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Engineering

Data

index

Materials of Construction Motor Data-Design and Code Letter Designations Motor Data-Efficiency Calculations Useful Formulas NPSH NPSH & Cavitation Cavitation Corrosion - Abrasion Useful Hydraulic Formulas Useful Electrical Formulas

PRODUCT DATA
MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION

SECTION ENGINEERING SECTION SUPERSEDES

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PUMP MODEL C 3041(SS) D 3041 C 3060(SS) D 3080 D 3080 (B) C/D 3085 C 3102 C 3126 (SS) D 3126 (SS) C 3127 H 3127 C 3140 C 3152 H 3152 C 3170 C 3201 H 3201 C 3201(SS) C 3201 (B) C 3230 C 3300 C 3300 (SS) C 3305 C 3311 C 3351 C 3500 C 3530 C 3531 C 3601 C 3602

MAJOR CASTINGS Material Code No. 4 2 4 2,1 9 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 9 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

IMPELLER Material Code No. 4 10 4 10 or 11 9 2 2 4 4 2 6 2 2 6 2 2 6 4 9 2 2 4 2 2,4 2,4 2,4 2,4 2,4 2,4 2,4 HS = Heavy Duty Slurry

SERIES 3000 (CP,CT,CS,DS,HS) PUMPS

CP, CT, CS

DS

HS

CP/CT/CS = Centrifugal Impeller

DS = Vortex Impeller

B = Bronze

SS = Stainless Steel

Materials used in Pump Construction


Material Code No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Material Aluminum Alloy Cast Iron Steel Stainless Steel Forged Spring Steel Alloyed White Iron Material Code No. 7 8 9 10 11 12 Material Hardened Spheroidal Graphite Iron Nitril Rubber on Steel Core Aluminum Bronze Ni - Hard Ni - Resist Noryl (fiberglass reinforced)

For more detailed information on materials of construction contact your local source of ITT Flygt products. In some cases, other than the standard materials listed may be available on special order.

PRODUCT DATA
MOTOR DATA

SECTION ENGINEERING SECTION SUPERSEDES

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Squirrel Cage Induction Motors are classified by NEMA in accordance to their locked-rotor torque, breakdown torque, slip, starting current, etc., in other words, in accordance with their design and performance characteristics, in Design Classes B, C, and D. NEMA also assigns a Code Letter depending on the locked rotor kVA/HP ratio measured at full voltage and rated frequency. DO NOT CONFUSE THE DESIGN LETTER WITH THE CODE LETTER !

DESIGN LETTERS

CLASS B, most common type, has normal starting torque, low starting current. Locked-rotor torque (minimum torque at standstill and full voltage) is not less than 100% full-load for 2-and 4-pole motors, 200 hp and less; 40 to 75% for larger 2-pole motors; 50 to 125% for larger 4-pole motors. CLASS C features high starting torque (locked-rotor over 200%), low starting current. Breakdown torque not less than 190% full-load torque. Slip at full load is between 11/2 and 3%. CLASS D have high slip, high starting torque, low starting current; are used on loads with high intermittent peaks. Driven machine usually has high-inertia flywheel. At no load motor has little slip; when peak load is applied, motor slip increases.

CODE LETTERS Letter Designation A B C D E F G H J K L M N P R S T U V

Kilovolt-Amperes per Horsepower with Locked Rotor 0.0 - 3.14 3.15 - 3.54 3.55 - 3.99 4.0 - 4.49 4.5 - 4.99 5.0 - 5.59 5.6 - 6.29 6.3 - 7.09 7.1 - 7.99 8.0 - 8.99 9.0 - 9.99 10.0 - 11.19 11.2 - 12.49 12.5 - 13.99 14.0 - 15.99 16.0 - 17.99 18.0 - 19.99 20.0 - 22.39 22.4 - and up

Formulas to find the value of the NEMA Code Letter: (3) NEMA Code Letter = LRA x V x 1.732 1000 x HP (1) NEMA Code Letter = LRA x V 1000 x HP Example: Motor 35-28-12 460 volts, 3, LRA = 145, HP = 34 NEMA Code Letter = 145 x 460 x 1.732 = 3.390 1000 x 34 From code letter chart, the value of 3.398 equals Letter Designation "B".

PRODUCT DATA
MOTOR DATA

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An Electric Submersible Pump is an integral unit of an electrical motor and a centrifugal (or propeller) pump on a common shaft, held together by a hermetically closed (waterproof) enclosure. The motor must be strong enough to start up and drive the impeller (propeller) across the whole Q/H performance range, keeping the temperature rise below an established limit.
Electric Power Supply
Power Input

Electrical Losses

Motor

Mechanical Losses

Drive End Shaft Power = Rated Power Liquid Power Output

Hydraulic End

Hydraulic Losses

Electrical Losses include Resistance Losses and Iron Losses. Mechanical Losses include Friction Losses in the Bearings and in the Mechanical Shaft Seal and Air Drag. Hydraulic Losses include Turbulence and Shock Losses, Internal Leakage (Back Flow) and Disk HP. Liquid Power Output = (Power Input) - (Electrical, Mechanical and Hydraulic Losses) Shaft (Rated) Power = (Power Input) - (Electrical & Mechanical Losses) Total Efficiency = (Liquid Power Output) (Power Input)

Hydraulic Efficiency = (Liquid Power Output) (Shaft Power) Mathematically: Liquid Power Output (Water HP) = Shaft Power (HP) = GPM x FT x Sp. Gr. 3960 Brake kW = l/s x m x Sp. G. 102.12 x Eff.

GPM x FT x Sp. Gr. 3960 x Hydr. Eff. GPM x FT x Sp. Gr 3960 x KW Input x 1.34

Total (Wire-to-Water) Efficiency =

FORMULAS & CONVERSIONS


USEFUL FORMULAS

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The Affinity Laws show how a centrifugal pump reacts to a change in either the speed or diameter of the impeller. Changes in Head, G.P.M. and Brake Horsepower caused by either speed or diameter changes are determined by the following formulas. For a graphic illustration of the effect of speed changes refer to the chart below. Note: H = Head in feet and d = Diameter.

1.

Capacity Varies Directly with the Speed or Diameter:


GPM2 = GPM1 X RPM2 RPM1 or GPM2 = GPM1 X d2 d1

2.

Total Head Varies Directly with the Square of the Speed or Diameter:
H2 = H 1 X

RPM2 RPM1

or

H 2 = H1 X

( )
d2 d1

3.

Brake Horsepower Varies Directly with the Cube of the Speed or Diameter:
BHP2 = BHP1 X

RPM2 RPM1

or

BHP2 = BHP1 X

( )
d2 d1

PUMP ENGINEERING
NPSH & CAVITATION

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NPSH can be defined as the head that causes liquid to flow through the suction piping and finally enter the eye of the impeller. Head that causes flow comes from either the pressure of the atmosphere or from static head plus atmospheric pressure. Atmospheric pressure is the only pressure source available to cause flow when the pump is operating under a suction lift condition. The work that can be done, therefore, on the suction side of a pump is limited, so NPSH becomes very important. There are two values of NPSH to consider. REQUIRED NPSH is a function of the pump design. It varies between different makes of pumps, between different pumps of the same make and varies with the capacity and speed of any one pump. This is a value that must be supplied by the pump manufacturer. AVAILABLE NPSH is a function of the system in which the pump operates. It can be calculated for any installation. Any pump installation, to operate successfully, must have an available NPSH equal to or greater than the required NPSH of the pump at the desired pump conditions. When the source of liquid is above the pump: (As with Flygt's BS,CP,CS,DP,DS,HS type submersible pumps)

NPSH = Barometric Pressure, ft. + Static Head on suction, ft. - friction losses in suction piping, ft.- Vapor Pressure of liquid, ft. When the source of liquid is below the pump: (As with Flygt's CT type submersible pumps)

NPSH = Barometric Pressure, ft. - Static Suction lift, ft. - friction losses in Suction piping, ft. - Vapor Pressure of liquid, ft. Example 1. The required NPSH of a water pump at rated capacity is 16 ft. The water temperature is 80F. The elevation is 1000 ft. above sea level. Calculated entrance and friction losses in suction piping = 3 ft. What will be the maximum suction lift permissible?

Static Suction lift permissible = 32.9' - (3.0 + 16.0 + 1.2) = 12.7'

Losses in suction - Calculate from hydraulics of the piping system = 3'

NPSH Required = 16' Obtain from pump Manufacturer.

Vapor Pressure for 80F from Tables = 0.51 psi x 2.35 = 1.2 ft.

PUMP ENGINEERING
NPSH & CAVITATION
Example 2.

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In this example we will use the same data as in example 1 except the water temperature will now be 195F. What will be the suction lift or head required? Water, at 195F, has a specific gravity of 0.96. The vapor pressure is 10.4 psi. Note: In these examples, all heads must be in feet of head of the liquid.

Losses in suction Calculate from hydraulics of piping system = 3'

Static Head Required at Suction Flange = (24.9 + 16.0 + 3) - 33.8 = 10.1 ft.

NPSH Required = 16' Obtain from pump Manufacturer.

Vapor Pressure for 195F from Tables = 10.4 psi x 2.39 = 24.9 ft.

In example 2, the sum of vapor pressure + NPSH required + losses in the suction system exceed the barometric pressure,therefore, a positive head or submergence must be provided to insure uninterrupted water flow to the pump. The principles involving NPSH apply to any type of pump. However, special attention should be taken when dealing with centrifugal, angle, mixed-flow or propeller pumps as the suction conditions must be correct or the pump will not operate efficiently or it may not function at all. CAVITATION is a term used to describe a complex phenomenon that may exist in a pumping installation. In a centrifugal pump this may be explained as follows: When a liquid flows through the suction line and enters the eye of the pump impeller an increase in velocity takes place. The increase in velocity is accompanied by a reduction in pressure. If the pressure falls below the vapor pressure corresponding to the temperature of the liquid, the liquid will vaporize and the flowing stream will consist of liquid plus pockets of vapor. Flowing further through the impeller, the liquid reaches a region of higher pressure and the cavities of vapor collapse. It is this collapse of vapor pockets that causes the noise associated with cavitation. Cavitation varies from very mild to very severe. A pump can operate quietly yet be cavitating mildly. The only adverse effect might be a slight decrease in efficiency. On the other hand, severe cavitation will be very noisy and will destroy the pump impeller and/or other parts of the pump.

PUMP ENGINEERING
NPSH & CAVITATION

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If the pump is properly designed and installed, cavitation need not be a problem. When selecting a pump and planning the installation, be careful to avoid the following conditions: Heads much lower than head at peak efficiency of pump. Capacity much higher than capacity at peak efficiency of pump. Suction lift higher or positive head lower than recommended by manufacturer. Liquid temperatures higher than that for which the system was originally designed. Speeds higher than manufacturers recommendation.

The above explanation of cavitation in centrifugal pumps cannot be used when dealing with propeller pumps. The water entering the propeller pump in a large bell-mouth inlet will be guided to the smallest section, called throat, immediately ahead of the propeller. The velocity there should not be excessive and should provide a sufficiently large capacity to fill the ports between the propeller blades. As the propeller blades are widely spaced, not much guidance can be given to the stream of water. When the head is increased beyond a safe limit, the capacity is reduced to a quantity insufficient to fill up the space between the propeller vanes. The stream of water will separate from the propeller vanes, creating a small space where pressure is close to a perfect vacuum. In a very small fraction of a second, this small vacuum space will be smashed by the liquid hitting the smooth surface of the propeller vane with an enormous force which starts the process of surface pitting of the vane. At the same time one will hear sounds resembling rocks being thrown around in a barrel or a mountain stream tumbling boulders. When selecting a propeller pump and planning the installation be careful to avoid the following conditions: Heads much higher than at peak efficiency of pump. Capacity much lower than capacity at peak efficiency of pump. Suction lift higher or positive head lower than recommended by manufacturer. Liquid temperatures higher than that for which the system was originally designed. Speeds higher than manufacturers recommendation.

Cavitation is not confined to pumping equipment alone. It also occurs in piping systems where the liquid velocity is high and the pressure low. Cavitation should be suspected when noise is heard in pipe lines at sudden enlargements of the pipe cross-section, sharp bends, throttled valves or similar situations.

PUMP ENGINEERING
CORROSION - ABRASION

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Corrosion: The term corrosion is defined as an attack on a material through chemical or electromechanical reaction with the surrounding medium and it can refer to the process itself or to the damage by the corrosion process. When no reference is made to the material, it is normally understood that a metal is being attacked. The most important characteristics of a liquid influencing corrosion are the pH factor (acidity/alkalinity), Salt Content (dissolved substances), Oxygen Concentration and Temperature. If any of these characteristics deserves special attention, contact ITT Flygts Application Engineering. Abrasion: The fastest wearing part of a centrifugal pump is the impeller. Impeller wear is roughly proportional to the cube of the speed ratio. Also, to generate a certain head, the impeller peripheral velocity must be maintained regardless of the diameter. In practical terms this means that half the speed equals six times the life - half the head equals three times the life. Abrasion will also be influenced by corrosion and cavitation damage. Otherwise, abrasive wear in pumps is generalized into three types: Gouging abrasion, which occurs when coarse particles impinge with such force that high-impact stresses are imposed, resulting in the tearing of sizable pieces from the wearing surfaces. Grinding abrasion, which results from the crushing action of the particles between two rubbing surfaces. Erosion abrasion, which occurs from the impingement of free-moving particles (sometimes parallel to the surface) at high or low velocities on the wearing surface. The pumps presented in this catalog are intended for light, accidental slurries only, where the presence of solids is accidental. (A deliberate slurry is a liquid/solid mixture where the main task of the pump is transporting solids). Since the required power is proportional to the Specific Gravity of the liquid, attention must be paid to the combined Specific Gravity of the mixture: SGM =
1 + S.C.

S.G.L

( SG 1)
S

SGL

Where

SGM = Specific Gravity of Mixture SGL = Specific Gravity of Liquid SGS = Specific Gravity of Solids SC = Solids Concentration in percentage

For special materials selection or for pumping mixtures with Specific Gravity higher than 1.15, contact ITT Flygts Application Engineering.

FORMULAS & CONVERSIONS


USEFUL FORMULAS
I. HYDRAULIC FORMULAS 1. Brake horsepower (BHP) at duty point = GPM x TDH x S.G. 3960 x pump efficiency

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2.

Water horsepower (WHP) = GPM x TDH 3960 Wire to water efficiency = WHP x .746 kW Input or GPM x TDH Input Hp x 3960 or GPM x TDH kW Input x 5308

3.

4. 5.

Overall efficiency = motor efficiency x pump efficiency. Capacity in GPM in a discharge line is proportional to the square of the inside diameter. GPM1 GPM2 = D (D)
1 2 2

6.

For the same discharge line diameter, the friction loss head increases approximately as the square of the velocity. Hf
1

Hf 7.

(V ) V
1 2

Net positive suction head available (NPSHA) = Ha - Hvpa + Hst - Hfs WHERE: Ha = Absolute pressure in feet on the surface of the liquid being pumped. This is atmospheric pressure in non-pressurized conditions. Vapor pressure of the liquid being pumped in feet. Static head in feet of the liquid level above the impeller eye. Suction entrance losses in feet.

Hvpa Hst Hfs

= = =

FORMULAS & CONVERSIONS


USEFUL FORMULAS
II. ELECTRICAL FORMULAS 1. 2. Hp = kW x 1.341 or kW = Hp x .746 kW input at duty point = GPM x TDH 3960 x pump eff. x .746 x motor eff. S.G. or

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BHP x .746 Motor Eff.

3. 4.

Shaft Hp = kW input x motor eff. x 1.341. Motor efficiency = BHP kW input x 1.341 Real Power (Watts) Apparent Power (V.A.)

5.

Power factor (PF) =

REFER TO THE FOLLOWING EQUATIONS FOR SINGLE PHASE OR THREE PHASE CURRENT. TO FIND 6. Motor Output (Hp) Motor Input (kW) Amps SINGLE PHASE V x A x P.F. x Motor Eff. 746 THREE PHASE V x A x P.F. x Motor Eff. x 1.732 746

7.

V x A x P.F. 1000

V x A x P.F. x 1.732 1000

8.

kW Input x 1000 P.F. x V kW Input x 1000 AxV VxA 1000 or kW P.F.

kW Input x 1000 P.F. x V x 1.732 kW Input x 1000 A x V x 1.732 V x A x 1.732 1000 or kW P.F.

9.

P.F.

10.

KVA

11.

Watts

V x A x P.F.

V x A x P.F. x 1.732