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Quick Quiz (15 Minute)

Jika masa m
A
=4kg, m
B
=2kg dan gesekan kinetiknya
adalah
kA
=0.300 dan
kB
=0.400 dan percepatan
gravitasi sebesar 9.8 m/s
2
. Tentukan (a) tegangan tali
pada sistem dan (b) percepatan dari sistem
30
O
T
Circular Motion
Setyawan P. Sakti
Some Example
Angular Displacement
Recall for linear motion:
displacement, velocity, acceleration



Need similar concepts for objects
moving in circle (CD, merry-go-
round, etc.)
As before:
need a fixed reference system (line)
use polar coordinate system
t
v
a
t
r
v r r r
i f
A
A
=
A
A
= = A , ,
Angular Displacement
Every point on the object
undergoes circular motion about
the point O
Angles generally need to be
measured in radians




Note:

r
s
= u
=

= 3 . 57
2
360
1
t
rad
] degrees [
180
] rad [ u
t
u

=
length of arc
radius
Angular Displacement
The angular displacement is
defined as the angle the object
rotates through during some
time interval




Every point on the disc
undergoes the same angular
displacement in any given time
interval
i f
u u u = A
Angular Velocity
The average angular velocity
(speed), , of a rotating rigid
object is the ratio of the
angular displacement to the
time interval

t t t
i f
i f
A
A
=

=
u
u u
e
Angular Speed
The instantaneous angular
velocity (speed) is defined as the
limit of the average speed as the
time interval approaches zero



Units of angular speed are
radians/sec (rad/s)
Angular speed will be
positive if is increasing
(counterclockwise)
negative if is decreasing
(clockwise)
t
t
A
A
=
A
u
e
0
lim
Angular Acceleration
What if object is initially at rest
and then begins to rotate?
The average angular acceleration,
o, of an object is defined as the
ratio of the change in the angular
speed to the time it takes for the
object to undergo the change:




Units are rad/s
Similarly, instant. angular accel.:
t t t
i f
i f
A
A
=

=
e
e e
o
t
t
A
A
=
A
e
o
0
lim
Notes about angular kinematics:
When a rigid object rotates about a fixed axis, every
portion of the object has the same angular speed and
the same angular acceleration

i.e. u,e, and o are not dependent upon r, distance form
hub or axis of rotation
1. Bicycle wheel turns 240 revolutions/min. What is its angular
velocity in radians/second?
sec radians 1 . 25 sec radians 8
rev 1
rads 2
sec 60
min 1
min
rev
240 ~ = = t
t
e

2. If wheel slows down uniformly to rest in 5 seconds, what is the
angular acceleration?
2
sec rad 5
sec 5
sec rad 25 0
=

=
A

=
t
i f
e e
o

Examples:
Given:

1. Angular velocity:
240 rev/min
2. Time t = 5 s



Find:

1. u = ?
3. How many revolution does it turn in those 5 sec?
( ) ( )( )
s revolution 10
2
rev 1
rad 5 . 62 ) (
rad 5 . 62 sec 5 sec rad 5
2
1
sec 5 sec rad 25
2
1
2
2
0
= =
= + =
+ =
t
u
o e u
rev
t t

Recall that for linear motion we had:

Perhaps something similar for angular quantities?
2
0
2
1
at t v x + =
Examples:
Analogies Between Linear and
Rotational Motion
Rotational Motion About a
Fixed Axis with Constant
Acceleration
Linear Motion with
Constant Acceleration
t
i
o e e + =
2
2
1
t t
i
o e u + = A
u o e e A + = 2
2 2
i
x a v v
i
A + = 2
2 2
2
2
1
at t v x
i
+ = A
at v v
i
+ =
Relationship Between Angular and
Linear Quantities
Displacements


Speeds



Accelerations
r
s A
= Au
v
r
t
s
r t
1
or
1
=
A
A
=
A
A
e
u
r a o =
Relationship Between Angular and
Linear Quantities
Displacements

Speeds

Accelerations
Every point on the
rotating object has the
same angular motion
Every point on the
rotating object does not
have the same linear
motion
r s u =
r v e =
r a o =
Concept
A ladybug sits at the outer edge of a merry-go-round, and
a gentleman bug sits halfway between her and the axis of
rotation. The merry-go-round makes a complete revolution
once each second.The gentleman bugs angular speed is



1. half the ladybugs.
2. the same as the ladybugs.
3. twice the ladybugs.
4. impossible to determine

Concept
A ladybug sits at the outer edge of a merry-go-round, and
a gentleman bug sits halfway between her and the axis of
rotation. The merry-go-round makes a complete revolution
once each second.The gentleman bugs angular speed is



1. half the ladybugs.
2. the same as the ladybugs.
3. twice the ladybugs.
4. impossible to determine

Note: both insects have an angular speed of 1 rev/s
Centripetal Acceleration
An object traveling in a circle,
even though it moves with a
constant speed, will have an
acceleration (since velocity
changes direction)
This acceleration is called
centripetal (center-seeking).
The acceleration is directed
toward the center of the circle
of motion
Centripetal Acceleration and Angular
Velocity
The angular velocity and the linear
velocity are related (v = r)
The centripetal acceleration can
also be related to the angular
velocity

t
s
r
v
a
t
v
s
r
v
v
r
s
v
v
A
A
=
A
A
=
A = A
A
=
A
a
but ,
r a
r
v
a
C C
2
2
or e = =
Thus:
Similar
triangles!
Total Acceleration
What happens if linear
velocity also changes?
Two-component
acceleration:
the centripetal component of
the acceleration is due to
changing direction
the tangential component of the
acceleration is due to changing
speed

Total acceleration can be
found from these
components:
2 2
C t
a a a + =
slowing-down car
Vector Nature of Angular Quantities
As in the linear case,
displacement, velocity
and acceleration are
vectors:
Assign a positive or
negative direction
A more complete way is
by using the right hand
rule
Grasp the axis of rotation
with your right hand
Wrap your fingers in the
direction of rotation
Your thumb points in the
direction of
Forces Causing Centripetal
Acceleration
Newtons Second Law says that the centripetal
acceleration is accompanied by a force




F stands for any force that keeps an object following a
circular path
Force of friction (level and banked curves)
Tension in a string
Gravity
r m
r
v
m ma F
C
2
2
e = = =

Example1: level curves


Consider a car driving at 20 m/s (~45
mph) on a level circular turn of
radius 40.0 m. Assume the cars
mass is 1000 kg.

1. What is the magnitude of
frictional force experienced by
cars tires?
2. What is the minimum coefficient
of friction in order for the car to
safely negotiate the turn?

Example1:
Given:

masses: m=1000 kg
velocity: v=20 m/s
radius: r = 40.0m



Find:

1. f=?
2. =?
1. Draw a free body diagram, introduce
coordinate frame and consider vertical
and horizontal projections
mg N
mg N F
y
=
= =

0
( )
N
m
s m
kg
r
v
m ma f
f ma F
x
4
2
2
10 0 . 1
40
20
1000 = = = =
= =


2. Use definition of friction force:
02 . 1
8 . 9 1000
10 1.0
thus , 10
2
4
4
2
~

=
= = =
s m kg
N
N
r
v
m mg f


Lesson: for rubber on dry concrete is 1.00!
rubber on wet concrete is 0.2!
driving too fast
Concept
Is this static or kinetic friction is the car does not slide or skid?

1. Static
2. Kinetic

Example2: banked curves
Consider a car driving at 20 m/s (~45
mph) on a 30 banked circular
curve of radius 40.0 m. Assume
the cars mass is 1000 kg.

1. What is the magnitude of
frictional force experienced by
cars tires?
2. What is the minimum coefficient
of friction in order for the car to
safely negotiate the turn?

A component of the normal force adds to the
frictional force to allow higher speeds
rg
v
2
tan = u
Given:

masses: m=1000 kg
velocity: v=20 m/s
radius: r = 40.0m
angle: o = 30


Find:

1. f=?
2. =?
1. Draw a free body diagram,
introduce coordinate frame and
consider vertical and
horizontal projections
N mg
r
v
m f
mg f
r
v
m F
x
3760 30 sin 30 cos
30 sin 30 cos
2
2
= =
= =



N mg
r
v
m N
mg N
r
v
m F
y
4
2
2
10 3 . 1 30 cos 30 sin
30 cos 30 sin
= + =
= =




2. Use definition of friction force:
28 . 0
10 1.3
3760
is minimal thus ,
4
s
~

= =
=
N
N
N
f
N f
s
s
s



Lesson: by increasing angle of banking,
one decreases minimal or friction with
which one can take curve!
Example 2:
Example 3: Horizontal Circle
The horizontal component of
the tension causes the
centripetal acceleration

u tan g a
C
=
Example 4:
7 m
49 m
THE VIPER
(Six Flags Over Magic Mountain)
188 feet high
70 mph
One of the largest
looping roller coasters
in the world
Roller Coaster
Top Thrill Dragster
(Cedar Point)
420 feet tall
120 mph
0 to 120 mph in 4 sec

free-falls back to Earth,
reaching a speed of 120
mph for the second time

$ 25 million

Perceived acceleration
Which way do you perceive the
acceleration for circular motion?
FORCE
F
Perceived acceleration
Circular motion:
force is toward center of circle
Note: the kid in the middle feels no acceleration!
look at the passengers!
NASAs vomit comet
What has to be true about the
acceleration a of the vomit
comet (if the apparent weight
of the passengers is zero)?
A. a points upward
B. a points downward
C. a points towards the
center of their
circular trajectory
Clicker Question
You better believe in conservation of energy if you want to
live!
Roller coasters
Most people find this sudden
reduction in apparent weight
terrifying.
Note: this is not uniform circular motion!
Forces in Accelerating Reference
Frames
Distinguish real forces from fictitious forces
Centrifugal force is a fictitious force
Real forces always represent interactions
between objects
Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation
Every particle in the Universe attracts every other
particle with a force that is directly proportional to
the product of the masses and inversely
proportional to the square of the distance
between them.

2
2 1
r
m m
G F =
G is the universal gravitational constant
G = 6.673 x 10
-11
N m /kg
This is an example of an inverse square law
Gravitation Constant
Determined experimentally
Henry Cavendish
1798
The light beam and mirror serve to
amplify the motion
Example:
Question: Calculate gravitational attraction between two students 1
meter apart
( )
N
m
kg kg
kg
m N
r
m m
G F
7
2 2
2
11
2
2 1
10 2 . 4
1
90 70
10 67 . 6

~ = =

Extremely small
Compare:
N mg F 686 = =
Applications of Universal Gravitation 1: Mass of
the Earth
Use an example of an
object close to the
surface of the earth

r ~ R
E

G
gR
M
E
E
2
=
Applications of Universal Gravitation 2:
Acceleration Due to Gravity
g will vary with altitude

2
r
M
G g
E
=
mg
r
M
G m
r
mM
G F
E E
=
|
.
|

\
|
= =
2 2
Gravitational Potential
Energy
PE = mgy is valid only
near the earths surface
For objects high above
the earths surface, an
alternate expression is
needed


Zero reference level is
infinitely far from the
earth

r
m M
G PE
E
=
Escape Speed
The escape speed is the speed needed for an object
to soar off into space and not return



For the earth, v
esc
is about 11.2 km/s
Note, v is independent of the mass of the object

E
E
esc
R
GM
v
2
=
Keplers Laws
All planets move in elliptical orbits with
the Sun at one of the focal points.
A line drawn from the Sun to any planet
sweeps out equal areas in equal time
intervals.
The square of the orbital period of any
planet is proportional to cube of the
average distance from the Sun to the
planet.
Keplers Laws, cont.
Based on observations made by Brahe
Newton later demonstrated that these laws
were consequences of the gravitational force
between any two objects together with
Newtons laws of motion
Keplers First Law
All planets move in
elliptical orbits with
the Sun at one
focus.
Any object bound to
another by an
inverse square law
will move in an
elliptical path
Second focus is
empty
Keplers Second Law
A line drawn from the
Sun to any planet will
sweep out equal areas
in equal times
Area from A to B and C to
D are the same
Keplers Third Law
The square of the orbital period of any
planet is proportional to cube of the average
distance from the Sun to the planet.

For orbit around the Sun, K
S
= 2.97x10
-19
s
2
/m
3

K is independent of the mass of the planet
3 2
Kr T =
Keplers Third Law application
Mass of the Sun or other
celestial body that has
something orbiting it
Assuming a circular orbit
is a good approximation