse Powerroom Water closet Biffy NO Not in my book I pass Drop dead

Amazement&frustration Ah come on For the love of mike Good heavens Holy hell

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Tip English
Get lost Blow Beat On your horse Shove off Take a hike Take a powder Holy moses Oh sucks My foot Merry me What in the Sam hill You are kidding What on earth Oh boy To heck with you Tarnation Ill swear Get lost Nope No deal Nix Not on your life Nothing doing No way! No Nuts Thumbs down

Other language words used in English


British Maize Jam Aeroplane Aluminium Maths Railway Windscreen Sport Fortnightly Waistcoat Packet A quarter to 5 A qtr after 5 An appetizer American Corn Jelly Airplane Aluminum Math Railroad Windshield Sports Couple of weeks Vest Pack of cards a quarter of 5 a quarter past 5 A starter British Apart from At school Have got Have not got In hospital In street Village A bit Nearly Ought Certainly Match Side the American Aside from In school Have Do not have In the hospital On the street Small town A little Almost Should Sure Game Team British Pitch Very Bath Biscuit Adrenalin Bring up Curtains Draught Dressing gown Dustbin Lift Pavement Rise in pay Holiday American Field Real Tub Cookie Epinephrine Raise Drapes Checkers Bathrobe Trashcan Elevator Sidewalk Increase pay Vacation in

Spanish stevedore Dutch Africa German Native American

Barbecue, plaza, stampede, enchilada, alligator, marijuana, waffle, cookie, sleigh, boss, sppok zombie, okra loafer, semester, hamburger caucus

e)
Groups a a a a a pride of lions school of fishes/whales/dolphins flock of sheep pack of wolves gaggle of geese coins and medals books teddy bears key rings

Groups and Collections

Collection

of of of of

- numismatics - bibliophily - arctophily - copoclephily

f)
She is arrogant argumentative assertive bashful big-headed,

Characters of a person

- being confident about oneself - shy - thinking clever and important

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Tip English
conceited bossy canny capricious catty - dotelling the people what to do always clever and knowing how to do things changing mind suddenly saying nasty or spitful things about others

cheeky - being rude It was a bit cheeky of him to ask for money after he told me he earned a lot himself. conscientious - doing things with care and attention coy about - pretending to be shy docile dogmatic ideas domineering extroverted fickle full of himself fussy about grumpy picky about quick-tempered scatter-brained - trying to control other people - outgoing and lively - changing your mind and unpredicatable - being proud - only liking certain things - in bad mood - only liking certain things or people - getting angry quickly - someone who forgets things easily - quiet and submissive - never questioning and wanting to accept your

g)
acquit hearsay Old Bailey plaintiff diminished responsibility unsafe conviction the truth

Crime and justice


- not guilty - hear from someone, but don't know whether it is true or not - famous law courts in London where serious crimes are tried - somone who takes a person to court and brings a legal action against them - when someone cannot be held responsible because they are mentally ill - found guilty because the evidence was wrong or the witness did not tell

h)
Color idioms Feeling blue out of the blue to see red a red letter day Paint the town red in the red Green fingers Green politics in black & white Black spot Black and blue White Christmas Whitewash a Grey area

Idioms
feeling unhappy Completely unexpected to become extremely angry: When people are cruel to animals, it really makes me see red." a day of great importance. It's a red letter day tomorrow in the company. It's our fiftieth birthday! to celebrate: They went out last night and really painted the town red-they didn't come home until 5 a.m. Overdrawn: It's the end of the month and we're in the red again. We have to control our spending better to be a good gardener Environmental politics: "He's in green politics and often campaigns to fight pollution. to be extremely clear: This contract is in black and white: we aren't allowed to keep any pets in this house. a dangerous spot: "This roundabout is a black spot for traffic accidents. to be badly bruised: "When she fell off her bicycle, she was black and blue for days. when it snows at Christmas to cover up the truth white wash. something which is not definite or black and white:

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Tip English
Grey matter Animal idioms Cat's whiskers Let the cat out of the bag to have kittens The bee's knees to think you are the best: "He thinks he's the cat's whiskers!" tell a secret: "He shouldn't have told her about the party - he's let the cat out of the bag now. to panic: "The way he was driving, I was having kittens." think you're the best (like the cat's whiskers): "He behaves as if he's the bee's knees." to get information from the original source: "Who told you they were getting married?" "I got it from the horse's mouth." to have an excellent memory something is as unlikely as pigs being able to fly to be very nervous about something: "Don't worry about her - she's got butterflies in her stomach - it's her driving test today." to do something for ever: "I can tell him til the cows come home not to take a short cut over the fence, but he never listens." to face a problem and take action: "Well, I'm going to take the bull by the horns and tell him that I've changed my mind." to annoy someone: "It really gets my goat when she criticises him - it's not as if she's perfect herself." someone who lends money at high interest rates: "Don't borrow money from him he's a complete loan-shark." to feel very uncomfortable in a particular situation: "He feels like a fish out of water in a suit - he much prefers wearing jeans." to feel guilty or ashamed: "He told us all that he was leaving, then he came back ten minutes later with his tail between his legs." When you know that someone is angry with you: "I'm in the dog-house, I'm afraid. I forgot to do the shopping, and now we don't have any milk." Most of something: "She did the lion's share of the housework." in a dangerous place: "Having an interview with them was like going into the lion's den. There were ten of them and they asked me some very difficult questions." brain

From the horse's mouth a memory like an elephant Pigs might fly! Have butterflies in your stomach Till the cows come home Take the bull by the horns Get someone's goat a loan-shark Like a fish out of water With your tail between your legs in the doghouse The lion's share in the lion's den

GMAT idioms A debate over A lot A responsibility to A result of A sequence of Accede to Advised of Agree with Agreement on As an instance of As good as/or better than As great as As much as Attend to(some one) Attribute X to Y/ X is attributed to Y

Based on Both X and Y Believe X to be Y Centers on Concerned with Conform to Created with Defined as Depends on whether Depicted as Different from/differ from Distinguishes between X and Y Distinguish from Doubt that Either or Enable to

Fascinated by Forbid X to do Y contrast to Independent from Indifferent toward Modeled after No more than/no less than More than ever Neither nor Not only..but also Not so much .. as Obsessed with Obsessed by Prohibits X from doing Y Potential to So X as in Y

Range from X to Y Regards as Regardless Responsible for Resulting in Retroactive to So(adjective) that Subscribe to Such ..as The same to X as to Y To contrast X with Y To mistake X for Y To result in To sacrifice X for Y X as to be Y

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Tip English j)
Word's a priori Abaft Abase Abash Abatement Abbess Abdicate Aberrant Aberration Abet Abeyance Abhor Abide Abide by Abject Abjure Ablution Abnegate Abolish Abolitionis t Abominable Abominate Abortive Aboveboard Abreast Abrogate Absolve Abstemious Abut Accede Accentuate Acclaim Acclaim Accolade Accost Accredit Accretion Acerbic Acidulous Acme Acquiesces Acrid Acrimonious Acrimony Acuity Meaning Based on theory On or toward the rear of a ship To humble; disgrace; to lower in rank To embarrass A reduction or decrease Mother superior Relinquish; give up; abandon; retire A typical not normal; not following the regular pattern Deviation; from what is expected Help somebody to commit a crime Temporary suspension Feel hatred and disgust; repugnance Tolerate; endure; wait patiently for Accept ; obey; stick to Miserable; pitiful; existing in a low condition Promise or swear to give a belief; give up formally Act of washing or cleaning the body Denial; reject, surrender; End of existance Person who tried to eliminate slavery Unpleasant; disgusting; hateful To hate completely Fruitless Honest; open; not deceitful Side by side Eliminate by authority Take the blame away from a person Not indulging to things that are pleasurable; moderate habits Common boundary; touching side by side Show approval at; take in-charge Intensify; emphasize; make very noticeable Praise Welcome with approval; hail or salute as something; acknowledge the greatness Praise Approach somebody and talk aggressive violent way Trust; believe; give authority to Gradual increase in size Sour; sharp; bitter in taste; attitude or tone Bitter taste Highest point Agree with out protest Unpleasantly harsh, bitter in tone Corroding ; spoiling Bad feeling; hatred between people Accuracy; keenness Word's Inordinate Inquisitor Insatiable Inscrutable Insomnia Instigate Instill Interlard Intermittent Intimidate Intricate Introspection Intrusive Inundated Invariably Invidious Invigorate Kennels Knave Labyrinth

Vocabulary
Meaning immoderate One who inquires That can not be satisfied Mysterious Sleepless disorder Provoke Pour drop by drop; implant; introduce gradually Intermixture Not continuous make somebody to do by threatening Complicate; difficult Self examination act of intruding flooded Always the same, constant Likely to cause resentment or animosity Strengthen a shelter for a dog or cat mad or mischievous complicated network of passage

Lambaste Lament Latent Lateral League Lectern Lethargic Leverage Litigate Livid Logistics Loquacious Louts Lucrative Lucid Lucubrate Lurking Lycanthropic Lycosidae Mahogany Maladaptive Malady Malediction Malevolence

hit hardly Grieve, mourn Hidden Side to side Associate Furniture used to place notes and people talk standing behind that weak, dull, not active power, effective Law suite, legal Being angry Game plan Wordy; excessive talk Vulgar man with bad manners Profitable clear; transparent Laborious study or meditation Pathungi iruthal(T) Werewolf Spiders, fast running Tree with hard reddish brown colour inadequate adaptation Illness Curse malicious behavior; harmful

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Tip English
Acumen Acute Adage Adept Adjudicate Adjunct Admonish Ado Adrift Adroit Adulation Adumbrate Adversary Aegis Aerie Aetiology Affable Affected Affiliate Affinity Affluent Affront Aggrandize Aggrieve Agile Alacrity Alchemy Alleviate Allusion Altruism Alzheimer Amorphous Amputate Analogy Animosity Anomalous Antagonism Antecedent Antecedents Anthropolog y Antipathy Apathy Appalling Appease Apposite Apprehend Apprehensiv e Arable Quickness in judgement; good judgment Accurate perception Old saying or expression An expert Adjudge; give judgement Helper; additional thing Warning or serious advice Trouble Driving by wind or water; loose unfastened Skillful Excessive praise or flattery Give only a slight idea; describe incompletely Enemy Shield An elevated often secluded building or dwelling, strucutre Study of causes of diseases Friendly Trying to act smart but not really one Attach Relationship; inclination Plenty Obvious insult to a person Exaggerate; to increase in power or influence ; extend To hurt; to harm Able to move quickly Ayuthemana(T), ready state Magical science More bearable Indirect reference Unselfish behavior Disorder that makes memory inefficient Not organized, not a definite shape In medical grounds cut off the limb Similarity Hostility, enmity Different from normal; irregular Active opposition hostility Thing or circumstance that comes before the other Ancestors Study of mankind and customs, beliefs Repugnance Akkaraiinmai(Tamil) Dismay; cause to loose enthusiasm To calm; satisfy The apple did not appease my hunger Apt Capture; understand Fearful; hesitant Mar Maternal Mayhem Meritorious Miniscule Mitigate Morass Morbid Morgue Moribund Mortgagee Mortgagor Motley Muddle Mutilate Myriad Nag Nebulous Necromancy Necrophilia Nepotism Nifty Notion Novice Nuances Obliterate Oblivion Obstinate Occidental Ominous Onychophagia Oppressive Opprobrium Orally Orderly Ornate Outfit Outlive Outwitting Oxymoron influence Injure or damage Mother side Rowdy disorder Deserving praise or reward A tiny bit; iota; Reduce low-lying area Look like sick; gruesome Place where bodies are kept until identification Approaching death; becoming obsolete Bank Person Mixed Jumble Cut off the limb a big number Scold Vague; unclear Black magic obsessive fascination with the dead Favor to relatives and friends Smart, clever, efficient Belief Inexperienced beginner Subtle differences in meaning erase; wipe out Asatai(T) Adamant, stubborn Westerner; Occident the west Threatening Practice of biting one's nails Burdensome Something that brings disgrace and shame Spoken Hospital attendant Showy, flashy an association Live longer than Outsmart Contradictory words coined together to form an rhetorical effect; plural is Oxymora Antonym of oxymoron is pleonasm on has no religion Study of fossil plants Capable of being touched or felt Solutions to all problems Example that serves as a model Things that belong to Conversation or meeting with a enemy person who repeats an action of another

Pagan Paleobotany Palpable Panacea Paradigm Paraphernalia Parleys

Land fit for cultivation

Parrot

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Tip English
Arbitrary Arboreal Arduous Arid Ascendance Ascertain Assert Assimilate Not good; illogical Resembling or inhabiting on trees Difficult; laborious Lacking moisture Domination Find out Express Absorb in to the mind; become absorbed into the body after digestion; to become part of another social group or country Kodia(T) Gradually weakening somebodys strength by continuous harassment Trial for acting, singing Atmosphere Not able to build relationship Avoid Unimportant ,small talks Fortress Bad, indecent Showing signal Well suited(becoming hairstyle; becoming dress; becoming modesty) Deceive Cut off the head Observe, look at, see Inclined to start quarrel Generosity, doing good Deprive sb by death Dishonor Present a gift or honor Two footed Great joy Support Stock Exchanges Relating to cattle Breathe is a verb and breath is a noun Robber Dismiss abruptly Ruthless; very rude; emotionally hardened Spacious To gain by turning something to advantage Revolving apparatus Unrestricted power; unconditional authority Pooran(T) Blue Difference in ideas; deep separation Vulgar Parsimonious Passion Pastoral Paternal Patronage Pavonine Peculate Frugal powerful emotion; desire; enthusiasm Country life Father side Support Resembling a peacocks tail or color take money for ones own use; embezzle Kalvi cherruku udaivar Person who travels from place to place to sell goods Search Clear and transparent Liking or taste for something close mixture of black and white Understand; observe; become aware of Knowledge ; intuition Showing little interest Having a very harmful or destructive effect Something that keeps you not to forget Not able to understand clearly Vida moirachi Accuracy in understanding View To persuade; able to convince Disturb Spread to and be perceived in everypart Present and perceived eerywhre Immoral fellow Remarkable thing nuisance; widespread believable; seem to be right; skilled in convincing arguments to deceive Choice of voting or choosing the leader Redundant words coined together Soorai adu Politicizing Person who speaks many languages the masses; the general public; Private school maintained by religious body for elementary or secondary education Make impossible; Prevent something/somebody doing something Mess Mostly noticeable Obtain by acting in advance of others; Prevent from happening; Absurd Special privilege

Atrocious Attrition Audition aura Autistic Avert Banter Bastion Bawdy Beckon Becoming Beguile Behead Behold Bellicose Benevolence Bereaved Besmirch Bestow Bipedalism Bliss Bolster Bourses Bovine Breathe, Brigand Brush Callous Capacious Capitalize Carrousel Carte blanch Centipede Cerulean Chasm Churlish

Pedantic Peddler Peered Pellucid Penchant Pepper and salt Perceive Perception Perfunctory Pernicious Perpetuate Perplexed Perseverance Perspicacity Perspective Persuasive Perturb Pervade Pervasive Pervert Phenomenon Plagued Plausible Plebiscite Pleonasms Plunder Politicking Polyglot Populace Parochial school Preclude Predicament Predominantly Preempt Preposterous Prerogative

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Tip English
Cinch Clamorous Clandestine Clique Cogently Coherent Cohesion Collusion Commemorate Commend Commensurat e Commiserate Complainant Comprehend Comprehensi ve Concede Conceit Conceptuali ze Concoct Concomitant Concourse Conducive Conduit Confer Confiscate Confront Congeal Congregate Connoisseur Connubial Consensus Conspicuous Conspire Easy ting to accomplish Loud and noisy ; vociferous Conducted with secrecy Group of same interests Convincing Sticking together; logical and orderly Unity Secret agreement or discover To serve as a memorial to Speak favorably; praise Appropriate; (follows with to/with) To feel or express sympathy Person who makes a complaint Grasp; take in Wide Agree to what some body says grudgingly or reluctantly Garvam, ahanthai(T) To form a concept of Fabricate; build up a story Concurrent; happening at the same time Open area of a building; Crowd Helping something to happen; favorable condition Pipe; mean for something to be transmitted To consult , to bestow Seized by the government oppose Harden; solidify To come together; Expert knowledge in fine arts Marriage; conjugal General agreement Obvious Sathi sei Pretentious Prevails Prevalent Pristine Privy Proclaim Procrastinate Prodigal Profound Prognosis Promiscuous Claiming a position when unjustified Triumph; predominant; use; become effective; win out Widely or commonly occurring/existing Remaining in a pure state; uncorrupted state; free from flaw Secret(privy to sharing a secret) Announce officially & publicly Postpone Wastefully extravagant Deep Forecast, prediction Indiscriminate in the choice of sexual partners Spread Tendency Supporter, advocate Postpone; adjourn Fodder Outstanding skill or expertise Not genuine; false; pretended or insincere Multiple personality and living in fantasy Beat Purpose isolation of persons to prevent spreading of disease Equal exchange Token of approval for future date commitment Very good lobbyist(political slang) percussive sound; talk without much thought Devastate Blabbering Very hungry Real estate Argue Withdraw An exploratory military survey of enemy territory Honesty

Propagate Propensity Proponent Prorogue Provender Prowess Pseudo Psychotic Pummel Purport Quarantine Quid pro quo Rain check Rain maker Rattle Ravage Rave Ravenous Realty Rebut Recant Reconnaissanc e

Paralyzing; dismay Consternati on Content Contort Contour Contravene Conversely Copious Counterfeit er Culminate

Rectitude

Satisfied Twist Outline Disobey, break On the other hand Plentiful Forge; make a copy of

Recuperating Red herring Refute Regimen Reiterate Rejoinder Relegate

Getting well Something that deviates from the center issue to prove to be false or erroneous; to deny the accuracy of a truth government; rule or control repeat it again and again Answer Transfer to lower division

Reach the high point

Relent

To become less severe; lenient;

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Tip English
Culpable Cygnet Dark horse Dearth Debacle Debar Debonair Decipher Decree Deem Defamation Defiance Defrock Deluge Delusion Demeanor Denounce Dentition Depose Deprecated Deprive Despair Dtente Deter Devastate Dexterity Diaphonous Diction Diligence Dirge Disavow Disclaimer Disparage Deserving blame Young swan Little known Scarce; famine Sudden and complete failure; fiasco Ban Cheerful and self assured Make out; find out Order given by a ruler/authority Consider Say bad things about; attack the good reputation of somebody Open disobedient; resistance Dismiss from priesthood ; unfrock Large quantity; immense Deceive Way of behaving Condemn openly; accuse formally; disown; formal announcement of ending; Process of growing new teeth Dethrone; remove from office Prohibited Take something away from sb/sth Lose of hope Change in strategy Discourage; prevent Complete destroy; don't use for specific numbers Skill or quickness; prowess Translucent, transparent Choosing words Attentive care Funeral hymn Disclaim Disagreeing Talking in a way to reduce; depreciate or lower in rank; vilify Unaffected by passion/emotion Spread Disagreement Spread and vanish; wasting time To advise against; discourage; deter Misrepresent Teachable Going around Put on clothing Unnamed; nameless Not active Behind Adore Terrible Identification mark to show ownership Period of decline Level of authority or responsibility Causing mystery and fear;(an eerie scream) Encouraging Relinquish Remiss Remnant Remonstrate Rendering Rendezvous Renegade Reportorial Repress Reproof; rebuke Repudiate Repugnance Requiem Rescript Resent Resilient Restrain Resurrection Retract Retribution Retro Retrospection Reverberation Revere Rummage Sabbaticals Salubrious Salutary Salvage Satiety Savage Savant Scald Scandalous Scrupulously Seclude Sedulous Sheer Shoddy Shortcoming Shun Simile Sine die Skeptic Skim Sleep apnea Sleuth Slick Slink Slump Sobriquet Soliloquy forgiving Surrender; give up; abandon Negligent remainder to protest Submit for approval, translate Meeting place Traitor writer to put down by force To criticize To divorce or separate formally extreme aversion service for the dead decree Hate; be offended; feel bitter; angry Restore limitation Bring back the life to pull back; disclaim Repayment as punishment back, backwards Looking back, on past events Repeated reflection; reecho; repel Courteous respect Old things Rest Favorable to health or well-being Remedial; favourable to health Rescue Surfeit; full Kattu mirandi(T) Scholar Burn caused by hot steam or liquid Causing scandal; shocking Done very carefully Isolate Vida muirachi Deviate; complete Inferior Flaw To avoid deliberately Comparing two unlike things Indefinitely Doubtful towards somebody/something Glance through quickly Bed death Detective Extremely good; smooth Give birth to premature baby; sneak Sudden fall in prices Nick names Talking loudly alone as in dramas

Dispassiona te Disseminate Dissension Dissipated Dissuade Distort Docile Dodging Don Doodad Dormant Dorsal Dote Dreadful Earmark Ebb Echelon Eerie Egging

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Tip English
Egregious Elegy Eloquence Elude Elusive Emanate Emancipate Embellishme nt Embezzle Emblazoned Empirical Engender Entangle Entitle Entourage Envisaged Enunciate Ephemeral Epitome Epoch Eponym Exceptionally bad or offensive Poem to lament a death Power to speak and write well Escape Difficult to capture Come from a source Liberate, to free from bondage Decoration Take money for ones own use; Peculate Celebrate; inscribe Based on knowledge and experiments To develop To get caught or involved in something , so that , escape is difficult To give a right to claim Group of attendees; environment Imagine Articulate Short living Summary of written work; ideal example Remarkable event; event or time Derivation of a name for city, place, institution, medicine , chemical , theorem from a persons name Balanced Confidential, understood by specific group Praising Removing internal organs of a body Make very angry; inpatient; irate Part of a book or article or passage Exclude from a group Solitude Somniloquy Soot Sordid Sparse Speleology Spew Squander Square Squeamish Stalactites Stalagmites Startling Stenosis Stickler Straddle Streaking Strenuous Strive Thrive Crave Stumble across Stupendous Lonely place Sleep talking Black particles Dirty and unpleasant Not thick and dense; Sparsely populated Study of caves To flow Wasting money or time; Conservative; not current Easily nauseated; shocked; disgusted From ceiling From ground Frightening Narrowing One who argues without giving up To be on both sides Running nude in public Vida muirachi; sedulous, perseverance Try hard Be successful Desire To find by accident Causing amazement

Equilibrium Esoteric Eulogy Eviscerate Exasperate Excerpt

Subjective Subjugate Substantiate Subtle Subvert Succinct Succumb

Existing in the mind Conquer; enslave; Prove Thin Destroy Concise and terse Die, agree in press

Excommunica te Intense pain Excruciatin g Exhilaratin g Expedite Expiate Expound Expurgate Extempore Extol Extort Extradite Extraneous Faade Faction Farcical Fastidious To cause or feel very excited or energetic; invigorate; stimulate Speed up the process Make amends or reparation Explain in detail Remove improper objectionable parts from a book With out preparation To praise highly Intimidate and get money Surrender one who has taken refuge Irrelevant Front view Conflict with an organization; group formed because of that Absurd Difficult to please Superficial Superfluous Supersede Surfeit Synagogue Taciturn Tandem Tangible Tantamount Tardy Tenacious Tenuous Termagant Terse Slight knowledge; trivial; insignificant Exceeding what is necessary or needed Replace Thigatuthal(T);overdose Jewish worship place Being silent and calm One behind the other Capable of being realized by mind Equivalent value Slow to act Adamant Little substance; slender Quarrelsome woman Concise Sumptuous Rich luxurious magnificent

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Tip English
Fiduciary Fillip Finicky Flamboyant Flimsy Flummox Folly Formative years Forthrightl y Fortitude Foster Fragmentary Fringe Frisking Frontage Galore Gaudy Ghoul Gibberish Gist Glean Glib Grapple Grave Grazing Green horn Grotty Grudge Gruesome Grumpy Haggle Hegemony Herpetology Hike Hindrance Hobbled Holocaust Homey Hoodoo Hopper Horrendous Hubris Huckster Humdrum Hyper + word Hypo + word Hypothetica l Ideologue Idiosyncras ies Ignoramus Imbalance Imbroglio Holding something for the another Snap; suduku(T) Difficult to please; fastidious Showy, extravagant Unconvincing Confuse Lack of good sense Having an important and influence on development of character Frankly; straight forward Thanatalogy Therapeutic Thicket Through thick and thin Tirade To flock Torrent Tossup Trait Study of death and dying Having healing power Dense growth of shrubs Favorable and unfavorable conditions Angry speech To go to places in large numbers Violent outburst Even chance Distinctive feature or character

Endurance and strength Nurture Made up of unconnected path Group of extreme views; decorative border Search a person for something concealed Land between a building and the street Plentiful; abundant; Flashy ; brilliant Grave robber Meaningless or technical language Essence, crux, main point Gather information Extemporaneously Seize Serious To feed with grass Inexperienced, nave Unpleasant; poor quality Utpahai, vanmam(T) Horror; grisly; ghastly Bad tempered Argue/bargain over silly matters Power of one state of the other Study of snakes Walk Obstacle; blockade; impediment Limp Large scale destruction Good friend Bringing bad luck Thatti kuthikum(Tamil) Horrific Pride showy methods Monotonous; boring Over or more Under or less Based on assumption Advocate of an ideology Unique thought by some one Ignorant person Lack of balance Confusion

Transmuted Tribulation Trifle Trivialize Truculent Trudging Trumping Tumultuous Tyranny Ubiquitous Ulterior Unabated Undaunted Unequivocal Unfrock Unprecedented Unquenchable Upshot Usurp Vacillate Vain glory Vanity Vanquish Variance Veer Vehement Veneer Veracity Verbally Vertigo Verve Vestige Vilify Vindicate Virtue Vociferous Wary Weary Welkin Welkin eyes Willy-nilly Wimpy belligerence vibes

Change sth to sth completely different Distress To toy or play with Underestimate; play down Capable of attacking Walking tiredly and slowly Key resource Confusion of voices, agitation Kodunkonmai, Appears to be present everywhere Undisclosed Maintaining full force Fearless Leaving no doubt; Dismiss from priesthood; defrock No previous example Not able to be satisfied Result Wrongfully or by force To be uncertain Boastful Veen garvam(Tamil), conceit To defeat Disagreement Sudden change in direction Strong feeling Thin layer Truthfulness; truth Written Feeling of sickness; dizziness Enthusiasm Old evidence To lower the importance by abusive statements Prove with evidence Good character Noisy outcry Cautious Exhausting Sky; Beautiful blue eyes; Disorganized Cowardly person aggressive or truculent attitude intuition about a person or

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Tip English
Impart Impeccable Impediment Impending Imperative Implausible Implode Impromptu Improvise Impudent Impulse Inadvertent ly Inasmuch as Incendiary Incognito Incoherent Incriminate Incumbent Indemnify Indictment Ineptitude Infuriate Inhibit Innate Innocuous Inoculation disclose; bestow no flaw Stumbling block About to happen; imminent Must, urgent difficult to believe collapsed violently With out preparation; improvise With out preparation; impromptu, wing it disrespectful An impelling or propelling force Not deliberately because of the fact; since Causing or capable of causing fire With out others knowing Not coherent(e.g., incoherent with grief) To charge or show evidence of involvement Person holding the office and post To make compensation for loss or damage To charge with a fault or offense Lacking fitness or aptitude Extremely angry Block In one's nature Causing no harm, not intended to offend introducing a specific disease germ into the body to fight that disease finagling fumigating cornucopia solatium solace costiveness hypothecation distrain dovetails neuratic camaraderie exacerbate repercussion instigate glaciologist voracious incinerating loquacious lackadaisical tete-a-tete hogwash baloney slander thing(informal) Obtain by trickery apply gas or smoke to disinfect or kill insects abundance of something something give as solace source of relief or consolation constipation adamanam(Tamil) Jabdhi (tamil) combine mental disorder comradeship;friendship aggravate consequnce provoke study of glaciers ravenous burnt to ashes excessive talk; talkative lazy; who lacks enthusiasm and effort private conversation nonsense false statement injuring somebodys reputations primary , first, fundamental, original spirit articulate liberate

libelling
primordial grit enunciate emancipate

j)

Things that need to be avoided

Replace this the question as to whether advance notice at this point in time Be that as it may in the event that general consensus young juvenile student body due to the fact that chemotherapeutic agent
l)

with this whether notice now but if consensus juvenile students because drug Links those help , practicing Listening comprehension

Randall's ESL listening lab

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Tip English http://www.eslpartyland.com/students/inter.htm http://esllab.com/bath1/bath1.htm www.webster.commnet.ed www.ebaack.com www.towerofenglish.com www.studint.net www.4tests.com www.west.net http://www.wsu.edu/~gordonl/ESL/studentcontents.htm http://ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/grammarlogs3/grammarlogs450.htm#1

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