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ABSTRACT Name: De Silva S.H.M.A.P.

Professional Affiliation: Head of Structural Division Surath Wickramasinge Associates No 65, Walukarama Road Colombo 03 Phone: Email: TITLE: ABSTRACT The world is changing; the economy is changing; and Architectural practice is changing. There for, there is a definite trend towards the irregular shapes with large spans in buildings due to the fact that there is now more emphasis on providing large uninterrupted floor space which can result in higher rental returns. Today the building industry is taking the next step in concrete technologies by introducing post-tension systems to slab construction with the use of system formwork and high strength concrete. Post-tensioned concrete has proven to be a preferred method of construction for commercial and office buildings, residential apartments, high-rise condominiums, parking structures, and mixed-use facilities such as hotels and casinos. the main benefits over conventionally reinforced concrete being its ability to span greater distances without resorting to thick slabs and beams (and the consequent loss of head height), reduce deflection and cracking, Reduction in overall building mass, which is important in zones of high seismicity and superior performance of diaphragm action at building irregularities. There are also some associated labor and time savings The objective of this paper is to introduce the post tension slab system to Sri Lankan construction industry. This presentation will discuss the benefits of having post tension in building industry, challengers encounter in PT designs, use of ACI318 in design of post tension slabs and quality controlling process during construction. Keywords: High Rise, Parking structures, Span, deflection and cracking, building mass, Seismicity, diaphragm action, PT slabs, ACI318 0772932745/ 0717253182 shmapk@yahoo.com, anuradha@swa.lk Application of Post tensions in High Rise building construction

Out Line of Paper Benefits (Advantages) Challenges in PT Design and constructions PT Slab systems Design QA/QC Requirements

Benefits (Advantages) Cost effective More freedom for the designer (Architectural aspects) Easy construction Lesser number of Labor Quick construction cycle (provisions for slipform for core to expedite the construction sequence) Optimum Floor to Floor height (more rigid and higher frequency improve lateral stability) Reduction of total mass of the building (less mass and higher frequency improve lateral stability)

Challenges in PT Design and constructions Cost effectiveness More freedom Labor management Provisions to other systems

PT Slab systems and Arrangements Post Tension Beams with RC slabs Post Tension Flat slabs Post Tension Flat slab with Drop Panels Post Tension Flat slab with Drop Beams Post Tension Flat slab with Drop Panels and Drop caps Post Tension Waffle slabs Band and distribution arrangements Bands in Both directions Distribution in Both Directions

Design Design Criteria Design of

Anchor head Dead end Friction and wobble coefficient between duct and cables Seating losses at anchorages Jacking forces % Dead load balancing Min permissible pre compressions Max permissible pre compression

Design Code requirements Transfer condition (Initial State) Total Ultimate strength Design

Available Analysis and Design Techniques Gravity Analysis Lateral Analysis EFM FEM with the help of design strips

Losses Calculations Immediate losses Friction losses Seating Losses Pre compression Long Term losses Creep and shrinkage losses

QA/QC Requirements Concrete cube tests Cross checking of cable strain Test reports on wedges, anchor heads, dead end, stressing cables, and calibration reports on jacks Close observations of slab systems while stressing Follow up method statements and company procedures