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Used in the manufacture of

Cement concrete Bituminous concrete Plaster Grout Filter beds Railroad ballast Base course Foundation fill ..

Defined by

ASTM C125 http://www.astm.org/Standards/D125.htm ASTM D8 http://www.astm.org/Standards/D8.htm It is defined as granular material e.g. sand gravel, crushed stone, iron-blast-furnace slag Natural sand and gravel deposits Crushed stone or rock Blast furnace slag Artificial and other processed materials Pulverized / recycled concrete and asphalt Waste materials

Sources

Sand quarry

Sand quarry

Gravel quarry

Stone quarry

Stone quarry blasting

Stone crushing

Formed from weathering and decomposition of rocks The most abundant mineral content is Quartz Usually have round smooth end particles Mostly used in bricks, concrete, glass, .. Size is very small (usually less than 4mm) Manufactured sand: Finely crushed stone stones, finely crushed gravels, air cooled blast furnace slag usually characterized by sharp angular particles

Usually have smooth round edges Size varies from 3/16 in (4.75mm) to 3 in (76 mm) Natural deposits around lake beds, glaciated areas, adjacent to streams. They are usually layered with sand Produced by erosion of mountainous bedrock

Angular in shape and rough surface texture. Mostly used are mineral aggregates e.g. granite, sandstone, lime-stone, dolomite High compressive strength 1334 ksi (90235 MPa)

Light weight aggregate prepared by expanding select minerals in a rotary kiln at temperatures over 1000 C Expansion upto 600-700% Production is quality controlled to give high quality product that is structurally strong, stable, durable and inert, yet also lightweight and insulative. Applications are Smart-wall lightweight concrete masonry units, high-rise buildings, concrete bridge decks, high performance marine platforms, asphalt bituminous surface treatments, lightweight chip seal, soil conditioner and lightweight geotechnical fills
http://www.escsi.org

Based on Size

Fine aggregates 0.006in (150m) to 3/16in (4.75mm) Further classified as coarse, medium and fine sand Sand > 0.07 mm Silt 0.06 0.002 mm Clay < 0.002 mm Coarse aggregates greater than 3/16in (4.75mm)

Based on density

Normal weight aggregates e.g. Gravel, sand, crushed rocks (granite, basalt, quartz, sandstone, limestone) Sp. Gravity between 2.5 - 2. Avg. bulk density 95 105pcf (1520 1680 kg/m3) Applications: normal weight concrete, asphalt concrete, road sub-base Light weight aggregates e.g. Volcanic rocks, blast furnace slag, GGBFS, ESCS Avg. bulk density < 55 pcf (880 kg/m3) Applications: light weight concrete, light weight masonry blocks Improved thermal and insulating characteristics

Based on density

Heavy weight aggregates e.g. crushed rocks (barite BaSO4), processed iron ores (Limonite, Hematite, Magnetite) Sp. Gravity > 4 Avg. bulk density 150 400pcf (2400 6400 kg/m3) Applications: heavy weight concrete, radiation protection, bomb shelters

Specific gravity
Specific gravity = weight of material volume of material density of water

Absorption capacity = Moisture content =

WSSD WOD 100 WOD

w.r.t. reference state

Wsample WOD WOD

100

w.r.t. field condition

Three references states

WSSD

WOD

Wabsorbed

Absorption capacity

Crush stone and gravel - very little Granite < 1% Sandstone < 13% Light weight materials high 5-30% Fine aggregates very high

Achieving SSD state


Coarse aggregate should be soaked in room temperature water for 244 h then rolled in a large absorbent cloth to remove all visible surface moisture. Fine aggregate should be brought to a moisture content of at least 6% and allowed to stand for 244 h. Aggregate is then spread out on a non-absorbent surface and air is blown across it until it attains a free flowing condition.

Bulking of Sand Very high absorption capacity of Sand

At field surface moisture varies between 4 5% After rain surface moisture reaches upto 10% Surface moisture can cause increase in the volume as compared to dry volume due to surface tension between particles

Porosity =
Granite and limestone have low porosity (1%) Light weight aggregates have high porosity It affects the absorption of water It also affects freeze - thaw characteristics Porous stone is less resistant to freeze-thaw cycles Granite possess excellent resistant to freeze-thaw Porosity also affects strength and permeability

Void content =
Void content varies from 30 50 % Gravels have low VC Crushed stones have high VC

Aggregate Gradation

Aggregate Gradation

Aggregate Gradation

Aggregate Gradation

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Aggregate Gradation

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