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LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY

PHAGWARA (PUNJAB)

TERM PAPER SUB: - KINEMATICS OF MACHINE COURSE: - B-TECH MECHANICAL ENGG. (LEET-09) TOPIC:-FIND OUT THE MECHANISM IN WHICH LOWER PAIR CAN
BE REPLACED BY HIGHER PAIR FOR INDUSTRIAL PURPOSE

SUBMITTED TO;

SUBMITTED BY;

MR. AMRIT SIR, (MECHANICAL ENGG.)

OMKAR KUMAR JHA RH-4901-A12 10902923

INDEX

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION THE MECHANISM REPLACEMENT/INVERSION (=?) DETAILS( OVER TERM PAPER) CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER WORKS REFRENCES

1: ABSTRACT

The present industrial situation is very critical that it needs very much exact and to the point solution when it is under problem Since the engineering sector is advanced in to industrial era, the thing goes easy and to handle the critical solution is much more efficient then everbecause every step, process is now well defined and enough study have been done over that to overcome any other problem during industrial work. In the same sense, mechanical industry have opted so many new process path and new techniques to handle the operations. So the one process should be completed in such manner that the machine and its element should be flexibly used for the other operations simultaneously for the other criteria of the product means the one machine can be used for different types of the product in mean time without changing the elements (generally). So, here we will discuss about the different inversions and the mechanism in which lower pair can be replaced by higher pair for industrial purpose.

2: INTRODUCTION
LOWER PAIR:It is a pair in which a link in a mechanism in which the mating parts has surface (instead of line or
point) contact

HIGHER PAIR:A mechanism in which the motion is constrained to the point or line contact to the other motion part...

3. INVERSION
Every mechanism has moving members which move relative to each other about the joints connecting them. These relative motions result in the trajectories of the points on members of the mechanism. In any mechanism one link or member is fixed and acts as the frame. The trajectories and motion characteristics of mechanism depend on the choice of the reference frame link. Inversions of a mechanism are the different configurations of the mechanism with change of the fixed reference link called frame. For different inversions of a mechanism although the motion characteristics are entirely different but the relative angular displacements of the members remain unchanged irrespective of the link chosen as frame. The information obtained from one inversion of the linkage can be used to study other inversions of that linkage. Inversion technique is used extensively for analysis and synthesis of mechanisms. EXAMPLE: -

FOUR BAR MECHANISM

A typical four bar mechanism, as the name denotes, is formed of a kinematic chain of four members connected by revolute joints. This mechanism can have four possible configurations with a different link fixed as frame each time.

>>Configuration 1

Link 1 is taken as the base link or frame. In this configuration the shortest link is jointed to the base link and this joint can fully rotate and hence called as crank. The other link jointed to the base link oscillates and called as a rocker. This configuration of the four- bar kinematic chain is called as Crank-Rocker mechanism.

>>Configuration 2

Link 2 is fixed as the base link. In this configuration shortest link is the base and both joints to the base can rotate completely. It is thus called as Double-Crank or a Drag-Link.

>>Configuration 3

Link 3 is fixed as the base link. It can be observed that this configuration is same as the CrankRocker mechanism.

>>Configuration 4

Link 4 is fixed as the base link. In this configuration shortest link is the coupler and both the links connected to the base link cannot rotate fully, both oscillate. In this configuration the fourbar kinematic chain is called as Double-Rocker mechanism.

4. DETAILS Inversion of Slider-Crank Mechanism (lower pair) with Higher Pair Joints
The classic slider-crank mechanism has four links connected by three revolute joints and one prismatic joint of lower pairs or surface contact. In this inversion, the crank link is replaced by a circular guide, and the revolute joint between the crank and coupler link is replaced by a higher pair joint, i.e. a cylinder sliding in the circular slot. Similarly for the slider a surfacejoint pair is replaced by a pin in a slot. The replacement of lower pair or surface contact joints by line contact joints results in kinematic linkage with only two links. Reuleaux called this a reduced kinematic chain. One of Reuleauxs important contributions to kinematics of mechanisms was the recognition that several different-looking mechanisms in fact belonged to the same class of kinematic chain, in the case of this model the class of slider-crank kinematic circuits.

Schatz linkage (Triple Linkage)


Particularly, the invention is concerned with a method for imparting torque to the input shaft or shafts of an inversion linkage mechanism The inversion triple linkage, at times also called the Schatz linkage, is a uniform three-part kinematic chain comprised of rigid links connected by pivots, the axes of two successive links being askew to one another, and which when turned inside out imparts a wobble motion to the center element

The mechanical principle has been used to advantage in the construction of mixing machines and propulsion mechanisms for ships. The principle requires that the ends of the outer links of the three-part chain are each hinged to a rotating shaft, and that the chain or linkage is then set in motion by imparting a rotary driving force to either one, or both, of these shafts, giving rise in the center link to a unique pattern of motion called "inversion". in the apparatus according to Shaffer, of the class described, the combination with an airplane provided with the usual balancing planes, elevating planes and steering rudder, of means under the control of the passenger within the airplane for operating said balancing planes, elevating planes and steering rudder of a supporting track for said airplane, means for propelling the airplane relative to its supporting track, a flexible connection between the airplane and the supporting track, and means under control of a passenger within the airplane for controlling said flexible connection for permitting universal movement of the airplane during its travel relative to said track. The objects of invention are: 1.To provide an apparatus which is simple in operation and construction. 2. It is also an object of invention to provide a drive system that will permit the inversion linkage to be used with a larger number of applications. 3. It is further an object of the invention to provide a drive system that will permit the inversion linkage to be used with machines having greater capacities. 4. It is also an object of the present invention to provide a drive system which is more economical than prior art apparatus. The inversion can also be used for producing a combination of rotating, tumbling and shaking movements of material in a container, comprising: (a) A closed and constrained invertible kinematic link-work, of which at least one link serves as said container; and (b) Means for driving said link-work, said driving means exerting substantially only thrusting power with connection in right order.

5.CONCLUSION
Hence the inversion of the links and mechanism provides the good and efficient working without problems generated by changing the mechanism and links for every new product or working or process

6. REFRENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/5360265/description.html http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/mechanical/articles/6716.aspx http://kmoddl.library.cornell.edu/model.php?m=20 http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/5360265/description.html http://www.docstoc.com/docs/22183002/Acceleration-Polygon-Method-Slider-crankmechanism-%28inversion-2%29 6. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lrZgFqN28pk 7. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lrZgFqN28pk