You are on page 1of 152

ABT 170 DESIGN IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY LECTURE NOTES AND DISCUSSION ACTIVITIES

TABLE OF CONTENTS
LECTURES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 FUNDAMENTALS OF DESIGN STANDARD AND CODE CONSIDERATIONS IN DESIGN ASSUMPTIONS AND ESTIMATES. PROJECT LAYOUT. BILL OF MATERIALS DESIGN OF MECHANICAL POWER TRANSMISSIONS SYSTEMS DESIGN OF SIMPLE STRUCTURES DETERMINING WIRING NEEDS OF BUILDINGS WATER DEVELOPMENT AND IRRIGATION SYSTEMS DESIGN OF CONCRETE PROJECTS HEATING, VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING DESIGN PAGE 3 14 23 37 60 70 91 122 131 PAGE 146 151 152

DISCUSSION SECTIONS 1 TERM PROJECT 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 DEFINE TERM PROJECT INTRODUCTION OF/BRAINSTORMING OF TERM PROJECT TERM PROJECT ASSISTANCE TERM PROJECT ASSISTANCE TERM PROJECT ASSISTANCE TERM PROJECT ASSISTANCE TERM PROJECT ASSISTANCE

ABT 170 LECTURE 1 FUNDAMENTALS OF DESIGN

CONTENTS
WHAT IS DESIGN REASONS FOR DESIGN DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS DESIGN INFORMATION DESIGN RESOURCES DESIGN RESULTS FORMAT FUNDAMENTALS OF THE DESIGN PROCESS

PAGE
4 8 9 10 11 12 13

I. WHAT IS DESIGN A. The act of creating a device, machine, structure or system which will fulfill a particular need. 1. Device: Lowcost mechanical nutcracker. 2. Machine: Strawberry harvester. 3. Structure: Roadside farm sales structure. 4. System: Electronic sensors to record and indicate need for engine maintenance. or, B. The development of a mechanism to transform a given input into a particular output. 1. Mechanism: A device to create a hole in the soil and to inject methyl bromide. or, C. The process of devising a scheme to fulfill a particular requirement through the use of some bit of knowledge or an observation of nature. 1. Scheme: Development of a greenhouse that tracks the sun in order to maximize exposure. or, D. The development of a solution to a particular problem. 1. Problem: I want to convert my garage into a productive and safe place to manufacture knives. What do I need to do? or, E. The development of some sort of physical apparatus, some sort of hardware. 1. Physical apparatus: A device to mechanically cut suckers on orchard trees. or,

F. Taking a need and breaking it down into a set of problems; devising solutions to those problems and developing ways to manufacture a product to fill the need. 1. Need: A method of teaching metalworking to a class without a shop a. Set of problems: Tools required. Heat source. Portability of the class. Safety issues. Activities to involve students. Development of lecture topic(s). (1). Solutions to problem: Tools required - see ABT 16 lecture notes. Heat source - propane bottles. - oxy-acetylene apparatus. Portability of the class - selfcontained in a towed trailer. - self-contained in a pickup camper. Safety issues - safety briefing to students before class. - safety glasses for all students. Activities to involve students - hardening steel. - bending steel. Development of lecture topic(s) - safety. - history of metalworking. - definition of and uses of metals. - use and description of tools and equipment. - teacher demonstrations - student activities or,

G. A creative act of selecting, combining, converting, magnifying, modifying, rearranging, ideas, scientific facts, and physical laws into a useful product or process or structure. 1. The problem: A former employer of mine was distressed by the fact that it had not rained over a 10 day period. We were growing processing tomatoes in Ohio and Michigan where it was not common to have supplemental irrigation systems. He asked me to make arrangements to apply water to the fields with trucks and water tanks in the amount that had been used over the last 10 days. Assume that the ET for processing tomatoes was 0.20 acre-inches per acre per day during the 10 day period. ET (evaportranspiration) is the amount of water transpired (i.e., used) by the crop plus that amount of water evaporated from the adjacent soil surface. Make a set of calculations to determine how to apply the make-up water from 500 gallon water trucks. You know that 1 acre-inch of water is 27,154 gallons. a. Select an idea, scientific fact or physical law to solve the problem: Solution: (1). What's the question - how much water needed per acre (gallons per acre). (2). Calculate the total amount of water used per acre over the 10 day period: The rate of water use is 0.20 acre-inches per acre per day for 10 days. or, 0.20 acre-inches/acre-day x 10 days = 2.0 acre-inches per acre (3). Calculate the total gallon age of water required per acre: 2.0 acre-inches/acre x 27,154 gallons per acre-inch = 54,308 gallons per acre (4). Do a reality check: In other words, if I could acquire 500 gallon water trucks, I would have to apply 109 truck loads of water to every acre (1 acre is 209' x 209'). Slightly impractical!!!!! 2. The problem: Food processing plants (canneries) have an inherent limitation in that agricultural commodities are rarely harvested and/or available year round. This means that a rather expensive capital investment (the plant itself) sits idle for a number of months. This is not spreading the overhead effectively or efficiently. a. Combine ideas, scientific fact or physical law to solve the problem: Solution: Produce generic products that do not require perishable agricultural products during the offseason. Such products could be other canned products such as soft drinks. 3. The problem: Soil compaction is a serious problem in agriculture. Soil compaction decreases the water intake capacity of soils, thereby reducing the amount of water that can be stored in the soil profile. Compaction also increases surface water runoff that can lead to nonpoint pollution offfarm. Soil compaction also inhibits crop root development and subsequent crop productivity. a. Convert ideas, scientific fact or physical law to solve the problem: Solution: Use the track from military tanks. The track significantly reduces soil compaction by spreading the weight of the tractor over a larger surface area than a tire.

4. The problem: Most farm machinery utilized in production of processing tomatoes is designed to work 3 beds of tomatoes at one pass. This results in a machine that is 15 foot wide because each row is 5 foot wide. The recent advent of rubbertracked tractors enables such tractors to be used in bedded fields as well as for preplant tillage activities. Current horsepower of such tractors is such that they are significantly overpowered for bedded field work with current machinery. a. Magnify ideas, scientific fact or physical law to solve the problem: Solution: Design larger (re wider) machine such that the new rubbertracked crawlers can be efficiently utilized from a horsepower standpoint. 5. The problem: In the late 1950s, the end of the bracero program (imported labor from Mexico) was evident. At that time, all processing tomatoes were hand picked by such laborers. In digenous labor was insufficient in quantity and quality. a. Modify ideas, scientific fact or physical law to solve the problem: Solution: Modify the existing grain combine to harvest processing tomatoes. Modify the prin ciples of the combine to cut, gather, thresh, separate and clean processing tomatoes. 6. The problem: In the early 1970s, hydrocooling of peaches and pears for canning showed significant improvements to the quality of such fruit. Hydrocooling is a process that drenches the fruit while in bins with 33 F water thereby slowing the rate of deterioration of fruit quality after harvest. Hydrocooling stations were initially located near grade stations in the areas where fruit was picked and then graded. After hydrocooling, fruit was trucked to canneries for im mediate processing or shortterm cold storage. Measurements by research personnel (like me) indicated that temperature rises during transit times of 45 minutes to an hour were on the order of 30 to 40F. In other words, about half of the benefit of hydrocooling was lost. Efforts to top ice and tarp the loads with canvas prior to shipment to canneries or cold storage were not effective. a. Rearrange idea, scientific fact or physical law to solve the problem: Solution: Move (i.e., rearrange) the hydrocoolers nearby to canneries or cold storage facilities. An additional benefit was that cold storage facilities could be loaded at a faster rate because fruit was coming in cold and less heat needed to be removed).

II. REASONS FOR DESIGN A. To insure "fit" of component parts of the object; insure efficient layout between rooms of a structure ; and eliminate bottlenecks in a proposed system. and/or, B. To create an object, structure or system with economic worth and financial feasibility. and/or, C. To choose an optimum alternative solution. and/or, D. Insure strength and function ability of the part or structure or system. and/or, E. Helps to guarantee desired specifications and standards associated with the part or structure or system.

III. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS A. Commercial availability and standardization: 1. Can I buy the part or structure rather than fabricating it? B. Function of the part or structure or system: 1. Loadbearing or non-loadbearing part? a. Compare with existing parts with similar function for ideas. 2. Does the structure have unique uses or requirements? C. Load and stress considerations for parts or structure: 1. Analytic consideration for design, which considers: a. Magnitude of the load on the part. b. Nature of the load, i.e., static or dynamic load? c. Snow loads on structures. D. Layout of the part or structure: 1. Is the part easily manufactured? a. Consider molded assemblies rather than bolts or rivets. b. Use spot welding instead of bolts or rivets. c. Use asis surfaces whenever possible. d. Use lowstrength steels instead of allow steels when possible. e. Consider belt drives rather than gears or chains. f. Use tubing rather than bar stock. 2. Is the part easily maintained and repaired? a. Does it take a special tool to service or gain access to a component? 3. Does the structure meet you needs? a. Are space needs adequate? b. Are rooms convenient for internal and external traffic flow, i.e., ingress and egress. c. Are noise considerations made? d. Are orientation for heat gains and losses made? e. Are future expansion needs considered? E. Appearance: 1. Improve the appearance of the part or structure. a. Chrome plating on appliances and tools is commonly used for cosmetic reasons. b. Exterior painting of structures. 2. Prevent corrosion or wear or the part or structure. a. Corrosion is the slow eating or wearing away of the metal. b. Corrosion results in the weakening of metal structures as well as a deterioration in appearance. c. Application of coatings to decking to reduce deterioration due to outside elements. 3. To improve the wearing quality of the surface of the part or structure. a. Hardfacing the tips of agricultural tillage tools significantly extends the wear life of such tools. b. Application of resins to tabletops for improved wear resistance.

10

IV. DESIGN INFORMATION A. Pure technical specifications such as: 1.What is the tensile strength of Type A-213 aluminum? 2.How corrosive to titanium is human blood? 3.What is the average air temperature during August in Davis, California? B. Information on standards, requirements, regulations, professional or trade practices such as: 1. How should underground fuel storage tanks be constructed to avoid earthquake damage? 2. Are there appearance standards for mung bean sprouts? 3. What size electrical wire should be used to supply power to an electric range in a hotel kitchen? 4. Commercial information on suppliers of parts, prices, standard or most common sizes, materials, etc., such as: a. Where can I buy a small electric pump? b. Who could make a small plastic part for me? c. What is the cost of liquid oxygen? C. Financial, legal or market information such as: 1. Is the ThermoscanTM in-ear thermometer patented? If so, by whom? 2. How many bean sprouts are sold in the Bay Area? How many are sold in Rapid City, S.D.? 3. How do I avoid being sued for product liability? Is insurance available? 4. How many compact automobiles were sold in 1997?

11

V. DESIGN RESOUCES A. Product catalogs. 1. General. a. For example, Grainger (in print or electronic form: http://www.grainer.com) 2. Specific. a. For example, Dodge Gear catalog. B. Technical manuals. 1. Specific to a product (such as engine, tractor, drill press, etc.) C. Internet. 1. Especially useful for commercial information and recent developments. 2. Beware. Unless you know the source of the information you find on the Internet, you should be extremely skeptical of the quality of the information. Ideally, you will use a combination of Internet and academic sources of information. The URL is not the source of the information, it is the location. For example, http://www.uspto.gov is a location for getting patent information through the Internet. The source is the United States Patent and Trademark Office. 5. Useful sites: http://www.aws.org/ - American Welding Society http://www.lincolnelectric.com/knowledge/ - Lincoln Welding Knowledge http://www.millerwelds.com/index.html - Miller Welding http://www.steel.org/index.html - American Iron and Steel Institute http://www.digiplan.ca/page/weldlinks.htm - DIGIPLAN Welding http://anvilfire.com/iForge/index.htm - Iforge Plans http://www.metalsmith.org/ - The Guild of Metalsmiths D. Textbooks. E. Consultants. F. Technical sales representatives. G. People who will ultimately use the part or structure or system. H. The library. 1. Melvyl searchable on-line database at U.C. Davis. I. City, state and federal offices. 1. Standards, regulations and trade practices are often obtained from legal entities such as city, state or Federal codes. J. Trade associations. 1. Often trade associations can provide generally accepted guidelines for performance or standards. 2. Example: ASAE (American Society of Agricultural Engineers) publishes standards for farm machinery, farm machinery management, tractor tests, etc. 3. Other information may include sales tracking. a. The Equipment Manufacturers Institute (EMI) tracks farm machinery sales. b. See http://www.emi.org K. Industrial guides such as the Thomas Register. 1. A huge listing of companies with contact information and products produced. 2. Available in print and electronic form: http://www.thomasregister.com

12

L. Yellow pages and telephone. M. Controlled circulation trade and technical magazines. 1. New products are advertised in such magazines. Those magazines usually have reader response cards where you can request more information on specific products. VI. DESIGN RESULTS FORMAT A. Drawings (will cover in detail in a following lecture). 1. Blueprints. 2. Sketches. 3. Chalk sketch on the shop floor. B. Calculations. 1. For strength. 2. For dimensional conformance or fit. 3. For least cost. C. Report. 1. Formal. 2. Informal. a. Save your drawings and calculations and notes.

13

VI. FUNDAMENTALS OF THE DESIGN PROCESS A. Define the specifications (IT ALL STARTS HERE!!!) 1. Whats the need. a. What does the device need to do. or, 2. Whats the problem. a. What needs doing or fixing? 3. Gather information, understand the problem and write down design requirements. B. Create design concepts and alternatives. 1. Propose several alternative design concepts. 2. Brainstorm with others. 3. Consider: a. A unique, custommade solution from scratch. b. An offtheshelf solution. c. A bunch of existing stuff that is adapted and combined. C. Evaluate alternative designs: 1. Determine evaluation considerations: a. Economic; environmental; code; legal; space; safety; ergonomics (human factors). 2. Evaluate and rank alternatives. D. Decide the course of action: 1. Make a clear, concise, complete description of the solution. E. Begin detailed design steps.

14

ABT 170 LECTURE 2 STANDARD AND CODE CONSIDERATIONS IN DESIGN

CONTENTS I. DEFINITIONS OF CODES AND STANDARDS II. SOURCES OF CODES AND STANDARDS

PAGE 15 18

15

I. DEFINITIONS OF CODES AND STANDARDS A. Code means any statute, or any published compilation of rules, regulations or standards adopted by the federal government or the State of California, or by any agency of either of them. 1. The purpose of codes are to provide minimum standards to safeguard life or limb, health property and public welfare by regulating and controlling the design, construction, quality of materials, use and occupancy, location and maintenance of all buildings and structures through a program of permitting, plan review, inspection and enforcement. a. Before beginning construction, repair or making any major alterations, contact your city or county agency. 2. Examples of code: a. Uniform Building Code. b. Uniform Plumbing Code. c. National Electric Code. d. Uniform Mechanical Code. e. Uniform Fire Code. f. See page 18 for an example of the City of Davis Electrical Code. 3. OSHAs definition of a standard: a. Standards and Regulations. Section 5(a)(2) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act states that each employer has a responsibility to comply with the occupational safety and health standards promulgated under the Act. The specific standards and regulations are found in Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1900 series. Subparts A and B of 29 CFR 1910 specifically establish the source of all the standards which are the basis of violations. NOTE: The most specific subdivision of the standard shall be used for citing violations. (1). Definition and Application of Universal Standards and Specific Industry Standards. Specific Industry standards are those standards which apply to a particular industry or to particular operations, practices, conditions, processes, means, methods, equipment or installations. Universal standards are those standards which apply when a condition is not covered by a specific industry standard. Within both universal and specific industry standards there are general standards and specific standards. (a). When a hazard in a particular industry is covered by both a specific industry (e.g., 29 CFR Part 1915) standard and a universal (e.g., 29 CFR Part 1910) standard, the specific industry standard shall take precedence. This is true even if the universal standard is more stringent. (b). When determining whether a universal or a specific industry standard is applicable to a work situation, the CSHO shall focus attention on the activity in which the employer is engaged at the establishment being inspected rather than the nature of the employer's general business. c. Examples of OSHA standards: (1). Hand and portable powered tools and equipment, general (OSHA Standard Number: 1910.242. (a). General requirements. Each employer shall be responsible for the safe condition of tools and equipment used by employees, including tools and equipment which may be furnished by employees.

16

B . ''Engineering standard'' means a standard which prescribes: 1. a concise set of conditions and requirements that must be satisfied by a material, product, process, procedure, convention, or test method; or, 2. the physical, functional, performance and/or conformance characteristics thereof. 3. Examples of engineering standards: a. Dimensions of 3-point hitches on implements (ASAE Standard S217.10). b. Safety standard for rough terrain forklift trucks (ASME Standard B56.6-1992). c. Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges (AISI Standard S303 - effective June 10, 1992). d. Overcurrent protection (National Electric Code Article 240). e. See page 21 for an example of an Engineering Standard (ROPS for agricultural tractors).

17

II. SOURCES OF CODES AND STANDARDS A. Code and standard sites (just a few): SITE International Code Central ANSI Reference Library US Federal Government Standards and Regulatory Information Sites URL http://www.icbo.org/ http://web.ansi.org/public/library/internet/resources.html

http://www.nssn.org/quicklinks.html

Code of Federal Regulations http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/cfr-table-search.html Engineering Standards and Organizations SAE Standards National Institute Of Stan dards and Technology Normas.com online ordering site for industry standards http://www.spacey.net/ldavis/Standard_org.html http://www.sae.org/products/standards/stdsinfo/standard.htm http://www.nist.gov/

http://www.normas.com/

ASME Codes and Standards http://www.normas.com/ASME/ A. Code and standard development organizations (a sampling): American Forest & Paper Association American Gear Manufacturers Association American Petroleum Institute (API) Home Page AMWELD Information Network (American Welding Society) Arcnet Trade Association's Home Page ARI Coolnet (Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Institute) ASAE Home Page ASHRAE Home Page ASME International ASQ Home Page Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers ASTM Home Page Automotive Industry Action Group Health Industry Business Communications Council (HIBCC) Home Page Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) Home Page Information Technology Industry Council (ITI) WWW Site Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) ISA, The International Society for Measurement and Control National Committee for Information Technology Standards (NCITS) National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) National Fluid Power Association National Information Standards Organization (NISO) Home Page Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) International Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. (UL)

18

CITY OF DAVIS CITY CODE CHAPTER 9.


ELECTRICITY (1) 9-1. Adoption by reference of the Uniform Electrical Code, 1979 Edition, and the National Electrical Code,1990 Edition. 9-2. 9-3. 9-4. Definition of terms. Limitation on liability of city. Amendments, deletions and additions to the Uniform Electrical Code, 1979 Edition.

9-4.1. Amendments, deletions and additions to the National Electrical Code, 1990 Edition. 9-5. 9-6. Compliance with chapter. Violations and penalties.

Sec. 9-1. Adoption by reference of the Uniform Electrical Code, 1979 Edition, and the National Electrical Code, 1990 Edition. That certain document, two copies of which are on file in the office of the city clerk and one copy of which is on file in the office of the building official of the city, being marked and designated as Uniform Electrical Code, 1979 Edition, published by the Pacific Coast Electrical Association, Inc., 1545 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, California, and that certain document, two copies of which are on file in the office of the city clerk and one copy of which is on file in the office of the building official of the city, being marked and designated as National Electrical Code, 1990 Edition, published by the National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, Massachusetts, are adopted as the Electrical Code of the city pursuant to section 50022.1 et seq. of the Government Code of the state of California. The documents, as revised by this chapter, shall regulate the installation, arrangement, alteration, repair, maintenance and operation of electrical wiring, fixtures and other electrical appliances, except as set forth in this chapter. (Ord. No. 548, 1; Ord. No. 727, 1; Ord. No. 1128, 1; Ord. No. 1351, 1(part); Ord. No. 1537 1(part); Ord. No. 1605, 1.)

19

Sec. 9-2. Definition of terms. Wherever any of the names or terms defined in this article are used in the Uniform Electrical Code or in the National Electrical Code, each term or name shall have the meaning ascribed to it in this section. City of or the city or jurisdiction shall mean the city of Davis, California. All other names or terms shall apply to the appropriate officer of the city of Davis. Wherever the wording should or it is recommended is used, it is intended to be mandatory. (Ord. No. 548, 1; Ord. No. 727, 1; Ord. No. 1128, 1.) Sec. 9-3. Limitation on liability of city. This chapter imposes no liability or responsibility upon the city for damages resulting from defective buildings; nor shall the city or any official or employee thereof be held as assuming any liability or responsibility by reason of the inspection authorized by this chapter. (Ord. No. 727, 1.) Sec. 9-4. Amendments, deletions and additions to the Uniform Electrical Code, 1979 Edition. The Uniform Electrical Code, 1979 Edition, adopted by reference in this chapter, is amended by the following additions, deletions and amendments set forth in this section. The numbers in this section reference said code. (a) Section 302. Application for Permit of the Uniform Electrical Code, 1979 Edition, is amended by the addition of paragraph (f) to read as follows: (f) Except as permitted in sections 302(d) and 302(e) of this code, no permit shall be issued to any person to do or cause to be done any electrical work regulated by the Uniform Electrical Code, unless such person holds a valid and unrevoked license, issued by the Contractors State License Board of the State of California permitting said person to do such work. In all new construction the person applying for the building permit shall also apply for any required electrical permit. Approved plans and specifications shall not be changed, modified, or altered without authorization from the Administrative Authority, and all work shall be done in accordance with the approved plans.

20

(b) Appendix. Electrical Permit Fees of the Uniform Electrical Code, 1979 Edition, is amended to read as follows: All fees shall be established by resolution of the City Council. (c) Section 308. General Requirements of the Uniform Electrical Code, 1979 Edition, is amended to add paragraph (e) to read as follows: (e) Underground electric and communication service laterals. All electrical and communication service laterals to any new building or structure, or for any building or structure being remodeled, when such remodeling requires the relocation or replacement of the main service equipment, shall be placed underground on and adjacent to the premises upon which the building or structure is located, in a manner in accordance with applicable rules and regulations of the public utilities involved, on file with the California Utilities Commission. This requirement shall be applicable only to those buildings or structures located or to be constructed within the area of the City of Davis bounded by First Street, Fifth Street, B Street and J Street. Where compliance with the foregoing requirement is not economically and/or practically feasible, the City of Davis Director of Public Works may permit different service arrangements. (d) Section 311. Penalties of the Uniform Electrical Code, 1979 Edition, is deleted. (e) Section 312. Violations of the Uniform Electrical Code, 1979 Edition, is deleted. (Ord. No. 727, 1; Ord. No. 985, 3; Ord. No. 1128, 1; Ord. No. 1351, 1(part); Ord. No. 1537, 1(part); Ord. No. 1605 2.) Sec. 9-4.1. Amendments, deletions and additions to the National Electrical Code, 1990 Edition. The National Electrical Code, 1990 Edition, adopted by reference in this chapter, is amended by the following additions, deletions and amendments set forth in this section. The numbers in this section reference said code: (a) (Addition) Panel Boards Installed in Walls. In one and two family dwellings where panelboards are installed in walls, a minimum of one (1) three quarter inch (3/4) raceway shall be installed from the panelboard to an accessible location in either attic space, underfloor, or in a properly terminated junction box in an exterior wall. (b)(Addition) Metallic Raceways Below Grade. All galvanized rigid steel, intermediate metal conduit run below grade and within 6 inches of grade shall be wrapped with an approved protective coating. (c) Article 300, Wiring Methods and Materials, is amended to read as follows: 300-4(a) (1) Exception: Raceways as covered in Articles 345, 346 and 348. 300-4(a) (2) Exception: Raceways as covered in Articles 345, 346 and 348. (d) Article 210, Branch Circuits is amended to read as follows: 210-8 (a) (5). All 125-volt single-phase, 15-20 ampere receptacles installed within six feet (1.83M) of a sink to serve counter top surfaces shall have ground fault circuit interrupter protection for personnel. (Ord. No.1605, 3.) Sec. 9-5. Compliance with chapter. It is unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to erect, construct, enlarge, alter, repair, move, remove or demolish, convert, equip, use or occupy, maintain any building or structure, or any portion thereof, in the city contrary to, or in violation of this chapter or the Electrical Codes adopted by this chapter, or to cause, permit or suffer violations. (Ord. No. 727, 2.) Sec. 9-6. Violations and penalties. Any person, firm or corporation violating, or causing or permitting to be violated any of the provisions of this chapter or the electrical codes adopted by this chapter, is guilty of a misdemeanor, and each such person, firm or corporation is guilty of a separate offense for each and every day, or portion thereof, during which any violation of any of the provisions of the codes or of this chapter is committed, continued or permitted, and upon conviction shall be punishable as misdemeanors are punishable under state law. (Ord. No. 727, 2; Ord. No. 1605, 4.)

21

ROPS Standard

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has issued these regulations for ROPS: "Agricultural tractors manufactured after October 25, 1976, shall meet the following requirements: 1. A roll-over protective structure (ROPS) shall be provided by the employer for each tractor operated by an employee. 2. Where ROPS are required by this section, the employers shall: a. Provide each tractor with a seat belt that meets the requirements of SAE standard J4C; b. Ensure that each employee uses the seat belt and tightens the belt sufficiently to confine the employee." Exempted Uses Low profile tractors used in orchards, vineyards or hop yards where the vertical clearance requirements substantially interfere with normal operations and their use is incidental to the work performed. Low profile tractors used inside a farm building or greenhouse in which the vertical clearance is sufficient to allow a ROPS equipped tractor to operate, and their use is incidental to the work performed. Tractors used with mounted equipment that is incompatible with ROPS (e.g., cornpickers, cotton strippers, vegetable pickers and fruit harvesters). Definitions Agricultural tractor means a two- or four-wheel drive vehicle, or track vehicle of more than 20 engine horsepower, designed to furnish the power to pull, carry, propel or drive implements that are designed for agriculture. All self-propelled implements are excluded. Low profile tractor means a wheeled tractor possessing the following characteristics: the front wheel spacing is equal to the rear wheel spacing, as measured from the centerline of each right wheel to the centerline of the corresponding left wheel; the clearance from the bottom of the tractor chassis to the ground does not exceed 18 inches; the highest point of the hood does not exceed 60 inches; and the tractor is designed so that the operator straddles the transmission when seated.

22

Remounting When ROPS are removed for any reason, remount them to meet the performance requirements specified in the standard. Labeling Each ROPS should have a label, permanently affixed to the structure, stating manufacturer's or fabricator's name and address; ROPS model number (if any); tractor makes, models or series numbers that the structure is designed to fit; and whether or not the ROPS model was tested in accordance with the requirements of the standard. Operating Instructions Every employee who operates an agricultural tractor should be informed of the operating practices listed below and any other practices dictated by the work environment. Such information must be provided at the time of initial assignment and at least annually thereafter. Securely fasten seat belt if the tractor has a ROPS. Where possible, avoid operating the tractor near ditches, embankments and holes. Reduce speed when turning, crossing slopes, and on rough, slick or muddy surfaces. Stay off slopes too steep for safe operation. Watch where you are going, especially at row ends, on roads and around trees. Do not permit others to ride. Hitch only to the drawbar and hitch points recommended by tractor manufacturers. Operate the tractor smoothly -- no jerky turns, starts or stops. When tractor is stopped, set brakes securely and use park lock if available.

23

ABT 170 LECTURE 3 ASSUMPTIONS AND ESTIMATES PROJECT LAYOUT PROJECT BILL OF MATERIALS

CONTENTS
ASSUMPTIONS AND ESTIMATING PROJECT LAYOUT PROJECT BILL OF MATERIALS

PAGE
24 32 36

24

I. ASSUMPTIONS AND ESTIMATING A. Assumptions: 1. An assumption is something that is accepted as fact. 2. Designs always have assumptions. a. Assumptions usually establish a range of values of certain parameters or limitations on the domain over which your solution if valid. b. Always state your assumptions. (1). If your solution fails or things change over time, you can determine the source of the error or where to make corrections. 3. Often assumptions are linked to making quick estimates. a. By making simplifying assumptions, we can produce quick estimates that might allow us to determine the feasibility of an idea. B. Estimates: 1. Estimates are quick, rough ideas concerning needed information. 2. Estimates are not guesses. a. Guesses are not always based on reliable and reasonable information. 3. Estimates build on reasonable assumptions; derived in a systematic fashion; use all available information and resources; and expressed with appropriate limitations. C. Need for assumptions and estimating: 1. It may be that the information does not exist. 2. It may be that we do not have time to find the information. 3. Thus, instead of hard calculations, we make assumptions and/or use estimates. D. General types of assumptions that one might make: 1. Ideal geometry. a. Complex shapes make many analyses difficult. Often a simplifying assumption as to the shape of something can allow you to make a quick, fairly accurate estimate. Example: Problem: You are trying to estimate the size of a ventilating fan for a bathroom. It is commonly assumed that there should be 0.35 air changes per hour in a bathroom (in the whole house for that matter). Your bathroom is approximately 8 long by 6 wide and 8 tall. What size of ventilating fan should you install? Such fans are rated (i.e., sized) in CFM, i.e., cubic feet per minute. Assumptions: The bathroom is a perfect cube, i.e., neglect closets, the toilet, etc. Solution: 1. Compute the cubic feet of the bathroom. 2. Multiply the cubic feet by the number of air changes per hour. 3. Divide by 60 to convert to CFM and this is the size of your fan in CFM. Calculations: 1. Compute the cubic feet of the bathroom. Cubic feet = (8)(6)(8) = 384 cubic feet. 2. Multiply the cubic feet by the number of air changes per hour. 384 x 0.35 = 134.4 3. Divide by 60 to convert to CFM and this is the size of your fan in CFM. Fan size = 134.4 60 = 2.2 CFM

25

2. Biological materials are all water. a. Often we need some physical property of a biological material. For a quick and dirty estimate, we often assume the density, momentum and heat transfer properties of a material are equal to that of water. Example: Problem: Approximately how many cases of wine would you expect from your 40 acre vineyard? You project a field yield of 1.8 tons per acre (youre growing in Napa County). Assumptions: The grapes are all water and after crushing and fermenting, all of the grape ends up in the bottle, i.e., there is no waste. Water weighs 62.4 pounds per cubic foot. There are 12 bottles in a case of wine. Each bottle holds 750 ml. of wine. Solution: There are 0.264 gallons in a liter therefore, 750 ml. 1000 = 0.75 liter per bottle 0.75 liter x 0.264 gallons per liter = 0.20 gallons per bottle There are 0.1337 cubic feet in a gallon. therefore, 0.1337 cubic feet per gallon x 0.20 gallons per bottle = 0.027 cubic feet per bottle There are 12 bottles in a case. therefore, 12 bottles x 0.027 cubic feet per bottle = 0.324 cubic feet per case There 1.8 tons per acre over 40 acres. therefore, 1.8 tons per acre x 40 acres = 72.0 tons of grapes are produced. 72.0 tons x 2000 pounds per ton = 144,000 pounds of grapes produced. There are 62.4 pounds of water (grapes) per cubic foot therefore, 144,000 pounds of grapes 62.4 pounds per cubic foot = 2308 cubic feet of grapes (i.e. wine). therefore, 2308 cubic feet of wine 0.324 cubic feet per case = 7,123 cases of wine

26

3. 50% efficiency. a. Time, machines or people. Youll obviously want to improve upon that but it is a good first estimate. Example: Problem You are trying to estimate the size (in horsepower) of pumping plant necessary for pumping water into your zoo display. You are simulating a stream and need approx imately 100 gallons per minute into the stream. The design of the system calls for water to be pumped up 10 feet to fall down a waterfall and into the stream. From there the water is recirculated back into the pump and up to the top of the waterfall. Assumptions: Pump efficiency is 50% (see formula below). Hydraulic head consists of lift only, i.e., head = 10 feet Calculations: WHP = (GPM)(H) (39.6)(E) where, WHP = Horsepower to drive pump GPM = Flow of water pumped in gallons per minute H = Hydraulic head (pressure head plus lift) in feet = 10 feet E = Pump efficiency in % = 50% Solution: WHP = (100)(10) (39.6)(50) = 0.51 horsepower to drive pump

4. Payback period analysis for financial feasibility. Example: Problem: You have estimated that you can produce a machine that will replace 5 people who normally perform difficult work in mildly unsafe working conditions. The machine will cost approximately $80,000. Is this a good deal financially? Assumptions: The payback period analysis represents an appropriate first cut analysis of the financial feasibility. The payback period should be less than 3 years to represent a positive evaluation of financial feasibility. Solution: Use the payback period analysis, i.e., using annual net savings from the investment, calculate the number of years required to return the original cost of the investment. or, Payback period = Original cost of the investment annual net savings from the investment Calculation: Net savings from the new machine = 5 laborers x $6.00 per hour x 50 weeks per year x 40 hours per week = $60,000 labor savings per year. Payback period = $80,000 $60,000 per year = 1.3 year payback period Its a good deal financially!

27

E. Two commonly used techniques to make estimates. 1. Estimates derived from scaling. a. Such an estimate has two parts: (1). The data either known, assumed or estimated. (2). The scaling, or conversions. Example: What is the average yield (in pounds) from one walnut tree? (1). The data the average yield of walnuts in California is approximately 1.25 tons per acre. (2). The data the average tree spacing of walnuts in California is approximately 26 x 26. (3). The scaling: 1.25 tons per acre = 1.25 tons per acre x 2000 pounds per ton = 2500 pounds per acre One acre contains how many trees? The number of trees per acre = (43560) (26)(26) The number of trees per acre = 64 trees per acre therefore, If 64 trees yield 2500 pounds, then 1 tree yields 2500 64 = 39 pounds per tree 2. Estimates based upon data from similar or known systems. a. Often there are industry standards or rules of thumb. Example: Industry standards for a shop laboratory for teaching mechanics: 1. Space allocation (square footage). a. Minimum of 150 sq. ft. of free floor space for each student in the largest class. b. Minimum of 1400 sq. ft. of extra floor space to be occupied by work benches, power tools, etc. c. For example - one teacher department with 16 students. 150(16) + 1400 = 3800 sq. ft. d. Recommended optimum dimensions for operational areas (includes safety zone): Work station Side to side (in.) Depth (in) Arc welder 72" 36" Bench and vise 72" 36" Drill press 60" 27" Forge and anvil 80" 72" Grinder-buffer 80" 30" Machinery repair 2 times the area of the machine Oxy-acetylene welder 84" 30" Radial saw 384" 48" Table saw 144" 384" Tool grinder 60" 28"

28

2. Floor plan layout. a. Length to width ratio of between 1:1-1/2 or 1:2. b. Minimum width of 44' to 50' most convenient. c. Workbenches along/near walls to leave large unobstructed area for work on large equipment. 3. Furnishings and equipment. a. At least 150 to 200 linear feet of bench space. b. Desk/file cabinet/bookcase for instructor. c. Overhead safety hoist built-in to the roof trusses. 4. Storage. a. Minimum 320 sq. ft. locked storage area for consumable supplies and special tools. b. Storage space for lumber and steel (minimum 24' long and preferably with outside access. c. Tool storage room with cabinets, shelving, drawers, and a counter/bench space. d. Locked area for storing potentially dangerous articles such as paints, grease and solvents. e. Locker area for student clothing/projects. Example: Rules of thumbs for designing parts that are to be commercially manufactured: 1. Consider molded assemblies rather than bolts or rivets. 2. Use spot welding instead of bolts or rivets. 3. Use asis surfaces whenever possible. 4. Use lowstrength steels instead of allow steels when possible. 5. Consider belt drives rather than gears or chains. 6. Use tubing rather than bar stock.

29

Example: Commonly used grades (grade is a guide to quality) for construction lumber: ITEM Framing Wall framing Sills on foundation walls or slab on ground Sills on piers built up Joists, rafters, headers Plates, caps, bucks Ribbon boards, bracing, ridge boards (1) Collar beams Furring grounds (1) Subflooring, wall sheathing Roof sheathing (pitched) Roof decking (flat) 1 or 2 Exposed decking 3 or 4 Industrial decking 3 or 4 Trusses Heavy timber beams, posts and columns (over 5 thick) Finish Moldings Interior paneling rustic Interior paneling appearance Shelving Exterior Railings, rail posts Decking (bark side up) Trim, fascia, corner boards GRADE Stud Utility No. 2 No. 2 Utility No. 3 Common No. 3 Common No. 3 Common No. 3 Common No. 3 Common No. 2 Dense Standard or Select DT&G Deck Commercial DT&G Deck Consult fabricator No. 1

Standard molding No. 2 C and better No. 3 No. 1 No. 2 No. 1

Example: Approximate breakdown of house construction costs (excluding land): Materials Labor Subcontracts Overhead 30% 30% 30% 10%

30

Example: Typical wattage (power) ratings for home appliances: ITEM Air conditioners (room) 1/2 ton 3/4 ton 1 ton Blanket Blender Broiler Can opener Clock Coffee maker Crock pot Dishwasher Fans Attic Kitchen exhaust Portable Garbage disposal Hair dryer Heating pad Home computer Iron, steam Radio Refrigerator Shaver Television, color Toaster Vacuum cleaner Washer, clothes WATTS 800 to 900 1000 to 1200 1350 to 1550 175 to 200 275 to 1000 1000 to 1500 75 1 to 2 1200 100 to 1500 1000 to 1500 300 to 350 75 to 175 450 to 475 300 to 850 415 to 1200 60 to 80 200 1120 to 1320 30 to 100 900 to 1200 10 250 to300 800 to 1500 300 to 725 500 to 1000

Usefulness of knowing approximate wattage (i.e., power) ratings of home appliances: 1. A watt of power is equal to one volt pushing one ampere of current through a conductor with one ohm of resistance. 2. Mathematical relation between power and voltage, resistance and amperes: P =IxV where, P = power (watts); I = current (amperes); and V = electrical potential (volts) or, more usefully I =PV where, for 120V AC power in your house I = P 120 I = the amount of current flowing to the appliance during use and, the amount of current flowing through a wire in circuit determines the size (re diameter) of wire to be used in the circuit. If the wire is too small, the wire will overheat and fire danger is present. If the wire is too large, you have spent too much money wiring the structure.

31

Example problem: Problem: Calculate the current flow in a circuit to which you have plugged in a coffee maker and a toaster simultaneously. Will this trip the breaker if the circuit is a 120V circuit that is protected with a 20 amp circuit breaker? Solution: I = P 120 where, P = 1200 watts (for the coffee pot) + 1000 watts (for the toaster) = 2200 watts therefore, I = 2200 120 = 18 amps Almost!

32

II. PROJECT LAYOUT A. Layout is some form of drawing or sketch that presents the shape, size and arrangement of components of the part or object or structure. B. Forms of drawings or sketches. 1. Threeview drawings. a. A drawing that shows separate top, front and side views of the object, part or structure on the same drawing.

2. Pictorial drawings. a. A drawing that all three views of the object, part or structure in one view.

33

C. Sketches. 1. Informal (rough) drawing to present the general shape and arrangement of part or structure or idea. 2. Not to scale, but in general conformance to actual size/shape relationships. 3. A great way to record ideas for present and future use. 4. A precursor to a formal drawing or blueprint.

34

D. Drawings and blueprints. 1. Formalized drawing done to accurately represent the part or structure. 2. Consists of: a. Title block with: (1). Name of drawer/architect/engineer. (2). Date when the drawing was completed. (3). Name of the drawing. (4). Scale of the drawing. b. Views: (1). Three-view drawing. (a). Views are dimensioned to indicate exact part measurements, thicknesses of materials; location of construction or manufacturing details, etc.

35

or, (2). Pictorial drawing. (a). View is dimensioned to indicate exact part measurements, thicknesses of materials; location of construction or manufacturing details, etc.

36

III. PROJECT BILL OF MATERIALS A. Itemized list, description and cost of materials necessary to complete the job. 1. For each component of the part or structure or system, the bill of materials might include: a. Component or part name. b. Number of pieces required. c. Type of material. d. Size of the part or pieces. e. Description of the part. f. Total length or number required. g. Unit cost of the part or piece. h. Total cost.

37

ABT 170 LECTURE 4 DESIGN OF MECHANICAL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

CONTENTS
DEFINITIONS RELATIVE TO MECHANICAL POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS COMPONENTS FOR DIRECT TRANSMISSION OF POWER DEVICES TO CHANGE SPEED OR ROTATION, DIRECTION OF ROTATION OR TORQUE MATHEMATICAL RELATIONSHIPS RELATIVE TO MECHANICAL POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM COMPONENTS SELECTION OF MECHANICAL POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM COMPONENTS

PAGE
38 41 43 50

53

38

I. DEFINITIONS RELATIVE TO MECHANICAL POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS A. Mechanical power transmission systems consist of input devices, output devices and the components that connect the two.

1. The input device is a power source or prime mover. a. Input devices may be an engine, electric motor, PTO shaft of a tractor, etc. ENGINE

ELECTRIC MOTOR

PTO SHAFT

39

2. The output device or driven device receives the power and does productive work. a. Output devices may be a pump, a conveyor belt, a flail mower, etc. PUMP

CONVEYOR

ROTARY TILLER

40

3. Connecting devices exist between the input device (power source) and the output device (point of use of the power). a. Connecting devices may be used to: (1). Directly transmit the power such as the electric motor and centrifugal pump pictured below:

(2). Change the direction of rotation between shafts. (3). Change the speed of rotation (RPM) of the power. (4). Change the magnitude of the torque of the provided power. b. Such devices include couplings, chains and sprockets, belts and gears, among others.

41

II. COMPONENTS FOR DIRECT TRANSMISSION OF POWER

A. Shafts 1. A direct and positive connection between the power source and the point of use when they are directly in line and relatively close together. a. Shaft alignment problems can lead to use of connecting couplings between the power source and the powered component:

42

B. Connecting couplings: 1. Couplers are available for transferring power of up to 200 horsepower and more. 2. Universal joint. a. Allows a slight out-of-alignment between the two ends.

3. Torque (flex) coupling. a. Absorb shock loads and allow for a point to disassemble the two end points.

4. Chain coupler. a. A low maintenance shaft coupler that will allow a slight amount of misalignment.

5. Jaw (spider) type of coupling:

43

III. DEVICES TO CHANGE SPEED OR ROTATION, DIRECTION OF ROTATION OR TORQUE

A. Devices that provide a positive connection between the power source and the point of use when they are parallel. B. Chain drives 1. Chain drives consist of the chain itself and two sprockets about which the chain wraps.

44

2. Chains. a. Hook link (or detachable link) chain. (1). A slow speed application chain which can be run dry and in dirty conditions. Chain is hammered together and apart at any link.

b. Roller chain. (1). A high quality, high speed chain which can be operated fully in oil or semi-dry.

3. Sprockets. a. A device which is attached to the input and output shafts and about which the chain is wrapped.

45

C. Belt drives. 1. A connection between the power source and the point of use when they are parallel and when some slip or torque release between the two shafts is allowable or desirable. Also allows a change of speed between the two shafts if desired. The belt runs on a sheave which is connected to the input and output shafts.

2. Types of belts: a. Flat belt. (1). A thin, flat belt that relies on tension to give traction at the sheave (which is slightly crowned in the middle). b. V-belt.

(1). The most common belt which rides in the "V" of the sheave. (2). V-belts are specified by: (a). Length. (b). Cross-sectional width. (c). "V" depth of the belt.

46

c. Toothed belt.

(1). A positive drive (no slippage) belt with teeth. (2). Used for timed power transmission applications. (3). Available in five standard pitches - 1/5, 3/8, 1/2, 7/8 and 1-1/4. 3. Sheaves a. The circular device about which the belts are wrapped and are attached to the input and output shafts.

47

D. Gear drives. 1. A gear connection between the power source and the point of use which can be inline, parallel or around the corner and which also allows change of shaft speed between the two. 2. Types of gears: a. Spur. (1). A straight cut gear which must run with parallel shafts. b. Helical. (1). Can be either spur or bevel cut but without straight teeth. The slanted teeth allows for longer teeth contact and superior wear characteristics.

48

c. Bevel cut. (1). Straight cut gear which are beveled to allow shafts to run up to 90 apart. d. Hypoid. (1). Spiral bevel have curved teeth which mesh quietly and wear characteristics. (2). Used extensively in differentials.

e. Worm. (1). A shaft which has teeth cut around it with screw-like threads meshing with a helical cut gear. (2). Used on steering gears on tractors.

49

f. Rack and pinion. (1). Commonly used in steering systems.

50

IV. MATHEMATICAL RELATIONSHIPS RELATIVE TO MECHANICAL POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM COMPONENTS A. Belt and chain drives 1. V belts or chains are used to change the speed of rotation (RPM) between two shafts and/or to change the amount of torque (twisting force) passing through a power transmission mechanism.

a. Formulae: (1). Speed of rotation: (RPMdriven) = (RPMdrive) [(PDdrive) (PDdriven)] where, RPMdriven = RPM of the driven sheave or pulley RPMdrive = RPM of the drive sheave or pulley PDdrive = Pitch diameter of the drive sheave or pulley in inches PDdriven = Pitch diameter of the driven sheave or pulley in inches (2). Direction of rotation: Direction of rotation does not reverse from sheave to sheave. (3). Torque transfer: (Tdriven) = (Tdrive)[(PDdriven) (PDdrive)] where, Tdriven = Torque at the driven sheave or pulley Tdrive = Torque at the drive sheave or pulley PDdrive = Diameter of the drive sheave or pulley in inches PDdriven = Diameter of the driven sheave or pulley in inches b. Practical significance: (1). If the diameter of the drive sheave is smaller than the diameter of the driven sheave, then the speed of the driven sheave is less than the speed of the drive sheave. or, going from a small sheave to a large sheave results in a speed reduction. (2). If the diameter of the drive sheave is more than the diameter of the driven sheave, then the speed of the driven sheave is greater than the speed of the drive sheave. or, going from a large sheave to a small sheave results in a speed increase. (3). If the diameter of the drive sheave is less than the diameter of the driven sheave, then the torque of the driven sheave is more than the torque of the drive sheave. or, going from a small sheave to a large sheave results in a torque increase. (4). If the diameter of the drive sheave is more than the diameter of the driven sheave, then the torque of the driven sheave is less than the torque of the drive sheave. or, going from a large sheave to a small sheave results in a torque decrease.

51

B. Gear drives a. Change the speed of rotation (RPM) between two shafts. b. Reverse the direction of rotation of the two shafts. c. Change the amount of torque (twisting force) between two shafts. d. Change the direction of shafting, as with bevel gears.

e. Formulae: (1). Speed of rotation: (RPMdriven) = (RPMdrive) [(NTdrive) (NTdriven)] where, RPMdriven = RPM of the driven gear RPMdrive = RPM of the drive gear NTdrive = Number of teeth on the drive gear NTdriven = Number of teeth on the driven gear (2). Direction of rotation: Direction of rotation reverses from gear to gear. (3). Torque transfer: (Tdriven) = (Tdrive)[(NTdriven) (NTdrive)] where, Tdriven = Torque on the driven gear Tdrive = Torque on the drive gear NTdrive = Number of teeth on the drive gear NTdriven = Number of teeth on the driven gear b. Practical significance: (1). If the number of teeth in the drive gear is less than the number of teeth in the driven gear, then the speed of the driven gear is less than the speed of the drive gear. or, going from a small gear to a large gear results in a speed reduction. (2). If the number of teeth in the drive gear is more than the number of teeth in the driven gear, then the speed of the driven gear is greater than the speed of the drive gear. or, going from a large gear to a small gear results in a speed increase. (3). If the number of teeth in the drive gear is less than the number of teeth in the driven gear, then the torque of the driven gear is more than the torque of the drive gear. or, going from a small gear to a large gear results in a torque increase.

52

(4). If the number of teeth in the drive gear is more than the number of teeth in the driven gear, then the torque of the driven gear is less than the torque of the drive gear. or, going from a large gear to a small gear results in a torque decrease. c. Example of gear set to reduce rotational speed and reverse direction of rotation of the driven shaft:

d. Example of gear set to reduce rotational speed and maintain direction of rotation of the driven shaft:

53

V. SELECTION OF MECHANICAL POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM COMPONENTS A. General concepts of component selection 1. Selection of components is made from manufacturers catalogs. a. See design section therein. 2. Selection typically based upon three factors that must be pre-determined by the user. a. Drive horsepower. (1). Use the rated horsepower of the power source (i.e., the electric motor, hydraulic motor or internal combustion engine). b. Service Factor. (1). Service Factors typically range from between 1.0 and 4.0. (2). Service Factors depend upon the application for the coupler and the type of power source. (3). Smooth power sources such as electric motors tend to decrease the value of the Service Factor whereas surging types of power sources such as internal combustion engines tend to increase the power factors. (4). Applications where substantial shock loading or frequent stopping and starting types of loads occur tends to increase the Service Factor. c. Speed of shaft. (1). Design speed (in RPM) of the shaft in the transmission system. (a). The fastest shaft speed when choosing chains and V-belts. (b). The design shaft speed when choosing couplings. B. Specifications for power transmission components 1. Chain couplers a. Basic size number (see catalog). b. Bore diameter (same as the shaft diameter of the power shaft). c. Type of bore in the coupler: (1). TAPER-LOCK, Finished bore (with keyway and setscrew over the keyway). 2. Roller chain a. Chain size (or number) is delineated by: (1). Pitch which is the distance between the centers of the links. (2). Width which is the distance between the inside edges of the side bars. (3). Common chains with their corresponding pitches and widths are: Chain No. Pitch Width 40 1/2" 5/16" 50 5/8" 3/8" 60 3/4" 1/2" 80 1" 5/8" 100 1 1/4" 3/4" 120 1 1/2" 1" 140 1 3/4" 1" 160 2" 1 1/4" 180 2 1/4" 1 13/32" 200 2 1/2" 1 1/2" b. Chain length (inches).

54

3. Sprockets a. Sprocket size is specified by: (1). Chain number. (2). Number of teeth (same pitch as the chain). (3). Type of hub. (4). Hub bore diameter. (5). Type of bore in the sprocket (boretosize or TaperLock). 4. V-belts (sizes of and designation of agricultural V-belts):

a. Belt section type (1). Such as HA, HB, etc. (or A, AX, B, for nonag belts). b. Length of the belt (inches). (1). The nominal outside length of the belt is normally stamped on the outside of the belt itself. For example: A belt marked HA - 870 is: 1/2 wide at the top 5/16 deep 87.0 nominal outside length c. Note that double angled belts (HAA through HDD) are designed for uses where the top and bottom of the belt must contact sheaves (as in a serpentine drive). 5. Sheaves a. Pitch diameter. b. Groove section type (see 4.a. above). c. Number of grooves (i.e., number of belts). d. Bore diameter. e. Type of bore in the sheave (boretosize or TaperLock). 6. Gears a. Number of teeth. b. Type of bore. c. Bore diameter.

55

C. Selecting couplings 1. Determine the required Drive Horsepower to be transmitted by the shaft coupling. a. Use the rated horsepower output of the electric motor, hydraulic pump or internal combustion engine. 2. Determine the Drive Speed (in RPM) of the output shaft to which the coupler is to be attached. 3. Select the appropriate Service Factor from manufacturers specifications. For example, see the Dodge catalog download extract on pages PT168 or 69. 4. Multiply the Service Factor times the Drive horsepower and divide by the coupler RPM/100 to get Application Horsepower per 100 RPM. 5. Select the appropriate coupler from the manufacturers catalog listings. For example, on pages PT170 and 71 of the Dodge catalog, find a rating equal to or greater than the HP/100 RPM. a. From the Rating Tables for the coupling type desired on pages PT170 and 71, find a rating equal to or greater than the HP/100 RPM. b. Note the coupling size from the left-hand column. . 6. Specify the finished chain coupler below: Basic size number: Bore: Type of bore in the coupler: (Boretosize or TaperLock)

56

D. Selecting roller chains and sprockets 1. Chain and sprocket selection a. Determine the Class of Service from the Service Factor Table on page PT12 - 28 of the Dodge catalog download extract. b. Select the Service Factor from the Service Factor Table on page PT12 - 28 of the Dodge catalog download extract.. c. Determine the required Drive Horsepower to be transmitted by the chain drive. (1). Use the rated horsepower output of the electric motor, hydraulic pump or internal combustion engine: d. Determine Design Horsepower. (1). Multiply the Drive Horsepower by the Service Factor: e. Determine the Drive Ratio between the drive and driven shafts. (1). Faster speed shaft RPM = (2). Slower speed shaft RPM = (3). Speed Ratio = Faster speed shaft RPM Slower speed shaft RPM f. Select the appropriate chain size and number of teeth for the small sprocket (this is typically the driver sprocket): Use the "Recommended Smaller Sprocket" Table on pages PT1230 or 31. (1). Tables on pages PT1230 and 31 present selection based upon the intersection of RPM of the small sprocket (left hand column) and design HP (top row, left to right). (2). The numbers at the intersection of the RPM of the small sprocket and design HP are of the form, for example,: 35 17 (a). These numbers represent: 35 = chain size 17 = number of teeth of the small sprocket g. Select the chain size and number of teeth for the large sprocket: (1). The chain size of large sprocket is the same as that specified in paragraph f.(2). above. (2). Select the number of teeth for the large sprocket using the following formula: Number of teeth in the large sprocket = (Speed Ratio)(Number of teeth in the small sprocket) h. Compute the chain length (1). Compute L in the formula: L = 2c + 1.57(D + d) + [(D - d)2 4c] where, c = Proposed center to center distance in inches = D = pitch diameter of the large sprocket (see page PT1244 of the Dodge catalog) d = pitch diameter of the small sprocket (see page PT1244 of the Dodge catalog)

57

2. Specify the finished chain and sprockets below: CHAIN Chain number Chain length (inches) DRIVE SPROCKET Chain number Number of teeth Bore diameter Type of bore in the sprocket: (Boretosize or TaperLock) DRIVEN SPROCKET Chain number Number of teeth Bore diameter Type of bore in the sprocket: (Boretosize or TaperLock)

58

E. Selecting Vbelts and sheaves 1. Selecting V-belts - specified by type (cross-section) and length of the V-belt: a. Determine the Driver Shaft Speed (in RPM). (1). The speed of the driver sheave (motor, pump or engine) is normally dictated by the horsepower characteristic performance curve of the power source. (2). The speed of the driven sheave is determined by the performance characteristics of the device attached to the driven sheave. (3). For example, if you are using an electric motor that is rated at 2 horsepower at 1800 RPM as your power source and the unit to be driven requires an operating input of 600 RPM, then the Driver Shaft Speed (in RPM) is 1800 RPM. b. Select the Service Factor from the Service Factor Table 7 on page PT785 of the Dodge catalog. c. Compute the Design Horsepower: (1). Determine the required Drive Horsepower to be transmitted by the belt drive. (a). Use the rated horsepower output of the electric motor, hydraulic pump or internal combustion engine. (2). Multiply the Drive Horsepower by the Service Factor to determine Design HP. d. Select the appropriate V-belt type (cross section) from the Classical Cross Section Selection Chart on page PT784 of the Dodge catalog. e. Select the drive and driven sheaves: (1). Using belt section from above, refer to Stock Drive Selection Tables beginning on page PT788. (2). Under the appropriate driver speed column, go down until you find the Driven RPM nearest to the desired speed. To the right, note and record HP per belt. f. Read to the left and record the Driver/Driven Sheave information. (1). This denotes the pitch (datum) diameter of the driver and driven sheaves. (2). If the driver is an electric motor, be sure that the motor sheave diameter is not less than those shown in Table 8 on page PT785. g. Determine the required center to center distance of the drive setup. h. Back to the appropriate Stock Drive Selection Table, read to the right (and onto the next page if necessary), and find the figure closest to the required center to center distance. (1). Record the ArcLength Correction Factor in the shaded row below the center distance. (2). Go to the top of the page and record the Belt Size in the standard format. i. To determine the number of belts: (1). Multiply the HP per belt value by the Arc Length Correction Factor. (2). Divide the Design HP by the value computed above to determine the number of belts required.

59

4. Specify the finished V-belt and sheave system: V-BELT V-belt type Number of belts Length of belt (inches) DRIVE SHEAVE Pitch (datum) diameter (inches) Number of grooves Bore diameter (inches) Type of bore: (Boretosize or TaperLock) DRIVEN SHEAVE Pitch (datum) diameter (inches) Number of grooves Bore diameter (inches) Type of bore: (Boretosize or TaperLock) F. Selecting gears 1. Selecting gears - specified by number of teeth and diameter of bore: a. Calculate the speed ratio between the drive and driven gears. Speed Ratio = (RPMdriven) (RPMdrive)

b. Select the driven gear by: Ntdriven = [(Ntdrive) (Speed Ratio)]

2. Specify the finished gear system: DRIVE GEAR Number of teeth (Ntdrive) Bore diameter (inches) DRIVEN GEAR Number of teeth (Ntdriven) Bore diameter (inches)

60

ABT 170 LECTURE 5 DESIGN OF SIMPLE STRUCTURES

CONTENTS ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN PROCESS DESIGN PROJECT STATEMENT GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS AREA DIAGRAMS ROOM LAYOUTS PRELIMINARY FLOOR PLANS SCALE WORKING PLANS SPECIFICATIONS AND MATERIALS LIST

PAGE 61 61 62 63 65 67 69 69

61

I. ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN PROCESS A. Systematic procedure (see the following sections) to create a structure to meet the desires and needs of the occupant. The process may consist of the following steps: 1. Design project statement. 2. General design considerations. 3. Area diagrams. 4. Room layouts. 5. Preliminary floor plans. 6. Presentation drawings. 7. Scale working drawings. 8. Specifications and materials list. B. Results in a set of plans and specifications that will guide contractors to complete the construction work. II. DESIGN PROJECT STATEMENT A. Provides basic information and parameters about the structure, the client, the site, the cost and the time of completion. B. For example: 1. To design an 1800 square foot retirement home in Woodland, California for your instructor and his wife. The house is to be constructed in a ranch style and is to be single story construction using extensive energy saving materials and techniques. The flat, one acre site is at the corner of County Roads 21 and 96B, approximately 11/2 miles west of Woodland. The total cost of the home is not to exceed $165,000 and must be completed by June 1, 2000. or, 2. To design a facility to be a focus of agricultural machinery at the University of California at Davis. The facility will be used for teaching, continuing education, equipment development and testing and industry training. The facility will contain space for hands on industry training; research and development space for equipment prototypes; laboratory space for agricultural practices courses involving design and fabrication of agricultural devices and structures; and lecture room space for class lectures and extension workshops. Facility to be completed for the Fall quarter 1998 (i.e., October 1, 1998).

62

III. GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS A. Number of occupants. 1. Fulltime. 2. Parttime (motherinlaw). B. Planned future growth or shrinkage. C. Site development. 1. Drainage/flood potential. 2. Utilities (existing water, electrical, gas, telephone). 3. Adjacent land use/structures (residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural). 4. Existing rights-of-way/easements. 5. Soil type and suitability for structures/drainage. 6. Other important physical features (existing trees, landscaping, etc.). 7. Access to roads. D. Local building codes, permit, variance and environmental assessment requirements. E. Climate (prevailing winds, orientation relative to sun, etc). F. Noise. 1. External to the structure. 2. Internal to the structure. G. Available funds. H. Handicap access.

63

IV. AREA DIAGRAMS A. Develop "Area Diagrams". 1. For a residence, produce a sketch to show living (public), sleeping (private) and working (service) areas to determine optimum room locations and building shape. a. Consider such things as view, traffic flow, relative sizes, geographic orientation, etc. 2. For a teaching facility or laboratory, produce a sketch to show office, laboratory and classroom areas. a. Consider things such as traffic flow, safety, work flow, etc. 3. For the Rumsey retirement home specified in II.B.1. above:

64

4. For the agricultural machinery teaching facility specified in II.B.2. above:

65

V. ROOM LAYOUTS A. Develop "Room Layouts" for each room needed. 1. Make detailed planning considerations to include: a. Space allocation (square footage). b. Floor plan layout. c. Furnishings and equipment. (1). Desk, phone, filing cabinets, typewriter, etc. d. Storage. e. Lighting - fluorescent or incandescent. f. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC). g. Electrical/gas/water utilities. h. Restroom access. i. Special requirements (safety, environmental, etc.) 2. Produce a rough scale drawing or sketch of each room. a. Show furnishings, fixed cabinetry, instrumentation, etc., to determine optimum room size and shape. 3. For the Rumsey retirement home specified in II.B.1. above:

66

4. For the agricultural machinery teaching facility specified in II.B.2. above:

67

VI. PRELIMINARY FLOOR PLANS A. Develop "Preliminary Floor Plans". 1. Bring together what you learned from the Area Diagram and Room Layout phases of the design process. 2. A preliminary floor plan is a scale drawing or sketch of the completed structure. 3. For the Rumsey retirement home specified in II.B.1. above:

68

4. For the agricultural machinery teaching facility specified in II.B.2. above:

69

VII. SCALE WORKING PLANS A. Prepare scale working plans including floor plans, elevations, foundation plan, electrical, plumbing and heating plans, interior details, wall sections, schedules and a plot plan. 1. This is done by a licensed professional. VIII. SPECIFICATIONS AND MATERIALS LIST A. Prepare written "Specifications". 1. This is normally done in conjunction with the scale drawings. B. Prepare a "Materials List" for establishing cost of construction. 1. This is normally done in conjunction with the scale drawings.

70

ABT 170 LECTURE 6 DETERMINING WIRING NEEDS OF BUILDINGS

NOTE: INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN HAS BEEN SIMPLIFIED. FOR SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS, USE A PROFESSIONAL ELECTRICIAN AND CONFORM WITH NEC AND ANY LOCAL CODE REQUIREMENTS.

71

CONTENTS
TERMS AND DEFINITIONS THE DESIGN SEQUENCE WHAT TYPES AND AMOUNT OF LIGHTING AND NUMBER OF LIGHTING OUTLETS REQUIRED PLANNING THE LOCATION OF AND NUMBERS OF CONVENIENCE OUTLETS PLANNING THE LOCATION OF AND NUMBERS OF SPECIAL PURPOSE CONVENIENCE OUTLETS DETERMINING THE NUMBER OF BRANCH CIRCUITS REQUIRED DETERMINING THE SIZES OF WIRES REQUIRED DETERMINING THE SIZE OF SERVICE ENTRANCE PANEL NEEDED

PAGE
72 76 77 79 80 81 83 85

72

I. TERMS AND DEFINITIONS A. Wiring plan. 1. A drawing of the house/shop/structure floor plan showing light switch and light fixture locations as well as convenience outlet and special purpose outlet locations.

73

B. Service entrance. 1. The main control and cutoff for the complete electrical system in the structure or residence. a. Normally located near to where the outside feeder wires connect to the building. 2. Components of the service entrance equipment include: a. Service entrance panel (sometimes known as the distribution panel). (1). A panel which connects the entire wiring system in a building from the source of metered electricity. (2). The fuses (or circuit breakers) for the branch circuits. (3). Contains the master breaker switch for the entire structure or residence. (4). Necessary connections for grounding. b. A service entrance conduit which contains the outside feeder wires and feeds them down to the main switch and the distribution panel. c. A ground conduit which contains ground wires that are connected to the neutral bar in the panel itself and to physical ground.

74

C. Branch circuit. 1. The portion of electrical wiring that carries current from the service entrance panel through the overcurrent protection device (fuse or circuit breaker) to the loads (lights, convenience outlets, or motors).

2. There are typically three types of branch circuits in a structure. a. Lighting circuits. (1). Consists of the lighting outlet, wiring and light switches. (2). These are 120 volt circuits. (a). Circuit consists of one hot wire (black), one neutral wire (white), and one equipment ground wire (bare or green). (b). These are commonly 15 ampere or 20 ampere circuits, i.e., circuit breakers or fuses on these circuits are rated at either15 or 20 amperes. (c). Wire size is normally 14 AWG (for 15 amp circuits) or 12AWG (for 20 amp circuits).

75

b. Convenience circuits. (1). Consists of wiring and convenience outlets. (2). These are 120 volt circuits. (a). Circuit consists of one hot wire (black), one neutral wire (white), and one equipment ground wire (bare or green). (b). These are commonly 20 ampere circuits, i.e., circuit breakers or fuses on these circuits are rated at 20 amperes. (c). Wire size is normally 12 AWG (for 20 ampere circuits). (3). In residences, convenience circuits are sometimes classified as: (a). General purpose circuits (wires run to convenience outlets sometimes referred to as duplex convenience outlets, i.e., DCOs). (b). Small appliance circuits (wires run to specific areas such as the kitchen to serve appliances such as toasters and microwave ovens). (4). General purpose convenience and lighting circuits may be combined.

c. Special purpose circuits. (1). Consists of wiring and special purpose convenience outlets. (2). These are typically 240 volt circuits. (a). Circuit consists of two hot wires (one black and the other black or red; or white if each end marked red or black) and an equipment ground wire (bare or green). (b). These may be 30, 40 or 50 ampere circuits, i.e., circuit breakers or fuses on these circuits are rated at 30, 40 or 50 amperes.

76

D. Special purpose outlet. 1. A dedicated outlet that services any electrical device (such as an electric dryer or an AC arc welder) which requires an input voltage of 240 volts and any electrical motor having a horsepower rating greater than 1/3 horsepower.

II. THE DESIGN SEQUENCE A. Determine what types and amount of lighting and numbers of lighting outlets required. B. Planning location of lighting outlets and lighting switches. C. Planning location of and numbers of convenience outlets. D. Planning location of and numbers of special purpose convenience outlets. E. Determine number of branch circuits required. F. Determine sizes of wire required. G. Determine size of service entrance panel needed.

77

III. WHAT TYPES AND AMOUNT OF LIGHTING AND NUMBER OF LIGHTING OUTLETS REQUIRED A. Types of lighting. 1. Natural light. a. For shops, window space should equal upwards of 15 to 20% of floor area (in square feet). 2. Electric light. a. Artificial light should be adequate to work or live regardless of light available from sunlight. b. Standard incandescent lamp bulb and reflector. (1). Give less shadowfree lighting but less initial cost than fluorescent lighting. c. Fluorescent lamp panels. (1). Give more shadowfree lighting but more initial cost than incandescent lighting. 3. General characteristics of different light fixtures are present on pages 88 and 89. B. General rules of thumbs for lighting needed for shops. 1. Outside and main entrance lighting. a. Use a 100 W floodlight when mounted 10 feet above ground level to cover a 15 foot wide entrance area. b. Use a 150 W floodlight when mounted 15 feet above ground level to cover a 25 foot wide entrance area. c. Use two 150 W floodlights when mounted 15 feet above ground level to cover a 30 foot wide entrance area. 2. General lighting. a. Mount lighting fixtures high enough above the floor (10 to 12 feet) for ample clearance for machinery and for long pieces of steel or lumber. b. Generally speaking, space 300watt lights 10 to 12 feet apart and 5 to 6 feet from the sides and ends of the shop space. 3. Specific work area lighting. a. Work bench areas (1). Specific recommendations vary from 30 footcandles of lighting for rough bench work to upwards of 100 footcandles of work for more delicate repair work. (a). Either two 150 watt incandescent bulbs with reflectors or two 48 inch long 40watt fluorescent fixtures mounted 4 feet above the workbench will give 50 footcandles of light. (2). It is generally recommended that such lighting fixtures be plugged into convenience outlets rather than mounting them permanently. This allows for future rearrangement of benches and work areas. b. Permanent power tool areas (such a pedestal type grinders, drill press, power saws, etc.) (1). 20 to 50 footcandles recommended at each area. (2). A 50 or 60watt bulb at each tool is generally adequate. (3). It is generally recommended that such lighting fixtures be plugged into convenience outlets rather than mounting them permanently. This allows for future rearrangement power tools.

78

C. General rules of thumbs for lighting needed for residential areas. 1. Living room and bedrooms. a. One or more ceiling lights controlled by a wall switch. 2. Dining room, dinette and/or breakfast room. a. One or more ceiling lights controlled by a wall switch. 3. Kitchen and/or kitchenette. a. One or more ceiling lights controlled by a wall switch. 4. Laundry and utility room a. One or more ceiling lights controlled by a wall switch. 5. Bathrooms a. One or more lighting outlet located at the mirror and controlled by a wall switch. 6. Halls. a. One ceiling outlet, controlled by a threeway wall switch. 7. Stairways. a. One lighting outlet for each floor and controlled by a twoway wall switch. 8. Walkin closets. a. One or more ceiling lights controlled by a wall switch. 9. Exterior entrances. a. One outlet at both the front and back of the house, controlled by an internal wall switch. D. Specific design sequence for determining lighting requirements for shop or industrial facilities: 1. Choose the type (fluorescent or incandescent) of lighting desired. 2. Choose the wattage of the above selected type of lighting (i.e., 40W for fluorescent or 100 W, 150W or 300 W for incandescent lights). 3. Use the table on pages 89 and 90 entitled Interior Light Levels for Agricultural Buildings to determine the watts per square foot of building area. 4. Multiply this number by the square footage of the building/room/etc. to get the total number of watts required. 5. Divide the total number of watts required by the wattage of the single light fixture selected to get the total number of light fixtures required. E. Example calculation for the machinery storage structure. 1. Choose the type (fluorescent or incandescent) of lighting desired. Use incandescent light fixtures. 2. Choose the wattage of the above selected type of lighting (i.e., 40W for fluorescent or 100 W, 150W or 300 W for incandescent lights). Use 300 W light fixtures. 3. Use the table on pages 89 and 90 entitled Interior Light Levels for Agricultural Buildings to determine the watts per square foot of building area. For a machinery storage area, use 0.46 watts per square foot. 4. Multiply this number by the square footage of the building/room/etc. to get the total number of watts required. Total watts required = (0.46 watts per square foot)x(4000 square feet) = 1840 watts 5. The total number of light fixtures required equals the total number of watts required by the wattage of a single light fixture Total number of lights required = 1840 watts 300 watts per light = 6.1 lights Use 7 lights

79

IV. PLANNING THE LOCATION OF AND NUMBERS OF 120 VOLT CONVENIENCE OUTLETS A. Number of convenience outlets recommended in shops. 1. Used for 120 volt uses such as portable lighting, heating loads of 1000 watts or less and motors of 1/3horsepower or less. 2. Space convenience outlets at 10 foot intervals along the shop walls. a. When starting layout, start with the first outlet 5 feet from the large entrance door and then space at 10 feet. b. Note that some of the convenience outlets may be suspended from the ceiling as a drop cord type of arrangement. This is particularly useful when serving permanent power equipment that is located centrally in the shop area (this then eliminates trailing power cords across the floor and across walkways. 3. At work bench areas, space outlets approximately 5 feet apart. B. Number of convenience outlets recommended in residences. 1. Living room and bedrooms. a. Duplex outlets spaced 12 feet apart around the wall so no point is no more than 6 feet away from an outlet. 2. Dining room, dinette and/or breakfast room. a. Duplex outlets spaced 12 feet apart around the wall so no point is no more than 6 feet away from an outlet. 3. Kitchen and/or kitchenette. a. Duplex outlets spaced every 4 feet of kitchen work surface. b. At least one duplex outlet for each useable wall space not previously used. 4. Laundry and utility room a. Duplex outlets located for previously identified miscellaneous uses. 5. Bathrooms a. Duplex outlet required near mirror. 6. Halls. a. One duplex outlets required for each 12 feet of hall length. 7. Stairways. a. None. 8. Walkin closets. a. Duplex outlets located for previously identified miscellaneous uses (such as an ironing board). 9. Exterior entrances. a. One single weatherproof outlet located at both the front and back of the house.

80

V. PLANNING THE LOCATION OF AND NUMBERS OF SPECIAL PURPOSE CONVENIENCE (240V) OUTLETS A. Number of special purpose convenience outlets recommended in shops. 1. Locate the special purpose outlet wherever 240volt power is required for a specific equipment item, i.e., one outlet per machine/equipment item. a. Note that some of the special purpose 240volt convenience outlets may be suspended from the ceiling as a drop cord type of arrangement. This is particularly useful when serving permanent power equipment that is located centrally in the shop area (this then eliminates trailing power cords across the floor and across walkways. B. Number of special purpose convenience outlets recommended in residences. 1. Living room and bedrooms. a. None normally required. 2. Dining room, dinette and/or breakfast room. a. None normally required. 3. Kitchen and/or kitchenette. a. As required for range or for any motors over 1/3 horsepower. 4. Laundry and utility room a. As required for dryer, water heater or for any motors over 1/3 horsepower. 5. Bathrooms a. None normally required. 6. Halls. a. None normally required. 7. Stairways. a. None normally required. 8. Walkin closets. a. None normally required. 9. Exterior entrances. a. None normally required.

81

VI. DETERMINING NUMBER OF BRANCH CIRCUITS REQUIRED A. For shops: 1. Lighting and convenience circuits (120 volt circuits). a. Wired as either 15 ampere circuits (i.e., #14 wire size) or 20 ampere circuits (i.e., #12 wire size). b. To estimate number of such circuits: (1). Estimate load for such circuits at 3 voltamperes per square foot of area. (2). Multiply 3 x square footage of the structure. (3). Divide the result from above by 120 to get the amperage on the lighting circuit. (4). Divide the result from above by either 20 amperes or 15 amperes (depending upon how you have decided to set up the lighting branch circuits) to get the number of circuits required. CALCULATION OF BRANCH CIRCUITS FOR LIGHTING AND GENERAL PURPOSE CIRCUITS NUMBER OF WATTS AMPERES CIRCUIT CIRCUITS PER (TOTAL SIZE (AMPERES SQUARE TOTAL WATTS (15 OR 20 CIRCUIT FOOT WATTS 120 V) AMPERES) SIZE) 3

SQUARE FEET

OR
CALCULATION OF BRANCH CIRCUITS FOR LIGHTING CIRCUITS ALONE NUMBER OF AMPERES CIRCUIT CIRCUITS (TOTAL SIZE (AMPERES TOTAL WATTS (15 OR 20 CIRCUIT WATTS 120 V) AMPERES) SIZE) 2. Small appliance circuits (120 volt circuits). a. Commonly wired as 20 ampere circuits (i.e., #12 wire size). (1). No more than 3 convenience outlets per circuit. (2). No single tool should be connected to such a circuit with a rating of more than 1920 watts, i.e., that will draw more than 16 amperes. CALCULATION OF BRANCH CIRCUITS FOR 20 AMPERE SMALL APPLIANCE CIRCUITS NUMBER OF CIRCUITS TOTAL ALLOWABLE (TOTAL WATTAGE WATTS OF WATTAGE ALLOWABLE WATTAGE PER APPLIANCES PER CIRCUIT CIRCUIT) 1920 3. Special purpose circuits (240 volt circuits). a. One circuit per outlet. 4. Leave room for future circuits.

82

B. For residences: 1. Lighting and convenience circuits (120 volt circuits). a. Wired as either 15 ampere circuits (i.e., #14 wire size) or 20 ampere circuits (i.e., #12 wire size). b. To estimate number of such circuits: (1). Estimate load for such circuits at 3 voltamperes per square foot of area. (2). Multiply 3 x square footage of the structure. (3). Divide the result from above by 120 to get the amperage on the lighting circuit. (4). Divide the result from above by either 20 amperes or 15 amperes (depending upon how you have decided to set up the lighting branch circuits) to get the number of circuits required. c. A general rule of thumb is that a house needs one general purpose (i.e., lighting and convenience) circuit for each 500 square feet of floor space. CALCULATION OF BRANCH CIRCUITS FOR LIGHTING AND GENERAL PURPOSE CIRCUITS NUMBER OF WATTS AMPERES CIRCUIT CIRCUITS PER (TOTAL SIZE (AMPERES SQUARE TOTAL WATTS (15 OR 20 CIRCUIT FOOT WATTS 120 V) AMPERES) SIZE) 3

SQUARE FEET

CALCULATION OF BRANCH CIRCUITS FOR LIGHTING CIRCUITS NUMBER OF AMPERES CIRCUIT CIRCUITS (TOTAL SIZE (AMPERES TOTAL WATTS (15 OR 20 CIRCUIT WATTS 120 V) AMPERES) SIZE) 2. Small appliance circuits (120 volt circuits). a. Commonly wired as 20 ampere circuits (i.e., #12 wire size). (1). No more than 3 convenience outlets per circuit. (2). No single appliance should be connected to such a circuit with a rating of more than 1920 watts, i.e., that will draw more than 16 amperes. CALCULATION OF BRANCH CIRCUITS FOR 20 AMPERE SMALL APPLIANCE CIRCUITS NUMBER OF CIRCUITS TOTAL ALLOWABLE (TOTAL WATTAGE WATTS OF WATTAGE ALLOWABLE WATTAGE PER APPLIANCES PER CIRCUIT CIRCUIT) 1920 3. Special purpose circuits (240 volt circuits). a. One outlet per circuit. 4. Leave room for future circuits.

83

VII. DETERMINING SIZES OF WIRES REQUIRED A. General considerations. 1. Lighting circuits and convenience circuits are normally wired separately, but not always. 2. By dividing the electrical load, smaller wires can be used to feed electrical outlets which makes installation easier. Additionally, smaller fuses can be used to protect each circuit which is desirable from the standpoint of safety and convenience. B. Determining wire size 1. Wiring for branch circuits in dwellings and structures that serve two or more outlets are commonly sized for 15, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ampere carrying capacity. a. See the chart below to determine the wire size for the particular circuit.

WIRE SIZE VS. WIRE RATING


WIRE SIZE (AWG NUMBER) 14 12 10 8 6 4 3 WIRE RATING (AMPERES) 15 20 30 40 50 70 80 APPROXIMATE WATTAGE CAPABILITY @ VOLTS 1800 W @ 120 volts 2400 W @ 120 volts 3600 W @ 120 volts 4800 W @ 120 volts 12,000 W @ 240 volts 16,800 W @ 240 volts 19,200 W @ 240 volts

b. Use the chart below to determine the wire size for the particular circuit.

Branch Circuit size circuit (amperes) Lighting L1 L2 etc. General Purpose GP1 GP2 etc. Small Appliance SA1 SA2 etc.

Wire size AWG

84

2. Wiring for branch circuits in dwellings and structures that serve a single outlets are sized to carry the current rating of the connected load. a. Do the following calculations using the table below for each single outlet circuit: (1). COLUMN 1 (a). Enter the circuit number (2). COLUMN 2 (a). Enter the total wattage carried by the device on the circuit (see nameplate on the device). (3). COLUMN 3 (a). Enter the voltage supplied to the circuit (i.e., either 120 or 240 volts). (4). COLUMN 4 (a). Enter the calculated maximum current carried by the circuit, where: Maximum device amperage = Total wattage Voltage or, Maximum device amperage = COL. 2 COL. 3 (5). COLUMN 5 (a). Select the wire size based upon the wire size vs. wire rating table on page 83.

COL. 1 Single outlet branch circuit #1 #2 #3 etc.

COL. 2 Total wattage of the device

COL. 3

COL. 4 Maximum device (amperage)

COL. 5 Wire size AWG

Voltage

85

VIII. DETERMINING SIZE OF SERVICE ENTRANCE PANEL NEEDED A. Size is determined by: 1. Number of circuits. 2. Total amperage required. 3. Future growth. B. Sizes of service entrances commonly used: 1. 60 ampere 3 wire. a. 4 120 volt circuits. b. 1 240 volt circuit. 2.100 ampere 3 wire. a. 16 120 volt circuits. b. 2 240 volt circuit. 3. 200 ampere 3 wire. a. 32 120 volt circuits. b. 2 240 volt circuit.

86

C. Calculation of wattage for sizing the service entrance panel: 1. COLUMN 1 a. Enter the circuit number (1). G1, G2, etc. for 20 amp general branch circuits. (2). L1, L2, etc. for 20 amp lighting circuits. (3). SA1, SA2, etc. for 20 amp small appliance circuits. 2. COLUMN 2 a. Total the wattage requirements for each branch circuit. (1). 20 amp general branch circuit. (a). Enter the total wattage for each 20 amp branch circuit. (b). Wattage requirements for each 20 amp general circuit can be estimated at 1800 watts per circuit (1.5 amps per convenience outlet x 120 volts = 1800 watts). (2). 20 amp small appliance circuit. (a). Enter the total wattage for each 20 amp branch circuit. (b). Wattage requirements for each 20 amp small appliance can be estimated by adding up rated wattage for appliance used. In lieu of such information, use 1800 watts per circuit. (3). Lighting circuit. (a). Enter the total wattage for each lighting circuit. (b). Wattage requirements for each lighting circuit can be estimated by adding up rated wattage for each light in each circuit.

COL. 1 Branch circuit Lighting L1 L2 etc. TOTAL General Purpose G1 G2 etc. TOTAL Small Appliance SA1 SA2 etc. TOTAL

COL. 2 Total wattage

87

(4). Special purpose circuit. (a). Enter the total wattage for each special purpose circuit. (b). Wattage requirements for each special purpose circuit can be estimated by adding up rated wattage for each device in each circuit.

COL. 1 Branch circuit Special Purpose SP1 SP2 SP3 etc. TOTAL

COL. 2 Total wattage

D. Calculation of amperage for sizing the service entrance panel: 1. Add total wattage for each of the four branch circuits and divide by 240 volts to get the estimate of current draw (see table below for calculations).

COL. 1 Branch circuit Lighting General Purpose Small Appliance Special Purpose TOTAL
COL. 1 TOTAL WATTAGE (SEE ABOVE)

COL. 2 Total wattage

COL. 2 VOLTAGE SUPPLY (VOLTS) 240

COL. 1 COL. 2 CURRENT (AMPERES)

88

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIGHTS
POWER DRAW INTENSITY RATED SIZE AVERAGE (WATTS) LUMENS 15 25 40 60 100 150 Fluorescent 18 24 48 (energy saving) 48 High intensity discharge Mercury (HG) 65 120 200 280 440 Metal halide 210 290 460 1300 3600 7600 11000 20000 13000 18500 31000 20 30 38 39 45 62 64 67 16000 16000 16000 16000 16000 15000 15000 15000 20 25 39 46 750 1100 2700 2800 38 44 69 60 7500 9000 20000 20000 110 210 410 780 1580 2500 EFFICIENCY LIFE LUMENS PER LIFESPAN WATT (HOURS) 7 3 10 13 16 17 2500 2500 1500 1000 750 750

LAMP Standard incandescent

Highpressure sodium 70 90 125 180 240 295 365 470 3600 5220 8550 14400 19800 27000 33300 45000 51 58 68 80 82 91 91 96 16000 16000 16000 16000 16000 16000 16000 16000

89

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIGHTS (CONTINUED)


LAMP Lowpressure sodium POWER DRAW INTENSITY RATED SIZE AVERAGE (WATTS) LUMENS 30 55 75 120 185 230 1800 4800 8000 13500 23000 33000 EFFICIENCY LIFE LUMENS PER LIFESPAN WATT (HOURS) 60 87 107 112 124 143 10000 18000 18000 18000 18000 18000

INTERIOR LIGHT LEVELS FOR AGRICULTURAL BUILDINGS


TASK OR LOCATION LEVEL OF ILLUMINATION FOOT CANDLES DAIRY Cow housing Calf housing Milking Washing Milk handling Loading platform POULTRY Brooding Egg handling Egg processing SWINE Farrowing Nursery Growing Breeding Handling 7 10 20 100 20 15 STANDARD FLUORESCENT 40 W STANDARD INCANDESCENT 100 W 150 W 300 W

WATTS PER SQ. FT. OF BUILDING AREA

0.20 0.28 0.55 2.75 0.55 0.42

0.80 1.15 2.29 11.44 2.29 1.72

0.70 1.00 2.00 10.00 2.00 1.50

0.64

20 50 70

0.55 1.38 1.93

2.29 5.72 8.00

2.00 5.00 7.00

15 10 5 15 20

0.42 0.28 0.14 0.42 0.55

1.72 1.15 0.58 1.72 2.29

1.50 1.00 0.50 1.50 2.00

0.46

90

INTERIOR LIGHT LEVELS FOR AGRICULTURAL BUILDINGS (CONTINUED)


TASK OR LOCATION LEVEL OF ILLUMINATION FOOT CANDLES SHEEP Lambing Growing Handling BEEF Housing Feedbunker GENERAL Feed storage Office Machine storage Machine repair Shop bench area Rough bench area Restrooms 5 10 0.42 0.14 1.72 0.58 1.50 0.50 0.46 15 5 20 0.42 0.14 0.55 1.72 0.58 2.29 1.50 0.50 2.00 0.46 STANDARD FLUORESCENT 40 W STANDARD INCANDESCENT 100 W 150 W 300 W

WATTS PER SQ. FT. OF BUILDING AREA

10 50 5 30 100 50 30

0.28 1.38 0.14 0.83 2.75 1.38 0.83

1.15 5.72 0.58 3.43 11.44 5.72 3.43

1.00 5.00 0.50 3.00 10.00 5.00 3.00

0.91 0.46

91

ABT 170 LECTURE 7

WATER DEVELOPMENT AND IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

92

CONTENTS
I. II. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS SITE AND CROPPING CONSIDERATIONS

PAGE
93 93 94 95 101 107

III. SOURCES OF WATER IV. WATER QUANTITY NEEDED V. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

VI. SCHEDULING IRRIGATIONS

93

I. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS A. Site and cropping considerations. B. Sources of water. C. Water quantity needed. D. Irrigation system selection. E. Scheduling irrigations. II. SITE AND CROPPING CONSIDERATIONS A. Site information. 1. Acreage to be irrigated. 2. Slope of land. B. Soils information. 1. Soils type. 2. Soil depth. 3. Slope. C. Climate 1. Daily average/actual temperatures (maximum and minimum). 2. Daily evapotranspiration. 3. Daily rainfall. 3. Daily/average wind speed and direction. D. Crop 1. Specific crop(s) grown. 2. Growing season.

94

III. SOURCES OF WATER A. Annual precipitation. l. Must meet the requirements of the crop in terms of timing and total amount of water. a. Does not happen during the summer in the central valley of California. b. Theoretically happens for grain crops in over the winter months in this part of California. B. Streams. l. Seasonal streams. a. Seasonal streams can be diverted into lakes, ponds or reservoirs. b. The discharge of most natural streams diminishes during the late summer months when the largest supply of water is needed for irrigation. 2. Yearround streams. a. Yearround streams should be checked for flow. b. Farmer must have the right to pump irrigation water out of a stream or river. C. Lakes, ponds or reservoirs. 1. Manmade or natural storage basin for water. a. Is the lake, pond or reservoir capable of holding enough water to match irrigation requirements? D. Wells. 1. Dug wells from which water is lifted by pumping. a. Normally dug to a depth of greater that 30 feet and upwards of 500 feet or more. b. Well depth depends upon hitting a dependable strata of water bearing gravel that will supply adequate amounts (in gallons per minute) of water.

95

E. Community pipelines and canals. 1. Normally setup by a local (community) irrigation district that maintains, repairs and schedules water through the system. 2. Water paid for on an acrefoot basis charge. 3. Pipeline and canal must be in proximity to your property.

IV. WATER QUANTITY NEEDED A. Types of needs 1. Total seasonal requirement a. Expressed in acrefeet or acreinches of water. (An acrefoot is the amount of water that would cover one acre one foot deep). (1). An acrefoot of water is 325, 851 gallons. (2). An acreinch of water is 27, 154 gallons. (3). An acre is 43,560 square feet (an area approximately 200 wide and 200 long). 2. Peakuse rate of water needed. a. Expressed in acre inches per acre per day. 3. Both needs must be satisfied by your source(s) of water. a. Running out of water on a seasonal or daily water requirements basis will result in crop loss. B. Estimation of total seasonal requirement 1. Estimated by published data for your crop in your area. a. Commonly presented as seasonal consumptive use or seasonal water demand or evapotranspiration data. (1). Represents the amount of water used by the crop, irregardless of source (i.e., by irrigation, rainfall or water table). (2). Includes water transpired by the plant itself as well as the water evaporated from adjacent soil.

96

2. Example seasonal consumptive use data for Central Valley of California: CROP Alfalfa Corn Cotton Hay or pasture Tomatoes Walnuts Wine grapes Raisin grapes Table grapes Turf grass SEASONAL WATER DEMAND (ACREINCHES PER ACRE) 40 acreinches per acre 26 acreinches per acre 26 acreinches per acre 36 acreinches per acre 20 acreinches per acre 54 acreinches per acre 24 to 30 acreinches per acre 24 to 30 acreinches per acre 30 to 36 acreinches per acre 36 acreinches per acre (1 acreinches per acre per week)

3. Net seasonal water demand. a. Net seasonal water demand takes into account seasonal water demand, distribution and application efficiencies, leaching requirements and effective rainfall. b. Net seasonal water demand = [Seasonal water demand effective rainfall + leaching requirement] [Application efficiency (%) 100] (1). Effective rainfall is that received during the growing season of the crop. (2). Leaching requirement is that amount of water added prior to planting in order to leach down salts. (3). Application efficiency generally ranges between 50 and 90% and is representative of the amount of water losses due to deep percolation, runoff and evaporation. (4). Typical values of application efficiency are: Drip 90% Sprinklers 80% Basin or bordercheck 75% Furrow 70% c. Used to size your reservoir or lake or seasonal commitment from your water provider.

97

4. Calculation of net seasonal amount needed during the season (repeat for all crops grown): STEPS STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3 STEP 4 STEP 5 STEP 6 STEP 7 STEP 8 STEP 9 STEP 10 STEP 11 INFORMATION CROP SEASONAL WATER DEMAND (SEE TABLE ON PAGE 96) (ACREINCHES PER ACRE) EFFECTIVE RAINFALL (INCHES) STEP 2 - STEP 3 ACRES PRODUCED STEP 4 X STEP 5 STEP 6 12 TOTAL WATER DEMAND IN ACRE FEET (STEP 7) APPLICATION AND DISTRIBUTION EFFICIENCY (%) (STEP 8)(100) STEP 9 TOTAL WATER REQUIREMENT IN ACRE FEET (STEP 8) ENTER DATA HERE:

98

C. Estimation of peakuse rate of water needed. 1. Estimated by published data for your crop in your area. (a). Commonly presented as daily peakuse rates of water demand data. 2. Example daily peakuse rates of water demand use data for Central Valley of California:

DAILY PEAK USE RATE OF SELECTED CROPS


CROP Alfalfa Corn Cotton Tomatoes Deciduous orchard, clean cultivated Deciduous orchard, weeds or cover crop Turf grass DAILY PEAK USE RATE (ACREINCHES PER ACRE PER DAY) 0.25 acreinches per acre per day 0.26 acreinches per acre per day 0.22 acreinches per acre per day 0.22 acreinches per acre per day 0.25 acreinches per acre per day 0.31 acreinches per acre per day 0.14 acreinches per acre per day

3. Used to size your pump or communicate your peak daily needs to your water provider.

99

4. Calculation of peakuse rate of water needed (for other than drip irrigation). STEPS STEP 1 STEP 2 INFORMATION ENTER DATA HERE: CROP DAILY PEAK USE (ACREINCHES PER ACRE PER DAY) (SEE TABLE ON PAGE 98) ACRES IRRIGATED STEP 2 X STEP 3 HOW LONG IRRIGATE CROP DURING 24 HOUR PERIOD (HOURS) STEP 4 STEP 5 STEP 6 X 448 IRRIGATION EFFICIENCY (%) (STEP 7)(100) STEP 8 PEAK USE RATE (GPM) (STEP 9)

STEP 3 STEP 4 STEP 5 STEP 6 STEP 7 STEP 8 STEP 9 STEP 10

5. Calculation of pump size needed (for other than drip irrigation). STEPS STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3 STEP 4 STEP 5 STEP 6 STEP 7 STEP 8
1

INFORMATION CROP IRRIGATION AMOUNT (ACRE INCHES PER ACRE) ACRES IRRIGATED PER SET1 STEP 2 X STEP 3 SET TIME PER SET (HOURS) STEP 4 STEP 5 STEP 6 X 448 PUMP SIZE (GPM) (STEP 7)

ENTER DATA HERE:

ACRES PER SET IS THE AMOUNT (I.E., PORTION) OF A FIELD IRRIGATED AT ANY ONE TIME. IT IS OFTEN THE CASE THAT A PORTION OF A FIELD IS IRRIGATED AND THEN THE IRRIGATION WATER IS MOVED TO COVER ANOTHER PORTION OF THE FIELD.

100

6. Calculation of peakuse rate of water needed (gallons per minute per tree or vine for drip irrigation): STEPS STEP 1 STEP 2 INFORMATION ENTER DATA HERE: CROP DAILY PEAK USE (ACREINCHES PER ACRE PER DAY) (SEE TABLE ON PAGE 98) IRRIGATION EFFICIENCY (%) STEP 2 (STEP 3 100) ROW SPACING (FT) DOWNTHEROW TREE OR VINE SPACING (FT) STEP 4 X STEP 5 X STEP 6 X 0.623 GALLONS PER TREE OR VINE PER DAY (STEP 7) OPERATING HOURS PER DAY (HRS) STEP 8 STEP 9 GPH PER TREE OR VINE (STEP 10) GPM PER TREE OR VINE (STEP 11 60)

STEP 3 STEP 4 STEP 5 STEP 6 STEP 7 STEP 8 STEP 9 STEP 10 STEP 11 STEP 12

101

V. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS A. General types l. Surface a. Water is applied on the ground at the ground level. b. Water flows by gravity over the surface of the field from the high to the low end. 2. Sprinkler. a. Water is sprayed through the air and falls to the ground like rain. b. Rotating sprinkler heads. c. Spray nozzles. 3. Drip (trickle). a. Filtered water is supplied directly on or below the soil surface in small amounts. B. Surface watering systems 1. Border checks.

2. Furrows.

102

C. Sprinkler systems 1. Portable (hand move).

2. Wheel line.

103

3. Solid set. 4. Center pivot.

5. Linear move.

104

6. Giant boom.

7. Micro sprinklers.

105

D. Drip (trickle) systems 1. Emitters.

2. Drip tape.

106

E. Factors to consider in selecting an irrigation system


SURFACE HAND OR WHEEL MOVE SPRINKLER TRICKLE OR DRIP

FACTORS TO CONSIDER SLOPE LIMITATIONS Direction of irrigation Cross slope SOIL LIMITATIONS Intake rate (in/hr) Minimum Maximum Depth Erosion hazard SalineAlkali WATER LIMITATIONS Quality TDS Suspended solids Rate of flow (gpm) CLIMATIC FACTORS Wind affected ADAPTABLE TO ALL CROPS

SOLID SET SPRINKLER

BORDER CHECK

FURROW

20% 20%

None None

0.5 to 4.0% 0.2%

3% 10%

None None

0.10 in/hr None None Slight Slight

0.05 in/hr None None Slight Slight

0.30 in/hr 0.10 in/hr 2.0 in/hr 2.0 in/hr Deep enough to allow for grading required Moderate Severe Moderate Severe

0.02 in/hr None None None Moderate

Severe Moderate Low

Severe Moderate Low

Slight None Moderate

Moderate None Moderate

Slight Severe Low

Yes Good

Yes Good

No Very Good

No Very Good

No Good

107

VI. SCHEDULING IRRIGATIONS A. Commonly used techniques 1. Monitoring soil water content by feel or appearance

SOIL MOISTURE, APPEARANCE AND DESCRIPTION CHART


AVAILABLE WATER (%) 100% (Field capacity) SANDY LOAM SAND Upon squeezing, no free water appears. Wet outline of ball appears on hand. Appears very dark. Upon squeezing, no free water appears on soil, but wet outline o ball is left on hand. Makes short ribbon. Quite dark. Forms weak ball, breaks easily. Will not slick. Fairly dark. Tends to ball with pressure, but seldom holds together. Light colored. Appears to be dry, will not form a ball. Very slight color. Dry, loose, flows through fingers. LOAM/SILT CLAY LOAM LOAM/CLAY Appears very Appears very dark. Upon dark. Upon squeezing, no free squeezing, no free water appears on water appears on soil, but wet soil, but wet outline of ball is outline of ball is left on hand. Will left on hand. Will ribbon about 1 ribbon about 2 inch. inches. Dark color. Dark color. Forms a ball, is Easily ribbons very pliable, out between sticks readily if fingers, has slick high in clay. feeling. Fairly dark. Fairly dark. Forms a ball, Forms a ball, somewhat plastic, ribbons out will sometimes between thumb slick slightly with and forefinger. pressure. Light colored. Slightly dark. Somewhat Somewhat pliable, crumbly, but will ball under holds together pressure. with pressure. Slight color. Slight color. Powdery, dry, Hard, baked, sometimes easily cracked, broken down into sometimes has powdery loose crumbs on condition. surface.

75 to 100%

50 to 75%

Tends to stick together slightly, sometimes forms a weak ball with pressure. Appears to be dry, will not form a ball with pressure. Appears to be dry, will not form a ball with pressure. Dry, loose, single-grained, flows through fingers.

25 to 50% 0 to 25% (0% is permanent wilting)

2. Measuring soil water tension. a. Use of devices such as capacitance probe, neutron probe, time dominance reflectometry, tensiometers and Watermark (gypsum) blocks. 3. Observing plant stress symptoms. a. Normally associated with the retardation of foliar growth. b. Problem: By the time visual stress symptoms show, many plants have suffered stress that will hurt productivity.

108

4. Monitoring plant water stress. a. Pressure chamber (plant bomb) to measure water status in leaves. b. Infrared thermometer to measure crop canopy temperature and indicate relative rates of transpiration. 5. Using evapotranspiration (ET) and the water budget technique. a. By monitoring all additions to and losses of a fields water, a favorable soil water level is maintained. b. The goal of such scheduling is to eliminate moisture stress in crop production. B. Scheduling irrigations in flood, furrow and sprinkler irrigated crops 1. General theory a. Apply the amount used by the crop as well as that evaporated from the soil surface during a period of time, i.e., replace the water in the soil that was used by the crop. (1). The amount used is dependent upon the temperature, humidity, wind, stage of growth of the plant or tree or vine. (a). The amount used is estimated by a value for evapotranspiration. (b). The units of evapotranspiration are acreinches of water per acre per day. b. The period of time (which becomes your irrigation frequency) can be determined by: (1). A portion of the available water stored in the effective rooting depth of the crop. (a). Available water is that portion of water stored in the soil between field capacity and the permanent wilting point. (b). Irrigations are frequently scheduled when approximately 50% of the available water remains. (c). Tables exist for typical values of available water for various soil types (see table on page 109). (d). The rooting depth depends upon the growth stage of the plant or tree or vine. Tables also exist for typical values of rooting depths (see table on page 109). and, (2). The daily rate of use of water by the plant or tree or vine at its particular growth stage. (a). The daily rate of use is estimated by multiplying a crop co-efficient (Kc) by the reference evapotranspiration (ETO). (a). Values of historical average daily reference evapotranspiration as well as daily actuals are available on-line, in many newspapers and in weekly and monthly trade publications. (b). Evapotranspiration is expressed in acreinches per acre per day.

109

2. Step by step calculations to schedule irrigations in flood, furrow and sprinkler irrigated crops: Step 1. ESTIMATE THE PORTION OF AVAILABLE WATER IN THE ROOT ZONE A. Estimate the available water holding capacity of the soil (inches of water per foot of depth of the soil) from values in the AVAILABLE WATER FOR VARIOUS SOIL TYPES table on page 109. 1. Multiply this value by 50% (representing the yield threshold depletion). B. Estimate the average rooting depth of the crop at the stage of growth of the crop from values in the TYPICAL ROOTING DEPTHS table on page 109. C. Multiply the results from A and B above to get the total amount of water available in the root zone.

AVAILABLE WATER FOR VARIOUS SOIL TYPES


(INCHES OF WATER PER FOOT OF DEPTH OF THE SOIL)
TYPE OF SOIL Coarsetextured sand Sandy loams and fine sandy loams Very fine sandy loams to silty clay loams Silty clay to clay Peats and mucks RANGE (IN. PER FT.) 0.50 to 1.00 1.00 to 1.50 1.25 to 1.75 1.50 to 2.50 2.00 to 3.00 AVERAGE (IN. PER FT.) 0.75 1.25 1.50 2.00 2.50

TYPICAL ROOTING DEPTHS


(FEET)
CROP Alfalfa Corn (sweet) Cotton Hay or pasture Potatoes Tomatoes Walnuts Wine grapes Raisin grapes Table grapes ROOTING DEPTH (FT) 10 to 15 feet 3 feet 4 feet 3 feet 6 to 10 feet 12 to 18 feet 3.5 feet 3.5 feet 3.5 feet

110

Step 2. ESTIMATE THE PERIODIC RATE OF CROP WATER USE A. Gather periodic KC values for the crop in question. B. Gather historical or actual periodic ETO values. C. Multiply periodic KC by the periodic ETO values to estimate periodic rate of crop water use.

HISTORICAL AVERAGE MONTHLY ETO VALUES FOR DAVIS


MONTH January February March April May June July August September October November December HISTORICAL AVERAGE MONTHLY ETO VALUE (ACREINCHES PER ACRE PER MONTH) 0.98 1.87 3.30 4.96 6.35 7.56 8.18 7.08 5.43 4.03 1.77 0.98

PEAK SEASONAL CROP COEFFICIENTS FOR YOLO COUNTY


CROP Alfalfa Corn (sweet) Cotton Hay or pasture Potatoes Tomatoes Walnuts without cover crop Walnuts with cover crop Wine grapes Raisin grapes Table grapes Turf grass CROP COEFFICIENT KC 1.20 1.15 1.20 1.20 1.21 1.14 1.00 1.30 0.82 0.82 0.82 1.04

111

Step 3. DECIDE WHEN TO IRRIGATE A. Accumulate periodic rates of crop water use. B. When the cumulative rate of use of crop water use equals the portion of available water in the root zone calculated in Step 1, irrigate! Step 4. CALCULATE THE AMOUNT OF WATER TO APPLY A. Divide the amount calculated for Step 1 (i.e., amount used from the root zone) by an irrigation efficiency. See tables below for typical ranges of irrigation efficiencies.

TYPICAL IRRIGATION EFFICIENCIES (%)


SYSTEM Border or flood Furrow Sprinkler Drip EFFICIENCY (%) 40 to 80% 40 to 70% 65 to 90% 75 to 90%

Step 5. DETERMINE HOW LONG TO RUN THE IRRIGATION WATER A. When the irrigation system output is known in gallons per minute: Hours where, Hours A AMT GPM = (450)(A)(AMT) GPM = number of hours to irrigate (hours) = acres irrigated (acres) = amount of water to add (acreinches per acre) = output of the irrigation system (gallons per minute)

B. When the irrigation system output is known in CFS (cubic feet per second): Hours where, Hours A AMT CFS = (A)(AMT) CFS = number of hours to irrigate (hours) = acres irrigated (acres) = amount of water to add (acreinches per acre) = output of the irrigation system (cubic feet per second)

112

3. Calculation forms for scheduling irrigations in flood, furrow and sprinkler irrigated crops. a. ESTIMATING THE AMOUNT OF AVAILABLE WATER IS IN THE ROOT ZONE STEPS STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3 INFORMATION CROP SOIL TYPE (CHOOSE FROM AVAILABLE WATER TABLE ON PAGE 109) WATER HOLDING CAPACITY (IN. PER FT.) (CHOOSE FROM AVAILABLE WATER TABLE ON PAGE 109) 0.50 X STEP 3 (YIELD THRESHOLD DEPLETION AMOUNT) ROOTING DEPTH (FT.) (CHOOSE FROM ROOTING DEPTH TABLE ON PAGE 109) STEP 4 X STEP 5 AMOUNT OF WATER AVAILABLE IN THE ROOT ZONE (STEP 6) ACREINCHES PER ACRE ENTER DATA HERE:

STEP 4 STEP 5 STEP 6 STEP 7

113

b. ESTIMATING THE PEAK RATE OF CROP WATER USE STEPS STEP 1 STEP 2 INFORMATION CROP CROP COEFFICIENT (CHOOSE FROM CROP COEFFICIENT TABLE ON PAGE 109) PEAK REFERENCE EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ACREIN. PER ACRE PER MONTH) (CHOOSE FROM PEAK ET O TABLE ON PAGE 110) STEP 2 X STEP 3 (PEAK RATE OF CROP WATER USE) (ACREINCHES PER ACRE PER MONTH) STEP 4 30 PEAK ET (STEP 5) (ACREINCHES PER ACRE PER DAY) ENTER DATA HERE:

STEP 3

STEP 4

STEP 5 STEP 6

114

c. DECIDING WHEN TO IRRIGATE STEPS STEP 1 STEP 2 INFORMATION ENTER DATA HERE: CROP AMOUNT OF WATER AVAILABLE IN THE ROOT ZONE, I.E. RESULTS FROM STEP a. (ACREINCHES PER ACRE) PEAK ET, I.E., RESULTS FROM STEP b. (PERIODIC ACREINCHES PER ACRE PER DAY) STEP 2 STEP 3 IRRIGATION FREQUENCY (STEP 4) (DAYS)

STEP 3

STEP 4 STEP 5

d. CALCULATING THE AMOUNT TO APPLY AT EACH IRRIGATION STEPS STEP 1 STEP 2 INFORMATION ENTER DATA HERE: CROP AMOUNT OF WATER AVAILABLE IN THE ROOT ZONE, I.E. RESULTS FROM STEP a. (ACREINCHES PER ACRE) IRRIGATION EFFICIENCY (CHOOSE FROM TYPICAL IRRIGATION EFFICIENCY TABLE ON PAGE 111) (%) STEP 2 (STEP 4 100) IRRIGATION AMOUNT (STEP 4) (ACREINCHES PER ACRE)

STEP 3

STEP 4 STEP 5

115

e. DETERMINE HOW LONG TO RUN THE IRRIGATION WATER WHEN IRRIGATION SYSTEM IS KNOWN IF CFS (CUBIC FEET PER SECOND) STEPS INFORMATION ENTER DATA HERE: STEP 1 CROP STEP 2 IRRIGATION AMOUNT , I.E. RESULTS FROM STEP d. (ACREINCHES PER ACRE) STEP 3 ACRES IRRIGATED STEP 4 IRRIGATION SYSTEM OUTPUT (CFS) STEP 5 STEP 2 X STEP 3 STEP 4 STEP 6 IRRIGATION TIME (STEP 5) (HOURS) WHEN IRRIGATION SYSTEM IS KNOWN IF GPM (GALLONS PER MINTUE) STEPS INFORMATION ENTER DATA HERE: STEP 1 CROP STEP 2 IRRIGATION AMOUNT , I.E. RESULTS FROM STEP d. (ACREINCHES PER ACRE) STEP 3 ACRES IRRIGATED STEP 4 IRRIGATION SYSTEM OUTPUT (GPM) STEP 5 450 X STEP 2 X STEP 3 STEP 4 STEP 6 IRRIGATION TIME (STEP 5) (HOURS)

116

C. SCHEDULING IRRIGATIONS IN DRIP IRRIGATED CROPS. 1. General theory a. High frequency (i.e., daily) drip irrigation allows application of the amount used by the crop, i.e., the daily evapotranspiration or crop water use amount. (1). The daily rate of crop water use is dependent upon the temperature, humidity, wind, stage of growth of the plant or tree or vine, etc.. (a). The daily rate of crop water use is estimated by a value for daily evapotranspiration. This can be computed by: (1). Multiplying a crop co-efficient (Kc) by the reference evapotranspiration (ETO). (2). Values of historical average daily reference evapotranspiration as well as daily actuals are available on-line, in many newspapers and in weekly and monthly trade publications. (b). Daily rate of crop water use is expressed in acreinches per acre per day. (c). This can be converted to gallons per plant per tree or vine per day by: Gallons per tree or vine per day = (ET)(0.623)(RS)(PS) where, ET = daily evapotranspiration rate in acre inches per acre per day RS = row spacing in feet PS = downtherow tree or vine spacing in feet b. Amount of water to apply is equal to the daily rate of crop water use divided by the irrigation efficiency. c. How long (in hours) to run the drip irrigation system can be determined by: (1). Divide the amount of water to apply (gallons per tree or vine per day) by the design application rate of the system (gallons per hour per tree or vine).

117

2. Step by step calculations to schedule irrigations for drip irrigated crops: Step 1. ESTIMATE THE DAILY RATE OF CROP WATER USE A. Gather KC values for the crop in question. B. Gather historical or actual daily ETO values. C. Multiply daily KC by the daily ETO values to estimate daily rate of crop water use.

HISTORICAL AVERAGE DAILY ETO VALUES FOR DAVIS


MONTH January February March April May June July August September October November December HISTORICAL AVERAGE MONTHLY ETO VALUE (ACREINCHES PER ACRE PER MONTH) 0.98 1.87 3.30 4.96 6.35 7.56 8.18 7.08 5.43 4.03 1.77 0.98 HISTORICAL AVERAGE DAILY ETO VALUE (ACREINCHES PER ACRE PER DAY) 0.03 0.06 0.11 0.17 0.21 0.25 0.27 0.24 0.18 0.13 0.06 0.03

118

PEAK SEASONAL CROP COEFFICIENTS FOR YOLO COUNTY


CROP Alfalfa Corn (sweet) Cotton Hay or pasture Potatoes Tomatoes Walnuts without cover crop Walnuts with cover crop Wine grapes Raisin grapes Table grapes Turf grass CROP COEFFICIENT KC 1.20 1.15 1.20 1.20 1.21 1.14 1.00 1.30 0.82 0.82 0.82 1.04

Step 2. DECIDE WHEN TO IRRIGATE A. Daily. Step 3. CALCULATE THE AMOUNT OF WATER TO APPLY A. Divide the amount calculated for Step 1 (i.e., daily rate of crop water use) by an irrigation efficiency. See tables below for typical ranges of irrigation efficiencies.

TYPICAL IRRIGATION EFFICIENCIES (%)


SYSTEM Drip EFFICIENCY (%) 75 to 90%

119

Step 4. DETERMINE THE TIME TO RUN THE DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM DURING A 24 HOUR PERIOD A. Divide the daily rate of crop water use (gallons per tree or vine per day) by the design application rate (gallons per hour per tree or vine) (1). Daily rate of crop water use (gallons per tree or vine per day) calculation: Gallons per tree or vine per day = (ET)(0.623)(RS)(PS) where, ET = evapotranspiration rate in acre inches per acre per day RS = row spacing in feet PS = downtherow tree or vine spacing in feet (2). Design application rate expressed in gallons per hour per tree or vine (3). Time to run the drip irrigation system during a 24 hour period Time (hours) = daily rate of crop water use design application rate = gallons per tree or vine per day gallons per hour per tree or vine

120

3. Calculation forms for scheduling irrigations in drip irrigated crops. a. ESTIMATE THE DAILY RATE OF CROP WATER USE STEPS STEP 1 STEP 2 INFORMATION CROP CROP COEFFICIENT (CHOOSE FROM CROP COEFFICIENT TABLE ON PAGE 118) EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ACREIN. PER ACRE PER DAY) (USE ACTUAL OR CHOOSE FROM PEAK ETO TABLE ON PAGE 110) STEP 2 X STEP 3 (DAILY RATE OF CROP WATER USE) (ACREINCHES PER ACRE PER DAY) ROW SPACING (FEET) DOWNTHEROW TREE OR VINE SPACING (FEET) STEP 4 X STEP 5 X STEP 6 X 0.623 DAILY RATE OF CROP WATER USE (STEP 7) (GALLONS PER TREE OR VINE PER DAY ENTER DATA HERE:

STEP 3

STEP 4

STEP 5 STEP 6 STEP 7 STEP 8

b. DECIDE WHEN TO IRRIGATE 1. Daily. c. CALCULATE THE AMOUNT OF WATER TO APPLY STEPS STEP 1 STEP 2 INFORMATION CROP DAILY RATE OF CROP WATER USE, I.E. RESULTS FROM STEP 8 ABOVE. (GALLONS PER TREE OR VINE PER DAY) IRRIGATION EFFICIENCY (CHOOSE FROM TYPICAL IRRIGATION EFFICIENCY TABLE ON PAGE 111) (%) STEP 2 (STEP 3 100) AMOUNT OF WATER TO APPLY (STEP 4) (GALLONS PER TREE OR VINE PER DAY) ENTER DATA HERE:

STEP 3

STEP 4 STEP 5

121

d. DETERMINE THE TIME TO RUN THE DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM DURING A 24 HOUR PERIOD STEPS STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3 STEP 4 STEP 5 INFORMATION CROP AMOUNT OF WATER TO APPLY RATE (GALLONS PER TREE OR VINE PER DAY) DESIGN APPLICATION RATE (GALLONS PER HOUR PER TREE OR VINE) STEP 2 STEP 3 HOURS TO RUN THE DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM (STEP 4) ENTER DATA HERE:

122

ABT 170 LECTURE 8 DESIGN OF CONCRETE PROJECTS

CONTENTS I. CONCRETE Terminology Tools and equipment Mixtures and proportions Specifications when ordering ready-mix concrete Determining quantities Pouring and curing Reinforcing II. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Sidewalks Driveways Floors

PAGE 123 123 123 123 125 125 127 128 129 129 129 130

123

I. CONCRETE A. Terminology. 1. Concrete - a mixture of cement, sand, gravel and water, which, when put together in proper proportions sets into a mass of "home-made" stone. a. Quality, strength and durability depends upon: (1). The quality and amount of cement used. (2). The kind, size and amount of aggregate used. (3). The amount of clean water used. (4). The way ingredients are mixed and placed. (5). The proper curing of the mixture after it is placed. 2. Cement - a mixture of limestone and clay or shale which is ground and then heated until it melts together. This product is then ground into a fine grayish powder which is cement. 3. Aggregates - materials that give bulk to concrete and are commonly known as fine and coarse aggregates. a. Fine aggregates - material which will pass through a 1/4" mesh screen. Sand or crushed stone screenings are commonly used. b. Coarse aggregates - any suitable materials ranging in size from 1/4" on up. Gravel, pebbles or crushed stone are commonly used. (1). Maximum size depends upon the thickness of concrete to be poured. In thin slabs, the largest size of aggregate should not exceed 1/3 the thickness of the concrete being placed. c. All aggregates should be clean and hard and free from dust, loam, clay or vegetable matter. d. Stone containing a considerable amount of soft, flat or elongated pieces such as shale or soft sandstone should not be used. 4. Water - should be clean and free from oil, alkali and acid. 5. Ready-mix - concrete which is delivered to the job ready for pouring. 6. Quickcrete 90 lb. bag containing cement, pebbles and sand. Add water to make concrete. B. Tools and equipment. 1. Water and pail for washing tools. 2. Square-pointed shovels for turning and mixing. 3. Tamper for compacting concrete. 4. Steel pan wheelbarrow for moving aggregates and concrete mixtures. 5. Mixing box or platform if concrete is mixed by hand for small jobs. 6. Straightedge for leveling concrete. 7. Wood float and trowel for finishing concrete. C. Mixtures and proportions. 1. Proportions: a. Specified in terms of proportions of the materials by volume (typically cubic feet). (1). A 1:2:3 mixture consists of 1 cubic feet of cement, 2 cubic feet of sand and three cubic feet of pebbles. (2). Note that a 1:2:3 mixture of cement will not produce 7 cubic feet of concrete (it will be more like 4 cubic feet) due to filling in of pore space with the smaller (cement and sand) components. b. The amount of water to add is specified on a per sack of cement basis. (1). The amount of water to be used varies with the wetness of the aggregates used. (2). Excess water weakens the concrete.

124

2. Mixtures: a. A "workable" mixture can be placed in forms readily and, with spading or tamping, will result in dense, strong concrete. (1). Such a mixture contains enough sand and cement to give smooth surfaces, free from rough spots called "honey-combing". (2). Such a mixture will bind the pieces of coarse aggregate into the mass such that they will not separate out when handled. (3). If the mixture is too stiff or dry, it will not pack tightly enough, especially in corners and thin sections. (4). If the mixture is too sloppy or wet, the heavy components may settle to the bottom of the pour and the resulting concrete will be weak. 3. Recommended mixtures per sack for various kinds of concrete work: RECOMMENDED QUANTITIES PER SACK
Kind of Work G a l l o n s of WATER to add per sack o f c e m e n t if sand is: Very Wet Topping for heavy wearing surfaces Fence posts; work of very thin sections Watertight floors or walls, sidewalks, feeding floors and all reinforced concrete Foundation walls, footings 4-1/4 Wet 4-1/2 Damp 4-3/4 CEMENT Amount of AGGREGATE (cubic feet) Sand Pebbles (Max. Size) 1 1-3/4 (3/8") 1-3/4 2 (3/4") 3 (1-1/2")

# Sacks 1

3-3/4

4-1/2

4-1/4

5-1/2

2-1/4

4-3/4

5-1/2

6-1/4

2-3/4

4 (1-1/2")

125

D. Estimating quantity of materials needed for a concrete project. 1. Determining cubic yards of concrete needed for the job. a. Measure the surface area of the job in square feet. b. To determine the cubic yards of concrete required, multiply the surface area (square feet) by the thickness (inches) and divide this by 324. or, c. Fill out the table below: DETERMINING CUBIC YARD REQUIREMENT FOR CONCRETE Column I Column II Column III Column IV Length (feet) Width (feet) Thickness (inches) Cubic Yards1
1

Note: Cubic Yards

= Length x Width x Thickness 324 = Column I x Column II x Column III 324

d. Example: You are planning to pour a shop floor that is 20' x 20' and is 4 inches thick. How much ready-mix concrete should you order? Column I Length (feet) 20 1 Note: Cubic Feet Column II Column III Column IV Width (feet) Thickness (inches) Cubic Yards1 20 4 4.94 = Length x Width x Thickness 324 = Column I x Column II x Column III 324

2. Determine the quantity of each material needed per cubic yard of concrete. a. Use the table below: INGREDIENTS NEEDED PER CUBIC YARD OF CONCRETE
WATER (gal.) Uses of concrete Dry Sand Damp Sand Wet Sand Very wet sand Cement (sacks) Sand (cu. ft) Gravel (cu. ft.)

Acidresistant,alkali resistant; dairy, creamery floors Medium wear; reinforced;watertig ht;floors, tanks, etc. Medium wear, indoor, underground

4 3/4

4 1/2

4 1/4

14

16

5 1/2

4 1/4

6 1/4

14

19

6 1/4

5 1/2

4 3/4

14

20

b. Enter your results below: INGREDIENTS NEEDED PER CUBIC YARD OF CONCRETE Water Cement Water Sand Gravel (gallons/sack) (sacks) (gallons) (cubic feet) (cubic feet)

126

3. Determine total amount of each material needed. a. Multiply the result from step D.1.c. (Column IV) by the results from step D.2.b. TOTAL REQUIREMENTS FOR A CONCRETE JOB From D.1.c. (col. IV) Water (gallons) From D.2.b. Total requirement 4. Example: You are planning to pour a shop floor that is 20' x 20' and is 4 inches thick. Determine the cubic feet requirements of concrete as well as the total requirements of water, cement, sand and gravel. Assume that the sand is dry. a. Cubic foot requirement: DETERMINING CUBIC YARD REQUIREMENT FOR CONCRETE Column I Column II Column III Column IV Length (feet) Width (feet) Thickness (inches) Cubic Yards1 20 20 4 4.9 1 Note: Cubic Yards = Length x Width x Thickness 324 = Column I x Column II x Column III 324 b. Ingredients needed per cubic yard of concrete (see paragraph D.2.a): INGREDIENTS NEEDED PER CUBIC YARD OF CONCRETE Water Cement Water Sand Gravel (gallons/sack) (sacks) (gallons) (cubic feet) (cubic feet) 6 6 1/4 37.50 14 19 codetermine total amount of ingredients TOTAL REQUIREMENTS FOR A CONCRETE JOB From D.1.c. (col. IV) From D.2.b. Total requirement 4.9 Water (gallons) 37.5 183.8 4.9 Cement (sacks) 6 1/4 30.6 4.9 Sand (cubic feet) 14 68.6 4.9 Gravel (cubic feet) 19 93.1 Cement (sacks) Sand (cubic feet) Gravel (cubic feet)

127

E. Specifications when ordering ready-mix concrete. 1. Amount needed (cubic yards). 2. Use to be made of the concrete, i.e., will it be used for flat work or formed work. 3. Amount of exposure the concrete will receive. 4. A guide for ordering ready-mix - specifies number of sacks per cubic yard of concrete as well as maximum gallons of water per sack of cement. FLAT WORK
(USING 1-1/2" MAX. AGGREGATE) SEVERE NORMAL MILD EXPOSURE EXPOSURE EXPOSURE When ordering concrete for: Dairy floors Sidewalks, farm buildings

FORMED WORK
(USING 3/4" MAX. AGGREGATE) SEVERE NORMAL EXPOSURE EXPOSURE MILD EXPOSURE

Footings

Mangers, manure pits

Reinforced concrete

Concrete improvements

Minimum number of sacks of cement per cubic yard of concrete*: 7 6 5 7-3/4 Maximum gallons of water per sack of cement: 5 6 7 *Common specification, i.e., 6 sack concrete.

6-1/2

5-1/2

F. Pouring and curing. 1. Forms. a. Necessary to mold and hold new concrete until it has set. b. Should be strong enough to prevent sagging, bulging and spreading. c. Normally made of wood - strips of metal can be used to round off square corners. d. Wooden forms can be removed easily and reused if they are greased on the inside with crude oil or old crankcase oil. e. A straightedge and level should be used to level the top surface of the forms. 2. Placing concrete. a. Concrete should be placed as soon as possible as it will begin to set within 30 to 45 minutes after the water has been added. b. Concrete should be placed in layers about 6 inches deep. c. The concrete should be tamped and spaded thoroughly to eliminate air pockets and force the concrete around reinforcing bar (if present) and up against the sides of forms. d. The tamping also forces the larger pieces of aggregate into the concrete leaving a smooth surface of dense materials. e. Tamping can be done manually or with an electrically powered tamper.

128

3. Striking off poured concrete on flat work. a. A flat board (usually a 2" x 4") is drawn across the surface of the concrete at a slight angle and with a see-saw motion. b. This flattens off the surface, forces larger pieces of aggregate beneath the surface and leaves a smooth surface finish. c. This can be done several times. 4. Finishing the concrete surface. a. A wooden float can be used to develop a surface that wears well such as that used for walking or moving machinery. b. A metal trowel brings a thin film of concrete to the surface making a very smooth surface. This thin film is not strong and is slippery when wet. 5. Curing concrete. a. Concrete hardens because of a chemical setting process that takes place when water is added to the cement. It is critical that excessive evaporation not take place from the poured concrete. (1). Special precautions such as covering should be taken during hot, dry periods when evaporation is high. b. Concrete reaches about 80 to 90% of its full strength in 7 days and full strength in 28 days. 6. Removing forms. a. Forms should only be removed when the concrete is not damaged in the process. b. Forms can be removed in 2 or 3 days during hot weather - in cold weather they can be removed in 4 to 6 days. c. If forms are to be reused, be sure to clean concrete from the boards. G. Reinforcing. 1. Concrete is strong in compression (loads that crush) but weak in tension (loads that pull apart). 2. Reinforcing material is typically steel mesh or bars. 3. All reinforcing material should be covered by at least 3/4" of concrete. 4. Use fiber additive when ordering to replace steel mesh for flooring, sidewalks, etc.

129

II. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION A. Sidewalks. 1. Preparation of the base. a. Prepare a level, compact base. Build up the base such that the top of the sidewalk will extend 2 inches above the ground. b. The base can be soil if it is sandy and gravelly and drains well. c. If the base is clay or heavy soil, then it should be dug out and filled with coarse gravel and tamped. 2. Forming. a. Use 2"x4"s for form sidewalls with stakes to hold the forms in place. b. Level the tops of forms to the desired thickness (4" is normally adequate). A slight side slope (1/8" per foot) will allow for surface drainage. c. Place partition strips at 4' to 6' intervals to allow for multiple pours. 3. Course construction. a. The sidewalk can be poured in one pour. 4. Pouring. a. Pour the concrete in alternate sections. b. Tamp solidly and spade next to the form boards. c. Level with a straightedge or strike board. d. Pour the concrete in the alternate (missing) sections when the first sections have hardened enough to allow removal of the partition strips. 5. Finish. a. Finish with a wooden float. 6. Curing. a. Cover with earth or sand and allow to cure for 10 days. B. Driveways. 1. Preparation of the base. a. Prepare a level, compact base. Build up the base such that the center of the driveway is 1 inch higher than the two edges. b. The base can be soil if it is sandy and gravelly and drains well. c. If the base is clay or heavy soil, then it should be dug out and filled with coarse gravel and tamped. 2. Forming. a. Use 2"x6"s for form sidewalls with stakes to hold the forms in place. b. Level the tops of forms to the desired thickness (7" is normally adequate). c. Place partition strips at 20' intervals to allow for multiple pours. 3. Course construction. a. The driveway can be poured in one pour. 4. Pouring. a. Pour the concrete in alternate sections. b. Tamp solidly and spade next to the form boards. c. Strike-off with a strike board that has been curved to allow for the 1" hump in the center of the driveway. d. Pour the concrete in the alternate (missing) sections when the first sections have hardened enough to allow removal of the partition strips. 5. Finish. a. Finish with a wooden float on a long handle or a stiff strip of heavy rubber. 6. Curing. a. Cover with earth or sand and allow to cure for 10 days.

130

C. Floors. 1. Preparation of the base. a. Prepare a level, compact base. b. The base can be soil if it is sandy and gravelly and drains well. c. If the base is clay or heavy soil, then it should be dug out and filled with coarse gravel and tamped. d. Give the base a slope of 1/4" to the foot for drainage. 2. Forming. a. Use 2"x4"s for form sidewalls with stakes to hold the forms in place. b. Level the tops of forms to the desired thickness (4" is normal). c. Lay the forms in 10 feet square sections. 3. Course construction. a. The floor can be poured in one pour. 4. Pouring. a. Pour the concrete in alternate sections. b. Tamp solidly and spade next to the form boards. c. Level with a straightedge or strike board. d. Pour the concrete in the alternate (missing) sections when the first sections have hardened enough to allow removal of the partition strips. 5. Finish. a. Finish with a wooden float to obtain a roughened surface that will not be slippery. 6. Curing. a. Cover with earth or sand or straw and allow to cure for 10 days.

131

ABT 170 LECTURE 9


HEATING, VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING DESIGN

132

CONTENTS
I. GENERAL CRITERIA TO BE CONSIDERED AND QUANTIFIED II. TERMINOLOGY III. DESIGN OF HEATING SYSTEMS IV. DESIGN OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS V. DESIGN OF AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS

PAGE
133 134 135 136 138

133

I. GENERAL CRITERIA TO BE CONSIDERED AND QUANTIFIED A. Geographical location. B. Ambient temperature ranges. C. Amount of direct sun light. D. Percentage of glass and tint. E. Number of people. F. Amount of lighting. G. Equipment that generates heat. H. Insulating values of the building. I. Target temperatures. J. Traffic through the exits.

134

II. TERMINOLOGY A. Air flow volume: 1. The amount of air the system circulates through the structure. 2. Expressed in units of cubic feet per minute (cfm) or air changes per hour. B. BTU (British Thermal Unit). 1. The standard measure of heat energy. It takes one Btu to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit at sea level. 2. It takes about 2,000 Btus to make a pot of coffee. 3. One Btu is equivalent to 252 calories, 778 foot-pounds, 1055 joules, and 0.293 watthours. 4. For a heating system: a. The amount of heat added to a structure. 5. For an air conditioning system: a. The amount of heat extracted from a structure. C. SEER (Seasonal Energy Efficiency Rating) 1. A measure of how efficient an electrical heating/air conditioning unit uses electricity. 2. All new units in the U.S. must be at least 10 SEER. D. AFUE (Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency) 1. The efficiency of a gas furnace. 2. All new furnaces must have a minimum efficiency of 78% AFUE. E. Ton 1. The unit of measure for an air conditioning systems capacity. 2. One ton of air conditioning removes 12,000 BTUs of heat energy per hour from a structure.

135

III. DESIGN OF HEATING SYSTEMS A. General concepts of heating systems. 1. Adequate heating in a facility is necessary to provide comfort by increasing temperature in the structure, provide fresh air, and to rid air of toxic and annoying components. B. General specification of heating systems. 1. Heating capacity in BTUs per hour. a. See page 140 for a typical set of gas furnace specifications. 2. Types of heating systems: a. Gas furnace. b. Heat pump (combination heating/air conditioning system). c. Fireplace/fireplace insert/wood burning stoves. d. Steam heat. C. General rule of thumb formula for calculation of size of heating system. 1. Size of heating unit = 24 BTU per hour per square foot of structure floor area. 2. General heating load data for California like climates. a. See the table on page 144 for heating load data and an example calculation. 3. Example for a house: a. Your new house will have 2000 square feet. What is your estimate of the size of the heating unit for the house in BTUs per hour. Size of heating unit = 24 x 2000 = 48,000 BTUs per hour Note: All general formulas listed are based on normal conditions and are to be used for estimating requirements. In cases of extreme or unusual conditions a more accurate figure can be determined by a qualified engineer or architect.

136

IV. DESIGN OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS A. General concepts of ventilation. 1. Adequate ventilation in a facility is necessary to manage moisture in the structure, avoid moisture damage to the structure, provide fresh air and to rid air of toxic and annoying components. 2. Ventilation is provided by fans. B. General specification of ventilation systems. 1. CFM (cubic feet of air per minute) required. C. General formulas and guidelines for calculation of size of the ventilation system. 1. Formulas for homes: a. A minimum of 0.35 air changes per hour, but not less than 15 cfm per occupant during the time the house is occupied. (1). Air changes per hour is the number of times "old air" will be replaced by "new air" in 60 minutes. b. In general, ventilation occurs in most rooms through the air conditioning system. However there are occasions when additional ventilation will be necessary. For example kitchens or bathrooms may require additional ventilation. c. Example for homes (1). Home 1800 square foot home with an 8 foot ceiling occupied by 4 people A minimum of 0.35 air changes per hour, but not less than 15 cfm per occupant during the time the house is occupied. 1800 square feet X 8 foot ceiling = 14,000 cubic feet of space 14,400 cubic feet X 0.35 air changes per hour = 5040 cubic feet per hour 5040 cubic feet per hour 60 minutes per hour = 84 cubic feet per minute but, 15 cfm per occupant x 4 occupants = 60 cubic feet per minute Size = Use the higher value at 84 cfm

137

2. Guidelines for animal facilities: SPECIES UNITS cfm cfm per bird WINTER (Minimum rate) 0.1 per bird 0.5 WINTER (Maximum rate) 0.5 per pound 2.0 SUMMER

Poultry
Chicks Layers, pullets, breeders, broilers 1 per pound 4 (minimum)

Swine
Sow and litter Growing pigs: 20 to 40 lb. 40 to 100 lb. 100 to 150 lb. 150 to 210 lb. cfm per sow and litter cfm per pig cfm per pig cfm per pig cfm per pig 20 2 5 7 10 80 15 20 25 35 210 36 48 72 100

Dairy
Cows in warm barns Calves in warm barns Milk rooms Milking parlors cfm per 25 1000 lb. cow cfm per 100 10 lbs. cfm ---cfm per stall 100 25 ---100 300 to 500 50 600 400

Note:

All general formulas listed are based on normal conditions and are to be used for estimating requirements. In cases of extreme or unusual conditions a more accurate figure can be determined by a qualified engineer or architect.

138

V. DESIGN OF AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS A. General concepts of air conditioning. 1. Adequate air conditioning in a facility is necessary to provide comfort, manage moisture in the structure, avoid moisture damage to the structure, provide fresh air and to rid air of toxic and annoying components. B. General specification of air conditioning systems. 1. Tons of air conditioning (one ton of air conditioning is equal to 12,000 BTUs per hour). a. See page 141 for a typical set of air conditioning unit specifications. b. See page 142 for a typical set of air conditioner/heat pump specifications. 2. Types of air conditioners: a. Wall or window units: (1). Locate them high on the panel when possible. (2). Electrical outlets are usually on the right. (3). Center the unit in the room or use 2 small units rather than 1 large unit to cool a large room. (4). All units form condensation. The typical design is to have an evaporator pan to handle this. If this is not adequate an alternate drainage hose may be needed. 3. Central air conditioning: a. For large offices and houses this is the preferred choice. b. Central air is more cost effective and quieter. c. The duct work can be placed in the "plenum area" if a minimum of 6" - 12" of space is available between the ceiling grid and the lowest beam. Greater height may be needed for larger areas or where more air flow capacity is needed. If this area is not adequate then placing the duct on top of the roof is an option. d. In general one air supply register is required per 200 square feet. e. Offices that do not have return air grills should have louvers in the doors or the doors should be cut short to allow for air flow.

139

C. General formulas and guidelines for calculation of size of the air conditioning system. 1. Interior offices: a. 1 ton per 400 - 500 square feet. b. Add approximately 0.10 tons per person when high room occupancy is a factor. 2. Residences: a. 1 to 5 tons, depending upon geographic location, size of house, etc. 3. Exterior buildings: a. Exterior building such as guard buildings that have direct sunlight and maximum glass for visibility should have 1 tons per 150 square feet. Add to that active traffic through the door or constantly opening a sliding glass window and that formula could change to1 ton per 75 - 100 square feet. 4. General cooling load data for California like climates. a. See the table on page 143 for cooling load data and an example calculation. Note: All general formulas listed are based on normal conditions and are to be used for estimating requirements. In cases of extreme or unusual conditions a more accurate figure can be determined by a qualified engineer or architect. Air conditioners generally have thermostats so as a rule a little more tonnage than not enough is better.

140

TRANE XE 80 GAS FURNACE SPECIFICATIONS


MODEL TUDO40C924J TUDO40C930J TUDO60C924J TUDO60C936J TUDO80C924J TUDO80C936J TUDO80C948J TUDO100C936J TUDO100C945J TUDO100C948J TUDO100C960J TUDO100C972J TUDO120C954J TUDO120C960J TUDO140C924J HEIGH T (IN.) 40 in. 40 in. 40 in. 40 in. 40 in. 40 in. 40 in. 40 in. 40 in. 40 in. 40 in. 40 in. 40 in. 40 in. 40 in. WIDTH (IN.) 14.5 in. 14.5 in. 14.5 in. 14.5 in. 17.5 in. 17.5 in. 17.5 in. 17.5 in. 17.5 in. 21.0 in. 21.0 in. 24.5 in. 21.0 in. 24.5 in. 24.5 in. DEPTH (IN.) 28 in. 28 in. 28 in. 28 in. 28 in. 28 in. 28 in. 28 in. 28 in. 28 in. 28 in. 28 in. 28 in. 28 in. 28 in. CAPACITY OUTPUT (BTU/HR) 32,000 32,000 47,000 47,000 64,000 63,000 79,000 80,000 79,000 80,000 80,000 95,000 95,000 111,000 111,000 AFUE 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80

141

TRANE XE 1200 AIR CONDITIONER SPECIFICATIONS


MODEL TCP024F TCP024F TCP024F TCP024F TCP024F TCP024F NOMINAL TONS 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 5.0 HEIGHT (IN.) 40 in. 40 in. 40 in. 40 in. 40 in. 40 in. WIDTH (IN.) 14.5 in. 14.5 in. 14.5 in. 14.5 in. 14.5 in. 14.5 in. DEPTH (IN.) 28 in. 28 in. 28 in. 28 in. 28 in. 28 in. CAPACITY COOLING (BTU/HR) 23,800 30,000 36,000 42,000 47,000 60,000 SEER 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00

142

TRANE XL AIR CONDITIONER AND HEAT PUMP SPECIFICATIONS


MODEL TWZ036A TWZ048A TWZ060A NOMINAL TONS 3.0 4.0 5.0 HEIGHT (IN.) 43 in. 43 in. 43 in. WIDTH (IN.) 39 in. 39 in. 39 in. DEPTH (IN.) 35 in. 35 in. 35 in. CAPACITY COOLING (BTU/HR) 37,700 47,500 57,000 HEATING CAPACITY (BTU/HR) 33,000 43,000 52,000

143

COOLING LOAD DATA (CALIFORNIA LIKE CLIMATE)


STRUCTURE Home Motel unit Library Theatre (movie) Restaurant Supermarket Small retail shop Conference room BTUs PER HOUR PER SQUARE FOOT 26.6 33.0 58.2 124.2 121.0 47.4 60.8 62.7

To calculate estimated tonnage of refrigeration needed: 1. Select appropriate structure. 2. Use cooling data for that structure. 3. Multiply the square footage of the structure by the BTUs per hour per square foot load data. 4. Divide this by 12,000 to get refrigeration tonnage. Example: Estimate the air conditioning requirement of your house of 2000 square feet. 1. Select appropriate occupancy = house 2. Use cooling data for that occupancy = 26.6 BTUs per hour per square foot 3. Multiply the square footage of the structure by the BTUs per hour per square foot load data = 26.6 x 2000 = 53,200 BTUs per hour 4. Divide this by 12,000 to get refrigeration tonnage = 53,200 12,000 = 4.4 tons

144

HEATING LOAD DATA (CALIFORNIA LIKE CLIMATE)


STRUCTURE Home Motel unit Library Theatre (movie) Restaurant Supermarket Small retail shop Conference room BTUs PER HOUR PER SQUARE FOOT 24.0 36.9 30.2 40.6 43.7 13.6 26.8 30.2

To calculate estimated size of heating system needed: 1. Select appropriate structure. 2. Use heating data for that structure. 3. Multiply the square footage of the structure by the BTUs per hour per square foot load data. Example: Estimate the heating system requirement of your house of 2000 square feet. 1. Select appropriate occupancy = house 2. Use heating data for that occupancy = 24.0 BTUs per hour per square foot 3. Multiply the square footage of the structure by the BTUs per hour per square foot load data = 24.0 x 2000 = 48,000 BTUs per hour

145

ABT 170 DESIGN IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY DISCUSSION ACTIVITIES


DISCUSSION SECTIONS 1 TERM PROJECT 2 DEFINE TERM PROJECT PAGE 146 151

3 INTRODUCTION OF/BRAINSTORMING OF TERM PROJECT 152 4 TERM PROJECT ASSISTANCE 5 TERM PROJECT ASSISTANCE 6 TERM PROJECT ASSISTANCE 7 TERM PROJECT ASSISTANCE 8 TERM PROJECT ASSISTANCE

146

ABT 170 DISCUSSION ACTIVITIES ***DISCUSSION #1*** TERM PROJECT


CONTENTS PURPOSE AND CRITERIA INITIAL PROPOSAL FORMAT FINAL REPORT FORMAT PROJECT IDEAS PAGE 147 148 149 150

147

ABT 170 TERM PROJECT PURPOSE AND CRITERIA


PURPOSE 1. Students will conceive and design a project of their choosing that has relevance to biological or agricultural systems. BASIC REQUIREMENTS 1. Students must secure prior approval by the lead instructor before initiating detailed work on the project. a. See page 148 for the format to submit your project proposal. 2. Students will submit a final written (typewritten!!!) report as per the format specified on page 149. 3. Students will present an oral report during the last laboratory session of the class (10th week) that shall last at least 15 minutes and no longer than 30 minutes. CRITERIA 1. Bigger than a breadbox. 2. See ideas on page 150 for a sense of scope.

148

ABT 170 INITIAL PROPOSAL FORMAT


NEED OR PROBLEM STATEMENT

149

ABT 170 FINAL REPORT FORMAT


NEED OR PROBLEM STATEMENT POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS OR ALTERNATIVES DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS PROJECT LAYOUT BILL OF MATERIALS REFERENCES

150

ABT 170 PROJECT IDEAS


DESIGN OF GATED PIPE IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR THE RUMSEY RANCH DESIGN OF AN EQUIPMENT SHED FOR THE RUMSEY RANCH DESIGN OF A ROADSIDE SALES STAND FOR THE RUMSEY RANCH

PAST PROJECTS
CONVERSION OF A GARAGE TO A BLACKSMITHING FACILITY DESIGN OF A HYDRAULICALLY ACTUATED FLOAT FOR PICNIC DAY DESIGN OF A MUSEUM ATRIUM CONVERSION OF A WAREHOUSE TO A DANCE CLUB DESIGN OF A PHEASANT FARM CONVERSION FROM FLOOD TO DRIP IRRIGATION FOR A VINEYARD

151

ABT 170 DISCUSSION ACTIVITIES ***DISCUSSION #2*** DEFINE TERM PROJECT


NEED OR PROBLEM STATEMENT 1. Whats the need. or, 2. Whats the problem. or, 3. Whats the difficulty. then, 4. Gather information, understand the problem. then, 5. State the problem.

152

ABT 170 DISCUSSION ACTIVITIES ***DISCUSSION #3*** INTRODUCTION OF/BRAINSTORMING OF YOUR TERM PROJECT
INTRODUCTION OF YOUR PROJECT 1. Each person will introduce the basics of his/her project. BRAINSTORMING SESSION 1. As an outside observer (i.e., you the rest of the class) will provide probing questions to assist in the design process. The purpose of this brainstorming exercise is to raise issues and concerns that you may not have thought of before. Questions might include such things as: a. Whats your estimate of cost at this time? b. How big will it be? c. How many people will be there? 2. Discussion of code/standards/ergonomic standards for your project. a. What codes/standards/ergonomic standards might be applicable to your project?