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# LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY

PHAGWARA (PUNJAB)

TERM PAPER SUB: - KINEMATICS OF MACHINE COURSE: - B-TECH MECHANICAL ENGG. (LEET-09) TOPIC:-FIND OUT THE MECHANISM IN WHICH LOWER PAIR CAN
BE REPLACED BY HIGHER PAIR FOR INDUSTRIAL PURPOSE

SUBMITTED TO;

SUBMITTED BY;

## OMKAR KUMAR JHA RH-4901-A12 10902923

INDEX

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION THE MECHANISM REPLACEMENT/INVERSION (=?) DETAILS( OVER TERM PAPER) CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER WORKS REFRENCES

1: ABSTRACT

The present industrial situation is very critical that it needs very much exact and to the point solution when it is under problem Since the engineering sector is advanced in to industrial era, the thing goes easy and to handle the critical solution is much more efficient then everbecause every step, process is now well defined and enough study have been done over that to overcome any other problem during industrial work. In the same sense, mechanical industry have opted so many new process path and new techniques to handle the operations. So the one process should be completed in such manner that the machine and its element should be flexibly used for the other operations simultaneously for the other criteria of the product means the one machine can be used for different types of the product in mean time without changing the elements (generally). So, here we will discuss about the different inversions and the mechanism in which lower pair can be replaced by higher pair for industrial purpose.

2: INTRODUCTION
LOWER PAIR:It is a pair in which a link in a mechanism in which the mating parts has surface (instead of line or
point) contact

HIGHER PAIR:A mechanism in which the motion is constrained to the point or line contact to the other motion part...

3. INVERSION
Every mechanism has moving members which move relative to each other about the joints connecting them. These relative motions result in the trajectories of the points on members of the mechanism. In any mechanism one link or member is fixed and acts as the frame. The trajectories and motion characteristics of mechanism depend on the choice of the reference frame link. Inversions of a mechanism are the different configurations of the mechanism with change of the fixed reference link called frame. For different inversions of a mechanism although the motion characteristics are entirely different but the relative angular displacements of the members remain unchanged irrespective of the link chosen as frame. The information obtained from one inversion of the linkage can be used to study other inversions of that linkage. Inversion technique is used extensively for analysis and synthesis of mechanisms. EXAMPLE: -

## FOUR BAR MECHANISM

A typical four bar mechanism, as the name denotes, is formed of a kinematic chain of four members connected by revolute joints. This mechanism can have four possible configurations with a different link fixed as frame each time.

>>Configuration 1

Link 1 is taken as the base link or frame. In this configuration the shortest link is jointed to the base link and this joint can fully rotate and hence called as crank. The other link jointed to the base link oscillates and called as a rocker. This configuration of the four- bar kinematic chain is called as Crank-Rocker mechanism.

>>Configuration 2

Link 2 is fixed as the base link. In this configuration shortest link is the base and both joints to the base can rotate completely. It is thus called as Double-Crank or a Drag-Link.

>>Configuration 3

Link 3 is fixed as the base link. It can be observed that this configuration is same as the CrankRocker mechanism.

>>Configuration 4

Link 4 is fixed as the base link. In this configuration shortest link is the coupler and both the links connected to the base link cannot rotate fully, both oscillate. In this configuration the fourbar kinematic chain is called as Double-Rocker mechanism.

4. DETAILS Inversion of Slider-Crank Mechanism (lower pair) with Higher Pair Joints
The classic slider-crank mechanism has four links connected by three revolute joints and one prismatic joint of lower pairs or surface contact. In this inversion, the crank link is replaced by a circular guide, and the revolute joint between the crank and coupler link is replaced by a higher pair joint, i.e. a cylinder sliding in the circular slot. Similarly for the slider a surfacejoint pair is replaced by a pin in a slot. The replacement of lower pair or surface contact joints by line contact joints results in kinematic linkage with only two links. Reuleaux called this a reduced kinematic chain. One of Reuleauxs important contributions to kinematics of mechanisms was the recognition that several different-looking mechanisms in fact belonged to the same class of kinematic chain, in the case of this model the class of slider-crank kinematic circuits.