You are on page 1of 19

Modeling and simulation of gasoline auto-ignition engines

K. G. Stapf, D. Seebach, S. Pischinger, J. Ewald*, P. Adomeit*


Institute for Combustion Engines, RWTH Aachen University Prof. Dr.-Ing. Stefan Pischinger

*FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen

Rueil-Malmaison
November 30th 2009

IFAC Workshop on Engine and Powertrain Control, Simulation and Modeling


3D CFD

Content
Gasoline auto-ignition
Motivation and potentials Modeling strategies CFD modeling Reaction kinetics (RK) Gas exchange simulation Summary and conclusions
P T P T

Reaction kinetics

P T

1D Gas exchange
2
VKA/Modeling and Simulation of Gasoline Auto Ignition/30.11.2009 by VKA RWTH Aachen University all rights reserved. Confidential no passing on to third parties

Motivation and potentials Fuel consumption and NOx-emission


Indicated specified fuel consumption
110 100

NOx-Concentration (Raw Emission)


2000

NOx-trap regeneration [ppm]

1500 1000
m

[%]

90 80 70

500 0
4

pp

Auto-Ignition

Load Point: 2000 rpm / 3 bar IMEP Conventional Gasoline Engine ( = 1.0) Early Intake Close ( = 1.0) Spray Guided ( = 2.0) Combustion Chamber Recirculation ( = 1.5) Exhaust Port Recirculation ( = 1.15)

VKA/Modeling and Simulation of Gasoline Auto Ignition/30.11.2009

by VKA RWTH Aachen University all rights reserved. Confidential no passing on to third parties

pp

Motivation and potentials Operating range and EGR-strategies


Exhaust Port Recirculation (EPR) with PFI Combustion Chamber Recirculation (CCR) with PFI Extension EPR with Boosting and Direct Injection Extension CCR by Direct Injection Electro Mechanical Valve Train
(EMVT)
Limitation of Operation Area due to max. Pressure Rise Limitation of Operation Area, due to Higher Standard Deviation

9 8 7 6
BMEP [ bar ]

5 4 3 2 1 0 1000 2000

EPR
BDC TDC BDC TDC

CCR
BDC TDC BDC TDC

3000

4000

5000

Engine Speed [rpm]


4
VKA/Modeling and Simulation of Gasoline Auto Ignition/30.11.2009 by VKA RWTH Aachen University all rights reserved. Confidential no passing on to third parties

Collaborative Research Centre SFB 686 Project road-map


Actuation of process Controller Adjustment Test bench investigation 1D gas exchange simulation 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Reaction kinetics Control layout Real time capable engine model 1D gas exchange with multi zone reaction kinetics

Project targets: Physical modeling of the auto ignition process Model based Predictive Control (MPR) of the process
5
VKA/Modeling and Simulation of Gasoline Auto Ignition/30.11.2009 by VKA RWTH Aachen University all rights reserved. Confidential no passing on to third parties

3D CFD and multi zone reaction kinetics

1-Cylinder engine with electro mechanical valve train and numerical model
1-Cylinder, 4 Valves Bore Stroke Displacement Compression Ratio Valve Train Valve Lift (In / Ex) Position DI Injector CFD-Software Chemical solver Gas exchange solver Number of cells Turbulence model Fuel model Kinetic mechanism
6

84 mm 90 mm 0.499 dm = 12 EMVT 8 / 8 mm central, spray guided DI Star-CD + esice Mesh Cantera GT-Power 1.3 million k- high Reynolds Lagrangian, multi-component 84 species, 412 reactions
by VKA RWTH Aachen University all rights reserved. Confidential no passing on to third parties

VKA/Modeling and Simulation of Gasoline Auto Ignition/30.11.2009

Modeling strategies Development path

3D CFD analysis of flow and mixture formation

Bi-directional coupling of 3D CFD and multi-zone 0D reaction kinetics

Extraction of characteristic values for mixture stratification

High pressure cycle combustion model

Coupling to 1D gas exchange calculation

VKA/Modeling and Simulation of Gasoline Auto Ignition/30.11.2009

by VKA RWTH Aachen University all rights reserved. Confidential no passing on to third parties

Modeling strategies Bi-directional coupling of 3D CFD to reaction kinetics


Model overview: Heat release Material properties

CFD computation:
RANS turbulence model Testbench boundary conditions Lagrangian multi-component fuel model Scalar sources Enthalpy sources

Multi-zone RK:
Semi reduced iso-Octane mechanism 1D classification according to Z, Yres or T Calculation of heat release and material properties

Thermodynamic state Mixture progress

VKA/Modeling and Simulation of Gasoline Auto Ignition/30.11.2009

by VKA RWTH Aachen University all rights reserved. Confidential no passing on to third parties

Modeling strategies Bi-directional coupling of 3D CFD to reaction kinetics


Mixture fraction Z [-]
CCR operation n = 2000 min-1, IMEP = 3 bar 100 Zones
CFD

Mixture progress of Z (3 representative Zones)


0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 660
80

Multi-Zone RK CFD-Simulation

Coupling of thermodynamics and mixture


Reaction kinetics

690

720

750

780

Thermodynamic validation
Pressure [bar]
60 40 20 0 660 Experiment Coupled CFD - RK

690

720

750

780

Crank angle [ ATDC] CA


9
VKA/Modeling and Simulation of Gasoline Auto Ignition/30.11.2009 by VKA RWTH Aachen University all rights reserved. Confidential no passing on to third parties

Modeling strategies Bi-directional coupling of 3D CFD to reaction kinetics


CCR operation n = 2000 min-1, IMEP = 3 bar 100 Zones EPR operation n = 2000 min-1, IMEP = 3 bar 100 Zones

= 0.2 CA

Iso surface 50 % reaction progress

Ignition below exhaust valves Fast coalescence of seperate ignition centres

Ignition between intake and exhaust valves Fast expansion of reaction front through combustion chamber

10

VKA/Modeling and Simulation of Gasoline Auto Ignition/30.11.2009

by VKA RWTH Aachen University all rights reserved. Confidential no passing on to third parties

Modeling strategies Development path

3D CFD analysis of flow and mixture formation

Bi-directional coupling of 3D CFD and multi-zone 0D reaction kinetics

Extraction of characteristic values for mixture stratification

High pressure cycle combustion model

Coupling to 1D gas exchange calculation

11

VKA/Modeling and Simulation of Gasoline Auto Ignition/30.11.2009

by VKA RWTH Aachen University all rights reserved. Confidential no passing on to third parties

Modeling strategies Extraction of stratification parameters a) CFD computation:


Exhaust

RANS turbulence model Testbench boundary conditions Lagrangian multi-component fuel model

Intake

b)

0.5 10 BTDC CA

Distribution function:
0.30 Rel. Volume [-]

Statistical data:
Mean: Standard deviation: Norm. standard deviation:

0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 0.0

CCR: EGR: 49 %

0.5

1.0 1.5 2.0 Rel. AFR [-]

2.5

3.0

12

VKA/Modeling and Simulation of Gasoline Auto Ignition/30.11.2009

by VKA RWTH Aachen University all rights reserved. Confidential no passing on to third parties

Rel. AFR [-]

b)

3D--distribution: a)

2.5

Modeling strategies Development path

3D CFD analysis of flow and mixture formation

Bi-directional coupling of 3D CFD and multi-zone 0D reaction kinetics

Extraction of characteristic values for mixture stratification

High pressure cycle combustion model

Coupling to 1D gas exchange calculation

13

VKA/Modeling and Simulation of Gasoline Auto Ignition/30.11.2009

by VKA RWTH Aachen University all rights reserved. Confidential no passing on to third parties

Modeling strategies Statistical multi-zone approach


CCR operation, variation res. gas fraction n = 2000 min-1, IMEP = 3 bar 9 Zones
CFD
2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 50-60

CCR EPR

EGR
Cylinder pressure [bar]
CCR EPR

Temperature [K]

-40

-20

20

40

60

40 30 20 Exp. 10 0 -30 53.9 % 50.5 % 49.0 % -20 -10 0 10 20 30 Sim.

rel A/F
Multi-Zone Reaction Kinetics

Crank angle [ ATDC] CA


14
VKA/Modeling and Simulation of Gasoline Auto Ignition/30.11.2009 by VKA RWTH Aachen University all rights reserved. Confidential no passing on to third parties

Modeling strategies Development path

3D CFD analysis of flow and mixture formation

Bi-directional coupling of 3D CFD and multi-zone 0D reaction kinetics

Extraction of characteristic values for mixture stratification

High pressure cycle combustion model

Coupling to 1D gas exchange calculation

15

VKA/Modeling and Simulation of Gasoline Auto Ignition/30.11.2009

by VKA RWTH Aachen University all rights reserved. Confidential no passing on to third parties

Modeling strategies 1D Gas exchange simulation with reaction kinetics


Test bench results CCR operation, variation of res. gas fraction Simulation with reaction kinetics n = 2000 min-1, IMEP = 3 bar Difference between test bench and simulation 9 Zones RK Pressure rise limit Stability limit Stability limit Optimum 60
50 40 30 20 10 0 2000 1600 1200 800 400 1.00 Mass fraction burned [-] 0.75 0.50 0.25 0.00 -40 -20 0 20 40 Crank angle [CA ATDC]
16
VKA/Modeling and Simulation of Gasoline Auto Ignition/30.11.2009

55 44 33 22 11 00 Pressure Pressure difference [bar] difference [bar] Difference of Difference of MFB [-] MFB [-]

P T

P T

P T

1D
Reaction kinetics

Cylinder temperature [K]

Cylinder pressure [bar]

0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1

0.0 0.0 -40 -20 0 20 40 -40 -20 -40 -20 00 20 20 40 40 Crank angle [CA ATDC] Crank angle [CA ATDC] Crank angle [CA ATDC]
by VKA RWTH Aachen University all rights reserved. Confidential no passing on to third parties

Modeling strategies Comparison of calculation duration


3D CFD with coupled reaction kinetics
1 high pressure cycle 24 h Temporal, spatial, mixture and thermodynamic information about auto ignition

1D gas exchange with coupled reaction kinetics


1 engine cycle 5 min No spatial information, but multi-cycle simulation possible

High pressure cycle combustion model


1 high pressure cycle 20 sec No spatial information, calculation of a single ignition event

Complexity Information

Time

17

VKA/Modeling and Simulation of Gasoline Auto Ignition/30.11.2009

by VKA RWTH Aachen University all rights reserved. Confidential no passing on to third parties

Summary and conclusion


Motivation for gasoline auto-ignition is high efficiency with low NOx-emissions Dominant parameters controlling gasoline auto-ignition combustion: Residual gas strategy & residual gas mass fraction Injection strategy (not shown in this presentation) These are influencing: Stratification of air, fuel and residual gas Ignition delay and combustion behaviour The gasoline auto-ignition combustion process can be simulated with a bi-directional coupling of CFD and reaction kinetics. Accurate simulation of the combustion process is achieved using characteristic values from the CFD analysis for the reaction kinetic calculation. A tool coupling of 1D gas exchange simulation and reaction kinetics with can be used for multi-cycle calculation.
18
VKA/Modeling and Simulation of Gasoline Auto Ignition/30.11.2009 by VKA RWTH Aachen University all rights reserved. Confidential no passing on to third parties

IFAC Workshop on Engine and Powertrain Control, Simulation and Modeling

Thank you for your attention!


Dipl.-Ing. Karl Georg Stapf Institute for Combustion Engines, RWTH Aachen University georg.stapf@vka.rwth-aachen.de
This work was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG within the Collaborative Research Center SFB 686 Modellbasierte Regelung der homogenisierten Niedertemperatur-Verbrennung at RWTH Aachen University, Germany and Bielefeld University, Germany.

www.sfb686.rwth-aachen.de
19
VKA/Modeling and Simulation of Gasoline Auto Ignition/30.11.2009

www.vka.rwth-aachen.de
by VKA RWTH Aachen University all rights reserved. Confidential no passing on to third parties