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chapter 03

True / False Questions


1. The most important advantage of transmission electron microscope (TEM) over light microscope (LM) is its higher resolution. True False If a cell doubled in diameter, it would have twice as much cytoplasm to maintain. True False In the plasma membrane, glycolipids and glycoproteins face toward the cytoplasm, while peripheral proteins always face toward the ECF. True False A cell's second messengers serve to transport material through the plasma membrane. True False Microvilli and cilia differ in their function but have the same internal structure. True False Ligand-gated channels are membrane proteins that open or close in response to the binding of a chemical. True False The greater the concentration gradient the faster the diffusion rate. True False The Na+-K+ ATPase is a countertransport antiport carrier, which always requires energy. True False The sodium-glucose transport protein (SGLT) is one example of an active transport process involving a uniport carrier. True False

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10. One example of pinocytosis is the uptake of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) by endothelial cells. True False 11. Both the nucleus and the mitochondrion are surrounded by two layers of unit membrane. True False 12. The nucleus is the largest organelle in most cells. True False 13. Ribosomes are made of proteins and RNA. True False 14. The Golgi complex makes peroxisomes but not lysosomes. True False 15. A crystal of calcium phosphate in the cytoplasm of a cell should be classified as an inclusion. True False

Multiple Choice Questions

16. All of the generalizations below constitute the modern cell theory except A. an organism's structure and all of its functions are ultimately due to the activities of its cells. B. all cells come only from preexisting cells. C. all cells occupy space. D. all organisms are composed of cells and cell products. E. the cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life. 17. ________ cells are thick in the middle and tapered toward the end. A. Squamous B. Stellate C. Columnar D. Spheroid E. Fusiform 18. Most human cells range from 10 to 15 micrometers in diameter. What limits how large a cell can be? A. a cell's lifespan B. nutrients available in the environment of a cell C. the relationship between its volume and length D. the relationship between its length and surface area E. the relationship between its volume and surface area 19. The fluid outside of a cell is called A. cytosol. B. intracellular fluid. C. extracellular fluid. D. cytoplasm. E. nucleoplasm. 20. The flat-shaped cells found covering the skin are A. cuboidal. B. columnar. C. cylindrical. D. squamous. E. spherical. 21. Although the transmission electron microscope (TEM) can magnify much more than a light microscope, even at identical magnifications the TEM has the advantage of A. being able to produce photographs of the specimen. B. being able to work in a vacuum. C. being able to show individual molecules. D. producing higher resolution. E. working better with thinner tissue specimens. 22. ______ are the most abundant molecules in the plasma membrane. A. Glycolipids B. Phospholipids C. Prostaglandins D. Proteins E. Cholesterol molecules 23. _____ are membrane proteins that bind to signals by which cells communicate. A. Receptors B. Enzymes C. Carriers D. Cell-identity markers E. Cell-adhesion molecules

24. A receptor protein in the plasma membrane will not bind to just any chemical in the extracellular fluid, but only to certain ones. That is to say, the receptor exhibits A. selectivity. B. specificity. C. efficacy. D. saturation. E. fidelity. 25. In its second-messenger role, cAMP activates enzymes called ______, whose job is to regulate other enzymes by adding phosphate groups to them. A. transmembrane proteins B. peripheral proteins C. kinases D. glycocalyx E. blockers 26. Transmembrane proteins that make up enzymes in the plasma membrane are made up of hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. Most amino acids embedded in the membrane are ________, while most amino acids facing the extracellular fluid are __________. A. hydrophilic; hydrophilic B. hydrophilic; hydrophobic C. hydrophobic; hydrophobic D. hydrophobic; hydrophilic E. lipophilic; lipophobic 27. Gates respond to all these stimuli except A. chemical messengers. B. ligands. C. changes in electrical potential (voltage) across the plasma membrane. D. physical deformation of the plasma membrane. E. water in the extracellular fluid. 28. ______ act like identification tags in the glycocalyx that enable the body to distinguish its own cells from foreign and diseased cells. A. Glycoproteins B. Lipoproteins C. Cholesterol molecules D. Phospholipids E. Cell-adhesion molecules 29. ______ provide motility to a cell, ______ act as sensory "antenna" in many cells, and ____________ increase a cell's surface area. A. Cilia; microvilli; flagella B. Microvilli; cilia; flagella C. Microvilli; flagella; cilia D. Flagella; microvilli; cilia E. Flagella; cilia; microvilli 30. Cells lining the small intestine are specialized for absorption of nutrients. Their plasma membrane has A. flagella. B. cilia. C. microvilli. D. a glycocalyx. E. dynein arms.

31. This figure shows the plasma membrane. What does "A" represent? A. a peripheral protein B. a channel protein C. a glycoprotein D. cholesterol E. a phospholipid 32. This figure shows the plasma membrane. What does "C" represent? A. a peripheral protein B. a channel protein C. a glycoprotein D. cholesterol E. a phospholipid 33. This figure shows the plasma membrane. What does "D" represent? A. a peripheral protein B. a channel protein C. a glycoprotein D. a phospholipid E. cholesterol 34. _____________ consume ATP when transferring solutes from one side to the other side of the plasma membrane. A. Receptors B. Pumps C. Cell-adhesion molecules D. Channels E. Cell-identity markers 35. Two solutions are separated by a selectively permeable membrane. If solution A has a higher concentration of a nonpermeating solute than solution B, then, A. the solute will pass down its concentration gradient from solution A to B. B. the solute will pass down its concentration gradient from solution B to A. C. water will pass down its concentration gradient from solution A to B. D. water will pass down its concentration gradient from solution B to A. E. neither the solute nor water will diffuse.

36. _____________ is the process in which ____________ forces water and small solutes such as salts through narrow clefts between capillary cells. A. Filtration; hydrostatic pressure B. Osmosis; hydrostatic pressure C. Active transport; osmotic pressure D. Active transport; hydrostatic pressure E. Osmosis; osmotic pressure 37. Water flows through a selectively permeable membrane in a process called __________, but water molecules cross the membrane more easily through channels of transmembrane proteins called __________. A. osmosis; water pumps B. osmosis; aquaporins C. osmosis; uniport D. filtration; aquaporins E. filtration; water pumps 38. Insulin is taken up by endocytosis by endothelial cells lining capillaries, and then transported across the cell to the other side, where it is released. This transport is called A. pinocytosis. B. receptor-mediated phagocytosis. C. passive transport. D. facilitated transport. E. transcytosis. 39. Sodium and glucose are transported together from the intestinal lumen into an intestinal cell. The carrier protein is a(n) __________ and the process is called ____________. A. symport; cotransport B. symport; countertransport C. antiport; countertransport D. antiport; cotransport E. uniport; facilitated diffusion 40. The sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) pump transports both sodium and potassium __________ their concentration gradients in a process called ____________. A. up; active transport B. up; facilitated transport C. up; cotransport D. down; active transport E. down; countertransport 41. A red blood cell is placed in a hypertonic solution. The concentration of solutes in the solution is __________ than the concentration of solutes in the intracellular fluid and will cause the cell to ______________. A. higher; swell B. lower; swell C. higher; shrink D. lower; shrink E. lower; burst 42. Facilitated diffusion and active transport have in common that both A. are processes involving transport of a solute up its concentration gradient. B. are processes involving transport of a solute down its concentration gradient. C. are processes involving the use of energy provided by ATP. D. are processes ATP independent. E. are cases of carrier-mediated transport.

43. ______ describes the number of particles of a solute in a solution, whereas ______ is the ability of a solution to affect the fluid volume in a cell. A. Tonicity; osmolarity B. Osmolarity; diffusion C. Osmolarity; tonicity D. Osmolarity; molarity E. Tonicity; diffusion 44. Which of the following processes could occur only through the plasma membrane of a living cell? A. facilitated diffusion B. simple diffusion C. filtration D. osmosis E. active transport 45. Particles can leave a cell by any of these means except by A. active transport. B. exocytosis. C. simple diffusion. D. an antiport system. E. pinocytosis. 46. White blood cells engulf bacteria by means of A. phagocytosis. B. cotransport. C. pinocytosis. D. active transport. E. receptor-mediated endocytosis. 47. The Na+-K+ pump has the following functions except A. heat production. B. transport of Na+ into the cell and K+ out of the cell. C. secondary active transport. D. regulation of cell volume. E. maintenance of membrane potential. 48. A patient was severely dehydrated, losing a large amount of fluid. The patient was given intravenous fluids of normal saline. Normal saline is ________ to your blood cells and is about __________ NaCl. A. isotonic; 9% B. isotonic; 0.9% C. hypertonic; 9% D. hypotonic; 0.9% E. hypotonic; 9% 49. Which of these is an example of active transport? A. diffusion of oxygen from a place of high concentration to a place of lower concentration B. facilitated diffusion of K+ C. transport of glucose down its concentration gradient D. transport of Na+ from a place of low concentration to a place of higher concentration E. transport of Cl- following its concentration gradient 50. Which of these bring nonspecific material into a cell? A. phagocytosis B. receptor-mediated endocytosis C. transcytosis D. pinocytosis E. exocytosis

51. These are all membranous organelles except A. mitochondria. B. ribosomes. C. the nucleus. D. endoplasmic reticulum. E. the Golgi complex. 52. Among other functions, hepatocytes (liver cells) are specialized in detoxifying drugs or other chemicals. Hepatocytes have large amounts of A. DNA. B. smooth endoplasmic reticulum. C. microtubules. D. cilia. E. centrioles. 53. What function would immediately cease if the ribosomes of a cell were destroyed? A. exocytosis B. active transport C. ciliary action D. protein synthesis E. osmosis 54. What organelle is most active in causing programmed cell death? A. rough endoplasmic reticulum B. nucleus C. centriole D. lysosome E. mitochondrion 55. Muscle cells contain numerous _____________ to serve their high demand for ATP. A. ribosomes B. lysosomes C. mitochondria D. inclusions E. Golgi vesicles 56. This organelle synthesizes steroids in the ovary and stores calcium in muscle cells. A. smooth endoplasmic reticulum B. rough endoplasmic reticulum C. nucleus D. mitochondrion E. Golgi complex 57. ______ play an important role in cell division, and they are made of __________. A. Mitochondria; microtubules B. Ribosomes; intermediate filaments C. Nucleoli; microfilaments D. Centrioles; microtubules E. Inclusions; centrosomes 58. ________________ synthesize(s) carbohydrates and put(s) finishing touches on proteins synthesized at ____________. A. Smooth ER; rough ER B. The Golgi complex; rough ER C. Smooth ER; the Golgi complex D. The Golgi complex; smooth ER E. Ribosomes; smooth ER

59. ______ decompose fatty acids, and detoxify alcohol, free radicals, and drugs. A. Lysosomes B. Microvilli C. Inclusions D. Peroxisomes E. Golgi vesicles 60. ___________ is not involved in protein synthesis. A. Smooth ER B. Rough ER C. The Golgi complex D. The nucleus E. Ribosomes 61. ____________ gives structural support, determines the shape of a cell, and directs the movement of substances through the cell. A. Cholesterol B. The nucleus C. The plasma membrane D. The Golgi complex E. The cytoskeleton

62. This figure shows the structure of a representative cell. What does "A" represent? A. smooth ER B. rough ER C. Golgi complex D. mitochondrion E. nucleolus 63. This figure shows the structure of a representative cell. What does "D" represent? A. mitochondrion B. rough ER C. smooth ER D. Golgi complex E. nucleolus

64. This figure shows the structure of a representative cell. What does "C" represent? A. Golgi complex B. rough ER C. smooth ER D. mitochondrion E. nucleolus 65. This figure shows the structure of a representative cell. What does "B" represent? A. Golgi complex B. rough ER C. smooth ER D. mitochondrion E. nucleolus

chapter 03 Key
True / False Questions
1. The most important advantage of transmission electron microscope (TEM) over light microscope (LM) is its higher resolution. TRUE
Bloom's Level: 2. Understand Learning Outcome: 03.01.d Discuss the way that developments in microscopy have changed our view of cell structure. Section: 03.01 Topic: Cells

2.

If a cell doubled in diameter, it would have twice as much cytoplasm to maintain. FALSE
Bloom's Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 03.01.c State the size range of human cells and discuss factors that limit cell size. Section: 03.01 Topic: Cells

3.

In the plasma membrane, glycolipids and glycoproteins face toward the cytoplasm, while peripheral proteins always face toward the ECF. FALSE
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.02.a Describe the structure of the plasma membrane. Section: 03.02 Topic: Cells

4.

A cell's second messengers serve to transport material through the plasma membrane. FALSE
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.02.c Describe the second-messenger system and discuss its importance in human physiology. Section: 03.02 Topic: Cells

5.

Microvilli and cilia differ in their function but have the same internal structure. FALSE
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.02.e Describe the structure and functions of microvilli, cilia, and flagella. Section: 03.02 Topic: Cells

6.

Ligand-gated channels are membrane proteins that open or close in response to the binding of a chemical. TRUE
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.02.b Explain the functions of the lipid, protein, and carbohydrate components of the plasma membrane. Section: 03.02 Topic: Cells

7.

The greater the concentration gradient the faster the diffusion rate. TRUE
Bloom's Level: 2. Understand Learning Outcome: 03.03.b Describe the various mechanisms for transporting material through the plasma membrane. Section: 03.03 Topic: Cells

8.

The Na+-K+ ATPase is a countertransport antiport carrier, which always requires energy. TRUE

Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.03.b Describe the various mechanisms for transporting material through the plasma membrane. Section: 03.03 Topic: Cells

9.

The sodium-glucose transport protein (SGLT) is one example of an active transport process involving a uniport carrier. FALSE
Bloom's Level: 2. Understand Learning Outcome: 03.03.b Describe the various mechanisms for transporting material through the plasma membrane. Section: 03.03 Topic: Cells

10.

One example of pinocytosis is the uptake of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) by endothelial cells. FALSE
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.03.b Describe the various mechanisms for transporting material through the plasma membrane. Section: 03.03 Topic: Cells

11.

Both the nucleus and the mitochondrion are surrounded by two layers of unit membrane. TRUE
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.04.a List the main organelles of a cell, describe their structure, and explain their functions. Section: 03.04 Topic: Cells

12.

The nucleus is the largest organelle in most cells. TRUE


Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.04.a List the main organelles of a cell, describe their structure, and explain their functions. Section: 03.04 Topic: Cells

13.

Ribosomes are made of proteins and RNA. TRUE


Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.04.a List the main organelles of a cell, describe their structure, and explain their functions. Section: 03.04 Topic: Cells

14.

The Golgi complex makes peroxisomes but not lysosomes. FALSE


Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.04.a List the main organelles of a cell, describe their structure, and explain their functions. Section: 03.04 Topic: Cells

15.

A crystal of calcium phosphate in the cytoplasm of a cell should be classified as an inclusion. TRUE
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.04.c Give some examples of cell inclusions and explain how inclusions differ from organelles. Section: 03.04 Topic: Cells

Multiple Choice Questions


16. All of the generalizations below constitute the modern cell theory except A. an organism's structure and all of its functions are ultimately due to the activities of its cells. B. all cells come only from preexisting cells. C. all cells occupy space. D. all organisms are composed of cells and cell products. E. the cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life.
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.01.a Discuss the development and modern tenets of the cell theory. Section: 03.01 Topic: Cells

17.

________ cells are thick in the middle and tapered toward the end. A. Squamous B. Stellate C. Columnar D. Spheroid E. Fusiform
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.01.b Describe cell shapes from their descriptive terms. Section: 03.01 Topic: Cells

18.

Most human cells range from 10 to 15 micrometers in diameter. What limits how large a cell can be? A. B. C. D. E. a cell's lifespan nutrients available in the environment of a cell the relationship between its volume and length the relationship between its length and surface area the relationship between its volume and surface area
Bloom's Level: 2. Understand Learning Outcome: 03.01.c State the size range of human cells and discuss factors that limit cell size. Section: 03.01 Topic: Cells

19.

The fluid outside of a cell is called A. cytosol. B. intracellular fluid. C. extracellular fluid. D. cytoplasm. E. nucleoplasm.
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.01.e Outline the major components of a cell. Section: 03.01 Topic: Cells

20.

The flat-shaped cells found covering the skin are A. cuboidal. B. columnar. C. cylindrical. D. squamous. E. spherical.
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.01.b Describe cell shapes from their descriptive terms. Section: 03.01 Topic: Cells

21.

Although the transmission electron microscope (TEM) can magnify much more than a light microscope, even at identical magnifications the TEM has the advantage of A. being able to produce photographs of the specimen. B. being able to work in a vacuum. C. being able to show individual molecules. D. producing higher resolution. E. working better with thinner tissue specimens.
Bloom's Level: 2. Understand Learning Outcome: 03.01.d Discuss the way that developments in microscopy have changed our view of cell structure. Section: 03.01 Topic: Cells

22.

______ are the most abundant molecules in the plasma membrane. A. Glycolipids B. Phospholipids C. Prostaglandins D. Proteins E. Cholesterol molecules
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.02.a Describe the structure of the plasma membrane. Section: 03.02 Topic: Cells

23.

_____ are membrane proteins that bind to signals by which cells communicate. A. Receptors B. Enzymes C. Carriers D. Cell-identity markers E. Cell-adhesion molecules
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.02.b Explain the functions of the lipid, protein, and carbohydrate components of the plasma membrane. Section: 03.02 Topic: Cells

24.

A receptor protein in the plasma membrane will not bind to just any chemical in the extracellular fluid, but only to certain ones. That is to say, the receptor exhibits A. selectivity. B. specificity. C. efficacy. D. saturation. E. fidelity.
Bloom's Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 03.02.b Explain the functions of the lipid, protein, and carbohydrate components of the plasma membrane. Section: 03.02 Topic: Cells

25.

In its second-messenger role, cAMP activates enzymes called ______, whose job is to regulate other enzymes by adding phosphate groups to them. A. transmembrane proteins B. peripheral proteins C. kinases D. glycocalyx E. blockers
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.02.c Describe the second-messenger system and discuss its importance in human physiology. Section: 03.02 Topic: Cells

26.

Transmembrane proteins that make up enzymes in the plasma membrane are made up of hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. Most amino acids embedded in the membrane are ________, while most amino acids facing the extracellular fluid are __________. A. hydrophilic; hydrophilic B. hydrophilic; hydrophobic C. hydrophobic; hydrophobic D. hydrophobic; hydrophilic E. lipophilic; lipophobic
Bloom's Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 03.02.b Explain the functions of the lipid, protein, and carbohydrate components of the plasma membrane. Section: 03.02 Topic: Cells

27.

Gates respond to all these stimuli except A. chemical messengers. B. ligands. C. changes in electrical potential (voltage) across the plasma membrane. D. physical deformation of the plasma membrane. E. water in the extracellular fluid.
Bloom's Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 03.02.b Explain the functions of the lipid, protein, and carbohydrate components of the plasma membrane. Section: 03.02 Topic: Cells

28.

______ act like identification tags in the glycocalyx that enable the body to distinguish its own cells from foreign and diseased cells. A. Glycoproteins B. Lipoproteins C. Cholesterol molecules D. Phospholipids E. Cell-adhesion molecules
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.02.b Explain the functions of the lipid, protein, and carbohydrate components of the plasma membrane. Section: 03.02 Topic: Cells

29.

______ provide motility to a cell, ______ act as sensory "antenna" in many cells, and ____________ increase a cell's surface area. A. Cilia; microvilli; flagella B. Microvilli; cilia; flagella C. Microvilli; flagella; cilia D. Flagella; microvilli; cilia E. Flagella; cilia; microvilli
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.02.e Describe the structure and functions of microvilli, cilia, and flagella. Section: 03.02 Topic: Cells

30.

Cells lining the small intestine are specialized for absorption of nutrients. Their plasma membrane has A. B. C. D. E. flagella. cilia. microvilli. a glycocalyx. dynein arms.
Bloom's Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 03.02.e Describe the structure and functions of microvilli, cilia, and flagella. Section: 03.02 Topic: Cells

Learning Outcome: 03.02.a Describe the structure of the plasma membrane.

31.

This figure shows the plasma membrane. What does "A" represent? A. a peripheral protein B. a channel protein C. a glycoprotein D. cholesterol E. a phospholipid
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Figure: 03.06 Learning Outcome: 03.02.a Describe the structure of the plasma membrane. Section: 03.02 Topic: Cells

32.

This figure shows the plasma membrane. What does "C" represent? A. a peripheral protein B. a channel protein C. a glycoprotein D. cholesterol E. a phospholipid
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Figure: 03.06 Learning Outcome: 03.02.a Describe the structure of the plasma membrane. Section: 03.02 Topic: Cells

33.

This figure shows the plasma membrane. What does "D" represent? A. a peripheral protein B. a channel protein C. a glycoprotein D. a phospholipid E. cholesterol
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Figure: 03.06 Learning Outcome: 03.02.a Describe the structure of the plasma membrane. Section: 03.02 Topic: Cells

34.

_____________ consume ATP when transferring solutes from one side to the other side of the plasma membrane. A. Receptors B. Pumps C. Cell-adhesion molecules D. Channels E. Cell-identity markers
Bloom's Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 03.03.b Describe the various mechanisms for transporting material through the plasma membrane. Section: 03.03 Topic: Cells

35.

Two solutions are separated by a selectively permeable membrane. If solution A has a higher concentration of a nonpermeating solute than solution B, then, A. the solute will pass down its concentration gradient from solution A to B. B. the solute will pass down its concentration gradient from solution B to A. C. water will pass down its concentration gradient from solution A to B. D. water will pass down its concentration gradient from solution B to A. E. neither the solute nor water will diffuse.
Bloom's Level: 5. Evaluate Learning Outcome: 03.03.c Define osmolarity and tonicity and explain their importance. Section: 03.03 Topic: Cells

36.

_____________ is the process in which ____________ forces water and small solutes such as salts through narrow clefts between capillary cells. A. Filtration; hydrostatic pressure B. Osmosis; hydrostatic pressure C. Active transport; osmotic pressure D. Active transport; hydrostatic pressure E. Osmosis; osmotic pressure
Bloom's Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 03.03.b Describe the various mechanisms for transporting material through the plasma membrane. Section: 03.03 Topic: Cells

37.

Water flows through a selectively permeable membrane in a process called __________, but water molecules cross the membrane more easily through channels of transmembrane proteins called __________. A. osmosis; water pumps B. osmosis; aquaporins C. osmosis; uniport D. filtration; aquaporins E. filtration; water pumps
Bloom's Level: 2. Understand Learning Outcome: 03.03.b Describe the various mechanisms for transporting material through the plasma membrane. Section: 03.03 Topic: Cells

38.

Insulin is taken up by endocytosis by endothelial cells lining capillaries, and then transported across the cell to the other side, where it is released. This transport is called A. pinocytosis. B. receptor-mediated phagocytosis. C. passive transport. D. facilitated transport. E. transcytosis.
Bloom's Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 03.03.b Describe the various mechanisms for transporting material through the plasma membrane. Section: 03.03 Topic: Cells

39.

Sodium and glucose are transported together from the intestinal lumen into an intestinal cell. The carrier protein is a(n) __________ and the process is called ____________. A. symport; cotransport B. symport; countertransport C. antiport; countertransport D. antiport; cotransport E. uniport; facilitated diffusion
Bloom's Level: 2. Understand Learning Outcome: 03.03.b Describe the various mechanisms for transporting material through the plasma membrane. Section: 03.03 Topic: Cells

40.

The sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) pump transports both sodium and potassium __________ their concentration gradients in a process called ____________. A. up; active transport B. up; facilitated transport C. up; cotransport D. down; active transport E. down; countertransport

Bloom's Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 03.03.b Describe the various mechanisms for transporting material through the plasma membrane. Section: 03.03 Topic: Cells

41.

A red blood cell is placed in a hypertonic solution. The concentration of solutes in the solution is __________ than the concentration of solutes in the intracellular fluid and will cause the cell to ______________. A. higher; swell B. lower; swell C. higher; shrink D. lower; shrink E. lower; burst
Bloom's Level: 5. Evaluate Learning Outcome: 03.03.c Define osmolarity and tonicity and explain their importance. Section: 03.03 Topic: Cells

42.

Facilitated diffusion and active transport have in common that both A. are processes involving transport of a solute up its concentration gradient. B. are processes involving transport of a solute down its concentration gradient. C. are processes involving the use of energy provided by ATP. D. are processes ATP independent. E. are cases of carrier-mediated transport.
Bloom's Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 03.03.b Describe the various mechanisms for transporting material through the plasma membrane. Section: 03.03 Topic: Cells

43.

______ describes the number of particles of a solute in a solution, whereas ______ is the ability of a solution to affect the fluid volume in a cell. A. Tonicity; osmolarity B. Osmolarity; diffusion C. Osmolarity; tonicity D. Osmolarity; molarity E. Tonicity; diffusion
Bloom's Level: 2. Understand Learning Outcome: 03.03.c Define osmolarity and tonicity and explain their importance. Section: 03.03 Topic: Cells

44.

Which of the following processes could occur only through the plasma membrane of a living cell? A. B. C. D. E. facilitated diffusion simple diffusion filtration osmosis active transport
Bloom's Level: 5. Evaluate Learning Outcome: 03.03.b Describe the various mechanisms for transporting material through the plasma membrane. Section: 03.03 Topic: Cells

45.

Particles can leave a cell by any of these means except by A. active transport. B. exocytosis. C. simple diffusion. D. an antiport system. E. pinocytosis.
Bloom's Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 03.03.b Describe the various mechanisms for transporting material through the plasma membrane. Section: 03.03 Topic: Cells

46.

White blood cells engulf bacteria by means of A. phagocytosis. B. cotransport. C. pinocytosis. D. active transport. E. receptor-mediated endocytosis.
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.03.b Describe the various mechanisms for transporting material through the plasma membrane. Section: 03.03 Topic: Cells

47.

The Na+-K+ pump has the following functions except A. heat production. B. transport of Na+ into the cell and K+ out of the cell. C. secondary active transport. D. regulation of cell volume. E. maintenance of membrane potential.

Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.03.b Describe the various mechanisms for transporting material through the plasma membrane. Section: 03.03 Topic: Cells

48.

A patient was severely dehydrated, losing a large amount of fluid. The patient was given intravenous fluids of normal saline. Normal saline is ________ to your blood cells and is about __________ NaCl. A. B. C. D. E. isotonic; 9% isotonic; 0.9% hypertonic; 9% hypotonic; 0.9% hypotonic; 9%
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.03.c Define osmolarity and tonicity and explain their importance. Section: 03.03 Topic: Cells

49.

Which of these is an example of active transport? A. diffusion of oxygen from a place of high concentration to a place of lower concentration B. facilitated diffusion of K+ C. transport of glucose down its concentration gradient D. transport of Na+ from a place of low concentration to a place of higher concentration E. transport of Cl- following its concentration gradient
Bloom's Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 03.03.b Describe the various mechanisms for transporting material through the plasma membrane. Section: 03.03 Topic: Cells

50.

Which of these bring nonspecific material into a cell? A. phagocytosis B. receptor-mediated endocytosis C. transcytosis D. pinocytosis E. exocytosis
Bloom's Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 03.03.b Describe the various mechanisms for transporting material through the plasma membrane. Section: 03.03 Topic: Cells

51.

These are all membranous organelles except A. mitochondria. B. ribosomes. C. the nucleus. D. endoplasmic reticulum. E. the Golgi complex.
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.04.a List the main organelles of a cell, describe their structure, and explain their functions. Section: 03.04 Topic: Cells

52.

Among other functions, hepatocytes (liver cells) are specialized in detoxifying drugs or other chemicals. Hepatocytes have large amounts of A. DNA. B. smooth endoplasmic reticulum. C. microtubules. D. cilia. E. centrioles.
Bloom's Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 03.04.a List the main organelles of a cell, describe their structure, and explain their functions. Section: 03.04 Topic: Cells

53.

What function would immediately cease if the ribosomes of a cell were destroyed? A. exocytosis B. active transport C. ciliary action D. protein synthesis E. osmosis
Bloom's Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 03.04.a List the main organelles of a cell, describe their structure, and explain their functions. Section: 03.04 Topic: Cells

54.

What organelle is most active in causing programmed cell death? A. rough endoplasmic reticulum B. nucleus C. centriole D. lysosome E. mitochondrion
Bloom's Level: 2. Understand Learning Outcome: 03.04.a List the main organelles of a cell, describe their structure, and explain their functions. Section: 03.04 Topic: Cells

55.

Muscle cells contain numerous _____________ to serve their high demand for ATP. A. ribosomes B. lysosomes C. mitochondria D. inclusions E. Golgi vesicles
Bloom's Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 03.04.a List the main organelles of a cell, describe their structure, and explain their functions. Section: 03.04 Topic: Cells

56.

This organelle synthesizes steroids in the ovary and stores calcium in muscle cells. A. smooth endoplasmic reticulum B. rough endoplasmic reticulum C. nucleus D. mitochondrion E. Golgi complex
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.04.a List the main organelles of a cell, describe their structure, and explain their functions. Section: 03.04 Topic: Cells

57.

______ play an important role in cell division, and they are made of __________. A. Mitochondria; microtubules B. Ribosomes; intermediate filaments C. Nucleoli; microfilaments D. Centrioles; microtubules E. Inclusions; centrosomes
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.04.a List the main organelles of a cell, describe their structure, and explain their functions. Section: 03.04 Topic: Cells

58.

________________ synthesize(s) carbohydrates and put(s) finishing touches on proteins synthesized at ____________. A. Smooth ER; rough ER B. The Golgi complex; rough ER C. Smooth ER; the Golgi complex D. The Golgi complex; smooth ER E. Ribosomes; smooth ER
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.04.a List the main organelles of a cell, describe their structure, and explain their functions. Section: 03.04 Topic: Cells

59.

______ decompose fatty acids, and detoxify alcohol, free radicals, and drugs. A. Lysosomes B. Microvilli C. Inclusions D. Peroxisomes E. Golgi vesicles
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.04.a List the main organelles of a cell, describe their structure, and explain their functions. Section: 03.04 Topic: Cells

60.

___________ is not involved in protein synthesis. A. Smooth ER B. Rough ER C. The Golgi complex D. The nucleus E. Ribosomes
Bloom's Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 03.04.a List the main organelles of a cell, describe their structure, and explain their functions. Section: 03.04 Topic: Cells

61.

____________ gives structural support, determines the shape of a cell, and directs the movement of substances through the cell. A. Cholesterol B. The nucleus C. The plasma membrane D. The Golgi complex E. The cytoskeleton
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 03.04.b Describe the cytoskeleton and its functions. Section: 03.04 Topic: Cells

62.

This figure shows the structure of a representative cell. What does "A" represent? A. smooth ER B. rough ER C. Golgi complex D. mitochondrion E. nucleolus
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Figure: 03.05 Learning Outcome: 03.04.a List the main organelles of a cell, describe their structure, and explain their functions. Section: 03.04 Topic: Cells

63.

This figure shows the structure of a representative cell. What does "D" represent? A. mitochondrion B. rough ER C. smooth ER D. Golgi complex E. nucleolus
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Figure: 03.05 Learning Outcome: 03.04.a List the main organelles of a cell, describe their structure, and explain their functions. Section: 03.04 Topic: Cells

64.

This figure shows the structure of a representative cell. What does "C" represent? A. Golgi complex B. rough ER C. smooth ER D. mitochondrion E. nucleolus
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Figure: 03.05 Learning Outcome: 03.04.a List the main organelles of a cell, describe their structure, and explain their functions. Section: 03.04 Topic: Cells

65.

This figure shows the structure of a representative cell. What does "B" represent? A. Golgi complex B. rough ER C. smooth ER D. mitochondrion E. nucleolus
Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Figure: 03.05 Learning Outcome: 03.04.a List the main organelles of a cell, describe their structure, and explain their functions. Section: 03.04 Topic: Cells

chapter 03 Summary
# of Questions Bloom's Level: 1. Remember 36 Bloom's Level: 2. Understand 9 Bloom's Level: 3. Apply 17 Bloom's Level: 5. Evaluate 3 Figure: 03.05 4 Figure: 03.06 3 Learning Outcome: 03.01.a Discuss the development and modern tenets of the cell theory. 1 Learning Outcome: 03.01.b Describe cell shapes from their descriptive terms. 2 Learning Outcome: 03.01.c State the size range of human cells and discuss factors that limit cell size. 2 Learning Outcome: 03.01.d Discuss the way that developments in microscopy have changed our view of cell structure. 2 Learning Outcome: 03.01.e Outline the major components of a cell. 1 Learning Outcome: 03.02.a Describe the structure of the plasma membrane. 6 Learning Outcome: 03.02.b Explain the functions of the lipid, protein, and carbohydrate components of the plasma membrane 6 . Learning Outcome: 03.02.c Describe the second-messenger system and discuss its importance in human physiology. 2 Learning Outcome: 03.02.e Describe the structure and functions of microvilli, cilia, and flagella. 3 Learning Outcome: 03.03.b Describe the various mechanisms for transporting material through the plasma membrane. 17 Learning Outcome: 03.03.c Define osmolarity and tonicity and explain their importance. 4 Learning Outcome: 03.04.a List the main organelles of a cell, describe their structure, and explain their functions. 18 Learning Outcome: 03.04.b Describe the cytoskeleton and its functions. 1 Learning Outcome: 03.04.c Give some examples of cell inclusions and explain how inclusions differ from organelles. 1 Section: 03.01 8 Section: 03.02 16 Section: 03.03 21 Section: 03.04 20 Topic: Cells 65 Category