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RadiationsandExtinctions Radiations and E tinctions Todaysquestions: T d ti I. I Whydoadaptiveradiationsoccur? Wh d d i di i ?

II. Whydomassextinctionsoccur?

I. Whydoadaptiveradiationsoccur? Adaptiveradiation=the rapid diversificationofa singlelineageintoanarray of speciesthatfillawidevariety ofecologicalniches of ecological niches Niche the range of habitats Niche =therangeofhabitats orresourcesusedbya species(awayofmakinga living)

Time

60 species? 700 species? 30 species

Dothesequalifyasadaptiveradiations?

Twoclassicalexplanations: A.Ecologicalopportunity(resourceavailability;empty niches) 1. Competitorswipedout


No competitors to compete with for resources.

2.Colonizeanewregion 2 C l i i
New resources available,selection pressure for traits that will take advantage of those resources. Lots of resources available, "nobody else" using resource.

B.Morphologicalinnovation B Morphological innovation An adaptivebreakthrough a morphological trait that An adaptive breakthrough=amorphologicaltraitthat makesitpossibletoexploitresourcesinanewwayor occupynewhabitats(newniches)

Issue:thesehypothesescanbedifficulttotest Correlation?Causation? e.g.Cambrianexplosion: bi l i

Variables may be correlated but have no cause-effect relationship.

Most major animal groups appear for the 1st time in about 40 million year.

1. Highoxygenhypothesis 1 High oxygen hypothesis


Allows aerobic respiration and more growth. Testing of rock found correlation in oxygen increase and speciation.

2.Newgenes,newbodieshypothesis
Polyploidy and genetic information go up. Mutation go up so genetic variation will go up and selection can act on these.

Hypothesis:theadaptiveradiationofblackbirdswas triggeredbyamorphologicalinnovation:anextended processus retroarticulatus thatmadegapingpossible.

Phylogenyofblackbirds: h l f bl kb d

Note:therearestatisticaltechniquesforestimatingthestateof particulartraitsateachonthetree.(GoDawgs!) Whatpredictiondoesthe morphologicalinnovation(gaping) hypothesismake?

II.Whydomassextinctionsoccur? Backgroundextinction=normalextinctionrates,dueto B k d ti ti l ti ti t d t normalratesofenvironmentalchange(environment includescompetitors)(selection) includes competitors)(selection) Massextinction=atleast60%ofspeciespresentgo g extinctinlessthan1millionyears;duetoextremerates ofenvironmentalchange Massextinctionsfunctionlikeaspecieslevelbottleneck event.(Anotherreasonevolutionisnotprogressive.)

AtthePermianTriassicevent250millionyearsago,over 90%ofexistingspecieswerewipedout. Impacthypothesis:anasteroidhittheEarthandinitiated Impact hypothesis: an asteroid hit the Earth and initiated environmentalchangesthatextinguishedmostspecies. Killingmechanisms:
-Dust, soot, ash-blocks sunlight, plants wouldn't really able to grow. Those species will die, then the ones that rely on those species will also die. -Increasing CO2, acidification of ocean. -Initial impact will wipe stuff out at the site. Heat generates lots of lots wildfire.

WorldWenttoHellHypothesis 1.globalwarming(highCO2,highCH4) l b l (h h h h 2.anoxicconditionsintheoceanandatmosphere Keyobservation:Siberiantrapsdateto250mya

Killingmechanisms:

Impacthypothesismakespredictions: WWTH: WeknowthatanoxiaandhighCO2 occurred,butwhat caused thechangesinatmosphericandoceanicchemistry? Andwhydidtheyreverse? And why did they reverse?