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Done by: Malik Mohammed AL-Nabhani


ID#: 89770
Date: 24/March/2012
Submitted to: Dr: Emad Khudaish.

Sultan Qaboos University
Collage of science
Department of chemistry

Enthalpy of protonation of
glycine


Physical chemistry laboratory I CHEM3335
Lab report (7)

2

( ) ( )
) (
) 2 ( .......... ) ( ) (
) (
) 1 ......( ..........
2
2
2 2 2 2 3
2 2 3 2 2 3
media basic in cid a as behaves glycine
O H CO CH NH OH CO CH NH
media acidic in base a as behaves glycine
H CO CH NH H CO CH NH
+ +
+
+
+ + +
objective
The main aim of this experiment is to determine the enthalpy of glycine
using equilibrium constant measurement.
Introduction
Glycine is an amino acid and its formula is (NH
2
CH
2
CO
2
H). it has both
basic group and acidic group. Whereas amino (-NH
2
) group behaves as
a base, (-COOH) behaves as an acid. Basic group is stronger than acidic
group because its ) 10 0 . 5 (
4
X ~
b
K ,whereas the K
b
of the acidic group
) 10 0 . 5 (
10
X ~ . Glycine molecules have a very large dipole moment when
they are dissolved in water because of significant charge separation in the
molecules. Reaction of glycine takes place in both acidic media and basic
media. That is, it reacts as a base in acidic solution and vice versa. Both
reactions are proceeding as follow:




It is clear from the previous equations that both reactions are reversible.
That is, after a certain time the reaction will be proceeded in both
direction. The speed of the direction depends on the value of equilibrium
constant (K). To determine the value of (K), we shall titrate the glycine
with a strong base like NaOH. The chemical equation we need is shown
below:

Where (NH
2
CH
2
CO
2
-
) is a conjugate base of (
+
NH
3
CH
2
CO
2

-
). Then, the
equilibrium constant can be presented by this equation.




) 3 ...( .......... ) ( ) (
2 2 3
2
2 2
+ +
+ CO CH NH H CO CH NH
| |
| || |
| |
| || |
) 4 ...( ..........
2 2 2
2 2 3
+ +
+
= =
H A
HA
H CO CH NH
CO CH NH
K
3

If the titration is carried out at two different temperatures the enthalpy
) ( H A change reaction (3) and its value can be evaluated using van't Hoff
equation.

If we assume that ( H A ) is independent on temperature in the range
(20 to 50 C
o
), equation (5) can be integrated to be like that:

Where,
- ( H A ) enthalpy of protonation of glycine.
- K
1
equilibrium constant at (T
1
).
- K
2
equilibrium constant at (T
2
).
- R 8.314J/mol.k .

Experimental equipments and material
Material and equipments used in the experiment:
- Jacketed cell.
- Pipette 25ml.
- pH meter.
- Burette.
- 2.0 KCl.
- Volumetric flask 100ml.
- Distilled water.
- 0.10M NaOH and 0.300g of Glycine.


) 5 ( ... ..........
) / 1 (
ln
R
H
T d
K d A
=
)
1 1
( ln ln
2 2
1 2
T T R
H
K K
A
=
4

Procedure
1) About (0.300g 0.010) of glycine is weighed and then transferred
quantitatively to a 100ml volumetric flask.
2) 10ml of 2.0 M KCl is added by a pipette to the volumetric flask.
3) The resulted solution is diluted to the mark using distilled water.
4) Take 25ml of glycine solution and place it in the jacketed |(titration)
cell connected to the circulating water bath and set the temperature of
water bath to 25C
o
.
5) Place the magnetic stirrer bar.
6) Titrate the glycine solution against (0.10 M NaOH/ 0.10 M KCl)
solution.
7) Record the pH of titration at each set of adding (0.10 M NaOH/ 0.10 M
KCl) solution.
8) Construct a pH titration curve.
9) Repeat steps (4 to 8) but at 45C instead of 25C.
results
Volume of
titrant (mL)
Total volume
of titrant (mL) pH at 25
0
C [H] [OH]
0 0 6.83 1.47911E-07 1.1899E-07
0.5 0.5 8.17 6.76083E-09 2.6032E-06
0.5 1.0 8.52 3.01995E-09 5.8279E-06
1.0 2.0 8.89 1.28825E-09 1.3662E-05
1.0 3.0 9.14 7.24436E-10 2.4295E-05
1.0 4.0 9.33 4.67735E-10 3.7628E-05
1.0 5.0 9.51 3.0903E-10 5.6952E-05
1.0 6.0 9.68 2.0893E-10 8.4239E-05
1.0 7.0 9.85 1.41254E-10 0.0001246
1.0 8.0 10.02 9.54993E-11 0.00018429
1.0 9.0 10.22 6.0256E-11 0.00029209
1.0 10.0 10.48 3.31131E-11 0.00053151



Table.1: Values obtained from the experiment at T= 25C
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TG [NaOH] TH [HA] [A] k
0.040109 0 0.040109 0.040109 2.89202E-08 9.3765E+12
0.039323 0.001961 0.037362 0.037365 0.001958188 2.8223E+09
0.038567 0.003846 0.03472 0.034726 0.003840329 2.9943E+09
0.037138 0.007407 0.029731 0.029744 0.007393747 3.1228E+09
0.035812 0.010714 0.025098 0.025122 0.010689992 3.2439E+09
0.034577 0.013793 0.020784 0.020821 0.013755476 3.2362E+09
0.033424 0.016667 0.016758 0.016815 0.016609714 3.2759E+09
0.032346 0.019355 0.012991 0.013076 0.0192706 3.2476E+09
0.031335 0.021875 0.00946 0.009585 0.021750402 3.1198E+09
0.030386 0.024242 0.006143 0.006328 0.02405813 2.7541E+09
0.029492 0.026471 0.003021 0.003314 0.026178501 2.1006E+09
0.028649 0.028571 7.8E-05 0.00061 0.028039917 6.5648E+08








Volume of
titrant (mL)
Total volume of
titrant (mL) pH at 45
0
C [H] [OH]
0 0 6.58 2.63027E-07 2.7184E-07
0.5 0.5 7.85 1.41254E-08 5.0618E-06
0.5 1.0 8.2 6.30957E-09 1.1332E-05
1.0 2.0 8.58 2.63027E-09 2.7184E-05
1.0 3.0 8.86 1.38038E-09 5.1797E-05
1.0 4.0 9.06 8.70964E-10 8.2093E-05
1.0 5.0 9.24 5.7544E-10 0.00012425
1.0 6.0 9.41 3.89045E-10 0.00018378
1.0 7.0 9.58 2.63027E-10 0.00027184
1.0 8.0 9.77 1.69824E-10 0.00042102
1.0 9.0 9.97 1.07152E-10 0.00066728
1.0 10.0 10.25 5.62341E-11 0.00127147


Kw 1.76E-14
m
glycine
0.3011
n
glycine
0.004
C
glycine
0.04
Average K
1
7.8393E+11
Ln k
1
27.3875
Table.2: Values obtained from the experiment at T= 25C
Table.3: Values obtained from the experiment at T= 25C
Table.4: Values obtained from the experiment at T= 45C
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TG [NaOH] TH [HA] [A] K
0.040109 0 0.040109 0.040109
8.809E-09
1.7312E+13
0.039323 0.001961 0.037362 0.037367 0.001956 1.3526E+09
0.038567 0.003846 0.034720 0.034732 0.003835 1.4354E+09
0.037138 0.007407 0.029731 0.029758 0.007380 1.5330E+09
0.035812 0.010714 0.025098 0.025149 0.010662 1.7087E+09
0.034577 0.013793 0.020784 0.020866 0.013711 1.7473E+09
0.033424 0.016667 0.016758 0.016882 0.016542 1.7735E+09
0.032346 0.019355 0.012991 0.013175 0.019171 1.7665E+09
0.031335 0.021875 0.009460 0.009732 0.021603 1.7127E+09
0.030386 0.024242 0.006143 0.006564 0.023821 1.6227E+09
0.029492 0.026471 0.003021 0.003689 0.025803 1.3342E+09
0.028649 0.028571 0.000078 0.001349 0.027300 8.7904E+08










0
2
4
6
8
10
12
0 0.01 0.02 0.03
p
H

[NaOH/KCl]
pH at 25 C
pH at 45 C
Kw 7.15E-14
m
glycine
0.3011
n
glycine
0.004
C
glycine
0.043
Average K
2
1.4440E+12
Ln k2 27.9984
Table.5: Values obtained from the experiment at T= 45C
Table.6: Values obtained from the experiment at T= 45C
graph.1: [NaOH/KCl] at T= 25
0
C and 45
0
C
7

Sample calculation
Several equations are used in order to get the value of H.

T
G
represents the mass balance of the total glycine concentration.
T
G
can be calculated from the mass of glycine used (stock solution) and
after the addition of titrant (dilution)
Mass of glycine used = 3.011g
Molar mass (NH
2
CH
2
CO
2
H) = 75.07g/mol
l mol
L
titrant of addition any before glycine of ion concentrat first
mol
mol g
g
mass molar
mass
glycine of moles
/ 04 . 0
1 . 0
004 . 0
004 . 0
/ 07 . 75
3011 . 0
= =
= =

Its molarity after adding 0.5 ml of NaOH/KCl :


The concentration of glycine, T
G
at 25C and 45C are the same.
Initial concentration of NaOH is 0.1 M
After adding the first portion af NaOH/KCl to the titration cell, its
concentration can be calculated by applying this equation:


After we obtain the value of [NaOH] and T
G
, the value of (T
H
) which is
the mass balance for the total available acid form can be easily calculated

e.g: T
H
= 0.039323 M 1.96110
-3
M = 3.72E-02 M

| | | | HA A T
G
+ =
M
ml
ml M
T
G
0.039323
5 . 25
25 04 . 0
=
X
=
| | M
ml
ml M
NaOH
V
V M
M
V M V M
3
2
1 1
2
2 2 1 1
10 961 . 1
) 5 . 25 (
) 5 . 0 ( ) 1 . 0 (

X = = =
=
| | NaOH T T
G H
=
8

[H
+
] can be calculated from pH.
pH = -log [H
+
]
e.g: pH =8.17 [H
+
] = 10
-8.17
= 6.76083E-09 M
Since K
w
at 25C = 1.7610
-14

| |
| |
M 06 - 2.6032E
09 - 6.76083E
10 76 . 1
14
=
X
=

+

H
K
OH
w

[HA] can be calculated now:

To find [A], we apply this equation:
[A] = T
G
- [HA] = 3.92E-02 - 3.73E-02M = 1.95E-03 M
After all these equations we can calculate the value of equilibrium
constant (H) at 25C.
| |
| || |
09 + 2.8223E
) 09 47 . 3 ( ) 03 95 . 1 (
02 73 . 3
1
=


= =
+
E E
E
H A
HA
K
We do the same calculation to get (K
2
, K
3
) at 25C.
The same calculations are also carried out to get the value of equilibrium
constant at 45C. Then, we take the average of K
1
& K
2
.










| | | | | |
M 02 - E 3.7365 09 - 6.76083E 06 - 2.6032E 02 - 3.72E = + =
+ =
+
M M M
H OH T HA
H
mol kj
mol J H
k k k mol j
T T R
H
average K average K
/ 0 . 24
/ 0636 . 24
)
298
1
318
1
(
. / 314 . 8
H
11) + ln(7.8393E - 12) + 1.4440E ln(
)
1 1
( ) ( ln ) ( ln
1 2
1 2
=
= A

A
=

A
=
o
o
9

Discussion
The literature value of enthalpy of protonation of glycine is -44.2Kj/mol,
and that one was taken in this experiment is -24.0 Kj/ mol. It's significant
that how far our value from the literature. This difference is as a rustle of
errors due the experiment as systematic errors or either random errors.
pH meter is considered as systematic error source where is the pH reading
was fluctuated. That is, the obtained readings from pH meter may not
accurate. Moreover, getting the reading of the pH directly without waiting
good pH reading and this could be consider as random errors
Error analysis
1) In this experiment, it may not be that accurate due to some
systematic errors and human errors:
2) Standardization error (in preparing of the glycine solution)
3) Systematic error in the instrument that we used it in the experiment.
4) Pipetting errors.(adding more or less volume)
5) Errors in the pH meter.
6) Errors in the concentration of titrant solution & KCl solution.

References
1) Experimental physical chemistry, A. M Halpern, 2nd ED,1988.
2) Handout of enthalpy protonation of glycine.
3) Physical chemistry, Ira N .Levine, 6th ED.