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Ultrasound Noise removal and image quality enhancement using fuzzy and neural networks with memetic algorithms. Based on Sugeno model of neural network 5 layer feed forward networks.

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An Evolutionary-Based Comparitive Approach for OptimizingNeuro-Fuzzy System To Reduce Speckle Noise in Breast Sonograms

Alamelumangai. N

Department of Master of Computer Applications Karpagam College of Engineering Coimbatore, India. e-mail: alamelumangai.n@gmail.com

AbstractSpeckle Noise in sonogram image interferes with the quality of the image and makes it impossible for diagnosis. In this paper a novel genetic and memetic based approaches are compared to optimize the neuro-fuzzy system for reducing the speckle noise and making the images capable in diagnosing the micro-calcifications. The system uses a 5 layer feed-forward neural network with 5 parameters as inputs, representing the 55 window pixels. These input values to the system, are the fuzzy values which are optimized using the Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Memetic Algorithm (MA). The population generations used in these systems are optimized-fuzzified input parameters. Fuzzification is based on the fuzzy IF THEN rules. The efficiency of the system is improvised on adding threshold weights between the input and hidden layers. And then, the amplitude is calculated. The system is compared with the noise simulations results of the existing adaptive mean and adaptive weighted mean models and they are summarized. The proposed Evolutionary Methods are found to out-perform with respect to MSE and computational time. Keywords-neural networks; fuzzy logic; sonogram images; speckle noise reduction; genetic algorithm; memetic algorithm;

Dr. DeviShree. J

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Coimbatore Institute of Technology Coimbatore, India. e-mail: devi_567@yahoo.com manual interpretation. Whereas, neural-networks are capable of learning from scratch, without any prior intervention, but are provided with sufficient data which are available or measureable. The neuro-fuzzy system is the hybridization in terms of the number of practical real time algorithms. In NFS, the fuzzy system is the main focal point of the combination procedure and the neural-network includes the learning capability to the inference engine [5]. C. Evolutionary Neuro-Fuzzy Models Evolutionary neuro-fuzzy (ENF) system is the consequence of adding evolutionary search practices to the system, integrating fuzzy-logic-computing and neural learning. With these techniques we can overcome the limitations of the existing hybrid systems. The main objective and the drawback of the NFS is that, the learning technique is based on the gradient descent optimization technique [6]. That is, in back-propagation, training will not converge and tuning of the membership function parameters through neural learning is not guaranteed. The algorithm will be trapped in local minima. With this kind of system, the global solution is impossible to found. Genetic Algorithms (GA) also known as Evolutionary Algorithms are population based algorithms. Evolutionary algorithms are iterative probabilistic algorithms, which are used to in real-time problems to optimize their solutions. Populations of individuals are represented as: t ,... p t which is designed for all iterations of t. The P(t ) = p1 n members of the populations are evaluated based on fitness function. A new set of population is evolved at (t+1)th iteration based on robustness of the gene, based on mutation or crossover operations. In genetic algorithms (GA), the populations are coded as chromosomes which are the binary strings. Memetic Algorithms (MA) is inspired by Darwins idea of a meme [2], which is the element that forms the chromosome. MAs are comparable with GAs. The distinctive feature of the MA algorithm is that, all the chromosomes and their off-springs are allowed to gain adequate experience, by a process of local searching, before involving in the evolutionary process. The first population is created at random which is similar to the population generation procedure in GA. Later, a global search is performed on each individual member to improvise its experience and thus obtain a population of local optimum

I. INTRODUCTION A. Ultrasound Images The non-persistent character, cheap cost, portable nature and real-time image formation make ultrasound images essential tool for medical diagnosis [1]. The common usages are image restoration, preprocessing, enhancement techniques, segmentation, and classifications. The ultrasound devices acquire high quality, real-time images but are corrupted with speckle noise. Speckle noise degrades the quality of the images for identifying the edges, patterns in images [10]. Speckle noise produces artificial edges, echoes the patterns in the images and etc., this hinders the diagnosis of disease. In such cases simple evolutionary algorithms do not perform well to identify edges and patterns. Hence, preprocessing the artifacts in US images becomes mandatory [3] using the evolutionary neuro-fuzzy model. B. Neuro-Fuzzy Models Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic systems are dynamic, parallel processing systems which estimate the input-output functions [12]. Fuzzy logic systems are able of modeling ambiguity, supervising uncertainty and also to support

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solutions. Then, crossover and mutation operations are performed to reproduce the off-springs. These off-springs are then subjected to the local search so that local optimality is always maintained in the system. In this paper, we have proposed a novel method using Memetic Algorithms based neuro-fuzzy to harness the power of fuzzy reasoning and the learning capabilities of neural networks. II. PROPOSED METHOD The difficulty in the existing neuro-fuzzy or fuzzy-neuro systems is that they fail to quantify the rules or the membership functions. Integrating these evolutionary approaches into the NFS or FNS systems optimizes the structure and parameters of the fuzzy rules. In this paper we discuss about optimizing the parameters. A. Strucutre of the System In our NFS system, the capabilities of the evolutionary algorithms: genetic and memetic algorithms, are supplemented. Genetic and Memetic algorithms are used to optimize and set the neuro-fuzzy parameters. This feature acts as a filter in despeckling the noise in US images.

X X

F U Z Z I F I C A T I O N

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W15

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D E F U Z Z I F I C A T I O N

Here, genetic and memetic algorithms are used to decide and optimize the parameters to the network [13]. The fuzzy model experimented used is the basic Sugeno_type fuzzy model, which is a single network to filter the speckle noises [11]. The input parameters that are fed into the system are the fuzzy values based on the difference between the main pixel and its neighboring window pixels. The window size is determined by the number of input layer nodes in the system. In this system we have used a 55 window sizes, hence we have 5 input nodes. Each node in the input layer is coupled with its neighboring window pixel. Therefore, the input data which used in this layer are fuzzy data. The hidden layers of arrangement supply information to the system based on the fuzzy rules and its implications [14]. The conclusion to the system is dependant on the fuzzy IF-THEN rules which engross the parameters of the system. The weights are then supplemented to the network connecting the input layers and the hidden layers. The weights are binary threshold values. To progress the efficiency of this encoding system a set of 5 binary weights which recognize the pattern on pixels is used. In the usage of this 5-bit encoding technique, a substring is evolved. These 5-bit substrings result in three different patterns of rotation of 90, 180, and 270 degrees are evolved. Then, optimization of the non-zero elements in weighted sets, which assist in identifying patterns in the neighboring window [15] is done. Binary weights in the genetic string are optimized while training the system. Evaluation of the speckle noise amplitude in the neighboring patterns is applied in the same manner as local statistics [17]. B. Optimized Pattern Learning GA-based search-process is a local search process. GA is chosen in our experiment, as it belongs to a category of algorithm sets for maximization the member functions [12] used in neural networks. This process involves: Defining of the parameters and variables, Designing the Fuzzy rules, Local optimization process and Selection of the fittest population. MA-based search-process is chosen, as it is belongs to set of algorithms as Genetic algorithm for maximization of member functions [9]. MA explores the characters of the error functions and does not guarantee the parameter space. MA uses the mechanism of natural selection and genetics to its population of solutions. It involves: Global optimization, Stochastic searching and Selection is based on good features. The general features of EA which make it suitable for the likelihood of choosing the operators is given in Figure2. The initial population which is chosen by the EA algorithms is the one individual string which is defined as the queen string. The generations are generated by conducting mutation operations on these strings. These

OUTPUT LAYER

HIDDEN LAYERS

INPUT LAYER Evolutionary Algorithms

The filter that is recommended and implemented is a self-organized adaptive neuro-fuzzy filter which is based on neuro-fuzzy and evolutionary learning. The system uses the neural network ability to train and the knowledge for this is fed into the system in fuzzy format. In the network a 5-layer feed forward network (Figure 1) is used. Where, the first layer performs the fuzzification process, the second layer performs the Fuzzy AND of the predecessor operation of the fuzzy rules. The third layer regulates the membership function, the fourth layer performs the resultant part of the fuzzy rules and lastly, the fifth layer computes the output of fuzzy system by summing up the outputs of the fourth layer [7]. The speckle noise is deducted on based on the local statistical characters and uses the fuzzy knowledge for it.

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strings contain the membership function (msf) widthparameter P and the threshold weights have to be applied between the input and hidden layers. The descriptions of the steps of the evolutionary algorithm are discussed as: 1. Randomly generate the individual string (queen string). 2. Initialize the queen string to the bit string of 0s and 1s. 3. Child string is generated using the mutation operator. 4. Then, the mutation points are chosen at random. 5. For each string, perform the following: a. Interpret the parameter values. b. Assign to the neuro-fuzzy filter. 6. Stop the process after 100 generations.

MA based Neuro-fuzzy system after speckle reduction compared with the standard adaptive mean filter in Fig.4.(e) and adaptive weighted mean filter in Fig.4.(f). The table 1 summarizes the various MSE results:

TABLE I. Method Adaptive Mean Adaptive Weighted Mean GA Based Method MA Based Method COMPARISION OF NOISE MEAN SQUARE ERROR Epochs

50 100

IV. CONCLUSION In this paper we have proposed two dynamic soft computing tools namely-neural networks, and fuzzy logic using genetic and memetic algorithms. The intention of this paper was to harness the power of the individual system by substituting its drawbacks with the power of other system. This type of system is evolutionary neurofuzzy system. In the proposed system we have suggested a Memetic based approach to optimize neuro-fuzzy system for speckle reduction in breast sonograms. We have used the neural networks for learning and fuzzy parameter for knowledge development. The inputs to the system are fuzzy inputs which optimizes the output. Based on these parameters the GA/MA learning is performed. The system outperforms the traditional system [8] in terms of MSE ratio and the computation time is considerably reduced. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The Authors would like to thanks to their Parents, Friends, Colleagues, and Management for providing the facilities which was needed, and all others, who have directly and indirectly helped, in achieving this task. Authors also would like to thank the anonymous reviewers and the conference organizers for their valuable guidance. REFERENCES

[1] [2] American Cancer Society (2010). www.cancer.org S. Areibi, Effective exploration and exploitation of the solution space via memetic algorithms Book Chapter on Recent Advances in Memetic algorithms and Related Search Technologies (2005), pp.16182. D.E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, (1989). R.C. Gonzalez, R.E.Woods, Digital image processing, Second Edition., Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, (2001). S. Haykin, Neural Networks, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, (1998). J.-S.R. Jang, C.-T. Sun, E. Mizutani, Neuro-fuzzy and Soft Computing: A Computational Approach to Learning and Machine Intelligence, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, (1997).

III. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS We have chosen to use a 5 layered NFS which is trained individually. The system output, which is the noise-value is filtered from the neighbor pixel window. Speckle noise reduction is a low pass filtering operation [18]. Our system reduces the noise and makes it acceptable for preprocessing. The experiment is conducted on 50 Breast Sonogram images which are trained in the neural network based on fuzzy values for 100 epochs [19]. The input parameters are adjusted accordingly. System performance is tested of its error value based on Mean Square Error (MSE) [16]. The results are compared with the simulations of the existing models adaptive mean filter [4] and adaptive weighted mean filters. It is observed that the projected noise reduction system is a dynamic system when compared to the standard systems. Ultrasound images used are 2d gray images which have 256 levels and are best compared based on visual observation [20]. The experiment is simulated and compared with existing models (Figure 3) using Matlab 7.3 on Athol processor based system with 1 GB RAM. In Figure 4(a) refers the typical diagnostic image, in Figure 4(b) noisy image corrupted by speckle noise, in Figure 4(c) GA based Neuro-fuzzy system after speckle reduction and Figure 4(d)

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B. Kosko, Neural Networks and Fuzzy System, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1992. Article in a journal: [8] Alamelumangai.N, Devishree.J, Hybrid Speckling Techniques in Ultrasound Images, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Vol-1(1), (2010). [9] Benecchi, L., Neuro-Fuzzy System for Prostate Cancer Diagnosis, Journal of Urology, Vol 6 I 2 (2009), pp- 357-361. [10] H.L. Eng, K.K. Ma, Noise adaptive soft-switching median filter, IEEE Trans. Image Processing, Vol-10 (2), (2001), pp.242251.3. [11] Elif Derya Ubeyli, Noise cancellation in ultrasound signals with adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system, Digital signal processing, Vol-10 (1), (2010), pp. 63-76. [12] Elif Derya Ubeyli, Inan Guler, Adaptive neuro fuzzy systems for analysis of internal carotid arterial Doppler signals, Computers in Biology and Medicine, Vol-35 (8), (2004), pp. 687- 702. [13] Elif Derya Ubeyli, Inan Guler, Teaching Automated Diagnostic systems for Doppler ultrasound blood flow signals to biomedical engineering students using Matlab, International Journal of Engineering Education, Vol-21 (4), (2005), pp.649-667. [14] J.-S.R. Jang, ANFIS: adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system, IEEE Trans. Systems Manual on Cybernitics, Vol-23 (03), (1993), pp.665685.

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[15] Y.S. Ong, M.H. Lim, N. Zhu, K.W. Wong, Classification of adaptive memetic algorithms: a comparative study, IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. Part B 36 (1) (2006) 141152. [16] G. Qiu, Functional optimization properties of median filter, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. Lett. 1 (4) (1994) pp.6465. [17] Russo. F. Evolutionary Neuro-Fuzzy Systems for noise cancellation in image data, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol.48 (5), (1999), pp.915-920. Article in a conference proceedings: [18] A. Rafiee Kerachi, M.H. Moradi, M.R. Farzaneh, Speckle noise reduction in sonography images by using online genetic neuro fuzzy filters, Proceedings of the 4th Seminars on Fuzzy Sets and its Applications- Iran, (2003), pp. 70-77. [19] Suhail M. Odeh, Using An Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) Algorithm For Automatic Diagnosis Of Cancer, Proceedings of European, Mediterranean & Middle Eastern Conference on Information Systems (2010). [20] Yanhui Guo H.D. Cheng Jiawei Tian , Yingtao Zhang, A Novel Approach to Breast Ultrasound Image Segmentation Based on the characteristics of Breast Tissue and Particle Swarm Optimization, Proceedings of the 11th Joint Conference on Information Sciences (2008).

MSE

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Figure 3. Comparision of Different Models

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