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# Kontrollskrivning 3, Solid State Physics, May 20th, 2005 Allowed aids: pocket calculator.

Physical constants: Plancks constant = 1.05 1034 Js, h 31 kg, electron charge e = 1.6 1019 As, Boltzmanns electron rest mass me = 9.11 10 constant kB = 1.38 1023 JK1 , Avogadros constant Na = 6.02 1023 mol1 , Bohr magneton B = 9.27 1024 Am2 , permeability of free space 0 = 4 107 Vs/Am, permittivity of free space 0 = 1/(36) 109 As/Vm. The whole kontrollskrivning comprises three sets of problems. You can reach a maximum of 12 points. However, in order to pass, you only need to obtain 5.5 points. We recommend that you rst choose those problems that you can solve most easily and make sure that you pass the kontrollskrivning. Then, try to solve the more difcult parts. The number of points is indicated for each problem.

the Fermi Surface A two dimensional metal with rectangular lattice, a1 = (a/2)x and a2 = ay, has Z = 1.57 ( /2) valence electrons per ion. 1. a) Draw the reciprocal lattice, indicate the two rst Brillouin zones and draw the free electron fermi surface. (1 p) Hint: For a two dimensional electron gas the fermi wave vector is kF = (2Zn)1/2 where n is the density of lattice points. 1. b) Now turn on a weak potential and redraw the fermi surface qualitatively in the nearly free electron approximation. (0.5 p) 1. c) Make the following illustrations in the periodic zone scheme and indicate lled electron states by shading: (i) the part of the fermi surface which falls in the rst Brillouin zone; (ii) the part of the fermi surface which falls in the second Brillouin zone. (1 p) 1. d) Illustrate qualitatively the expected change of the fermi surface as the strength of the potential increases. Motivate! (0.5 p)

Superconductivity 2. a) Derive an expression for the superconducting stabilization free energy (supraledande kondensationsenergin) from the work that is done on a type I superconductor as it is brought from innity to the (thermodynamic) critical magnetic eld Hc = Bc /0 . (1 p) Hint: The differential work is dF = 0 M dH. When the superconductor is brought from innity to the magnet the eld increases from 0 to Hc . Use the Meissner effect! 2. b) Sketch the magnetization curve for a type I superconductor in the form of 0 M vs H, and show that the surface below the curve is the stabilization free energy. (0.5 p)

2. c) Sketch the magnetization curve for a type II superconductor and mark the two critical elds where (i) vortices start to penetrate the superconductor, and (ii) where the external eld start to penetrate the superconductor homogenously. (0.5 p) 2. d) Dene (briey) the following terms and give their dimension: (i) Energy gap, (ii) Coherence length, (iii) Penetration depth, (iv) Flux quantum. (1 p)

Dielectrics 3. a) In Kittel the denition of polarizability gives a complicated dimension in the SI system. In the SI system a more practical denition of is P = j Nj j 0 Eloc (j). What is the dimension of ? (0.5 p) 3. b) The local electric eld can generally be written as Eloc = E +P/(30 )+E3 . Explain briey the meaning of the three terms on the right side of the equation. (0.5 p)

Magnetism 4. a) Show that the Pauli susceptibility of conduction electrons is p = 0 2 D(F ). (1 p) B 4. b) Metallic copper has one 4s valence electron outside a full (10 electrons) d shell. The VanVleck contribution to the susceptibility can be neglected. Explain briey why the paramagnetism of free spins is not observed in copper. The two remaining contributions have opposite signs. Why does the diamagnetic contribution dominate over the Pauli contribution? (1 p) 4. c) A system of N particles has S = 1/2 and L = 0. What is the smallest magnetic eld required for 80 % of the particles to be in the lowest energy state at 4.2 K? (1.5 p) 4. d) A ferromagnet has FCC structure with lattice parameter 3.84 (cubic cell side) and magnetic moment 1.2B per atom at 0 K. Well above the Curie temperature the magnetic susceptibility data in table 1 was recorded. Analayze this data in a suitable way and determine the Curie temperature, the Curie constant (= C in Kittel) and the exchange eld BE at 0 K, in the mean eld approximation (Weiss approximation). (1.5 p)

## (dimensionless) 0.00165 0.00125 0.00103

Table 1. Magnetic susceptibility data recorded well above the Curie temperature in ferromagnet.