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A Seminar on

GENERAL CONNECTIONS IN STEEL BUILDINGS

Presentation by: V.ANILKUMAR RollNo.010911109 2ndSemester M.E.StructuralEng.

Under the guidance of Mrs.D.ANNAPURNA Asst. Professor

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING (AUTONOMOUS)
OSMANIA UNIVERSITY, HYDERABAD

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that, this is a bonafide record of the seminar presentation entitled General Connections in Steel Buildings carried out by Mr. V. ANIL KUMAR bearing Roll no. 0109-11109, of II Semester, M. E. (Structural Engineering), during the academic year 2008-2009 in partial fulfillment of academic requirements.

Guide Mrs.D.Annapurna ExternalExaminer

Asst. Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering

CONTENTS
Page No.

CERTIFICATE

SYNOPSIS

INTRODUCTION

01

IMPORTANCE

01

COMPONENTS OF A CONNECTION

02

CLASSIFICATION OF CONNECTIONS

02

DISCUSSION AND REVIEW

03-12

CONCLUSIONS

13

USEFULL INDIAN STANDARD PUBLICATIONS

13

REFERENCES

14

ASeminaron
GENERAL CONNECTIONS IN STEEL BUILDINGS
Synopsis
Nowadays the use of structural steel in building construction has increased due to its aesthetic appearance, ease of fabrication and faster erection time. The main usage of steel structures includes Industrial Structures (such as buildings, conveyors, and pipe racks etc.), transmission towers, bridges etc. Connections are structural elements used for joining different members of a structural steel framework. In steel construction it is important to note that various members or elements in a structure are to be joined together by means of joints or connections to transfer various loads from one member to the other. The joints or connections play significant role in transfer of load from one member to the other member (for example beam to column or bracings to column or column to base plate etc.) at the same time they hold the total space frame in position. The selection and design of joints in steel construction plays a significant role which governs the safety and serviceability of the structure. This seminar basically deals only with the importance and general classification (or types) of joints in structural steel buildings. The design of connections is not considered in the seminar and confined only to their importance and general classification. The joints are generally classified based on the type of connecting medium used, the type of forces transmitted and the members to be connected, which will be discussed in the seminar.

INTRODUCTION
Connectionsarestructuralelementsusedforjoiningdifferentmembersofastructuralsteelframework2. Anysteelstructureisanassemblageofdifferentmemberssuchasbeam,columns,andtensionmembers,which arefastenedorconnectedtooneanother,usuallyatthememberends.Manymembersinsteelstructuresmay themselves be made of different components such as plates, angles, Ibeams, or channels. These different components have to be connected properly by means of fasteners, so that they will act together as a single composite unit. Connections between different members of a steel frame work not only facilitate the flow of forces and moments from one member to another, but also allow the transfer of forces up to the foundation level1.

IMPORTANCE

Astructureisonlyasstrongasitsweakestlink.Unlessproperlydesignedanddetailed,theconnections maybecomeweakerthanthemembersbeingjoinedduetofollowingreasons1: a. Aconnectionfailuremayleadtoacatastrophicfailureofthewholestructure. b. Normally,aconnectionfailureisnotasductileasthatofasteelmemberfailure. c. Forachievinganeconomicaldesign,itisimportantthatconnectorsdevelopfullorlittleextrastrength ofthemembersitisjoining. Toproperlydesignaconnection,adesignermusthaveathoroughunderstandingofthebehaviorofthe joint under loads. Different modes of failure can occur depending on the geometry of the connection and the relativestrengthsandstiffnesssofthevariouscomponentsoftheconnection.Toensurethattheconnectioncan carrytheappliedloads,adesignermustcheckforallperceivablemodesoffailurepertinenttoeachcomponentof theconnectionandtheconnectionasawhole2.

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COMPONENTSOFACONNECTION
Connectionsmainlyincludeanyorincombinationwithsomeofthecomponentsgivenbelow: a. Bolts(ShoporSite) b. Welds(ShoporSite) c. ConnectingPlates d. ConnectingAngles e. Cutsections

CLASSIFICATIONOFCONNECTIONS
Connectionsarebasicallyclassified2: 1. Accordingthetypeofconnectingmediumused: i) Boltedconnections ii) weldedconnections iii) boltedweldedconnections iv) rivetedconnections Accordingtothetypeofinternalforcestheconnectionsareexpectedtotransmit: i) Shear(semirigid,simple)connections ii) moment(rigid)connections Accordingtothetypeofstructuralelementsthatmadeuptheconnections: i) Singleplateangleconnections ii) doublewebangleconnections iii) topandseatedangleconnections, iv) Seatedbeamconnections,etc. Accordingtothetypeofmemberstheconnectionsarejoining: i) Beamtobeamconnections ii) columntocolumnconnections(columnsplices) iii) beamtocolumnconnections iv) Hangerconnections v) Columnbaseplate,etc.

2.

3.

4.

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DISCUSSIONANDREVIEW
Theaboveclassificationofconnectionsiselaboratelydiscussedinthisheading.Alltheseconnectionsshallbe designedinaccordanceofIS800:2007(StandardCodeofpracticeforGeneralConstructioninSteel). 1. According to the type of Connecting Medium Used:

Thesearetheconnectionwhichareclassifiedaccordingtotheconnectingmediumisused.Theyarediscussed below. i. BoltedConnections2

Bolted connections are connections whose components are fastened together primarily by bolts (fasteners).Dependingonthedirectionandlineofactionoftheloadsrelativetotheorientationandlocationof thebolts,theboltsmaybeloadedintension,shear,oracombinationoftensionandshear.Forboltssubjectedto shearforces,thedesignshearstrengthoftheboltsalsodependsonwhetherornotthethreadsoftheboltsare excluded from the shear planes. Because of the reduced shear areas for bolts whose threads are not excluded fromtheshearplanes;theseboltshavelowerdesignshearstrengthsthantheircounterpartswhosethreadsare excludedfromtheshearplanes. Theuseofeitherboltingorweldinghascertainadvantagesanddisadvantages.Boltingrequireseitherthe punchingordrillingofholesinallthepliesofmaterialthataretobejoined.Theseholesmaybeastandardsize, oversized,shortslotted,orlongslotteddependingonthetypeofconnection.Itisnotunusualtohaveoneplyof materialpreparedwithastandardholewhileanotherplyoftheconnectionispreparedwithaslottedhole.This practiceiscommoninbuildingshavingallboltedconnectionssinceitallowsforeasierandfastererectionofthe structuralframing3. Boltscanbeusedinbothbearingtypeconnectionsandslipcriticalconnections.Bearingtypeconnections relyonthebearingbetweentheboltshanksandtheconnectingpartstotransmitforces.Someslippagebetween theconnectedpartsisexpectedtooccurforthistypeofconnection.Slipcriticalconnectionsrelyonthefrictional forcethatdevelopsbetweentheconnectingpartstotransmitforces.Noslippagebetweenconnectingelementsis expected for this type of connection. Slipcritical connections are used for structures designed for vibratory or dynamicloads,suchasbridges,industrialbuildings,andbuildingsinregionsofhighseismicity.Holesmadeinthe connectedpartsforboltsmaybestandardsize,oversize,shortslotted,orlongslotted. ThetypicalBoltedconnectionisinthebelowFigure1

Bolted Moment Connection Figure 1 Bolted Connection

Bolted Splice Connection

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ii.

Welded Connections2

Weldedconnectionsareconnectionswhosecomponentsarejoinedtogetherprimarilybywelds.Thefour most commonly used welding processes are discussed in Section 48.1 under Structural Fasteners. Welds can be classifiedaccordingto: Thetypesofwelds:groove,fillet,plug,andslot Thepositionsofthewelds:horizontal,vertical,overhead,andflat Thetypesofjoints:butt,lap,corner,edge,andtee Although fillet welds are generally weaker than groove welds, they are used more often because they allowforlargertolerancesduringerectionthangroovewelds.Plugandslotweldsareexpensivetomakeanddo not provide much reliability in transmitting tensile forces perpendicular to the faying surfaces. Furthermore, qualitycontrolofsuchweldsisdifficultbecauseinspectionoftheweldsisratherarduous.Asaresult,plugandslot weldsarenormallyusedjustforstitchingdifferentpartsofthememberstogether. Welding will eliminate the need for punching or drilling the plies of material that will make up the connection, however the labor associated with welding requires a greater level of skill than installing the bolts. Weldingrequiresahighlyskilledtradesmanwhoistrainedandqualifiedtomaketheparticularweldscalledforin a given connection configuration. He or she needs to be trained to make the varying degrees of surface preparationrequireddependingonthetypeofweldspecified,thepositionthatisneededtoproperlymakethe weld, the material thickness of the parts to be joined, the preheat temperature of the parts (if necessary), and manyothervariables. Ashorthandnotationgivingimportantinformationonthelocation,size,length,etc.forvarioustypesof weldswasdevelopedbytheBureauofIndianStandardstofacilitatethedetailingofwelds.Thissystemofnotation isgiveninIS:813. AtypicalWeldedconnectionisshowninFigure2below.

Figure 2 Typical Welded Shear Connection

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iii.

Bolted-Welded Connections3

A large percentage of connections used for construction are shopwelded and fieldbolted types. These connections are usually more costeffective than fully welded connections, and their strength and ductility characteristicsoftenrivalthoseoffullyweldedconnections.Incurrentconstructionpractice,steelmembersare joined by either bolting or welding2. When fabricating steel for erection, most connections have the connecting material attached to one member in the fabrication shop and the other member(s) attached in the field during erection.Thishelpssimplifyshippingandmakeserectionfaster.Weldingthatmayberequiredonaconnectionis preferablyperformedinthemoreeasilycontrolledenvironmentofthefabricationshop.Ifaconnectionisbolted on one side and welded on the other, the welded side will usually be the shop connection and the bolted connectionwillbethefieldconnection.

EndplateConnection CleatangleConnection

Figure 3 Shop Welded Field Bolted Connections iv. Riveted Connections4

Theprecursortoboltingwasriveting.Youwillprobablyhaveoccasiontoassessconnectionsmadewithrivets sometimeinyourcareer,particularlyifyouworkonrestorationprojects.Rivetingwasaverydangerousandtime consuming process. It involved heating the rivets to make them malleable then inserting them in hole and flatteningtheheadsonbothsidesoftheconnection.Theprocessrequiredanintenseheatsourceandacrewof threeormoreworkers.BelowFigure4showsarivetedconnectioninabridgestructure. In the mid 1900s, high strength bolts were introduced and quickly replaced rivets as the preferred method for connecting memberstogetherinthefieldbecauseoftheireaseofinstallation andmoreconsistentstrengths. Rivetingbecameobsoleteasthecostofinstalledhighstrength structuralboltsbecamecompetitivewiththecostassociatedwith thefourorfiveskilledtradesmenneededforarivetingcrew3. < Figure 4 Typical Riveted Connection

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2.

According to thetypeofinternalforcestheconnectionsareexpectedtotransmit:

Thesearetheconnectionsclassifiedaccordingtotheinternalforcesthataretobetransmittedbythe connectionandarediscussedbelow. i. Shear (semi rigid, simple) connections

Asitsnameimplies,asimpleshearconnectionisintendedtotransfershearloadoutofabeamwhileallowing the beam end to rotate without a significant restraint. The most common simple shear connections are Double clip,theshearendplate,andtheTeeasshown5. Under shear load, these connections are flexible regarding simple beam end rotation because there is an elementoftheconnectionwhichwhileremainingstiffinshearhaslittlerestrainttomotionperpendiculartoits plane.ThisisananglelegforDoubleclip,aplatefortheshearendplate,andtheteeflangefortheteeconnection. TheyareshowninbelowFigure5.

DoubleangleshearConnection

Endplateshearconnection Figure 5 Shear Connections

Finplateconnection

ii.

Moment (rigid) connections

Momentresistingconnectionsareconnectionsdesignedtoresistbothmomentandshear.Theseconnections areoftenreferredtoasrigidorfullyrestrainedconnectionsastheyprovidefullcontinuitybetweentheconnected members and are designed to carry the full factored moments. Figures 6, 7 show some examples of moment resistingconnections2. Theprincipalreasonforusingmomentresistingconnectionsinbuildingsistoresisttheeffectoflateralforces suchaswindandearthquake.Consequentlytheyareusedmostfrequentlybetweenmainbeamsandcolumns, creatingarigidframe.However,eventhoughtheyareusedprincipallytoresistlateralloads,theverticalgravity loadwilldevelopnegativebendingmomentsattheendsofthebeams6.

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BoltedspliceMomentConnection FieldBoltedMomentConnection Figure6MomentConnections

ExtendedEndplatemomentconnection

EavesHaunchMomentConnection Figure7MomentConnections InFigure7,theLeftsideconnectionistheendplatemomentconnection.Itismadebyshopweldinga platetotheendofabeamandfieldboltingittoacolumnortoanotherbeam.Thefourboltsaroundthetension flangetransmittheflangeforceintothecolumn.Additionalboltsmaybeneededindeepersections.Aboltmay alsobeaddedneartheneutralaxisofthebeamtopreventgapsbetweentheplates.

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3.

According to thetypeofstructuralelementsthatmadeuptheconnections: Thesearetheconnectionswhichareclassifiedaccordingtothecomponentsthatareusedforthe connection.Theyarediscussedbelow. i. Single-plate-angle connections Theseconnectionsmadesuchthatoneplateisshopweldedtosecondarysection(beam)andthe angleisweldedtoPrimarySection(columnorBeam)orsingleshearplateweldedtosecondarybeamand boltedtoPrimarybeamorcolumn.Theangleorplatewillbeboltedorweldedaftererectionofthebeam. Skewedconnectionisusedwhenthesecondarybeamormemberisatsomeinclinationtothemain member.Sometypicalconnectionsareshowninfigure8below.

ii.

Singleangleconnection Figure8Singleplateangleconnections Double-web-angle connections SkewedPlateConnection

Thisconnectionismadewithtwoangleweldedorshopboltedtothewebofsecondarybeam andaftererectiontheanglesareboltedorsiteweldedtotheprimarymember(beamorcolumn)orboth theangleareweldedtothesecondarybeamandsiteboltedtotheprimarybeamorcolumn.Thetypical doubleanglecleatconnectionisshownintheFigure9below. DoubleangleBolted Connection Doubleangleweldedbolted Connection Figure9Doubleangleconnections DoubleangleBolted Connection

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iii.

top- and seated-angle connections Thistypeofconnectionisgenerallyusedincaseofmomentconnections.Inthisconnection,two anglesareprovidedattopandbottomofthebeamtoresistmoment.Theshearwillberesistedbythe webplate.Thisconnectionisgenerallyusedforlessermomentswhereheavyloadsarenotacting.The typicaltopandseatedangleconnectionisshowninFigure10below. Figure10Topandseatedangleconnection Seated beam connections Thistypeofconnectionisgenerallyusedincaseofshearconnections.Inthisconnection,a seatinganglewillbeprovidedatbottomofsecondarybeamwhichwellbeshopweldedtotheprimary member.Thisistofacilitateeasyerectionofthesecondarybeamandthisseatingangleresistsvertical shearcomingfromthebeam.ThetypicalseatedbeamconnectionisshowninFigure11below.

iv.

Figure11Seatedbeamconnection

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4. i.

According to thetypeofmemberstheconnectionsarejoining: Beam-to-beam connections As the name itself indicates these are the connections which connect beam to beam. These include primary beam to secondary beam connection and beam splice. They are shown in the below Figure12.

Beamtobeamconnection

Beamsplice Figure12BeamtoBeamconnections

ii.

column-to-column connections Asthenameitselfindicatesthesearetheconnectionswhichconnectcolumntocolumn.Column splicecomesunderthiscategory.Columnsplicesareusedtoconnectcolumnsectionsofdifferentsizes. Theyarealsousedtoconnectcolumnsofthesamesizeifthedesigncallsforanextraordinarilylongspan. Splicesshouldbedesignedforbothmomentandshear,unlessthedesignerintendstoutilizethesplices as internal hinges. If splices are used for internal hinges, provisions must be made to ensure that the connectionspossessadequateductilitytoallowforlargehingerotation. Boltedcolumnsplice Weldedcolumnsplice

Figure12ColumnSplice

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iii.

Beam-to-Column connections10 AsthenameitselfindicatesthesearetheconnectionswhichconnectBeamtocolumn. Beamtocolumnconnectionsareverycommonandavarietyofdetailscanbeused. Connectionsbetweenbeamsandcolumnsareperhapsthemostcommonstructuralconnection type. A wide range of different types are used, and these include fin plates, end plates, web or flange cleats,andhaunchedconnections. Thefinplateconnectionissimpleandallowseasysiteinstallation. Fin plate connections are based on a single plate welded to the column. Beams are normally attachedusingtwoormoreboltsthroughtheweb.Wherenecessaryadjustmentcanbeprovidedusing slottedholes(forinstancehorizontallyslottedholesinthewebofthesectionattachedtothefinplate). Fin plate connections are suitable for connecting open section beams to any steel column includingtubularsectionswhereasimple,principallysheartype,connectionisrequired. Endplateconnectionsaresimpleandneat. Endplateconnectionshaveasingleplateweldedtotheendofthebeam.Thisisboltedtothe column flange or web using two or more bolts arranged in pairs. Where necessary, adjustment can be providedbyslottedholesandshimplatesbetweentheendplateandthecolumn. When the connections are made to hollow section columns it is not possible to install conventionalnutsontotheendsoftheboltsinsidethesection.Speciallythreadedholesorproprietary boltswhichincorporateanexpandingsleeveshouldthereforebeused. End plate connections may be partial, flush or extended. Partial depth end plates transmit the minimum bending effect into the column; flush end plates provide a neat detail and allow a greater numberofbolts;extendedplatesenablesignificanttransferofbendingbetweenbeamandcolumn,but arenotfrequentlyused. TypicalbeamtocolumnconnectionsareshownintheFigure13.

Figure13Beamtocolumnconnections

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iv.

Hanger connections Thesearetheconnectionswhichareconnectingstrutsorbeamstothemainmember.Theyare showninbelowFigure14. Figure14HangerConnections

v. Column base plate2 Column base plates are steel plates placed at the bottom of columns whose function is to transmit column loads to the concrete pedestal. The design of a column base plate involves two major steps:(1)determiningthesizeoftheplate,and(2)determiningthethicknessoftheplate.Generally,the sizeoftheplateisdeterminedbasedonthelimitstateofbearingonconcrete,andthethicknessofthe plateisdeterminedbasedonthelimitstateofplasticbendingofcriticalsectionsintheplate. Dependingonthetypesofforces(axialforce,bendingmoment,andshearforce)theplatewillbe subjectedto,thedesignproceduresdifferslightly.Inallcases,alayerofgroutshouldbeplacedbetween thebaseplateanditssupportforthepurposeofleveling,andanchorboltsshouldbeprovidedtostabilize thecolumnduringerectionortopreventupliftforcasesinvolvingalargebendingmoment.Anchorbolts are provided to stabilize the column during erection and to prevent uplift for cases involving large moments. Anchor bolts can be castinplace bolts or drilledin bolts. The latter are placed after the concrete is set and are not often used. Their design is governed by the manufacturers specifications. Castinplaceboltsarehookedbars,bolts,orthreadedrodswithnutsplacedbeforetheconcreteisset. SometypicalbaseplateconnectionsareshownbelowinFigure15

Simple Base Plate

Moment resisting base plate Figure15Baseplates

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CONCLUSION&REMARKS
It is very much essential for a structural designer to have the basic knowledge of connections or joints whichareusedinastructuralsteelconstruction.Asthetypeandbehaviorofthevariousjointsinthesteelbuilding playsasignificantroleinthestabilityofthestructure,thetypeandpurposeofthejointistobedecidedaccording totheanalysisanddesignofthesteelstructure(building)alreadycarriedout.Iftheactualbehaviorofthejoint differs with design of the connection, it may lead to complete collapse of the structure. Hence every structural designershouldhavethebasicknowledgeofconnectionsthatareusedinasteelstructure.

USEFULINDIANSTANDARDPUBLICATIONS:
IS800:2007 StandardcodeofpracticeforGeneralConstructioninSteel

IndianStandardsforFits&Tolerances: 9191993 Part1 Part2 ISOsystemsoflimitsandfits: Basesoftolerance,deviationsandfits(secondrevision) Tablesofstandardtolerancegradesandlimitdeviationsforholesandshafts(firstrevision)

IndianStandardcodesforFasteners: 11481982 11491982 13631992 Part1 Part2 Part3 13641992 Part1 Part2 Part3 Part4 Part5 13671992 19281961 19291982 21551982 36401982 37571985 40001992 Specificationforhotrolledrivetbars(upto40mmdia)forstructuralpurposes(thirdrevision) Hightensilesteelrivetbarsforstructuralpurposes(thirdrevision) Hexagonheadbolts,screwsandnutsofproductgradeC: Hexagonheadbolts(sizerangeM5toM64)(thirdrevision) Hexagonheadscrews(sizerangeM5toM64)(thirdrevision) Hexagonnuts(sizerangeM5toM64)(thirdrevision) HexagonheadboltsscrewsandnutsofproductgradesAandB: Hexagonheadbolts(sizerangeM1.6toM64)(thirdrevision) Hexagonheadscrews(sizerangeM1.6toM64)(thirdrevision) Hexagonnuts(sizerangeM1.6toM64)(thirdrevision) Hexagonthinnuts(chamfered)(sizerangeM1.6toM64)(thirdrevision) Hexagonthinnuts(unchamfered)(sizerangeM1.6toM10)(thirdrevision) (Parts1to18)Technicalsupplyconditionsforthreadedsteelfasteners Specificationforboilerrivets(12to48mmdiameter) Specificationforhotforgedsteelrivetsforhotclosing(12to36mmdiameter)(firstrevision) Specificationforcoldforgedsolidsteelrivetsforhotclosing(6to16mmdiameter)(firstrevision) SpecificationforHexagonfitbolts(firstrevision) Specificationforhighstrengthstructuralbolts(secondrevision) Codeofpracticeforhighstrengthboltsinsteelstructures(firstrevision)

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66101972 66231985 66391972 66491985

Specificationsforheavywashersforsteelstructures Specificationsforhighstrengthstructuralnuts(firstrevision) Specificationsforhexagonalboltsforsteelstructures Specificationforhardenedandtemperedwashersforhighstrengthstructuralboltsandnuts (firstrevision)

IndianStandardcodesforWelding: 10241999 12611959 12781972 13231982 36131974 Codeofpracticeforuseofweldinginbridgesandstructuressubjecttodynamicloading(second revision) Codeofpracticeforseamweldinginmildsteel Specificationforfillerrodsandwiresforgaswelding(secondrevision) Codeofpracticeforoxyacetyleneweldingforstructuralworkinmildsteels(secondrevision) Acceptancetestsforwirefluxcombinationforsubmergedarcwelding(firstrevision)

REFERENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. N.Subramanian;DesignofSteelStructures;OxfordUniversityPress Ed.Chen,WaiFah;StructuralEngineeringHandBook;BocaRaton:CRCPressLLC,1999 PerryS.Green,ThomasSputo,PatricVeltri;ConnectionsTeachingToolKit;AISC www.bgstructuralengineering.com;internet

ReidarBjorhovde,AndrColson,RiccardoZandonini;ConnectionsinsteelstructuresIII; Pergamon StanleyW.Crawley,RobertM.Dillon;SteelbuildingsAnalysis&Design;JohnWileyandSons


GrahamW.Owens&BrianD.Cheal;StructuralSteelWorkConnections JointsinSteelConstructionSimpleConnection;TheSteelConstructionInstitute,SilwoodPark JointsinSteelConstructionMomentConnection;TheSteelConstructionInstitute,SilwoodPark

6. 7. 8. 9.

10. www.corusconstruction.com;internet

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