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DOCUMENTATION AND MONITORING OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS

BY

RICHARD UZONNA AKAIGWE


Department of Building, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. Nigeria

July, 2009

TABLE OF CONTENTS Title page .i Certification ..ii Dedication .iii Acknowledgement ..iv Table of contents .v List of tables ...viii Abstract ..x CHAPTER ONE:
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6

INTRODUCTION

Background to the study..1 Statement of the problem.3 Aim and Objectives.4 Significance of the study..4 Research Questions...5 Scope and delimitation..6 LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER TWO:
2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.3 2.4 2.4.1

2.1 Introduction.7 Project Production Information..12 Contract Document...13 Production Management Documents16 Architects Instruction18 Records Management....19 Document Control..20

2.5 Information Management using Computers..21

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2.5.1Information Systems and Technology..22 2.5.2Computer Integrated Construction...22 2.5.3The Internet and Web23 2.5.4Building Information Modeling (BIM)24
2.5.4.1

Anticipated Future Potential of BIM.25

2.5.5The concept of Interoperability..26 2.5.6Benefits of interoperability..27 2.5.7Data sharing and exchange ......28 2.5.8Potential of interoperability....29 2.5.9The future of interoperability in the construction industry.....29 2.6 Application of documentation.30 2.6.1 Documentation for claims purposes.30 2.6.2Documentation for changes.32 2.6.3Documentation for reference purposes33 2.6.4Documentation for dispute resolution.33 2.7 Roles of construction professionals in monitoring a construction project34 2.7.1The Architect.34 2.7.2Engineering consultants .....34 2.7.3The Builder35 2.7.4The Quantity Surveyor..35 2.8 Areas of monitoring35 2.8.1 Monitoring quality..36 2.8.2Monitoring cost36 2.8.3Monitoring time37 2.9 Monitoring techniques..37 2.9.1Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)...38

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2.9.2The Gantt chart38 2.9.3The Critical Path Method..39 2.9.4Progress curves40 2.10 Progress Report ..41 2.10.1 Summary of project status..41 2.10.2 Construction status41 2.10.3 Schedule status42 2.10.4 Cost report status42 CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLGY 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Introduction..43 Area of study.43 Population.43 Sample and sampling technique44 Method of data collection.44 Instrument for data collection44 Validity and reliability45 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FOUR: 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4

Introduction..46 Data Presentation46 Data Analysis46 Findings.58

CHAPTER FIVE: 5.1 Conclusion.59 5.2 Recommendations..59 5.3 Further studies60

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References.61 Appendices64 Table 4.2.2 Table 4.2.3 LIST OF TABLE Important of documentation and monitoring of construction projects...... Necessity of keeping records of all information that proceeds from a construction project. Awareness of Computer Integrated Construction.

.4 7 .4 8 .4 8

Table 4.2.4 Table 4.2.5

Table 4.2.6

Table 4.2.7

Employment of information technology in the management of construction projects .4 . 8 Necessity of checking performance of a construction project against set standard/plan .4 9 Documentation as an evidential or reference material. .. .5 .. 0 Commencement of Monitoring in a construction project. .. .5 .. 0

Table 4.2.8

Table 4.2.9

Adherence to the information contained in the contract document and production management document. .5 1 Table 4.2.10 Relationship between documentation, accountability and financial discipline in a construction project.. .5 1 Table 4.2.11 Documentation, monitoring and waste reduction in a construction .5 project.. 2

Table 4.2.12 Monitoring of a construction project and the quality of personnel in a construction project. . .5 2 Table 4.2.13 Reduction of corrupt practices, over invoicing, dubious manipulation and other vices in a construction site. .5 3 Table 4.2.14 Effect of documentation and monitoring on the time .5 budget. 3 Table 4.2.15 Documentation and monitoring as tools to reduce delays, abandonment and non-completion of a construction project. .5 4 Table 4.2.16 Influence of documentation and monitoring of quality, time and cost to the successful completion of a .5 project. 4 Table 4.2.17 Involvement of site foremen should in the documentation and monitoring of a construction .5 project............ 5 Table 4.2.18 Effect of documentation and monitoring of construction project to the commitment and efficiency of tradesmen and artisans Table 4.2.19 Keeping of record of all contract documents, production management documents, architects instructions, change orders and all other site activities and transactions by the contractor

.5 5

.5 6

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Table 4.2.20 Documentation of a construction project as tools for achieving a just, equitable and fair resolution of disputes. Table 4.2.21 Documentation of a construction project as tools for establishing the validity of a contractual claim

.5 6 .5 7

Table 4.2.22 Difficulties experienced in the documentation and monitoring of construction projects.. .5 7 Table 4.2.23 Impact of documentation and monitoring of construction project on effective project .5 delivery 8 ABSTRACT This study deals with the documentation and monitoring of construction projects. To achieve the research objectives, the study extensively reviewed written literatures on the subject. Questionnaires relating to were also distributed and oral interviews the importance, impacts and effects of conducted. The research respondents were asked questions documentation and monitoring of construction projects. They were also asked on their application of information technology to the documentation and monitoring of construction projects. Data obtained were analyzed through simple frequency distribution table. Among major findings of the research is that documentation and monitoring contributes in meeting defined needs to the required standard and the budget. The research also revealed that the use of information technology in the documentation and monitoring of construction projects is under-exploited. Based on the above findings, the study
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recommends the design of standard format and template for the documentation and monitoring of construction projects should and that the use of information systems and technology in the design and management of construction should be encouraged.

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CHAPTER ONE 1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Over the years, there has been a significant demand for a positive attempt to ensure that construction projects are executed in accordance with the original intention for which such projects were conceived. Project documentation and monitoring has been identified as management tools for achieving the above objectives and ideals. For the avoidance of doubts, documentation is defined as: The process of providing written information Document provided as a reference or evidential material. Monitoring on the other hand is defined as the process that ensures that actual performance proceeds according to plan and that any deviation from plan is communicated to management and required actions undertaken to restore it to the original plan. Documentation plays a major role in every construction project. The nature of a construction project is such that necessitates the generation of a wide range of information. These information must be collected and stored not only because they define the unique nature of a construction project, but also to preserve memory and act as a reference or evidential material.

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A construction project is such that it cannot be totally defined at pre-construction stage. Contingencies arises everyday that could not have been foreseen and may disrupt the original plan and schedule (Kamang, 1992). This could lead to deviation from the original plan, disputes, variation and sometimes, claims. Experiences in the past concerning disputes and contractual claims and its effects on the parties to a construction project has made it necessary to identify documentation as a prominent aspect of a construction project. Monitoring on the other hand is one aspect of

construction management that cannot be avoided if a construction project is to meet defined needs to the required standards within time and to budget. This is because monitoring involves the measurement of actual performance against planned performance. Effective monitoring will therefore provides management with upto-date information on the construction project cost, stage of work performance as performed by the contractor from which decisions can be made. The advent of information systems and technology is changing the face of documentation and monitoring of construction projects. According to Ajator (1999), the present millennium presents a glimpse of greater challenges to the construction professionals than ever before. The tempo of technological advancement will

therefore compel the use of a more accurate, detailed, efficient and advanced management and monitoring of information than the conventional method presents. The need for an accurate and detailed documentation and monitoring of construction project cannot be over emphasized. Their presence in most cases determines the success level of construction project and they should therefore be taken seriously.

1.2

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Most construction project departs from the original objectives for which they were conceived and this has exposed clients and contractors to risks. It is known that some clients and contractors have forfeited the employment of construction and project managers in a bid to cut cost. Even when they do employ construction managers, these managers have little or no knowledge in the areas of documentation and monitoring. If these managers become responsible for the production of a construction project, they may have problems in the documentation and monitoring aspects of construction management. When this occurs, the project from inception has a higher probability to deviate from prescribed quality, time and cost.

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It is also known that despite the uniqueness of each construction project and its participants, there are certain recurring problems that cause disputes and misunderstanding. Such recurring problems which lead to disputes and misunderstanding among project participant can be traced to improper, poor or underdocumentation and monitoring of construction projects. 1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES The aim of this study is to highlight the importance of documentation and monitoring of construction projects. This aim will be realized through the following objectives: i. To identify how the application of documentation and monitoring of construction project affects the quality, cost and timely completion of construction projects. ii. To identify documentation as a tool for establishing the validity of a contractual claim and in resolving disputes.
iii. To examine the ways in which construction project

information are collected and stored. iv. To examine the ways project cost, stage of work and quality of work are monitored.

1.4

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

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Through this study, it is believed that awareness will be created and construction managers and professionals will have a better understanding on the importance of documentation and monitoring of construction projects. The content of this research also stands beneficial to government agencies and sponsors of all types of project. They will be equipped with the necessary knowledge to exercise a measure of control over the quality and financial expenditures of sponsored projects. Although much of the materials in this project are particularly applicable to construction projects, managers of projects other than construction will find the materials contained in this study helpful. 1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS The following questions are constructed as the research questions for this project: i. How does documentation projects and monitoring in of construction contributes meeting

defined needs to the required standards within time and to budget? ii. What role does documentation play in resolving disputes among parties to a contract and how does it support contractual claims? iii. How are the information generated during a construction project collected and how are they stored?

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iv.

What are the likely difficulties that may arise in the documentation projects? and monitoring of construction

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Is documentation and monitoring of construction project factors necessary for effective project delivery in Nigeria?

1.6 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION This study covers the way in which construction project information are collected and stored. It also considers the way construction projects are monitored. Lastly, it covers claim. the role documentation play in resolving disputes and establishing the validity of a contractual

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CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 INTRODUCTION In line with the view developed so far, documentation and monitoring of construction projects can be seen as revolving around information. According to Nziwu (2003), documentation can be defined as evidence or proof for recording, storing, retrieving and using information for building production. Also, Ejike (2005) quoted Male and Taylor as defining documentation as the group of techniques necessary for the ordered presentation, organization, communication and record of specialized knowledge in order to give maximum accessibility and ability to the information contained. Relating the above definitions of documentation to construction, the primary concern of documentation is in providing management with information from which creative decision can be made. As defined by Microsoft Encarta (2008), documentation is: The process of providing written information Document provided or collected together as an evidential or reference material. Documentation involves the process of providing written details or information about a construction project. It

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covers the collection of information from the clients brief through the pre-construction stage to the construction stage. Documentation also serves as an evidential material. As a reference material, it must be intended to be used for looking up facts, definitions or other information relating to activities or work sections in a construction project. This calls for a detailed and accurate collection and recording of construction information. Also, documentation as an evidential material should give a sign or proof of the existence or truth of something. Documentation should serve in resolving disputes and supporting contractual claims. As noted by Okoye (2005), documents are one of an engineers most important lines of defence against risks because if a dispute arises, the documents contained in a firms file will almost certainly make or break its case. Documentation as an evidential material also establishes the validity of a contractual claim. Depending on the quality of documentation, good or bad claim is produced. According to Obiegbu (2003), the best claims are produced by management who appreciate that loss and expense situations are likely to arise on all contracts and accordingly, set up procedures to locate and identify all

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relevant information and data in order that an accurate and well founded evaluation can be made. On the other hand, Obiegbu (1988) defines monitoring as the continuous or periodic review and overseeing by management at every level of hierarchy of the implementation of an activity to ensure that input deliveries, work schedule, target output and other required actions are proceeding according to plan. Buttressing this, Wahab (1999) stated that monitoring can be likened to a certificate of compliance or otherwise of previous planning target through systematic recording of progress, noting variance and instituting remedial actions to put the project on course as may be required during project execution. Monitoring therefore involves the act of recording actual performance of a particular project in the form that facilitates subsequent planning and management activities. A construction project is carried out in an environment of ceaseless variation. This may lead to deviation in the quality of construction, delay in the project and inordinate costs increases. As a consequence, the focus of project monitoring is in fulfilling the original plan. According to Onwualu et al (2005), the aim of monitoring is to continuously check performance with set targets and objectives. Also, Obiegbu (1996) stated that the purpose of monitoring is to achieve efficient and

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effective project performance by providing feedback to project management at all levels. Ezeokonkwo (2003) and Wahab (1999) went further and stated that for monitoring to be efficient and effective, the following objectives must be followed: i. Ensure that original project forecast and plans (targets) are met during project implementation. ii. Record progress in relation to work programme and determine adequacy or otherwise of initial planning exercise. iii. Show divergence if any and reason for same. iv. Bring the project on course. v. Ensure logical, partial or total completion within the time limit. vi. Ensure that quality standards are adequately put in place. vii. Ensure that funds are tied to specific tasks to be sure that the cost of project is not exceeded. viii. Ensure accountability and financial discipline in project execution so as to uphold the integrity of the construction profession. ix. Ensure cost minimization. x. Ensure compliance with relevant regulations, byelaws and codes of practice, safety and insurance requirements. xi. Re-evaluate records previously compiled by project consultants and internal project officers.

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xii. Facilitate the preparation of project completion reports for the use of the client. xiii. Learn previous mistakes made either individually or collectively and use them as guide in any future project. xiv. Provide documented evidence on erring consultants and forward such to the management or client or regulatory bodies for proper action. Monitoring of construction projects is a continuous activity that begins with a successful tender and ends with a satisfactory final account. Monitoring involves a careful study of production information to identify intentions contained. Effective monitoring also entails a regular comparison of actual performance against predetermined intentions to achieve or maintain the desired objectives. Monitoring should be proactive in nature. Effective monitoring should control the quality, costs and time of construction operations so that they do not deviate from plan rather than waiting for the deviation to take place and then reacting to them to bring them on course. This may require extra time and finance. Ejike (2005) quoted Okoro as stating that for monitoring to be effective, the standard must be stated clearly and related logically to the objective of the unit. Standards

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are the criteria against which future, current or past actions are compared and information must be provided that report actual performance and permits appraisal of the performance against standards. The task of project monitoring is similar to an auditor in ensuring that established processes are adhered to by all concerned during project implementation. The services of project monitoring will include the following: i. Assisting strategies; ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Identification of project objectives; Assisting in identifying the range of participants, inhouse or external, for project monitoring; Compilation of project information requirements; Design of standard monitoring forms; Preparation of Action Plan/Milestone; Assessment targets; viii. ix. Preparation of Project Monitoring and Evaluation Report periodically; Presentation to client the Project Monitoring and Evaluation Report. of project performance through random site visits and comparing this with original in appraisal of contract documents, drawing up concepts and initiating monitoring

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2.2

PROJECT PRODUCTION INFORMATION Production information is the major source of information in any construction project. Production information is the necessary news or knowledge designed and required for the successful completion of a project. This information is contained in the contract documents and production management documents. This information is used for documentation and monitoring purposes.

2.6.2 CONTRACT DOCUMENTS The National Building Code (2006) defines contract documents as including the following: i. ii. iii. Contract drawings and specifications prepared by registered architects and registered engineers; Priced bill of quantities prepared by a registered quantity surveyor; Construction programme, project quality management plan, project health and safety plan prepared by a registered builder; iv. v. Conditions of contract; All risk insurance for the building works, personnel and equipment. Contract Drawings: The contract the and drawings the include the architectural engineering engineering drawings, drawings structural/geotechnical building services

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drawings. These drawings provide information regarding the arrangement of spaces, structural components, electrical and mechanical installations. Specifications: This amplifies the information given in the contract drawings and bill of quantities. It describes in details the work to be executed under the contract and the nature and quality of materials, components and workmanship. Priced Bill of Quantities: A priced Bill of Quantities is a Bill of Quantities that has its rate and amount column filled by a contractor. A Bill of Quantities consists of a schedule of items of work to be carried out under the contract with quantities entered against each item, prepared in accordance with the Standard Method of Measurement of Building Works (Seeley and Winfield, 2005) Construction programme: This is a document that is prepared in order that the project participants may have a thorough appreciation of the work involved, to allow the site production team to sort out its main constituent and decide how, in what order and at what time to do them; and to ensure adequate co-ordination of the labour, materials and machinery requirements (Bamisile, 2004)

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Project Quality Management Plan: The Project Quality Management Plan defines the various quality related activities and procedures which will be implemented on the project. It sets down requirements, gives guidelines, provides information and indicates to appropriate personnel, the procedures to be followed with respect to the Project Quality Management Plan. A sample outline of the Project Quality Management Plan is referred in the appendix. Project Health and Safety Plan: The Project Health and Safety Plan is a document developed to secure the health, safety and welfare of persons who will work or visit the site. It was also developed to control the emission of toxic substances into the atmosphere and control the keeping and use of substances that might be hazardous to health. An outline of the Project Health and Safety Plan is contained in the appendix. Conditions of Contract: The conditions of contract define the terms, under which the work is to be undertaken, the relationship between the client, architect and contractor, the duties of the architect and contractors, and the terms of payment (Seeley and Winfield, 2005) All Risk Insurance:

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This is a contract document that is developed and shows that all the personnel and equipment associated with a construction project has been insured against loss or damage. By insurance, all the risks associated with personnel and equipment in a construction project is transferred to a third party. 2.6.2 PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT DOCUMENTS Production Management Documents (PMD) is also known as the Builders document. Production Management Documents are detailed production information which assists the builder in managing the production process of a construction project and they include the following: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. The Construction Methodology Construction Programme Project Quality Management Plan Project Health and Safety Plan Early Warning Systems Chart Information Requirement Schedule preparation of and and these subsequent Production site use and

implementation the monitoring

Management execution of

Documents are so important that it plays a major role in successful construction projects. Construction Methodology:

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The construction Methodology, though not part of the contract documents listed in the National Building Code 2006, is an important document in any construction project. Bamisile (2004) sees Construction Methodology as a professional cost and thought with out synthesis of the to construction of a building project on site, with the minimum the objective thought minimize cost and optimize use of resources, to give a suitable level of production flow. A Construction Methodology states and defines the best ways, processes or methods to be employed in the construction of a project. Each operation in a construction project is studied carefully and critically and the most optimum method of carrying out the operation is adopted and included in the Construction Methodology. An outline of a construction methodology is presented in the appendix. Early Warning Systems Chart: The Early Warning Systems Chart is a technical method of monitoring and coordinating all off-site activities. It is a document that is prepared by a builder ad contains a graphical representation of the period of receipt of production information by the constructor to the operation commenced date on site; as it would have been shown on a construction programme (Bamisile, 2004). The Early Warning Systems Chart will show the

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events, which will need to be carried out prior to the start on site, against individual elements taken from the construction programme. Information Requirement Schedule: The Information Requirement Schedule is a prompt, in the form of a schedule, for the constructor to advise the design team of the information requirements and release dates. The Information Requirement Schedule is prepared by a builder and the elements, as shown in the Early Warning Systems, are used to compile the list of the items of information which are required, together with the date by which they must be received if the start date of each operation is to be met. An efficient, effective and detailed Information Requirement Schedule therefore enables a construction project to proceed unhindered in the prescribed quality, time and cost. A sample outline of an Information Requirement Schedule is seen in the appendix. 2.3 ARCHITECTS INSTRUCTION Despite the production information contained in the contract document and production management document, it may become necessary for the architect to issue instruction. This information may be in the form of further drawings, details or instructions. The Condition of contract lays down those matters in connection with which the architect is empowered to issue instructions.

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The procedure for the issue of instructions must be in writing and it is essential that instructions be clear and precise, and where revised drawings are issued, the revision should be specifically referred to. This is done to facilitate documentation and monitoring of information, and 2.4 moreover, to comply with the terms of the instructions. RECORDS MANAGEMENT Record Management is the practice of identifying, classifying, archiving, preserving and sometimes destroying records. The ISO 15489:2001 defines record management as the field of management responsible for the efficient and systematic control of the creation, receipt, maintenance, use and disposition of records, including the processes of capturing and maintaining evidence of and information about business activities and transactions in the form of records. The ISO defines a record as information created, received and maintained as evidence and information by an organization or person, in pursuance of legal obligations or in the transaction of business. Records are information derived, accumulated or received in the preliminary, execution or completion of an activity and that constitutes constituent sufficient composition, structure and significance to provide an attestation to the activity.

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The management of records from a construction project should begin at the tender stage of the project. At the construction stage, the contractor should keep records of: i. work carried out on day work basis; ii. all deliveries to site; iii. materials and component issued for assembly; iv. progress of all site fabrication; v. items before they are covered up. In order to keep proper records and make sure that project participants and workers get what they want, it is necessary to understand the concept of document control. 2.1Document Control Document control procedures for a construction project include provision for review and approval of designated document. It also includes a means of ensuring that pertinent documents on appropriate issues are available when needed and obsolete documents are removed. In all cases, persons either sending or receiving documents are required to check that they are accurate and current (Bamisile, 2004). He further stated in that document control procedures are: Written: Fax, letters, email, memos and instructions.
a) Incoming all incoming correspondence will be

date receipt stamped. The original will be filed by

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the Senior Quantity Surveyor and all relevant parties will receive a copy in accordance with the distribution schedule. The recipients of copies will clearly understand from the receipt stamp who has to take action and respond.
b) Outgoing the Senior Construction Manager and

the Senior Quantity Surveyor must be copied with all outgoing correspondence. Additional distribution will be made for other parties as necessary. The Senior Construction Manager or in his absence, the Senior Quantity Surveyor or the Planning and Resources Verbal: Telephone calls and oral communications. All such communications in so far as they affect a project shall be recorded using WHILE YOU WERE UNAVAILABLE FORM and distributed as appropriate but in all cases, copied to the Senior Construction Manager and the Senior Quantity Surveyor. Where they have quality/cost consequences, a written confirmation (response) shall be made. Filing: An orderly filing system shall be adopted which would be followed and understood by the Senior Construction Manager and the Senior Quantity Surveyor which will Manager must sign outgoing correspondences.

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enable all records and correspondences to be kept and retrieved quickly and efficiently. 2.5INFORMATION COMPUTERS The advent of computers is revolutionalizing the construction industry through a more accurate and detailed data processing, documentation and record management systems. However, it is not possible to discuss computers in the construction industry without first understanding the concept of information systems and technology. 2.5.1 Information Systems and Technology An information system is a set of interrelated components that collect, process, store and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organization while Information Technology can be defined as the use of technologies from computing, electronics, and telecommunications to process and distribute information in digital and other forms. It therefore covers the field of documentation and monitoring of construction projects. 2.5.2 Computer Integrated Construction Computer Integrated Construction is characterized by both the use of computing for all kinds of applications and by the integration of these applications by data MANAGEMENT USING

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transfer networks and transfer standards (Mitchell et al, 1999) Integration in this concept can primarily be understood to mean efficient information sharing and data exchange using information Data technology are shared as over the enabling technology. communication

networks (internet, WANs and LANs) using centralized and distributed databases. Mitchell and Miller (1999) went further and stated that the requirements Computer Integrated Construction shall include: Widespread documents) Industry wide standards for information exchange Communications external networks) Discipline specific application software Work practice changes (re-engineering construction) 2.5.3 The Internet and the Web The use of the internet for exchanging information in a collaborative work environment (like the construction industry) has become very important and more so in years to come, (Swee-Lean et al, 2003). The World Wide Web and the Internet are based on a number of infrastructure (internet and computer literacy (e-mail, digital

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standards, but these standards do not relate to file formats or data structures, (Mitchell et al, 1999). However, both are significant in the electronic transfer of project information because they are: Inexpensive to acquire and operate Very fast, compared with traditionally transfer method Universally available, both locally and international Easy to use and reasonably reliable Make information transfer largely hardware and software dependent Projects websites that provides services such as

production information, progress and cost information, document registers, contact lists, project news pages and invitations to tender can also be provided. Project websites can be used to send information and transmit copies of production information to project participants. However, transferring information from one application to another (Mitchell et does al, not make 1999). The it immediately applications useful. be Significantly higher levels of standardization are required must interoperable. This concept will be discussed later. Computers are changing the face of construction project documentation and monitoring. Production information is no longer in their conventional forms. It is now possible to present a multiple view of production information

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including 2D, 3D images, and text in a single platform. This leads us to the concept of Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Interoperability. 2.5.4 Building Information Modeling (BIM) Building Information Modeling can be defined from both a technological and process point of view. Norbert et al (2007) quoted the National Institute of Building Science as defining BIM as a digital presentation of physical and functional characteristics of a facility. Coleman et al (2005) stated that every element in a BIM functions as an intelligent object with established relationships to its surrounding. As such, the BIM serves as a shared knowledge resource for information about a facility forming a reliable basis for decision during its life-cycle from inception onward. According to Coleman and Jun (2005), the BIM manages much more than graphics but also information that allows the automatic generation of drawings and reports (i.e. quantities, cost, schedules, bills of materials), extraction of analysis data (i.e. structural, cooling loads), interference detection, schedule simulation and facilities management. All this information is stored in a relational database developed to help the building team make the most informed decision possible. Relating to this, Norbert et al (2007) noted that the BIM as a database contains the physical and functional characteristics of a structure composed of intelligent objects rather than lines, arcs,

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and text. The BIM can render multiple views of data including 2D drawings, lists, 3D images, animation, as well as elements of time/schedule (4D) and cost (5D). 2.5.4.1 Anticipated Future Potential of BIM According to the online encyclopedia, Wikipedia, BIM proponents claim that BIM offers the following: improved visualization; improved productivity; increased coordination of construction documents; embedding and linking of vital information such as vendors for specific materials, location of details and quantities required for estimation and tendering;

increased speed of delivery and reduced costs.

2.5.5 The Concept of Interoperability Interoperability increased use issues of are gaining (Norbert attention et al, with 2007). BIM

Interoperability can be viewed from different point of view. From a purely technological-based view, Norbert et al (2007) defined interoperability as the ability to manage and communicate electronic product and project data among collaborating firms. Also, Coleman and Jun (2005) quoted the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as stating that interoperability relates to both the exchange and management of electronic

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information, where individuals and systems are able to identify and access information seamlessly, as well as comprehend and integrate information across multiple software systems. According to Mitchell and Miller (1999), efficient

information transfer using modern object technology would enable secure, consistent and accurate access and sharing of common data between project participants, so that: Information is created once and is then available over the life of a project. This same information can be used in different project phases. The same information can support different discipline processes, and be used by applications from a number of vendors. The focus of the design and documentation process moves to incremental refinement of project information by successive project groups. This capability is called interoperability because it allows data (2007) access stated operations that across different software the applications and network computers. Also, Norbert et al Interoperability eliminates following: Manual re-entry of data Duplication of business function

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Continued reliance on paper-based information exchange. 2.5.6 Benefits of Interoperability According to Norbert et al (2007), the benefits of interoperability include the following: Increased speed of overall project delivery Reduced infrastructure vulnerability Greater lifecycle Expanded markets for companies Decreased supply-chain communication costs Improved to value customers 2.5.7 Data Sharing and Exchange Achieving interoperability is dependent on being able to successfully exchange information across a wide variety of processes and systems. A large majority of project participants frequently share data across a wide variety of different software hampers solution applications. the exchange, drive up A lack leading of to interoperability non-standard reliability of information through the

redundant work and a need to invest time and money in that project costs (Norbert et al, 2007). They went further and identified the following as factors impacting data sharing: Software incompatibility issues Industry partners Training
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Time spent on data translation Expenses related to sharing data Incomplete data standards Relating to this, Coleman et al (2005) identified three methods of achieving software interoperability. These are: Developing point-to-point data translator; Mandating the use of proprietary tools across all industry; Establishing neutral data standards. Point-to-point customized integration requires an

expensive pair of interactive systems to provide a dedicated solution. Proprietary solutions are often used in large supply chains dominated by an original equipment manufacturer that mandates supply partners conform to a particular software solution while neutral data standards work as translators across platforms and offer stability in the representation of information. 2.5.8 Potential of Interoperability Interoperability between software and the effective use of networks make sharing of information fast, cheap and error free. It also allows analyses and simulations that would otherwise be precluded by cost or time constraints. This results in projects that more closely fit the clients needs, (Mitchell et al, 1999).
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Interoperability also has the potential to reduce dispute and misunderstanding. This is because information transmitted are stored, can be traced and duplication of data entry and manipulations is reduced. 2.5.9 The Future of Interoperability in the Construction Industry Universal interoperability between all applications will not be a near-term solution. Interoperability within the construction combination industry of can be achieved by through people a solutions spurred and

technology. Changes in how project participants work together and how they identify the tools needed to promote better collaboration are cultural changes that will promote a more interoperable work environment. With demand in place, the technology marketplace will work to deliver those tools and develop future paths to interoperability. 5.6 APPLICATIONS OF DOCUMENTATION According to Barrie and Paulson (2006), changed conditions, changed orders, delays, claims and disputes occur in some measure on almost all projects of significant size. These areas are now discussed in this section: 2.6.1 Documentation for Claims Purposes

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Obiegbu (2003) defines a claim as any as anything measurements, quantities, rate, delays, disruption or any other matter - not agreed between the contractors and the architect/engineer/quantity surveyor at any given time, and one party wishes to pursue it, either for financial recompense, or on the other hand, release from the liability for liquidated and ascertained damages, or even unliquidated damages. A claim may also be defined as a right or policy of assurance which becomes a claim when the event insured against it happens. A claim begins when someone who suffers a loss completes and signs a statement describing exactly what happened that led to the loss. Most claims require additional supporting evidence as well. Claims in the construction industry can be related to delay, variations or fluctuation. Whatever ground the claim is founded, a contractor must give notice, usually in writing, of his intention to claim as soon as the necessity to do so becomes apparent. Failing to do this will not only prejudice the establishment of claims and the ability of the architect/engineer/quantity surveyor to consider and evaluate them properly, but also damages and seriously impairs the credibility of such claims (Obiegbu, 2003). Obiegbu (2003) went further and stated that in compiling a claim, the contractor may need to thoroughly examine and quote from the following:

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i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. xi. xii. xiii. xiv. xv.

Correspondences Minutes of site meetings Architects instructions Clerk of works directions Contract and working drawings Labour Allocation Sheets Correspondence with Sub-contractors and suppliers Site diary Daily weather reports Receipt of drawing schedule Progress photographs dated by photographer not in ink on the back Site level details accurate grid of site to be taken Effect of artists and tradesmen work employed by the client Photographs and report giving state of site and date of possession Records showing time period between date of tender and date of possession, or order to start work

xvi. xvii. xviii. xix. xx. xxi. xxii.

Build-up of tender Extension of time claims and allowances Materials schedule original tender schedule should be update Invoice lists Plant records Scaffolding records and day work authorized Borehole logs

xl

Examination of all these documents and papers will enable the claim to be compiled, quotations to be made by abstracting and a clear picture built up. If the documentation is sketchy or has been destroyed, the claim will become weak and unsupported (Obiegbu, 2003). 2.6.2 Documentation for Changes According conditions to Barrie and Paulson the (2006), of changed the work occur when nature

encountered on a project is significantly different from that described in the contract documents. Change orders, which are directives from the owner or his agent, and which usually result from negotiations with the contractor, can alter the terms and conditions of the contract. Change orders can thus provide an equitable means of dealing with changed conditions arising from unforeseen events, such as an unexpected bad foundation problem. Change orders can also be used; however, when an owner simply wishes to alter some part of the facility after the contract has started (Barrie et al, 2006). 2.6.3 Documentation for Reference Purposes Documentation as a reference document should serve as a source of information. A source that is intended to be used for looking up facts, definitions, or other

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information relating to a construction project. The nature of a construction project is such that every operation is defined in the production information i.e. contract documents and production management documents. The content of these documents must be in such form that permits ease of use and comprehension. They must be able to tell managers and all those involved in a construction project what is expected of them in precise and exact terms. 2.6.4 Documentation for Dispute Resolution Documentation as evidence or proof for recording also serve in resolving disputes in a construction project for Knowles (2004) quoted Max Abrahamson as stating in his book, Engineering Law and the ICE contract that a party to a dispute, particularly if there is an arbitration will learn three lessons (often too late): the importance of records, the importance of records, and the importance of records.

2.7 ROLE

OF

CONSTRUCTION

PROFESSIONALS

IN

MONITORING A CONSTRUCTION PROJECT

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construction

project

is

product

of

different

information and designs from different professionals. If these information and designs are to be adhered to, the presence of their producers and designers are required. 2.7.1 The Architect According to Bamisile (2004), the architect should be visiting site periodically for inspections to ensure that in general, the work being carried out on site is in compliance with architectural designs and specifications. 2.7.2 Engineering Consultants Bamisile (2004) noted that during the construction phase, engineers (geotechnical, structural, electrical and mechanical) should visit the site regularly for inspections to ensure that in general, is in compliance with their engineering drawings, schedules and specification. A Structural Engineer should be concerned with the monitoring and ensuring that the design (structural) performance criteria are met in the construction methods and materials. Similarly, the mechanical and electrical engineer should monitor the type and ways of installing mechanical and electrical installations so as to ensure that it complies with their designs and specifications. 2.7.3 The Builder

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The core function of a builder in any construction project is Building Production Management. An integral part of management concerned different is with monitoring. monitoring A builder should be the the and to evaluating achieve

construction project. He should be able to apply the monitoring techniques objectives. A builder needs to be fully aware and conversant with the different construction professionals and their corresponding contract documents so that their implementation can be properly monitored. 2.7.4 The Quantity Surveyor A Quantity Surveyor is concerned with the quantities and cost associated in a construction project. As a cost expert, the Quantity Surveyor monitors the cost of every aspects of a construction project. He does this so that the total cost of production does not exceed the estimated cost. 2.8 AREAS OF MONITORING A construction project is considered successful if it meets defined needs to the required standard (quality) within the time and cost budget. These parameters quality, cost and time are critical and should therefore be monitored as they define the success level of any construction project. 2.8.1 Quality

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For monitoring of quality to be effective, it must be measured against a standard. The Project Quality Management Plan serves as a standard against which the quality of a construction project can be measured. Quality in a construction project depends on a range of variables and involves much more than the simple parameters such as the visible standard of finishes, structural soundness, or making of components fit within close tolerances. The monitoring of quality should embrace all the aspects by which a construction project is judged including spatial arrangement, circulation, efficiency, aesthetic(s), flexibility as well as its functional ability as a climate modifier and as a suitable structure. Besides the Project Quality Management Plan, contract and job specifications also provide a criterion by which to assess and assure the quality of a construction project. 2.8.2 Cost For control and monitoring purposes, the detailed cost estimate should be converted to a project budget, and the project budget is used subsequently as a guide for management. The detailed cost estimate should provide a baseline for the assessment of financial performance during a construction project. Expenses during the course of the project should be recorded in specific job cost accounts and this should be compared with the original detailed cost estimates. When the cost are

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within the detailed cost estimate, the cost and finance of a construction project is thought to be monitored and under control. 2.8.3 Time Construction typically involves a deadline for work completion, so construction managers must force attention to time. More generally, a delay in construction represents additional costs due to late facility occupancy and other factors. The duration of activities must therefore be monitored and compared to expected durations so that the project is completed within the time required. 2.9 MONITORING TECHNIQUES The method of ensuring that an accurate check is kept upon progress in a construction as it does project upon is very important, depending frequent

comparisons between work done and programme. Such comparisons can be made in a simple visual manner, so as to throw into prominence any divergence between the two by plotting the progress on the construction programme (Bamisile, 2004). According to Olorunoje et al (2004), monitoring tools will involve recording techniques such as the use of network diagrams like: i. Gantt chart

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ii. iii.

Arrow diagram or critical path analysis Progress curves

Before any of the above monitoring techniques can be implemented to monitor a project effectively, a thorough knowledge of the entire work associated with the construction project must be known. This leads us to the concept of Work Breakdown Structure. 2.9.1 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) According to Payne et al (1996), a Work Breakdown Structure provides a rational subdivision of the work in hierarchical form down to the lowest level of discrete work packages from which estimates of resources requirements, duration, linkages and costs can be determined. From the Work Breakdown Structure, a list of activities and precursor activities can be produced for the purposes of network analysis, from which programmes and chart flow. 2.9.2 The Gantt Chart This is a simple and effective way of illustrating progress or status of an entire project or its individual status. A Gantt chart, also known as a bar chart, graphically describes a project consisting of a well defined collection of tasks or activities, the completion of which marks its end. An activity is a task or closely related group of tasks whose performance contributes to completion of the overall project.

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The Gantt chart is generally organized so that all activities are listed in a column at the left side of the diagram. A horizontal time scale extends to the right of the list, with a line corresponding to each activity on the list. A bar representing the duration of each activity is drawn between its corresponding scheduled start and finish times along its horizontal line (Barrie et al, 2006). Gantt charts can be modified in order to show planned progress as well as to report progress. According to Barrie et al (2006), in order to report progress, a parallel bar is sometimes placed below the plan bar, and it is initially left open. Then, as the job progresses, it is shaded in direct proportion to the physical work completed on the activity. The Gantt chart is an effective way to monitor the duration and cost associated with a construction project. A sample of the Gantt chart is contained in the appendix. 2.9.3 The Critical Path Method (CPM) The Critical Path Method is the systematic representation of a project by means of a diagram called network depicting the sequence and interplay of various components/units that go to form the project.

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According to Arora et al (2005), the Critical Path Method is activity based. This does not take into account of the uncertainties involved in the estimation of time for the execution of an activity. The times are related to costs. The activities are represented by arrows. These arrows are connected in order of sequence of operations. The nodes which represent events are attached to the beginning and end of each arrow. The Critical Path Method provides a powerful means of documenting and communicating project plans, It also schedules and performance to managers.

identifies the most critical elements in the project schedule and thus, allows management to set priorities and focus attention on them (Barrie et al, 2006). 2.9.4 Progress Curves Progress curves, also called S curves, graphically plot some measure of cumulative progress on the vertical axis against time on the horizontal axis. Progress can be measured in terms of money expended, quantity surveys of work in place, man-hours expended, or any other measure which makes sense (Barrie et al, 2006); and this can be expressed either in terms of actual units (naira, cubic meters, etc) or as a percentage of the estimated total quantity to be measured.

xlix

Progress curves can express some aspects of project plans. Once the project is underway, actual progress can be plotted and compared with that which was plotted. It is then possible to make projections based on the slope of the actual progress curve, (Barrie et al, 2006). 2.10 PROGRESS REPORT According to Barrie et al (2006) in the book titled Professional construction Management, a progress report should convey essential information on: i. ii. iii. iv. Summary of project status Construction status Schedule status Cost report status

2.10.1 Summary of Project Status This item should represent a short, overall summary of project status. It may contain a brief narrative description of the status of each major phase, provide quality information such as the physical percentage complete compared with scheduled completion and forecast at completion costs against budget. 2.10.2 Construction Status This unit of the project report should provide a description of works accomplished during the period, significant work to be accomplished in the next period

and a discussion of the major problems with solutions or proposed solutions. 2.10.3 Schedule Status This item should contain the summary of control schedules by contract and by facility showing actual progress compared to early and late start schedule where contracts or facilities are behind schedule, an explanation of the problems and the indicated solution or measures being adopted to solve the problem should be included. 2.10.4 Cost Report Status This summary should show actual recorded costs, committed costs or estimated costs-to-complete. It should compare at-completion costs with budgets and identify and explain changes from the previous report. An evaluated contingency should be included so that an overall estimate of actual costs at completion is provided.

li

CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 3.1 INTRODUCTION Data used in the study were sourced from various client organization, consultants, contractors and construction managers in the south-east geopolitical zone of Nigeria. Questionnaires and oral interviews were used to collect data (primary) for this research work. Also secondary data were collected in the area of record management, claims and dispute resolution. This has been extensively discussed in the literature review while further discussions are also made in the data analysis part of this project. 3.2 Area of Study The study was carried out in Anambra State. The area was chosen because of its proximity to the researcher and because Anambra State presents an area of rapid construction development in the south-east geopolitical

lii

zone as can be seen in the on-going construction projects in the States capital. 3.3 Population The population of the study was made up of stakeholders (i.e. clients, construction project managers, construction project professionals, users of construction facilities, public authorities and agencies) in Anambra State.

3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique Thirty questionnaires were administered to randomly selected project stakeholders in Awka, the capital city of Anambra State. Twenty five completed questionnaires (representing 83% responses) were retrieved. Hence, the sample size for the study is 25 respondents. 3.5 Method of Data Collection Data for the research was collected through two medium:
i.

Primary source:

Data collected through the primary source was through the administration of a questionnaire and through discussions with the respondents. ii. Secondary source:

Secondary data was collected through the review of literature comprising of textbooks, journals, technical reports, seminar/conference papers and unpublished

liii

works. The internet also offered an avenue where secondary data were sourced for this research work. A copy of the questionnaire used in this research work is referred in the appendix. 3.6 Instrument for gathering data The Questionnaire The design of the questionnaire for this study was tailored towards the research questions. A questionnaire consisting of two sections was self administered to the respondents. Section A of the questionnaire contained questions about the respondents personal profile. Section B requested information on the importance, impacts and effects of documentation and monitoring on a construction project. Also contained are questions that relates to claims and dispute resolution. The questions were clear, precise and polite. They consist of open-ended and close-ended questions. Some questions required the respondents to add relevant information. 3.7 Validity and Reliability The researcher was mindful of content validity of the instrument. The reason for this is that the questions contained in the questionnaire spreads evenly through the documentation and monitoring of construction projects. In other words, the content of the questionnaire was structured in such a way that all aspects of documentation and monitoring of construction project were fully represented.

liv

In establishing the reliability of the questionnaire, the testretest technique was used. In this, some respondent who has completed the questionnaire were asked to complete it again and the choices they made were compared. From the comparison, similar results were produced, thus, justifying the fact that if the instrument is employed to draw data for similar work, the instrument will produce similar results.

CHAPTER FOUR DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 4.1 INTRODUCTION The data collected for this study were analyzed statistically and presented in this chapter. Pie chart, frequency and percentage tables were used in the presentation. Each table contains information on the responses to the questions in the questionnaire. 4.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA SECTION A Percentage of professionals in the sample studied 20%
Architect

28%

24%

Builder Quantity Surveyor lv Engineering Consultants

28% The chart above shows that 24% of the respondents are architects, 28% are builders, another 28% are quantity surveyors and the remaining 20% of the respondents are engineering consultants.

Table 4.2.1 Years of Experience and sex Years of 0-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 Male 7 4 3 4 2 20 Female 2 3 0 0 0 5 Total 9 7 3 4 2 25 % 36 28 12 16 8 100

Source: Researchers field survey, 2009

Total

Table 4.2.1 shows that 20 of the respondents are male while the remaining 5 are female stakeholders. 36% of the respondents have less than 5 years experience, another 28% have between 6-10 years experience and another 12% have between 11-15 years experience. 16 % of the respondents have between 16-20 years experience and the remaining 8% respondents have 21-25 years experience in the construction industry.

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SECTION B Table 4.2.2 Do you think that documentation and monitoring of construction projects is important? Responses Yes No Total Frequency 25 0 25 Percentage (%) 100 0 100

Source: Researchers field survey, 2009

The above table shows that all the respondents accepted that documentation and monitoring of construction projects is important. Table 4.2.3 Do you think that it is necessary to keep a record of all information that proceeds from a construction project? Responses Yes No Total Frequency 25 0 25 Percentage (%) 100 0 100 From Table 4.2.3, all the respondent believes that it is important to keep a record of all information that proceeds from a construction project. Table 4.2.4 Are you aware of Computer Integrated Construction? The above table shows that 18 of the respondents representing Responses Frequency Percentage (%) 72% agreed that they are 18 aware of Computer Integrated Yes 72 No Total 7 25 28 100
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Source: Researchers field survey, 2009

Source: Researchers field survey, 2009

Construction while the remaining 28% are not aware of Computer Integrated Construction. Table 4.2.5 Does your firm employ information technology in the management of construction projects? Responses Yes No Total Frequency 14 4 18 Percentage (%) 77.78 22.22 100

Source: Researchers field survey, 2009

From the above table, 14 of the respondents representing 77.78% of the respondents who agreed that they are aware of computer integrated construction employ information technology in the management of construction project. The other 22.22% do not employ information technology in the management of construction project. The 77.78% of the respondents who employ information technology do so in the following ways: Communication (E-mailing and Telephone services) Storage of information Processing of design information using AUTOCAD Contract execution and management using Microsoft project Table 4.2.6 Do you think that it is necessary to check performance of a construction project against set standard/plan?

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Responses Yes No Total

Frequency 25 0 25

Percentage (%) 100 0 100 From Table 4.2.6, all the

Source: Researchers field survey, 2009

respondents agreed that it is necessary to check performance of a construction project against set plan. Table 4.2.7 Documentation of a construction project serves to provide information that acts as an evidential or reference material; do you think this is true? Responses Yes No Total
Source: Researchers field survey, 2009

Frequency 22 3 25

Percentage (%) 88 22 100

From table 4.2.7, 22 or 88% of the respondents believe that documentation of a construction project serves to provide information that acts as an evidential or reference material. Table 4.2.8 Monitoring of a construction project should begin with the appraisal of contract document and production management document; do you think this is true? Responses Yes No Total Frequency 18 7 25 Percentage (%) 72 28 100
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Source: Researchers field survey, 2009

The above table shows that 72% of the respondents agreed that monitoring of a construction project should begin with the appraisal of contract document and production management document while the remaining 28% reasoned otherwise. Table 4.2.9 Does documentation and monitoring of a construction project ensures to? Responses Yes No Total From Table that 4.2.9, and the all Frequency 25 0 25 the 25 Percentage (%) 100 0 100 respondents of a contained in agreed the that that the information contained in the contract document and production management document are adhered

Source: Researchers field survey, 2009

documentation ensures document adhered to. Table 4.2.10 Do you think and

monitoring information

construction

project contract are

production

management

documents

that

documentation ensures

and

monitoring and

of a

construction

project

accountability

financial

discipline in a construction project?

Source: Researchers field survey, 2009

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Responses Yes No Total From Table 4.2.10, and

Frequency 24 1 25 96% or 24 of

Percentage (%) 96 4 100 respondents a think that

documentation

monitoring

construction

project

ensures accountability and financial discipline in a construction project while the remaining 4% think otherwise. Table 4.2.11 Does documentation and monitoring of a construction project reduces wastage of materials on site? Responses Yes No Total Frequency 22 3 25 Percentage (%) 88 12 100

Source: Researchers field survey, 2009

From the above table, 88% of the respondents said that documentation and monitoring of a construction project reduces wastage of materials on site while the remaining 12% did not reason that way.

Table 4.2.12 Do you think that monitoring of a construction project should ensure that only the right and qualified personnel(s) are allowed to carry out construction operations?

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Responses Yes No

Frequency 25 0 25

Percentage (%) 100 0 100

Source: Researchers field survey, 2009

From Table 4.2.12, all the 25 respondents think that only the right and qualified personnel(s) should be allowed to carry out construction operations? Table 4.2.13 Do you think that documentation and monitoring of a construction project reduces corrupt practices, over invoicing, dubious manipulation and other vices in a construction site? Responses Yes No Total
Source: Researchers field survey, 2009

Frequency 24 1 25

Percentage (%) 96 4 100

From table 4.2.13, 24 or 96% of the respondents think that documentation and monitoring of a construction project reduces corrupt practices, over invoicing, dubious manipulation and other vices in a construction site while the remaining respondent thought otherwise. Table 4.2.14 Do you think that documentation and monitoring ensures that construction project is completed within the time budget?
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Responses Yes No Total

Frequency 17 8 25

Percentage (%) 68 32 100

Source: Researchers field survey, 2009

From the above Table 4.2.14, 68% of the respondents think that documentation and monitoring ensures that a construction project is completed within the time budget. Table 4.2.15 Do you see documentation and monitoring as tools to reduce delays, abandonment and non-completion of a construction project? Responses Yes No Total Frequency 24 1 25 Percentage (%) 96 4 100

Source: Researchers field survey, 2009

From Table 4.2.15, 24 of the respondents see documentation and monitoring as tools to reduce delays, abandonment and non-completion of a construction project while the remaining 1 respondent thought otherwise.

Table 4.2.16

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Do you think that documentation and monitoring of quality, time and cost contribute to the successful completion of a project? Responses Yes No Total Frequency 25 0 25 Percentage (%) 100 0 100

Source: Researchers field survey, 2009

From

Table

4.2.16,

all

the

25

respondents

think

that

documentation and monitoring of quality, time and cost contribute to the successful completion of a project. Table 4.2.17 Do you think that site foremen should be involved in the documentation and monitoring of a construction project? Responses Yes No Total Frequency 22 3 25 Percentage (%) 88 12 100

Source: Researchers field survey, 2009

Table 4.2.17 shows that 88% of the respondents said that site foremen and artisans should be involved in the documentation and monitoring of a construction project while 12% of the respondents thought otherwise. The 88% of the respondents believed that during construction, the site foremen should be involved in the following: Supervision of gangs on site;

lxiv

Proper checking and handling of materials; Keeping records of site operative diary; Passing of instruction. Table 4.2.18 Do you think that effective documentation and monitoring of construction project increases the commitment and efficiency of tradesmen and artisans? Responses Yes No Total Frequency 25 0 25 Percentage (%) 100 0 100

Source: Researchers field survey, 2009

From Table 4.2.18, all 25 respondents think that effective documentation artisans. Table 4.2.19 Should a contractor keep a record of all contract documents, production management documents, architects instructions, change orders and all other site activities and transactions? Responses Yes No Total Frequency 25 0 25 Percentage (%) 100 0 100 and monitoring of construction project increases the commitment and efficiency of tradesmen and

Source: Researchers field survey, 2009

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From the above table, all the respondents said that a contractor keep a record of all contract documents, production management documents, architects instructions, change orders and all other site activities and transactions. Table 4.2.20 Can documentation of a construction project be used to achieve a just, equitable and fair resolution of disputes? Responses Yes No Total Frequency 24 1 25 Percentage (%) 96 4 100

Source: Researchers field survey, 2009

From the above table, 96% of the respondents agreed that documentation can be used to achieve a just, equitable and fair resolution of disputes while 1 respondent thought otherwise. Table 4.2.21 Does documentation of a construction project helps to establish the validity of a contractual claim? Responses Yes No Total Frequency 25 0 25 Percentage (%) 100 0 100

Source: Researchers field survey, 2009

From Table 4.2.21 shows that documentation of a construction project helps to establish the validity of a contractual claim. Table 4.2.22
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Do you experience any difficulty in the documentation and monitoring of construction projects? Responses Yes No Total Frequency 9 16 25 Percentage (%) 36 64 100

Source: Researchers field survey, 2009

From the above table, 36% of the respondents experience difficulty in documenting and monitoring of construction projects while the remaining 16 respondents (64%) do not experience difficulties in documenting and monitoring projects. Among The difficulties experienced are: transit Do you Delay in receiving project information. think that documentation and monitoring of Table 4.2.23 construction project have an impact on effective project delivery? Responses Yes No Total Frequency 24 1 25 Percentage (%) 96 4 100 Incomplete project information Discrepancies between professional documents Loss of information in whole or in part during

Source: Researchers field survey, 2009

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From Table 4.2.23, it can be seen that 96% of the respondents think that documentation and monitoring of construction project have an impact on effective project delivery while the remaining 4% do not think so. 4.3 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS From the above presentation and analysis of data from the questionnaire, the following findings can be extracted: That construction stakeholders appreciates the value and importance of documentation and monitoring in meeting defined needs to the required standard and to budget; That the use of information technology in the construction industry exploited; That documentation and monitoring of construction project helps in resolving disputes and establishing the validity of a contractual claim; That documentation and monitoring of construction projects have an impact on effective project delivery. CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.1 CONCLUSION This detailed research justifies the contribution of documentation and monitoring to the success of any construction project. It also shows that effective and efficient project documentation and monitoring will help ensure that: is low and hopelessly under-

lxviii

i. ii. iii. iv. v.

Quality standards are met; The cost of construction projects is minimized; The original project plan and forecast is met; Disputes among parties is minimized; Clients and project participants are satisfied. the above in circle, the the construction of industry nave exploitation information

Outside remains

technology in. 5.2 RECOMMENDATION From the findings and discussions in Chapter 4, the following recommendations are hereby made: i. Standard format and template for the documentation and monitoring of construction projects should be designed. ii. The use of information systems and technology in the design and management of construction should be encouraged to help shed its image as unprogressive sector.
iii. Contract

documents,

production

management

documents, architects instructions, change orders and all other site activities and transactions should be well documented. iv. As construction is a team work, all project participants, foreman and artisans must be actively involved in the documentation projects. and monitoring of construction

lxix

5.3 RECOMMENDATION FOR FURTHER STUDIES The following suggestions are made for further studies in the areas of documentation: i. Relevance projects. ii. A further research on Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Interoperability in the construction industry in Nigeria should be conducted. of Information and Technology of to the documentation monitoring construction

REFERENCES Ajator, U. (1999). Inter-relationship of Builders and other Stakeholders. A 21st century perspective. Paper presented at the 29th AGM/Conference of the Nigerian Institute of Building held in Awka, Nigeria, 20th-25th July, 1999.

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Arora, S. P., & Bindra, S. P. (2005). The Textbook of building Construction, (5th Ed.) India: Dhanpat Rai Publication (P) Ltd. Bamisile, A. (2004). Building Production Management. Lagos: Foresight Press Limited. Barrie, S. D., & Boyd, C. P. (2006). Professional Construction Management: including CM, Design-Construct, and General Contracting. London: McGraw-Hill, Inc. Coleman, S. C., & Jun, J. W. (2005). Interoperability and the Construction Process. A White Paper for Building Owners and Project Decision Makers. Retrieved July, 2009, from http://www.aisc.org/ Ejike, F. (2005). Documentation and Monitoring of Building Projects. Unpublished HND thesis, Department of Building Technology. Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State. Ezeokonkwo, J. U. (2003). Delays and disruption in Construction Project-Effects on Project Cost and Quality. Effective building procurement and delivery in Nigerian Construction Industry. Anambra State: Rex Charles and Patrick Ltd, Federal Republic of Nigeria (2006). National Building Code. London: LexisNexis Butterworth. International Standards Organization. 15489:2001.Retrieved June 10, 2009, from http://www.iso.org/management Kamang, E. (1992). Effective Project Management in the construction industry. Lagos: The Builders Magazine, Vol. 4. Builders Magazine Limited. Knowles, R. (2004). Records, Records, Records. Journal of the Nigerian Institute of Quantity Surveying, Vol. 48. No. 7, Pg. 10. Microsoft Encarta Dictionary (2008).

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Mitchell, J., & Miller, R. (1999). Information and Information Management. Building in Value - Pre design issues, edited by Rick Best & Gerard de Valence (1999). London: Arnold Publishers. Norman, W. Y., Jones, S. A., & Bernstein, H. M. (2007). Interoperability in the Construction Industry. Smart Market Report, Design and Construction Intelligence. Retrieved July, 2009, from http://www.construction.com/ Nziwu, C. (2003). Impact/Relevance of Effective Documentation in Successful Building Production. A Text presented at a seminar of the Nigerian Institute of Building on Effective Building Management-An imperative in Nigerias Building Project Delivery, Enugu. Obiegbu, M. E. (1988). Monitoring and Accountability in Project Execution. Journal of the Nigerian Institute of Building, Vol 1. Obiegbu, M. E. (1996). Documentation, Monitoring and Cost Analysis of Project. A paper presented at the 26th AGM/Conference of the Nigerian Institute of Building on Effective Management of Capital Projects. Obiegbu, M. E. (2003). Contractual claims in Nigerian Building Industry. Effective building procurement and delivery in Nigerian Construction Industry. Anambra State: Rex Charles and Patrick Ltd. Okoye, C. (2005) Risk Management in Engineering Practice. Enugu: Benalice Publication. Olorunoje, G. S., & Olotuah, A. I. (2004). Construction Planning of Building Project. International Journal of Environmental Issues, Vol. 2, No. 1&2. Onwualu, A. P., Oluka, S. I., & Offiong A. (2002). Principles of Engineering Project Management. Enugu: Snaap Press Ltd. Paterson, J (1997). Information Methods for Design and Construction. London: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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Payne, A., & Chelsom, J. V. (1995). Management for Engineers. London: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Seeley, I. H., & Winfield, R. (2005). Building Quantities Explained (5th Ed.). London: Palgrave Macmillan Publishers. Swee-Lean, C., & Nga-Na, L. (2003). State-of-the-Art Internet Technology in Singapores Construction Industry. Retrieved July, 2009 from http://itc.scix.net/paper.w782003-378.content Wahab, K. E. (1999). Project Monitoring Services. A paper presented at a 2-day National Workshop organized by the Nigerian Institute of Building in Collaboration with Council of Registered Builders of Nigeria on Professional Builders in practice held in Enugu, October 27th-28th

APPENDICES APPENDIX A. Questionnaire


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Department of Building, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B 5025, Awka. Dear Sir/Madam, REQUEST FOR INFORMATION I, Akaigwe Uzochukwu Richard, a final year student in the Department of Building, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka is writing a research on the topic: documentation and monitoring of construction projects. I humbly request for answers to the following questions in the questionnaire. All responses shall be treated with utmost confidentiality and used for the purpose of this research only. Yours faithfully, Akaigwe Uzochukwu Richard.

SECTION A (Please tick as appropriate)


1. Profession.

lxxiv

2. Years

of educational

working qualification..

experience..
3. Highest

..
4. Gender

5. Age bracket (21-30)

(31-40)

(41-50)

(51-60)

SECTION B
1. Do you think that documentation and monitoring of a

construction project is important? YES NO 2. Do you think that it is necessary to keep a record of all information that proceeds from a construction project? YES NO

3. Are you aware of Computer Integrated Construction? YES NO 4. Does your firm employ information technology in the management of production information? YES NO

5. If yes how are they employed? .......................................................................................... 6. Do you think that it is necessary to check performance of a construction project against set standard/plan? YES NO

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7. Documentation of a construction project serves to provide information that acts as an evidential or reference material; do you think this is true? YES appraisal of YES contract NO document NO and production 8. Monitoring of a construction project should begin with the management document; do you think this is true?
9. If No, when should monitoring begin?


10. Does documentation and monitoring of a construction

project ensures that the information contained in the contract document and production management document are adhered to? YES 11. NO Do you think that documentation and monitoring of a

construction project ensures accountability and financial discipline in a construction project? YES 12. Does documentation YES 13. NO and NO monitoring of a

construction project reduces wastage of materials on site? Do you think that monitoring of a construction project should ensure that only the right and qualified personnel(s) are allowed to carry out construction operations? YES NO

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14.

Do you think that documentation and monitoring of a construction project reduces corrupt practices, over invoicing, dubious manipulation and other vices in a construction site? YES NO

15.

Do you think that documentation and monitoring ensures that a construction project is completed within the time budget? YES NO and NO non-completion of a

16.

Do you see documentation and monitoring as tools to reduce delays, abandonment construction project? YES

17.

Do you think that documentation and monitoring of quality, time and cost contribute to the successful completion of a project? YES NO

18.

Do you think that site foremen should be involved in the documentation and monitoring of a construction project? YES NO

19.

If Yes, how should they be involved?

20. of

Do you think that effective documentation and monitoring construction project increases NO the commitment and efficiency of tradesmen and artisans? YES

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21.

Should

a contractor

keep a record of all

contract

documents, production management documents, architects instructions, change orders and all other site activities and transactions? YES 22. NO Can documentation of a construction project be used to achieve a just, equitable and fair resolution of disputes? YES 23. NO Does documentation of a construction project helps to establish the validity of a contractual claim? YES NO 24. Do you experience any difficulty in the documentation and monitoring of construction projects? YES 24. NO

Do you think that documentation and monitoring of construction project have an impact on effective project delivery? YES NO

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APPENDIX B.
OUTLINE OF PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT DOCUMENTS 1. 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 Project Quality Management Plan Quality Policy Statement Introduction Definitions Site Managements Responsibility Project Appraisal Document Control Purchasing Product Identification and Traceability Handling. Storage, Packaging and Delivery Process Control Inspection and Testing Control of non-Conforming Products Corrective Actions Quality Records Internal Quality Audits
Source: Bamisile (2004). Building Production Management

2. 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0 19.0 20.0

Project Health and Safety Plan Health and Safety Policy The objectives of the Plan Assessment of Hazards and Risks Duties of Contractors Company Duties of Site Personnel Health and Safety Briefing Health and Safety Committee Site Accommodation and Welfare Facilities Accident Prevention Measures Protective Clothing and Equipment Permit-to-Work Access and Egress from Work place Underground Construction and Buried Services First Aid Erection and Inspection of scaffolding Fire Prevention and Protective Procedure Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Emergency procedure Health and safety training Health and safety records
Source: Bamisile (2004). Building Production Management

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3. 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.9 12.10 12.11 12.12 12.13 12.14 12.15 12.16 12.17 12.18 12.19 12.20 12.21 12.22 12.23 12.24 12.25 12.26

Construction Methodology

Project details Brief description of project Basis of construction programme Analysis of construction limitations Details of personnel Details of statutory notices Construction site layout Temporary works Material handling and distribution Key operations Details of plant and equipment Production methods: Sequence of operations Outputs/floor cycles Demolitions Substructure Reinforcement Concrete works Basement construction Superstructure wing A Superstructure wing B Roofing and cladding Stonework Curtain walling and window Mechanical and Electrical services Internal blockwork Plant room Lift installation Rendering Screeding Wall and floor tiling In-situ marble flooring Raised access floor Suspended ceiling Demountable partition Handrail and balustrade Doors and ironmongeries Painting 13.0 External works 14.0 Cleaning and handover
Source: Bamisile (2004). Building Production Management

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4.

INFORMATION REQUIREMENT SCHEDULE


Issue No.: 01 Date of update: 12/06/09

Project: SouthEast Guest House Sheet No.: 1 of 8 Note

The production information required is to include fully dimensioned general arrangement drawings, sections, elevations, details, specifications, schedules and builders work details as applicable for key subcontractors and materials to be placed, and to enable construction to proceed as per our project construction programme.

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Ref No.

Production Information Required

Latest Date Required

Date Received

Variance (week) +or-

Action by

Comment

A A.1

ARCHITECTURE Details of Architectural drawings of the existing building 6/06/09 6/06/09 6/06/09 6/06/09 6/06/09 production 7/11/09 8/01/10 4/02/10 2/03/10 2/03/10 7/04/10 2/05/10 9/05/10 9/05/10 6/06/10 6/06/10 6/06/10 6/06/10

A.2 A.3 A.4 A.5 A.6

Site Plan Setting out drawings Topographical survey Scheme design Substructure Architectural information

A.7 A.8 A.9 A.10 A.11 A.12 A.13 A.14 A.15 A.16 A.17 A.18

Ground floor production information Stone work Curtain wall and window Demountable partition Suspended ceiling Roof Architectural Production information Internal Finishes schedules External finishes Doors and ironmongery schedule Security post External works Features and fittings

Appendix C. Monitoring Tools.s 1. The Progress S Curve


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Planning and Reporting Progress using Progress curv e 100 Progress (percent complete) 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 50
Current lead in progress Planned progress Actual progress Current Time lead Planned Completion date Projected completion date

100

(weeks)

Time 150

Figure showing the Progress Curve.

2.

CRITICAL PATH METHOD


2 A 1 B C 4 F 6 K 3 E 5 D 7 H 8 M 9 L 1 0

Activity A B

Predecessor -

Followers D,E G,H,K


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C D E F G H K L M

A A C B,E B,E B,F D,G,H G,H

F L G,H K L,M L,M -

Network Logic Definition.

Appendix D. Building Information Models.

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Figure: BIM relationship with project participants Source: - www.virtualbuild.com/images/spoke.jpg

Source: www.xscad.com/images/Building_models_home.jpg

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Source: www.xscad.com/images/Building_models_home.jpg

Source: www.xscad.com/images/Building_models_home.jpg

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