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Useful slides to learn the basic principles of the useful mathematics for the 3d computer graphic

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Topics

Points, Vectors, Vertices, Coordinates

Dot Products, Cross Products

Lines, Planes, Intercepts

References

Many texts cover the linear algebra used for 3D graphics . . .

. . . the texts below are good references, Akenine-M oller is more relevant to the class.

Appendix A in T. Akenine-M oller, E. Haines, N. Homan, Real-Time Rendering, Third

Edition, A. K. Peters Ltd.

Appendix A in Foley, van Dam, Feiner, Huges, Computer Graphics: Principles and Prac-

tice, Second Edition, Addison Wesley.

math-1 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-1

math-2 math-2

Points and Vectors

Point:

Indivisible location in space.

E.g., P

1

=

_

1

2

3

_

, P

2

=

_

4

5

6

_

Vector:

Dierence between two points.

E.g., V = P

2

P

1

=

P

1

P

2

=

_

4 1

5 2

6 3

_

=

_

3

3

3

_

.

Equivalently: P

2

= P

1

+V .

Dont confuse points and vectors!

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math-3 math-3

Point-Related Terminology

Will dene several terms related to points.

At times they may be used interchangeably.

Point:

A location in space.

Coordinate:

A representation of location.

Vertex:

Term may mean point, coordinate, or part of graphical object.

As used in class, vertex is a less formal term.

It might refer to a point, its coordinate, and other info like color.

math-3 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-3

math-4 math-4

Coordinate:

A representation of where a point is located.

Familiar representations:

3D Cartesian P = (x, y, z).

2D Polar P = (r, ).

In class we will use 3D homogeneous coordinates.

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math-5 math-5

Homogeneous Coordinates

Homogeneous Coordinate:

A coordinate representation for points in 3D space consisting of four components. . .

. . . each component is a real number. . .

. . . and the last component is non-zero.

Representation: P =

_

_

x

y

z

w

_

_

, where w = 0.

P refers to same point as Cartesian coordinate (x/w, y/w, z/w).

To save paper sometimes written as (x, y, z, w).

math-5 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-5

math-6 math-6

Homogeneous Coordinates

Each point can be described by many homogeneous coordinates . . .

. . . for example, (10, 20, 30) =

_

_

10

20

30

1

_

_

=

_

_

5

10

15

0.5

_

_

=

_

_

20

40

60

2

_

_

=

_

_

10w

20w

30w

w

_

_

=. . .

. . . these are all equivalent so long as w = 0.

Column matrix

_

_

x

y

z

0

_

_

could not be a homogeneous coordinate . . .

. . . but it could be a vector.

math-6 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-6

math-7 math-7

Homogeneous Coordinates

Why not just Cartesian coordinates like (x, y, z)?

The w simplies certain computations.

Confused?

Then for a little while pretend that

_

_

x

y

z

1

_

_

is just (x, y, z).

math-7 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-7

math-8 math-8

Homogenized Homogeneous Coordinate

A homogeneous coordinate is homogenized by dividing each element by the last.

For example, the homogenization of

_

_

x

y

z

w

_

_

is

_

_

x/w

y/w

z/w

1

_

_

Homogenization is also known as perspective divide.

math-8 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-8

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Vector Arithmetic

Vector Arithmetic

Points just sit there, its vectors that do all the work.

In other words, most operations dened on vectors.

Point/Vector Sum

The result of adding a point to a vector is a point.

Consider point with homogenized coordinate P = (x, y, z, 1) and vector V = (i, j, k).

The sum P +V is the point with coordinate

_

_

x

y

z

1

_

_

+

_

_

i

j

k

_

_

=

_

_

x +i

y +j

z +k

1

_

_

This follows directly from the vector denition.

math-9 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-9

math-10 math-10

Scalar/Vector Multiplication

The result of multiplying scalar a with a vector is a vector. . .

. . . that is a times longer but points in the same or opposite direction. . .

. . . if a = 0.

Let a denote a scalar real number and V a vector.

The scalar vector product is aV = a

_

_

x

y

z

_

_

=

_

_

ax

ay

az

_

_

.

math-10 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-10

math-11 math-11

Vector/Vector Addition

The result of adding two vectors is another vector.

Let V

1

=

_

_

x

1

y

1

z

1

_

_

and V

2

=

_

_

x

2

y

2

z

2

_

_

denote two vectors.

The vector sum, denoted U +V , is

_

_

x

1

+x

2

y

1

+y

2

z

1

+z

2

_

_

Vector subtraction could be dened similarly. . .

. . . but doesnt need to be because we can use scalar/vector multiplication: V

1

V

2

=

V

1

+ (1 V

2

).

math-11 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-11

math-12 math-12

Vector Addition Properties

Vector addition is associative:

U + (V +W) = (U +V ) +W.

Vector addition is commutative:

U +V = V +U.

math-12 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-12

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Vector Magnitude, Normalization

Vector Magnitude

The magnitude of a vector is its length, a scalar.

The magnitude of V =

_

_

x

y

z

_

_

denoted V , is

_

x

2

+y

2

+z

2

.

The magnitude is also called the length and the norm.

Vector V is called a unit vector if V = 1.

A vector is normalized by dividing each of its components by its length.

The notation

V indicates V/V , the normalized version of V .

math-13 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-13

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Dot Product

The Vector Dot Product

The dot product of two vectors is a scalar.

Roughly, it indicates how much they point in the same direction.

Consider vectors V

1

=

_

_

x

1

y

1

z

1

_

_

and V

2

=

_

_

x

2

y

2

z

2

_

_

.

The dot product of V

1

and V

2

, denoted V

1

V

2

, is x

1

x

2

+y

1

y

2

+z

1

z

2

.

math-14 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-14

math-15 math-15

Dot Product Properties

Let U, V , and W be vectors.

Let a be a scalar.

Miscellaneous Dot Product Properties

(U +V ) W = U W +V W

(aU) V = a(U V )

U V = V U

abs(U U) = U

2

math-15 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-15

math-16 math-16

Dot Product Properties

Orthogonality

The more casual term is perpendicular.

Vectors U and V are called orthogonal i U V = 0.

This is an important property for nding intercepts.

math-16 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-16

math-17 math-17

Dot Product Properties

Angle

Let U and V be two vectors.

Then U V = UV cos . . .

. . . where is the smallest angle between the two vectors.

math-17 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-17

math-18 math-18

Cross Product

Cross Product

The cross product of two vectors results in a vector orthogonal to both.

The cross product of vectors V

1

and V

2

, denoted V

1

V

2

, is

V

1

V

2

=

_

_

x

1

y

1

z

1

_

_

_

_

x

2

y

2

z

2

_

_

=

_

_

y

1

z

2

z

1

y

2

z

1

x

2

x

1

z

2

x

1

y

2

y

1

x

2

_

_

.

math-18 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-18

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Cross Product Properties

Cross Product Properties

Let U and V be two vectors and let W = U V .

Then both U and V are orthogonal to W.

U V = UV sin .

U V = V U.

(aU +bV ) W = a(U W) +b(V W).

If U and V dene a parallelogram, its area is U V . . .

. . . if they dene a triangle its area is

1

2

U V .

math-19 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-19

math-20 math-20 Lines, Planes, Intercepts

Lines, planes, and intercepts covered on the blackboard.

math-20 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-20

math-21 math-21

Sample Problem

Problem: A light model species that in a scene with a light of brightness b (scalar) at

location L (coordinate), and a point P on a surface with normal n, the lighted color,

c, of P (a scalar) will be the dot product of the surface normal with the direction to

the light divided by the distance to the light.

Restate this as a formula.

Estimate the number of oating point operations in a streamlined computation.

Solution:

Formula: c = b

PL n

1

PL

.

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Transforms

Transformation:

A mapping (conversion) from one coordinate set to another (e.g., from feet to meters) or to a

new location in an existing coordinate set.

Particular Transformations to be Covered

Translation: Moving things around.

Scale: Change size.

Rotation: Rotate around some axis.

Projection: Moving to a surface.

Transform by multiplying 4 4 matrix with coordinate.

P

new

= M

transform

P

old

.

math-22 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-22

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Transforms

Scale Transform

S(s) =

_

_

_

s 0 0 0

0 s 0 0

0 0 s 0

0 0 0 1

_

_

_

.

S(s, t, u) =

_

_

_

s 0 0 0

0 t 0 0

0 0 u 0

0 0 0 1

_

_

_

.

S(s) stretches an object s times along each axis.

S(s, t, u) stretches an object s times along the x-axis, t times along the y-axis, and u times

along the z-axis.

Scaling centered on the origin.

math-23 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-23

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Transforms

Rotation Transformations

R

x

() rotates around x axis by ; likewise for R

y

and R

z

.

R

x

() =

_

_

_

1 0 0 0

0 cos sin 0

0 sin cos 0

0 0 0 1

_

_

_

.

R

y

() =

_

_

_

cos 0 sin 0

0 1 0 0

sin 0 cos 0

0 0 0 1

_

_

_

.

R

z

() =

_

_

_

cos sin 0 0

sin cos 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

_

_

_

.

math-24 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-24

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Transforms

Translation Transform

T(s, t, u) =

_

_

_

1 0 0 s

0 1 0 t

0 0 1 u

0 0 0 1

_

_

_

.

Moves point s units along x axis, etc.

math-25 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-25

math-26 math-26

Transforms and Matrix Arithmetic

Miscellaneous Matrix Multiplication Math

Let M and N denote arbitrary 4 4 matrices.

Identity Matrix

I =

_

_

_

1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

_

_

_

.

IM = MI = M.

math-26 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-26

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Transforms and Matrix Arithmetic

Matrix Inverse

Matrix A is an inverse of M i AM = MA = I.

Will use M

1

to denote inverse.

Not every matrix has an inverse.

Computing inverse of an arbitrary matrix expensive . . .

. . . but inverse of some matrices are easy to compute . . .

. . . for example, T(x, y, z)

1

= T(x, y, z).

Matrix Multiplication Rules

Is associative: (LM)N = L(MN).

Is not commutative: MN = NM for arbitrary M and N.

(MN)

1

= N

1

M

1

. (Note change in order.)

math-27 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-27

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Projection Transformations

Projection Transform:

A transform that maps a coordinate to a space with fewer dimensions.

A projection transform will map a 3D coordinate from our physical or graphical model . . .

. . . to a 2D location on our monitor (or a window).

Projection Types

Vague denitions on this page.

Perspective Projection

Points appear to be in correct location,. . .

. . . as though monitor were just a window into the simulated world.

This projection used when realism is important.

Orthographic Projection

A projection without perspective foreshortening.

This projection used when a real ruler will be used to measure distances.

math-28 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-28

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Perspective Projection Derivation

Lets put user and users monitor in world coordinate space:

Location of users eye: E.

A point on the users monitor: Q.

Normal to users monitor pointing away from user: n.

Goal:

Find S, point where line from E to P intercepts monitor (plane Q, n).

Line from E to P called the projector.

The users monitor is in the projection plane.

The point S is called the projection of point P on the projection plane.

math-29 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-29

math-30 math-30

Solution:

Projector equation: S = E +t

EP.

Projection plane equation:

QS n = 0.

Find point S thats on projector and projection plane:

Q(E +t

EP) n = 0

(E +t

EP Q) n = 0

QE n +t

EP n = 0

t =

EQ n

EP n

S = E +

EQ n

EP n

EP

Note:

EQ n is distance from user to plane in direction n . . .

. . . and

EP n is distance from user to point in direction n.

math-30 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-30

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Perspective Projection Derivation

To simplify projection:

Fix E = (0, 0, 0): Put user at origin.

Fix n = (0, 0, 1): Make monitor parallel to xy plane.

Result:

S = E +

EQ n

EP n

EP

S =

q

z

p

z

P,

where q

z

is the z component of Q, and p

z

dened similarly.

The key operation in perspective projection is dividing out by z (given our geometry).

math-31 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-31

math-32 math-32

Simple Perspective Projection Transformation

Simple Projection Transform

Eye at origin, projection surface at (x, y, q

z

), normal is (0, 0, 1).

F

q

z

=

_

_

_

q

z

0 0 0

0 q

z

0 0

0 0 0 q

z

0 0 1 0

_

_

_

Note: F

q

z

_

_

x

y

z

1

_

_

=

_

_

q

z

x

q

z

y

q

z

z

_

_

=

_

_

q

z

z

x

q

z

z

y

q

z

z

1

_

_

This maps z coordinates to q

z

/z, which will be useful.

math-32 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-32

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Frustum Perspective Transform

Frustum Perspective Transform

Given six values: l, r, t, b, n, f (left, right, top, bottom, near, far).

Eye at origin, projection surface at (x, y, n), normal is (0, 0, 1).

Viewer screen is rectangle from (l, b, n) to (r, t, n).

Points with z > t and z < f are not of interest.

F

l,r,t,b,n,f

=

_

_

_

_

2n

rl

0

r+l

rl

0

0

2n

tb

t+b

tb

0

0 0

f+n

fn

2

fn

fn

0 0 1 0

_

_

_

_

math-33 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:34, 29 August 2011 from set-1-math. math-33

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