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INDEX 1) 2) ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 1 BSNL BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED2-19 ABOUT US SERVICES PROVIDED BY BSNL Internet ISDN Intelligent Network

k services I-Net Leased lines And Datacom Cellular Mobile Services Wireless In local Loop PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRONIC EXCHANGES E-10B SYSTEM Evolution & Architecture Application Subscriber Facility Switching Network Operation & Maintenance Center(O.M.C.) CSED Distribution frame ROLE OF E.C.E. IN BSNL 3) BSNL 3G ( THIRD GENERATION )20-26 ABOUT 3G What is 3G USIM 3G Data Card 3G Handset Video Calling Achievement TELEGRAPH .27 ABOUT US NETWORK SERVICES 5) COMPUTER NETWORKS 28-41 Introduction Advantages Networking Goals Networking Criteria Applications Network Topologies Types of Network LOCAL AREA NETWORK LAN Transmission Methods LAN Topologies LAN Devices Components of a LAN

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Networking Basics OSI REFERENCE MODEL

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am highly grateful to all the persons who provide their valuable time, acquai ntance and support during my summer training. This period of training has been a great time of learning and observation for me and the below mentioned people we re some of the few who played a significant role in making it so. I like to extend a deep sense of gratitude to Mr. -------, SDE BSNL ----- Excha nge, city name, for providing necessary facility and infrastructure for my summe r training project. I am grateful for giving me all valuable knowledge about the topic and guiding me in the best possible way during my training period. Finally, I thank all the officers and staff of BSNL ------ who extended their h elp in completing my training program successfully.

Your name 4th Year, Electronics & Communication Engineering Your college name. E-mail i.d. Your phone number

BSNL BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED VISION AND MISSION To be a world class Telecommunication Company integrated in information exchang e business with dominant Indian leadership and global presence.

ABOUT US Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. formed in October, 2000, is World's 7th largest Teleco mmunications Company providing comprehensive range of telecom services in India: Wire line, CDMA mobile, GSM Mobile, Internet, Broadband, Carrier service, MPLSVPN, VSAT, VoIP services, IN Services etc. Within a span of five years it has be come one of the largest public sector unit in India. BSNL has installed Quality Telecom Network in the country and now focusing on im proving it, expanding the network, introducing new telecom services with ICT app lications in villages and wining customer's confidence. Today, it has about 47.3 million line basic telephone capacity, 4 million WLL capacity, 20.1 Million GSM Capacity, more than 37382 fixed exchanges, 18000 BTS, 287 Satellite Stations, 4 80196 Rkm of OFC Cable, 63730 Rkm of Microwave Network connecting 602 Districts, 7330 cities/towns and 5.5 Lakhs villages. BSNL is the only service provider, making focused efforts and planned initiative s to bridge the Rural-Urban Digital Divide ICT sector. In fact there is no telec om operator in the country to beat its reach with its wide network giving servic es in every nook & corner of country and operates across India except Delhi & Mu mbai. Whether it is inaccessible areas of Siachen glacier and North-eastern regi on of the country. BSNL serves its customers with its wide bouquet of telecom se rvices. BSNL is numero uno operator of India in all services in its license area. The co mpany offers vide ranging & most transparent tariff schemes designed to suite ev ery customer. BSNL cellular service, CellOne, has more than 17.8 million cellular customers, g arnering 24 percent of all mobile users as its subscribers. That means that almo st every fourth mobile user in the country has a BSNL connection. In basic servi ces, BSNL is miles ahead of its rivals, with 35.1 million Basic Phone subscriber s i.e. 85 per cent share of the subscriber base and 92 percent share in revenue terms. BSNL has more than 2.5 million WLL subscribers and 2.5 million Internet Customer s who access Internet through various modes viz. Dial-up, Leased Line, DIAS, Acc ount Less Internet(CLI). BSNL has been adjudged as the NUMBER ONE ISP in the cou ntry. BSNL has set up a world class multi-gigabit, multi-protocol convergent IP infras tructure that provides convergent services like voice, data and video through th e same Backbone and Broadband Access Network. At present there are 0.6 million D ataOne broadband customers.

The company has vast experience in Planning, Installation, network integration a nd Maintenance of Switching & Transmission Networks and also has a world class I SO 9000 certified Telecom Training Institute. Scaling new heights of success, the present turnover of BSNL is more than Rs.351 ,820 million (US $ 8 billion) with net profit to the tune of Rs.99,390 million ( US $ 2.26 billion) for last financial year. The infrastructure asset on telephon e alone is worth about Rs.630,000 million (US $ 14.37 billion). BSNL plans to expand its customer base from present 47 millions lines to 125 mil lion lines by December 2007 and infrastructure investment plan to the tune of Rs

. 733 crores (US$ 16.67 million) in the next three years. The turnover, nationwide coverage, reach, comprehensive range of telecom service s and the desire to excel has made BSNL the No. 1 Telecom Company of India.

BATTERY AND POWER PLANT Telecommunications systems require electrical energy for transmission of telegra ph signals for exchange switching, energisation of subscribers telephone transm itter and for many miscellaneous functions. The consumption of energy depends no t only on the size of installation but also on the methods employed for signalin g, switching and transmission. The power plant of any telecommunication system is usually referred as the heart o f the installation since the communication system can function only as long as p ower supply is available .Failure of power supply system in any installation r enders the communication facilities offered by it to be instantly paralyzed. Requirement of Power Supply : Any power supply arrangement for a communication system must have two basic char acteristics. (i) Reliability of the components of the power plant and continuity of the p ower supply. (ii) The power fed to the exchange equipment should be free from noise or hum and to telegraph equipment from large nipple harmonics.

Source of Power : Power for the communication system is desired from various sources, of which the important ones utilized in the department are detailed below : (a) Commercial AC power supplies (b) Primary Cells (c) Prime mover generating sets (d) Secondary cells (e) Static rectifier unit TROUBLE SHOOTING CHART SL.No. Nature of fault Problem Causes Remedy 1. FR/FC Fail Led is lighted on the front Panel of the main rack - Any on e or more rectifier modules has/have failed. Following may be the reasons of the failure : (i) Input MCB or AC input connector open. (ii) Output MCB or output connector open. (iii) Improper load sharing between the modules. Check each rectifier module front panel to find out which rectifier has failed. (i) Switch ON the I/P MCB or connect AC input connector. (ii) Switch on the O/P MCB or connect the OP connector. (iii) Check that the 8 pin flat cable is connected properly in each module and t here is no break in daisy chaining of the above cable. 2. Battery isolated Led is lighted on the front panel of the Main Rack. - Any one or more of the Btty. path knife switch is open Choose the knife switch properly. 3. Load Voltage High LED is lighted on the front panel of the main rack.

Dc output voltage of the system is higher than 57V because of some fault in any one of the module. Press the Load Voltage High Reset push button provided on the front panel. All the modules will be again ON if the fault was of temporary nature otherwise a ll the modules will be again OFF simultaneously lighting the LOAD

4. Load Voltage Low LED is lighted on the front panel of the main rack. - This may happen when the system is working on batteries for the long time and the O/P voltage of the system has become lower than 44V. - The PSC Card may be faulty. Urgent action to restore the AC input supply is required as the batteries need to be manually disconnected for the safety of the batteries. Replace the faulty PSC card. 5. Mains out of range LEd is lighted on the front panel of the main rack. Either the AC input supply to the main rack is not coming or the mains supply is too low or too high. - The fuse FO mounted inside the DIN channel mountable terminal block may have b ecome open. - The PSC card may be faulty. Take the corrective action for the mains supply or starry the DG set. Open the terminal block and check for the continuity in the fuse. If faulty, re place it. Replace the faulty PSC card. 6. Mains on battery discharge LED is lighted on the front panel of the main r ack. - If by any reason the voltage of the modules become less than the volta ge of the batteries, this lamp may come. - The PSC card may be faulty. Check for the equipment path load, It may be too high resulting in the current limit of the modules. Isolate the faulty rack by opening the knife switch in the DCDB - Replace the faulty PSC card. 7. System over load Led is lighted on the front panel of the main rack. - The power system is getting overloaded. - The PSC card may be faulty. Check the path which is drawing more current. Ta ke the corrective action. -Replace the faulty PSC card. SERVICES PROVIDED BY BSNL When it comes to connecting the four corners of the nation, and much beyond, one solitary name lies embedded at the pinnacle - BSNL. A company that has gone pa st the number games and the quest to attain the position of a leader . It is wo rking round the clock to take India into the future by providing world class tel ecom services for people of India. BSNL is India's no. 1 Telecom Service provi der and most trusted Telecom brand of the Nation. Driven by the very best of telecom technology from chosen global leaders, it con nects each inch of the nation to the infinite corners of the globe, to enable yo u to step into tomorrow. Here is an overview of the World Class services offered by the BSNL: BASIC TELEPHONE SERVICES:-

The Plain old, Countrywide telephone Service through 32,000 electronic exchanges . Digitalized Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) with a host of Phone Plus value additions. BSNL launched DataOne broadband service in January 2005 which shall be e xtended to 198 cities very shortly. The service is being provided on existing c opper infrastructure on ADSL2 technology. The minimum speed offered to the custo mer is 256 Kbps at Rs. 250/- per month only. Subsequently, other services such as VPN, Multicasting, Video Conferencing, Video-on-Demand, Broadcast applicatio n etc will be added. Internet Keeping the global network of Networks networked, the countrywide Internet Servi ces of BSNL under the brand name includes Internet dial up/ Leased line access, CLI based access (no account is required) and DIAS service, for web browsing an d E-mail applications. You can use your dialup sancharnet account from any place in India using the same access no '172233' , the facility which no other ISP ha s. BSNL has customer base of more than 1.7 million for sancharnet service. BSNL also offers Web hosting and co-location services at very cheap rates. ISDN Integrated Service Digital Network Service of BSNL utilizes a unique digital net work providing high speed and high quality voice, data and image transfer over t he same line. It can also facilitate both desktop video and high quality video c onferencing. Intelligent Network Services Intelligent Network Service (In Service) offers value-added services, such as: Free Phone Service (FPH) India Telephone Card (Prepaid card) Account Card Calling (ACC) Virtual Private Network (VPN) Tele-voting Premium Rae Service (PRM) Universal Access Number (UAN) and more I Net India s x.25 based packet Switched Public Data Network is operational in 104 cit ies of the country. It offers x.25 x.28 leased, x.28 Dial up (PSTN) Connection) and frame relay services. Leased Lines And Datacom BSNL provides leased lines for voice and data communication for various applicat ion on point to point basis. It offers a choice of high, medium and low speed le ased data circuits as well as dial-up lines. Bandwidth is available on demand i n most cities. Managed Leased Line Network (MLLN) offers flexibility of providin g circuits with speeds of nx64 kbps upto 2mbps, useful for Internet leased lines and International Principle Leased Circuits (IPLCs). Cellular Mobile Service

Countrywide Cellular Service Pre-paid Card BSNLs GSM cellular mobile service Cellone has a customer base of over 5.2 million . CellOne provides all the services like MMS, GPRS, Voice Mail, E-mail, Short M essage Service (SMS) both national and international, unified messaging service (send and receive e-mails) etc. You can use CellOne in over 160 countries worldw ide and in 270 cellular networks and over 1000 cities/towns across India. It has got coverage in all National and State Highways and train routes. CellOne offer s all India Roaming facility to both pre-paid and post-paid customers (including Mumbai & Delhi). Wireless In Local Loop This is a communication system that connects customers to the Public Switched Te lephone Network (PSTN) using radio frequency signals as a substitute for convent ional wires fsor all or part of the connection between the subscribers and the t elephone exchange. Countrywide WLL is being offered in areas that are non-feasible for the normal n etwork. Helping relieve congestion of connections in the normal cable/wire based network in urban areas. Connecting the remote and scattered rural areas. Limited mobility without any air-time charge BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRONIC EXCHANGES The prime purpose of an exchange is to provide a temporary path for simultaneous , bi-directional transmission of speech between (i) Subscriber lines connected to same exchange (local switching). (ii) Subscriber lines and trunks to other exchange (outgoing trunk call). (iii) Subscriber lines and trunks from other exchanges (incoming trunk calls), a nd (iv) Pairs of trunks towards different exchanges (transit switching) These are a lso called the switching function of an exchange and are implemented through the equipment called the switching network. An exchange which can setup just the fi rst three types of connections is called a subscriber or Local Exchange. If an e xchange can Setup only the fourth type of connections, it is called a transit or Tandem Exchange. The other distinguished functions of an exchange are (i) Exchange of information with the external environment (Subscriber lines or o ther exchanges i.e. signaling. (ii) Processing the signaling information and controlling the operation of signa ling network i.e. control and (iii) Charging and billing All these functions can be provided more efficiently using computer controlled e lectronic exchanges, than by the conventional electromechanical exchanges. tions, represented by a series of various instructions are stored in the memory. Therefore the processor memories hold all exchange dependent data, such as subsc riber date, translation tables, routing and charging information and all call re cords. For each call processing step, e,g, for traking a decision according to c lass of service, the stored data is referred to. Hence this concept of switchin g is called stored programme controlled switching. The memories are modifiable a nd the control programme can always be rewritten if the behaviour or the use of the system is to be modified. This imparts an enormous flexibility in overall working of exchange.

EVOLUTION AND ARCHITECTURE O E-10B SYSTEM Introduction: The Policy Pursued by Telecom Administration all over the world at present is to introduce digital switching in their networks in view of the significant Techno . Economic advantages of digital network cost no doubt is one of the main factor s favouring Electronics exchanges but more encouraging is the facilities which a re now available to the modern society. Electronic Exchange has provided the sub scribers a number of additional facilities which were not possible in old electr o- mechanical exchanges Another factor which favours electronic exchange is the negligible effects towards maintenance. Introduction of E-10b type of exchanges in Indian telecommunication networks has ushers a new era. Starting with worli, Bombay, there after a number of Local/ Tandem /Tax exchanges are commissioned in various parts of the country.

Applications of E-10b System E-10b system can be used the following applications. (a) Local Exchange: for Local Subscriber lines. (b) Local Transit or Tandem Exchanges: for Transit Traffic (c) Tax : For termination of long distance circuits (d) Local cum Transit or Tax : combination of Local and Transit or Tax. Subscriber facilities The E-10B system offers a number of facilities to its subscribers. These are -Follow me service (call forwarding) -Short code dialing (Abbreviated dialing) -Identification off malicious calls -Conference calls -Call waiting Indication -Detailed Billing -Automatic alarm call (wake me service) -Barred access -Hotline facility -DTMF Push button telephones -Last number redial -Absent subscriber service -Free phone line -Subscriber with home meter -Outgoing only subscribers -Incoming only subscribers -Ring back facility E-10B system provides a great facility to extend telecommunication facilities to the subscribers situated at remote place , like a town or outskirts of a metr opolitan centre. These units are called remote line units or RLUs the subscriber c onnected to the RLU get all the facilities available to the main E-10B exchange subscriber. These RLUs are connected to the main exchange by number of PCM sys tems. Basic Principles and Architecture of E-10 System The system is based on the following salient features; 1. Stored program control (SPC) 2. TDM digital switching 3. PCM principles and techniques 4. Segregation of switching and management functions. 5. Distributed control using dedicated microprocessors (e.g. INTEL 8085) or minicomputer (e.g. ELS-48) 6. Centralized management for a group of E-10B exchanges

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF E-10B EXCHANGE Based on the functions carried by different parts, an E-10B exchange can ided in four blocks as shown in figure. Connection units The connection units comprise basically of equipments directly connected nal interfaces of the system, subscriber lines, circuits and equipments nds and receives audio frequency signalling samples. These units are of ing types. (a) Local subscriber connection unit ( URAL or CSEL) (b) Remote subscriber connection unit ( URAL or CSEL) (c) Multiplex connection unit (URM) (d) Frequency sender/receiver unit (ETA) (e) Auxiliary equipment rack (BDA)

be div to exter which se follow

SWITCHING NETWORK (CX) The time division switching network is a 3 stage system ( time- space- time) It provides a 4- wire switching between the time slots allocated to the calling par ty. For a call sample connections are shown in the diagram.

Principle of a connection ( 4 wire) in the switching Network -Speech samples (a) form the time slot (I) of the incoming network line LRE asso ciated with the calling subscriber are switched to the time slot I of the outgoing network line lrs associated with the called subscriber. -Speech samples (b) form the time slot j of the incoming network (LRE) associated with the called subscriber are switched to the time slot I of the outgoing network line (LRS) associated with the calling subscriber. -Each time switch handles 16 PCM links ( LRE+LRS) and four time switches caterin g 4*16=64 PCMs are contained in one switching network rack. A complete switchi ng network comprises of 6 identical racks for connecting 384 PCMs. Control units The control units are partly based on dedicated mini computers and are used to c arry out all the switching operations required to set up and release connections between subscribers and/or follows:-Marker (MQ) -Switching network control unit ( UGCX) -Multi-register (MR) -Translater (TR) -Charging unit (TX) To ensure uninterrupted telephone service, these units are duplicated and operat ed on the load sharing basis. -Management units -Stand by charge recording unit ( DSF) -Monitoring unit (OC) Other units -Time base unit These units are not duplicated.

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE CENTER (OMC) E-10B system is characterized by the basic principal of the separation of Switch ing and management functions, these are carried out independently. The switching functions are carried out by E-10B exchange while operation and Maintenance Cen ter (OMC) handles management functions of the E-10 B exchange OMC and E-10B exch ange are connected by a single time slot of a pcm for the interchange whereas th

e dialogue terminals are directly connected to OMC . A number of exchanges can b e managed by a single OMC, this feature provides flexibility of managing a numbe r of exchange by a common staff posted in OMC Functions of OMC Following operation and maintenance functions are performed through OMC. subscriber management trunk group and management Routing and analysis management. call charging management subs. lines testing Trunk testing traffic and load managements Fault message processing Alarm message processing unit positioning fault tracing fault clearing peripheral management

CSED (R.L.U) The E-10 system offers to the telephone subscribers located in remote areas, a facility through which they can be connected to the host exchange located at an urban area. The concept of the remote line units is to cater for the needs of Telephone users located specially in rural areas where the telephone density is very small and provision of an exchange is very costly for the administration . It is particularly economic using the remote line unit (CSED) for providing t elephone service to such subscribers. The use of R.L.U. has got many advantages because of which its use has tremendo usly increased in our network. The advantages are as follows:- Minimum space requirement - Economy towards infrastructure items. - Duration of installation and commissioning in short Expansion is simple and ea sy. - Immediate relief to the area where a main exchange of 3k or 4k lines are not p lanned in near future The remote line unit comprises of subscriber connection unit called CSED, each h aving 1024 telephone subscriber equipment. The number of CSEDs can vary dependin g upon the requirement of the area to be served. Each CSED is connected to the host exchange via four PCM links on one or more satellite connection modules (M RS) of the URM rack at the main exchange. The PCM multi frames are structured i n 32 frames with frequency of 4 m.s. the signalling is routed through TS-16 of PCM 0 and 01, these are called active PCMs, other two PCMs are called passive links and dont carry any signalling. The CSED is also divided into four functional areas (a) Subscriber connection equipment- the subscriber lines are connected to s ubscriber connection equipments. (b) Concentration network- this network provides space division. (c) Transmission unit- this network provides the analogue/digital conversion between 120 outputs of the concentration network and the four links. (d) Control logic- the duplicated logic system is responsible to manage the functions of above said three units. The rack organization is shown is figure. LOCAL SECURITY CALL MODE IN CSED The PCM o and 01 carry entire signalling between CSED and main exchange. These links are called active PCM links, remaining two PCMs 02 and03 are passive links and do not carry any signalling form CSED to the main exchange. In the event of

failure of these active PCM links, the csed gets isolated from the main exchang e and will cause annoyance to the telephone subscribers. The established calls and the calls under process of establishment will be lost. However there is a p rovision in the system to switch over to security call mode which enables the su bscribers to obtain access to the emergency service like police, ambulance and f ire in the event of such a breakdown, the subscriber is transferred to a recorde d announcement which informs them of the two digit code he must dial in order to get through the emergency services the dial tone is provided in the CSED, 6 equ ipments are used for these services. Equipment 1 and 6 for police (100) Equipment 16 and17 for fire (102) Equipment 18 and 19 for Ambulance (101) The announcement in the form of 11 second speech is written in digital form PCBXMEAF is used for this purpose. A tone generator provides tones of 400 Hz. The tones under are dial tone, busy tone ,ringing tone. MONITORING: The main exchange continuously monitors the performance of CSED by sending test messages, In the event of non-receipt of acknowledgement to these messages, th e fault indications are sent to maintenance personal on tele-type writher throug h OMC that the CSED has been isolated form the exchange. LAYOUT OF A TYPICAL R.L.U. A typical R.L.U. (CSED) of an E-10 Exchange is generally installed in a small bu ilding at the remote places. Therefore, it is necessary that the building must be fully equipped with all the necessary infrastructure. Infrastructure required for a RLU in addition to the CSED and its MDF/DDF and su bs. U/G cables etc. are as follows:POWER SYSTEM 1. Mains Power supply 2. Rectifier 3. Battery Charger 4. Battery Sets 5. Engine Alternator TRANSMISSION SYSTEM 1. PCM Mux FIRE PROTECTION AND DETECTION SYSTEM AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM Generally window type A/C or package A/C units

BUILDING AND STAFF AMENITIES MDF AND DDF IN E-10B EXCHANGES Introduction In any type of exchange there is a unit called main distribution frame (MDF) and is used for interconnection of exchange line and junction unit equipments to ext ernal physical lines coming to the exchange. The distribution frame provides eas y and flexible inter connection isolation point for testing protective devices u sed for safety of exchange equipment etc. The E-10B system also used distributio n frames for interconnection of trunks and subscriber lines to the exchange term inating units. Purpose of MDF and DDF in E-10B Exchanges E-10B switching system is a digital switching system and accepts both analog and digital signals. The signals from subscribers are analog wheras the trunk signals are digital (if coming from analog source these are converted into digital 30 channel PCM signa ls and then fed to switchroom).

The analog Signals are received by CSE and digital signals we use two type of di stribution frames in E-10B . one is called Main Distribution Frame (MDF) and the other one is Digital Distribution Frame (DDF). Main Distribution Frame Functions of main distribution Frame (MDF) in E-10B is Similar to that of other types of exchanges here all the lines coming from subscribers. on exchange lines telex lines and analog function lines are terminated. These are Terminated on 1 00 pair krone type tag blocks in which gas discharge (gd) tube type protective d evices are provided to tackle voltage and current surges. These tag blocks are l ocated on one side of the MDF called line side. On the others side of the MDF ca lled exchange side tag block are provided for terminating the cables from CSE fo r Subscriber lines and from transmission room for analog junction lines. These t ag blocks are of 128 pairs size and facility for wedging is also available for i solating the lines. These tag blocks are also krone type. The interconnection be tween line side and exchange side is done through 4 mm jumper wires . Digital Distribution Frame The digital distribution frame (DDF) in E-10B is used for interconnection of lin es carrying digital signals. This frame also used two type of tag blocks, one ty pe of tag block used only for digital signals and has a capacity of 32 pairs. Th e digital signals fed to the E-10B is30 channels PCM and goes to URM. Each PCM S ystem requires two pairs, one for trans direction and other for receive directio n. Also, one URM can have maximum of 32 PCMS connected to it. Therefore for one URM we require 32 pair tag blocks- one tag block connected with trans pairs with respect to URL and other one connected to receiver pairs. The other side of the tag block is connected to transmission terminal equipment tag block. The other type of tag block is used for inter connecting trunk lines to transmis sion equipment which converts analog signals to digital signals and multiplexes these channels to from 30 channel PCM system acceptable to E-10B. In DDF the pro tective devices are not provided.

ROLE OF E.C.E. IN BSNL

With the convergence of technologies, catalyzed by the global EC revolution the world is witnessing change as never before in recorded history. In the realm of telecommunication, the change and the pace of it are more pronounced - from bas ic telephony to voice, video and data services, and from bandwidth on demand to virtual private networks, Electronics is making the entire plethora of BSNL's t elecom services expand. And, being rapidly implemented as the backbone for runn ing customer-friendly services: FRS (Fault Repair System), DQ (Directory Enquiry), IVRS (Interactive Voice Response System) and Accounting and billing systems are already operational at BSNL. DOTSOFT , an integrated commercial & FRS package being inducted countryw ide, to provide single window convenience. Telephone Directory on CD ROM and on the internet.

Infrastructure, technology and expertise for full service support to e-c ommerce enterprises.

BSNL 3G ( THIRD GENERATION ) 1 What is 3G?

3G is the next generation of mobile communications systems. It enhances the services such as multimedia, high speed mobile broadband, internet access wi th the ability to view video footage on your mobile handset. With a 3G phone and access to the 3G network you can make video calls, watch live TV, access the hi gh speed internet, receive emails and download music tracks, as well as the usua l voice call and messaging services found on a mobile phone, like person to pers on video, live streaming, downloadable video of entertainment, news, current aff airs and sport content and video messaging 2 3GWhere can I view the demonstration of 3G ? You can view the demonstration of 3G at the CSC ( Customer Care Center ) and BSNL website 3 Can I get 3G services on my existing Number? 4 5 Yes Will my no. change if I upgrade to 3G? No. Will I get remote access to CCTV footage?

Yes, you can access CCTV footage or any other similar application by usi ng 3G service as a connecting media between the CCTV server and your 3G service enabled handset. 6 Which all other operators in India provide 3G services ? 7 8 Only BSNL & MTNL are providing 3G services in India . Is there any tracking feature available in 3G network ? NO What is USIM ?

USIM is a SIM card for 3G services. USIM stand for Universal Subscriber Identification Module. USIM is provided to access 3G services. 9 What will be the storage capacity of 3G SIM ? 10 128 KB Is the cost of USIM included in activation charge ?

Yes, starter pack includes the charges for USIM. 11 I am an Airtel/Vodafone/Idea user, can I retain the same number while su bscribing for BSNL 3G services ?

12 ?

No, not yet. I am an Airtel/Vodafone/Idea user, how can I switch to BSNL 3G services

You have to take a new 3G connection from BSNL. 13 Will I get any special benefits if I shift from Airtel/Vodafone/Idea to BSNL 3G ? you will get all those facilities that BSNL is offering on its 3G servic es like Video call facility, Mobile broadband, Mobile TV content available on BS NL 3G Portal etc. For promotional schemes, visit BSNL website www.bsnl.co.in . 14 Will I get separate bill for 3G connection ? 15 16 17 18 19 NO How can I get duplicate USIM ? CSC.( CCN) Do I have to pay for Duplicate USIM ? YES Where will I get technical support ? Customer Care Center/BSNL 3G Experience Centers. Am I required to replace my 2G SIM card ? No Will I be charged differentially for all services ?

Yes, there is different tariff for various services. For details, please log on to www.bsnl.co.in . 20 What is the download speed in 3G ? Practically, you are going to get broadband experience with speed better than 384 KBPS 21 Will I get GPS in 3G ? 22 ? 23 GPS is a handset feature and is not related to 3G service. Will bsnl provide USB / DATA card and what will be the approximate cost Yes, it will be available through BSNL s vast franchisee Network Is my data secure ?

3G network provides connectivity between the handset and the internet cl oud and is fully secure. 24 Will I be able to play videogames on 3G ? 25 YES Will I be able to create videogames through 3G ?

Yes, you can create your own games on the internet cloud. It is the inte rnet cloud on which games will be stored, 3G is a media to access internet. 26 Will I be able to pay utility bills through 3G ? 27 28 Yes, in due course of time. Can I do mobile banking through 3G ? Yes, in due course of time. Will I be able to chat through 3G service?

29

Yes, in due course of time. Is 3G broadband available everywhere ?

Presently it is available in Ambala and is going to be available shortly in all state capitals and other major cities. For details, please log on to www .bsnl.co.in. 30 What are the benefits of mobile broadband ? You will be able to enjoy High speed internet and data service even whil e on the move. 31 What are the requirements for mobile broadband ? You will be able to enjoy High speed internet and data service even whil e on the move. You require a 3G handset and subscription for 3G services to use mobile broadband on your handset. In case, you want to connect your laptop or PD A (personal digital assistant) to 3G network, like while moving in a vehicle, yo u will require to connect your 3G handset to the computer through data cable, in frared or blue tooth. You may also buy a 3G data card and use the same with your computer to access high speed 3G network. 32 What is the difference between wired broadband and wireless broadband ? Wired broadband is a fixed place service requiring a wired line connecti vity upto the computer. On the contrary, wireless broadband is a wireless servic e which enables you to access internet anywhere, in the house or while on the mo ve 33 How much data will I use while viewing video ? If you re downloading a video that s meant for a mobile screen, 1mb per minute i s a good rule of thumb. Using this rule, a 4 minute video clip would use around 4MB of your daily or monthly allowance. If the video was meant for a TV or PC Sc reen, or it is over 5 min long, we wouldn t recommend downloading it to your phone, as it may struggle to play it back And you may not have enough storage space on your phone. A better solution for your mobile is to stream the Video. 34 Can I get 3G broadband without plugging a USB modem or data card ? 35 Yes, 3G broadband can be accessed through Handset supporting 3G. How can I search and download a specific movie from a specific site ?

You can log on to the required website by using 3G service of BSNL. Alte rnatively, you can download a specific movie by surfing BSNL 3G portal 36 Can I upload any user generated content through 3G ? You can upload any thing to internet cloud through 3G as 3G is a media t o access internet cloud 37 Maximum file size to upload You can upload any file size. Large file size requires more time to uplo ad 38 Will I be paid for the content ?

The internet cloud on which you upload contents may pay you for your con tent and not the 3G service provider. 39 Can I create my own website through 3G server ? 40 G ? Yes What is the difference between WI-MAX , WI -FI (wireless internet) and 3

WI-MAX & WI-FI are primarily for internet/data service whereas 3G is for internet/data as well as voice service. Roaming facility in case of 3G is bette

r as compared to these services. 41 Is 3G broadband experience the same as broadband at home (wire line) ? In 3G broadband, the connectivity speed will be almost comparable to the wire line broadband. 42 What all contents would be available in 3G services ? 43 and? Mobile TV, Mobile Broadband, Video calls, Movies, Video PRBT etc. What are the different type of data card/devices to access Mobile Broadb

There are two types of data card 1. HSDPA card PCMCIA based 2. HSDPA car d USB based and can be connected respectively at PCMCIA slot and USB port of Lap top . These are plug and play devices. The download speed presently available wi th these cards is 3.6 Mbps. In due course other types of cards will also be avai lable. 3G Data Card 1 What is 3G Data Card.?

3G Data cards are meant for accessing internet and emails at anytime and from anywhere. Thus 3G Data Cards help us to work on the move with full email a nd web access .It provides Simple and instant internet access at mega fast speed s up to 3.6 Mbps. 3G data cards make us free from messy wires, Fixed Line Requir ement, No Need of Cyber Cafe / Hot Spot to Access Internet. Thus your Lap top be come truly mobile 2 What are the types of 3G Data Cards ? 3 1.USB Type 2.Express/PCMCIA Card types Models of 3G Data Card offered by BSNL in Bundling Scheme

(A) USB Type MMX 300G Micromax MMX 300G(3) Micromax E156G Huawei E156 Hu awei E176 Huawei Option 210 Capital (Option) Option 315 Capital (Option) SimU6T Capital (Simcom) SimU9T Capital (Simcom Express/PCMCIA Option GT Express Capital (Option) SIM Express 7.2 Capital (Simcom) 4 Type of 3G Express Card 1. Merlin X950D Express Card 3G data card 2. Merlin XU870 Express Card 3 G data card 3. Option Globe Trotter Express 7.2 3G data card 4. Option Globe Tro tter Express HSUPA 3G data card 5. Sierra Wireless Air Card 880E 3G data card 5 3G Data Card (PC Card) Option Globe Trotter HSDPA 7.2 3G data card Option GT Max 7.2 Ready 3G d ata card Option GT Max HSUPA 3G data card Sierra Wireless Air Card 875 3G data c ard Sierra Wireless Air Card 880 HSUPA 3G data card 6 How to use it ? You have to Plug in 3G Data Card into your laptop and can get the fastes t available connection, with mobile broadband speeds of up to 1.8 Mbps. Its neat , compact design makes it easy to use; you can easily swap it between laptops fo r use at work, home or on the move. Laptops have a PC Card slot (also known as a PCMCIA slot), or an Express Card slot. There is PCMCIA to Express Card Converte r For using 3G broadband ,you need 3G Data card ,network SIM card, software, use r guide. 3G Handset 1 Will BSNL provide a 3G handset ?

Yes, a 3G handset will be available through BSNL s vast franchisee network. For details regarding various handset bundling schemes kindly visit BSNL website www.bsnl.co.in. 2 Where from can I buy 3G handset ? 3 You may buy 3G handset from BSNL franchisees or from the open market. Will I get a standby handset in case of faulty one ?

Yes, it will be arranged in accordance with the terms & conditions of th e handset bundling scheme under which the handset has been bought. 4 Can I upgrade my 2G handset to 3G by some software upgrade ? 5 NO, you have to buy 3G compatible handsets How will I connect 3G handset with my computer ?

You will be able to connect your 3G handset with the computer through Da ta cable, infrared or Bluetooth. You may also buy a 3G data card and use the sam e with your computer to access high speed 3G network. 6 What will be the battery backup of 3G handset ? The battery backup varies from handset to handset. You may refer to your handset manual. 7 What will be the cost of 3G handset ? Approximately Rs. 7000 and above, depending upon the features available in the 3G handset. 8 Which 3G handset models are available in the market ? KU 250 from LG, Z 8M from Motorola, 3G Apple I phone,6680 Nokia ,6630 No kia etc. (pl add from the list- Sparsh) 9 What benefit do I get while buying a BSNL bundled handset ? 10 11 12 You will get handset at a cheaper price and also discount on tariffs. Is there any handset bundling scheme announced by BSNL ? Yes, visit www.bsnl.co.in for details . Will it work on Chinese handset ? Yes, if it supports 3G. Can I connect my 3G handset to my TV ? Technically Yes. It depends upon the compatibility of your TV.

Video Calling

Is it possible to take voice call during internet surfing ? 2 Yes What is video ring back tone ?

As in an audio ring back tone you hear the song which the called party h as selected to be played when he/she is called, in the same way During video rin g back you will see a video as selected by the called party 3 How many persons can simultaneously have video conferencing ? 4 Upto 10 People . What is video streaming ?

Video Streaming is a sequence of "moving images" that are sent in compre ssed form over the Internet and displayed by the viewer as they arrive. It allow s user to view video contents while downloading is in progress. 5 Is 3G coverage available in rural areas ? At present r 3G coverage is available only in select cities and would be gradually extended to rural areas in due course of time 6 What will happen to my voice call if I move from 3G to 2G area ? 7 Your call will continue without getting dropped. Will I get network coverage in Malls (basement) ?

BSNL is identifying such hotspots to provide coverage 8 What will happen to my data call (data card) while moving from 3G to 2G network ? It will switch automatically to GPRS connection, i.e., the speed would b e slower than that available in 3G network. 9 3G broadband available everywhere ? Presently it is available in Ambala and is going to be available shortly in all state capitals and other major cities. For details, please log on to www .bsnl.co.in. 10 What is a video call? When you talk to some body over phone and are able to see the persson at other end on the screen of your phone then it is called a video call. 11 Why should I opt for video call? Video Calling lets your friends see where you're hanging out. With Video Call, you can view both yourself, and the person you've called, in high quality , real-time video. 12 What I need to do to make a video call? Having following things will enable you to make a video call. a. Both ca lling and called party should be 3G mobile customers. b. Both calling and called party should have suitable handset with 2 cameras. 13 Do I have to make special setting in my handset so that it can support V ideo call? If you have a 3G service enabled handset and a 3G SIM (which is known as USIM) then you need to follow following steps to enable video call service for your self on your handset: a. Go to menu b. Click on setting button. c. Click on netwo rk d. Click on network mode e. Here you will see three options Dual, UMTS and GS M f. Clicking on Dual mode will first reboot your handset and then make your han dset active for 3G network wherever it is available else the handset will remain active as it does in ordinary 2G/ 2.5 G network. Once your handset is in dual m ode it will give preference to 3G network i.e. if both 2G/ 2.5G and 3G networks are there then will work in 3G Network. 14 How do I know that presently I am active in 3G network? It will be visible on the screen of your handset. 3G sign will appear in your handset near the signal sign. 15 How do I make a Video Call? When you and your friend both have 3G mobiles, just dial his number. The only difference is that you press the Video Call button instead of the voice ca ll button(All 3G mobiles have a video calling button). Then hold your mobile in front of you, and watch your screen. Stepwise: a. Key in t he number of the pers

on you wish to see and speak to b. Press video calling button to make your call c. Your video call is connceted. 16 How do I know that I am receiving a Video Call? If someone Video Calls you while you're in 3G coverage, your mobile shows an i con on your mobile screen. To answer, press the Video Call button. You can even turn the camera off and have a normal voice call if you do not want to be seen 17 What number do I dial to make a video call? It's the same number as the voice number. 18 What happens if the person I am video calling does not have 3G services/ network? Video calling is a 3G service in 3G coverage. If the other party is not be connected, the call will drop ported by called party network ?. In only. 19 What happens to my video call - it is only possible if you both are with not in 3G network then the video call will and you will get a message video call not sup such a case you may like to make a voice call if I move out of 3G coverage area?

As video call is supported by 3G network only in BSNL hence if any of th e party involved in conversation moves out of 3G coverage, the video call will d rop. In such a case you may like to make a voice call . 20 What happens to my voice call if I move out of 3G coverage area? 21 You voice call will continue without any interruption. Why can not I make a video call even when I have ful 3G signals?

Either the person you're calling doesn't have a compatible (3G) phone, o r he is outside 3G coverage. In either case, the call will drop and you'll be ha ve to make an ordinary voice call instead. 22 How much does it cost? For rates of video call please see BSNL website www.bsnl.co.in

TELEGRAPH

Telegram is a common man's communication need. The first telegraph message was transmitted live on Morse through electrical signals between Calcutta and D iamond Harbour on 5th November 1850.The Telegraph services were opened to public during February 1855. To implement modern technology in the telegraph network a National Message Switching Network Plan was prepared in 1986. The growth of Telegraph services has been affected owing to the impact of other non-voice services and improvement in density of telephones, nevertheless the se rvice has social relevance and historical importance. Network All the cities(300) and towns (4689) as per 1991 census and a large number of vi llages have access to Public Telegraph Services through Telegraph Offices. Services Telegraph services are being provided through Telegraph offices, Telecom Centers and Bureau FAX centers. A number of new types of telegraph services such as Sto re & forward message switching system, electronic key-board concentrator , elect ronic teleprinters and formatted terminals have been introduced. Express Money Transfer Service

which aims at delivering money within few hours after rendering at the counter o f a telegraph office was introduced in A.P. Telecom Circle on experimental basis . This service is being made available at many of the stations in Tamilnadu, Ker ala, Karnataka , Maharashtra and metro cities of Delhi & Calcutta. Apart from the facility of booking of telegrams, following services are also offered in some Telegraph Offices: FAX Service is available at many selected telegraph offices for national and in ternational outgoing and incoming messages A new class of telegram "Fax Telegrams" is available for public. Booking of telegrams on phone. Delivery of telegram over Phone if the same is specified in the address of the telegram. Delivery of telegrams through Fax, if the telegrams contain fax numbers in the address.

COMPUTER NETWORKS Introduction During the 20th century the key technology has been information gathering, proce ssing and distribution. Among other developments we have seen the installation o f worldwide telephone networks, the birth and unexpected growth of the computer industry and the launching of communication satellites. These areas are rapidly converging. The merging of computers systems are organized. The old model of a s ingle computer serving all the organization needs is rapidly being replaced by o ne in which a large number of separate but interconnected computers do the job. These systems are called Computer Networks. A network is a set of devices (often called nodes) connected by media link. A no de can be a computer, printer or any other device capable of sending and receivi ng data generated by other nodes of network. Networks use distributed processing in which a task is divided among multiple co mputers. Advantages Security Distributed database Faster and Collaborative Processing Networking Goals Resource sharing: To make all programs, data and peripherals available t o anyone on the network, irrespective of physical location of resource and user. Reliability: A file can have copies on two or three different machines, so if one is unavailable other copies can be used. Cost Factor: Personal computers have better price / performance ratio th an microcomputers. So its better to have PCs, one per user, with stored data on on e shared file server machine. Communication medium: Using a network its possible for 3 managers working far apart to prepare financial report of the company. The changes at one end ca n be noticed at the other end thud it speeds up the operation.

Networking Criteria Performance: It depends on the number of users and type of transmission media. The kind of hardware used also decides the performance level of the netwo rk and so does the software being used. Reliability: Its measured by the frequency of failure, the rate at which the network is interrupted with a failure and also the recovery time that is the time taken to recover and get the problem rectified. Security: Care had to be taken against unauthorized access into the part icular areas of the network and to secure the network against the viruses. Applications Data communications network has become an indispensable part of business, indust ry and entertainment source network application. Marketing And Sales: Computer networks used extensively marketing and sa les organization. Marketing official use them to collect exchange and analyze da ta relating to customer needs and product development cycles. Sales application included telescoping. Financial Services: Includes credit history searches, foreign exchange a nd investment services and electronics fund transfer which allow a transfer of m oney without going to the bank. Manufacturing: Computer networks used in manufacturing process. Two appl ications that use networks to provide essential services are Computer Assisted D esign (CAD) and Computer Assisted Manufacturing (CAM). Other applications include Electronic Messaging, directory services, Inf ormation Services, Teleconferencing, Cellular telephone, and Cable television. Network Topologies Some of most common topologies in use today include: Bus:- Each node is daisy-chained (connected one right after the other) along the same backbone, similar to Christmas Lights. Information sent from a n ode travels along the backbone until it reaches its destination node. Each end o f a bus network must be terminated with a

resistor to keep the signal that is sent by a node across the network from bounc ing back when it reaches the end of the cable. Ring:- Like a bus network, rings have the nodes daisy- chained. The dif ference is that the end of the network comes back around to the first node, crea ting a complete circuit. In a ring network, each node takes a turn sending and r eceiving information through the use of a token. The

token, along with any data, is sent from the first node to the second node, whic h extracts the data addressed to it and adds any data it wishes to send. Then th e second node passes the token and data to the third node, and so on until it co mes back around to the first node again. Only the node with the token is allowed to send data. All other nodes must wait for the token to come to them. Star:- In a star network, each node is connected to central devices cal led a Hub. The hub takes a single that cones from any node and passes it along i t along to all the other nodes in the network. A hub does not perform any type o f filtering or routing of the data. It is simply a junction that joins all the d ifferent nodes together.

Star Bus:Probably the most common network topology in use today, star bus combines elements of the star and bus topologies to create a versatile network environment. Nodes in particular areas are connected to hubs (creating s tars), and the hubs are connected together along the network backbone (like a bu s network). Quite often, stars are nested within stars, as seen in the example b elow:

Types of Networks Local Area Networks Metropolitan Area Networks Wide Area Networks Internet LOCAL AREA NETWORK A computer network, which spans a relatively small area, is known as LAN. Most L ANs are confined to a single building or group of buildings. However, one LAN ca n be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio wav es. A system of LANs connected in this way is called a wide-area network (WAN). Most LANs connect workstations and personal computers. Each node (individual com puter) in a LAN has its own CPU with which it executes programs, but it also is able to access data and devices anywhere on the LAN. This means that many users can share expensive devices, such as laser printers, as well as data. Users can

also use the LAN to communicate with each other, by sending e-mail or engaging i n chat sessions. There are many different types of LANs Ethernets being the most common foe PCs. Most Apple Macintosh networks are based on Apples Apple Talk network system, whic h is built into Macintosh computers. The following characteristics differentiate one LAN from another: Topology: The geometric arrangement of devices on the network. For example, devices can be arranged in a ring or in a straight line. Protocols: The roles and encoding specifications for sending data. The protocols also determine whether the network uses a peer-to-peer or client/s erver architecture. Media: Twisted-pair wire, coaxial cables, or fiber optic cables can connect devices. Some networks do without connecting media altogether, comm unicating instead via radio waves. LANs are capable of transmitting data at very faster than data can be transmitte d over a telephone line; but the distances are limited, and there is also a limi t on the number of computers that can be attached to a single LAN. LAN Transmission Methods LAN data transmission fall into three classifications: unicast, multicast, and b roadcast. In each type of transmission, a single packet is sent to one or more nodes. In a Unicast Transmission, a single packet is sent from the source to a destinat ion on a network. First, the source node addresses the packet by using the addre ss of the destination node. The package is then sent onto the network, and final ly, the network passes the packet to its destination. A Multicast Transmission consists of a single data packet that is copies and sen t to a specific subset of nodes on the network. First, the source node addresses the packet by using a multicast address. The packet is then sent into the netwo rk, which makes copies of the packet and sends a copy to each node that is part of the multicast address. A Broadcast Transmission consists of a single data packet that is copied and sen t to all modes on the network. In these types of transmission, the source node a ddresses the packet by using the makes copies of the packet and sends a copy to every node on the network. LAN Topologies LAN topologies define the manner in which network devices are organized. Fore co mmon LAN topologies exist: Bus, Ring, Star, and Tree. These topologies are logic al architectures, but the actual devices need not be physically organized in the se configurations. Logical bus and Ring topologies, for example, are commonly or ganized physically as a Star. A Bus topology is a linear LAN architecture in which transmission from network s tations propagate the length of the medium and are received by all other station s. Of the three most widely used LAN implementations, Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 networ ks-including 100 Base T-implement a bus topology, which is illustrated in Figure .

A Ring Topology is a LAN architecture that consists of a series of devices conne cted to one another by unidirectional transmission links to form a single closed loop. Booth Token Ring/IEEE 802.5 and FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) n etworks implement a ring topology. Figure depicts a logical ring topology. Figure: Some networks Implement a Logical Ring Topology

A Star Topology is a LAN architecture in which the endpoints on a network are co nnected to a common central hub, or switch, by dedicated links. Logical bus and ring topologies are often implemented physically in a star topology, which is il lustrated in Figure. A Tree Topology is a LAN architecture that is identical to the bus topology, exc ept that branches with multiple nodes are possible in this case. Figure illustra tes a logical tree topology. Figure: A Logical Tree Topology Can Contain Multiple Nodes

LAN Devices Devices commonly used in LANs include repeaters, hubs, LAN extenders, bridges, L AN switches, and routers. A Repeater us a physical layer device used to interconnect the media segments of an extended network. A repeater essentially enables a series of cable segments to be treated as a single cable. Repeaters receive signals from one network segm ent and amplify, retime, and retransmit those signals to another network segment . These actions prevent signal deterioration caused by long cable lengths and la rge numbers of connected devices. Repeaters are incapable of performing complex filtering and other traffic processing. In addition, all electrical signals, inc

luding electrical disturbances and other errors, are repeated and amplified. The total number of repeaters and network segments that can be connected is limited due to timing and other issues. Figure illustrates a repeater connecting two ne twork segments. Figure: A Repeater Connects Two Networks Segments

A Hub is a physical layer device that connects multiple user stations, each via a dedicated cable. Electrical interconnections are established inside the hub. H ubs are used to create a physical star network while maintaining the logical bus or ring configuration of LAN. In same respects, a hub functions as a multi-port repeater.

Switches are another fundamental part of many networks because they speed things up. Switches allow different nodes (a network connection point, typically a com puter) of a network to communicate directly with one another in a smooth and eff icient manner.

There are many different types of switches and networks. Switches that provide a separate connection for each node in a companys internal network are called LAN switches. Essentially, a LAN switch creates a series of instant networks that co ntain only the two devices communicating with each other at that particular mome nt. Components of a LAN: The basic components and Technologies involved in a LAN architecture can include the following: Components of LAN Hardware Software

Cables Switches nt (WAN)

Network Router

RAS

Modems

Manageme Software

As the above shows the components of a LAN are constituted by software and hardw are. A Network Management Software is use to manage all the given tasks given to p erformed. Since we all know that all the external, visible components of the mac hines are called its hardware. We need to require cables to connect the sub-bran ches of the network. We require switches, router, a Remote Access Servers (RAS) an d a modem to accomplish the formation a LAN. NETWORKING BASICS Here are some of the fundamental parts of a network:

Network: A network is a group of computers connected together in a way t hat allows information to be exchanged between the computers.

Node: A node is anything that is connected to the network. While a node is typically a computer, it can also be something like a printer or CD-ROM tower . Segment: A segment is any portion of a network that is separated, by a s witch, bridge or router, from other parts of the network. Backbone: The backbone is the main cabling of a network that all of the segments connect to. Typically, the backbone is capable of carrying more informa tion than the individual segments. For example, each segment may have a transfer rate of 10 Mbps (megabits per second), while the backbone may operate at 100 Mb ps. Topology: Topology is the way that each node is physically connected to the network (more on this in the next section). Local Area Network (LAN): A LAN is a network of computers that are in th e same general physical location, usually within a building or a campus. If the computers are far apart (such as across town or in different cities), than a Wid e Area Network (WAN) is typically used. Network Interface Card (NIC): Every computer (and most other devices) is connected to a network through an NIC. In most desktop computers, this is an Et hernet card (normally 10 or 100 Mbps) that is plugged into a slot on the compute rs motherboard. Media Access Control (MAC) Address: This is the physical address of any device such as the NIC in a computer on the network. The MAC address, which is m ade up of two equal parts, is 6 bytes long. The first 3 bytes identify the compa ny that made the NIC. The second 3 bytes are the serial number of the NIC itself .

OSI REFERENCE MODEL The Layers:Think of the seven layers as the assembly line in the computer. At each layer, c ertain things happen to the data prepare it for the next layer. The seven layers , which separate into two sets, are: Application Set Layer 7: Application- This is the layer that actually interacts with t he operating system or application whenever the user chooses to transfer files, read messages or perform other network-related activities. Layer 6: Presentation- Layer 6 takes the data provided by the Applicatio n layer and converts it into a standard format that the other layers can underst and. Layer 5: Session- Layer 5 establishes, maintains and ends communication with the receiving device.

Transport Set Layer 4: Transport- This layer maintains flow control of data and provid es for error checking and recovery of data between the devices. Flow control mea ns that the Transport layer looks to see if data is coming from more than one ap plication and integrates each applications data into a single stream for the phys ical network. Layer 3: Network- The way that the data will be sent to the recipient de vice is determined in this layer. Logical protocols, routing and addressing are handled here. Layer 2: Data- In this layer, the appropriate physical protocol is assig ned to the data. Also, the type of network and the packet sequencing is defined.

Layer 1: Physical- This is level of the actual hardware. It defines the physical characteristics of the network such as connections, voltage levels and timing.

The OSI Reference Model is really just a guideline. Actual protocol stacks often combine one or ore of the OSI layers into a single layer.