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HE

CO NELL
B R E ~ D B O O K
54 Recipes for Nutritious Loaves,
olls andl Coffee Cakes

..
THE
CORNELL BREAD
BOOK
54 Recipes for Nutritious Loaves,
RoDs & Coffee Cakes
CLIVE M.McCAY
&
B. McCAY
Publications, Inc.
New York

Contents
The Do-Good Loaf
1 Swedish Limpa Bread
16
What Makes It "Cornell,.,?
2
John"s Oatmeal Porridge Bread
17
Whole Wheat and Brewer"s Yeast Bread 17
Tips for Good Luck
3
The Basic Cornell "White .. Bread Recipe 5
Cornell Sweet Doughs
18
Sprouted Grain Bread
7
Sticky Rolls
18
Herb Breads
7
Apple Coffee Cake
19
Breadsticks
8
Gcmtan Christmas Stollen
19
Fifty-fifty Whole Wheat Bread
8
Russian Kulitch
19'
Hamburger Buns
8
Italian Panettone
19
Pizza
8
Swedish Cardamon Braid 19
Pita, the Pocket Bread
8
Brown Butter and Honey Glaze
20
Whole Wheat and Carrot Pita
9
Butter Hom Rolls
20
French-style Bread
9
Whole Wheat Yeast Doughnuts
21
Crusty Rolls
10
Cornell Soutdougb Breads
Refr igerator Potato Rolls
11
23
Sourdough "White" 23
CorneD Pot and Batter Breads
13
Sourdough Whole Wheat
24
Yeast-raised Cornbread
13
Sourdough Rye
24
Batter 100% Whole Whe.at Bread
13
Sourdough Silver Dollar Pancakes
25
No-knead Dilly Rolls
14
Sourdough Waffles 25
Sally Lunn
IS
Raised Fruitcake
15
ComeU Formula for the Bakery
26
Czech Babovka
15
Large Bakery Recipe
26
Small Bakery Recipe
26
Cornell Health Breads
16
Rye Bread with Beer
16
Heroes in the Laboratory
28
Clive Maine McCay 11898-1967) with two of
wbJt'Ch in his studies to ltngthen life.
The Do-Good Loaf
In the 1930's, my late husband, Clive M. MoCay, profes-
sor of Animal Nutrition at Cornell Uni,ersity, lthaca, New
York, started a series of studies to learn the effect of nutri-
tion on the life span of fish, white rats and dogs. His exper-
iments showed that by cutting down on calories but pro-
viding plenty of minerals. vitamins and protein in their
diets. he could slow their growth and retard the onset of
old-age diseases and death. The thin rats always buried the
fat ones. His animals on the low-calorie diet often lived
twioe as long as those allowed to eat their fill.
During these laboratory studies, Clive concluded that
the health of people could also be improved through diet.
When asked to help the New York State Mental Hospitals
make their food better. he chose to improve the quality of
the bread. because the patients tended to eat more bread
than average persons, and sometimes it was the only food
they would eat. This, he felt. would bring the greatest b e n ~
fit at the lowest oo;t.
With the help of the hospitals' dieticians. their bakers,
and a specialist from the Dry Milk Institute, the high-pro-
tein "Cornell formula" was developed.
Its recipe went from hospitals to school lunch programs.
commercial bakeries, home bureaus, and home bakers all
over the United States. The experience of World War n
contributed to the interest in it and Its spread, due to meat
rationing and the need to find other sources of protein. It
was a time like the present, when the meat dollar doesn't
go far enough.
The original booklet of recipes first appeared in 1 ~ 5 5 in
response to requests for information and it has been re-
printed several times. Due to enthusiastic endorsements of
Cornell bread in the popula.r paperback Feel Like A
Million, by Catharyn Elwood, and the health books of
Ruth Adams and Frank Murray, as well as standard cook-
books such as Fanny Farmer's and lrma Rombauer's The
j oy of Cooking, the<lemand for an improved bread has oot
only continued, but is growing. Magazine articles helped
to spread the news. Hundreds of inquidcs came from a let-
ter printed in the lAdles' Home jounUII in 1953. Jean
Hewitt in the New York Timqs Sun4ay Magazine named
Cornell bread "The t:Jo.Cood Loaf." The recipe was r ~
printed among the Times most requested recipes for 1972.
The recipe for Cornell bread is now more in demand
than ever. In response to the letters of inquiry and appreci-
ation coming from school children. teachers. homemakers,
business pc>ople and profes.o.ionals, 1 have revised and ex-
panded the previou.< booklet. Many new recipes have been
added and some of the original ones have been modified
slightly to make them easier and even more foolproof. I
have included additional photographs which illustrate the
steJ>'bystep instructions in great detail.
Some of the mail comes from people who are old hands
at baking, while others admit that this is their first venture.
Clive would be delighted with their enthw.iasm for better
nutrition, especially that of the young families and the men
who are doing their own home baking. As a boy. before his
days at the University of lllinois and graduate studies at
Berkeley, California, he would count the calories and vita-
mins at the family table. Later, and all during his life he en-
jO)'ed cooking and would often entertain visiting professors
with an evening of baking bread .. This edition, like the
original publication, includes excerpts from !tis talks and
writings abottt the bread and its special ingredients. These
excerpts ale printed in italics and with his initials.
I hope that you will join in the movement to achieve bet-
ter bread in your home and in your community.
Englewood, Florida
Febrwry. 1980


Tips for Good Luck
It is just as easy to make good bread as it is to make good
cake-and lots more fun! That is because you are working
with yeast that is alive. introducing variables and giving
yourseU a chanoe to exercise your judgment. Each time
you bake is a new adventure and each time your judgment
improves along with the bread.
tn our experience, the most important steps in bak
ing are the handling of the yeast (adjusting the warmth and
I ime for the dough to rise} and the flour (how much to use
and how tong 'to knead). The commercial baker controls
these factors. We hope these remarks wUI help you l'o con-
trol them, too.
YEAST. since it is a mass of microscopic plants, needs a
certain amount of warmth to grow. Too much heat wilt
kill ft. Blood temperature, or liquid which feels just warm
to your wrist, will always be safe.
There are l'wo ways of adding yeast to your dough. The
traditional method is to sprinkle the dry yealt1: on the warm
liquid and let it soften and grow a little, while you prepare
the remaining ingredients. The temperature given for this
liquid is 105 to 115 F.
The so-caUed rapid-mix method is to mix the dry yea!it
with the dry ingredients and then to use a higher temper
ature for the ljquid.
[ have followed both methods successfully, but r am
writing these recipes using the traditional one-casting my
yeast upon the warm water. May I say here that old hands
at bread-making must forgive my giving so many details,
remembering that some readers will be beginners in the
art.
In any case, ft is essential to have wann ingredients,
warm utensils and a cozily warm kitchen in which to
work. In winter, .flour and utensils can be warmed in the
oven_ You can protect the dough from chiJJing wbiJe it rises
by placing the container in a larger bowl or hot water, or
putting it in a warm oven with a dish of hot water on the
shelf below. Or tum the oven heat on, count IS and turn it
off, remembering that this warmth is only for rising at
about 80 F .. not for baking.
While the yeast is growing on the starch and sugar in the
dough, it will form alcohol and bubbles of carbon dioxide
gas which inflate the m:JSS. With the right warmth, the
dough expands rapidly. But if the temperature is cooler, it
will rise more slowly, and more time will be needed. Sug-
gested times are given with eacll recipe, but do not worry if
it takes longer in your :.'ituation. Just wait! Be patient!
One of the tests for a dough that has risen long enough iS
to press a finger into it. lf the mark remains and the dough
has doubled in size, it has risen long enough.
FLOUR, on which the yeast acts, contains gluten. IL is a
protein, rubbery and elastic. which traps and holds the
Flgw'f! 1. In if your kitchM i$ too (.JC)OI . scl
the bowl in another bowl of hot water (nol above 130 F.)
2. The finger test .
bubbles of gas that make the loaf light and porous.
When the gluten is strong, flour absorbs considerable
water and produces high, "bold" loaves. When the gluten
is weak, more flour must be used and the volume of the
loaves will not be as large. This gluten has to supply the
"s:pring" for all the healthful ingredients called for in Cor
nell bread, because the soy. tbe wheal germ and the milk
can't help in this respe<:t.
'"fheBasic
Cornell Bread Recipe
(makt'S 3 looves]
This recipe rom1S the foundation ror the entire book.
Once you have mastered this, you'll be anxious to try your
hand at the many interesting and delicious 11ariations.
Also called ''Colden Triple Rich " by the Ithaca C<Hlp
Food Store, where it was sold commercially in the
1950's. The bread is not actually while, but a pleasing
creamy color.
PLACE in a large mixing bowl, alld LET STAND:
3 cups warm water ( m;o to 115 F.)
2 packages or 2 tablespoons active dry yeast
2 tablespoons honey or brown sugar
3 teaspoons sea salt
2 tablespoons salad oil
MEASURE and STIR together:
6 cups Wlbleuched nour
3 tablespoons wheat germ
1
h cup full-fat soy flour
'A cup nonJat dry milk
STIR the liquids and ADD while stirring:
1
h to
3
.4 the nour mixture
BEAT vigorously, about 75 strokes by hand, o1r
2 minutes with electric mixer.
ADD remainder of flour mixture.
WORK and MIX flour in thorough!> and vigorously by
handS minutes. At rirst the dough willlx> stid<y m; you
grasp it. Beat it. turning it round and round il1t the bowl.
At Lhe end of this time you'll frcl it change and be-come
firmer.
TURN tlough onto nourecl board and KNEAD using l to 3
cups more flour, a..r; needed. to make the doug:h smooth_
PLACE in an oiled bowl. Crease top of dough lightly and
cover.
Figure 6. Add the nour ing-redl<"nls g11;1dually. beati1r1g with an
dN;tric mixer or egg beater as long 1\S you l'lln.
LET RISE in a warm place until double in size, about I
hour. (Fingerprint remains when dough has risen
enough.) U the room b cold, place bowl in another bowl
of hot water.
PUNCH dough down, fold over edges and tum upside
down to rise another 20 minutes, or until duuble again.
TURN onto hoard, and djvide dough into 3 portions. Fold
each into the center to make !iTnOOlh. tight balls. Cover
and let stand 10 minutes on the board while you oil the
baking pans.
SHAPE into 3 loaves or 2 loaves and a pan or rolls.
Figure 7. Punch dough down after first rising.
Figure 8. OMdlng the dough into portrons.
Figu." 9. Forming a loaf.
TO SHAPE A LOAF: Flatt<'n ball on the board with
into n rectangle. Then fold each long side to th<'
center Then roll this small rl"ctangle to make a loaf.
cnch to seal. Tum scam down.
TO SHAPE ROLLS: Squeet.e off bits of dough and
like golf may be baked in muffin pans or all t<>
gether in a cake pan.
6 The Cornell Bread Book
Fii{U" 10. Bread has in pans and ts re41dy to bake.
J
Figurr 11. Brt'ad has COil\t' r rom tht OH'Il and is l't'mO\I"d from
to t'OOI.
PLACE shaped dough in oiled JhiOS. Loaf pans should be
obout 8
1
/2 x 4'12 x 2'12 mch<.>S in size.
lEf RISE in pans until doublt' in size. about 45 minutes.
BAKE in a moderate oven. 350F., for 50 to 60 minutes
(about 30 minutes for !Oils). H the loaves be-gin to brown
in 15 or 20 minutes, reduce the temperature. Bread is
doni.' if it sounds hollow when tapi)OO.
REMOVE bread fram the and put on a rack or cloth
to cool. Brush with oil if a thin. tender crust is desired.
Let cool rompletclv before wrapping and storing or
freezing.
Since this bread contains no prescr. ativc as the commer-
calloa"es usually do. keep it in the fiW'rer. Reheat frozen
brc.1d a few minutes at 300 F. bMore serving.
The Cornell dough beautifully. It can be
ston'tl in a covered containrr in the cold before it is formed.
When ready to use. pun<.'h it clown, shape it, place in bHk
ing pan, let rise to double in a warm place and bake as
ll.!l'ttal Or shape it before it goes into tht' refrigerator, place
in baking pan, grease the top of the dough and cover with
plastic so it IA'On't dry out. While it is stored in the cold, it
""ill gradually rise. When read} to use, let it stand in a
warm room 15 or 20 minute:.. then bakt
This 1s such a convenient way to have fresh!) baked
bread on a day.
12. Some uf the variations you can make from the basic brt'ad rt:dpe-
brt>adsticks c:rustv French bread, cra<ked and cornmeal breacb.
VARIATIONS ON TilE BASIC
CORNELL RECIPE
First master the ba.sic Corn<'ll bread, for it is the grand
of all the Cornell recipes that follow. Practice
perfect, and you will be able to make> do1ens of
varieties-aU with the ht>alth values of improved protl'in.
Sprouted Grain Bread
For a wonderful flavor and chcwv lt'.xture, perhaps my
favorite variation of the basic Cornell recipe is to add
sprouted wheat or rye About the only vou will
need to make is in the amount of nour used.
Obtam dean kernels of wheat or rvc. Cover I cup of
whole kernels with warm water and let tand in a warm
room O\ crnight. ln the morning. drain off the water and
CO'-erwith fresh. Let stand in a warm place for anoth<'rday
and night. Drain several times and add fresh water.
By the end of the second da), the grain wlll have be<."Ome
much softer and more che\'1)-'. The one cupful will have
l>welled to two cups and small, while sprouts may begin to
show.
From this time on, drain the kernels and keep them
covE'red in the refrigl"rator until you are ready to make
bread. Rmse the grain at intervals with fresh water so it
will not dry out.
For your put the sprouted grain through the food
chopper, ll5ing the finest blade. You'll be interested to see
f ls;ure 13. WhuiC' sufttm'<J ,md "Prout("d b) stuudmg 1r1
'' .trm '"atcr for day\, an.- put through a food mill for a
bread.
how sticl..1 and elashc 1t Add the ground-up kerneb with
the nour in your Cornell rt>eipc. It may require more or les.
nour than usual to givE' the right consistency for kneading.
Add the n'lnainder of the and proceed as U"Ual.
Try th1s once and you'll repeal it. The loaf is moist <JOel
ch('"')o' likE' the wheat and some daim it [s the mo..\1 deli
cious bread they've ever eaten.
Herb Breads
For a new turn to the Cornell recipe and a trf'at to
bring acclaim, add your favorite herbs to the formula
along '-"ith the dry ingredients. Minme m her
The Cornell Bread Book 7
-
Herb Cookbook.
3 teaspoons savory
I teaspoon marjoram
l
1
/ 2 tea.o;poons parsley
'h teaspoon thyme
Or to be different, roU the dough into a sheet, sprinkle
with the crushed herbs and shake on some Parmesan
cheese. Roll up like a jelly roll. Put on greased tins and let
rise and bake.
Herb breads are good with soups and salads, as sand-
wiches or toast. Yes, really goodl A friend now demands
some herbs in every baking his wife makes.
Bread Sticks
[a protein addition to the soup or salnd course)
Whenever you have some spare dough. make it up into
smati balls, Rolt each one into a long, thln stick. Place
sticks on greased baking sheet. Let rise. Brush with egg
white and water beaten together. Sprinkle with sesame or
p<>ppy seeds. Bake at 375" F. until lightly browned.
Fifty-fifty Whole Wheat Bread
For a delicious bread oontaining whole wheat's nutri-
tional values, follow the Cornell reelpe, using half whole
wheat and half white flour. The bread will be light and tas-
ty. For many families, this is their regular choice For bak-
ing week after week.
Of course, other combinat-ions of flour, such as rye, mil-
let, bran, oat, cornmeal, buckwheat, and a little ground
flaxseed can also replace part of the white. One
maker also adds I teaspoon of cinnamon and 1 cup of
raisins to the mixture.
A home or bakery electric mill to grind your own grain
into a fine flour can be bought. Many bealth.food stores
have flour mills and will gTind grain to order for you, sav-
ing you trouble and the problem of where to store a mill.
You'll enjoy the navor of freshly milled whole grain.
Figure 14. Loaves or ftfty.fifty whole wheat bread fres.h from the
oven.
8 The Cornell Bread Book
15. Hamburger bu:ns have risen and are ready to bake.
Hamburger BWlS
Don't forget hamburgers! When the Cornell dough is
ready to bake, roll it out about an inch thick. Cut into
rounds with a big cookie cutter. Brush over with a little egg
white beaten with an equal amount of water, Sprinkle with
Let rise to double in size and bake in a 350"
F. oven about 20 minutes, until done.
Pixz.a
[a true meal that only needs a salad
to make H completely satisfying)
MAKE up the basic Cornell dough, using some whole
wheat or rye with the white Oour if desired. After the
second rising, when the dough is ready to shape, divjde it
into thirds.
FLATrEN eat>h thit'tl to about

inch thick onto an oiled


piz:z.a pan. Cover with a layer of hot country sausage
that has been crumbled and lightly browned in a skillet.
COVER this with a 5easoned tomato sauce (made of to-
mato paste thinned with water, he-rbs such as marjoram.
thyme, rosemary, sage and oregano, or your own
favorite).
SPRINKLE on crumbled mmurella cheese, minced on-
ion, green pepper.
COVER with slioos of pepperoni sausage and a final treat-
ment of Parmesan cheese.
LET RISE for 15 minutes,
BAKE 15 minutes at 425 F. and serve at once.
Pita, The Pocket Bread
Flat breads make fascinating fare in this day of snacks
and finger foods, whether it's Me.xican tortilla., Indian
chapaH. or Middle Eastern pita. They are similar in their
ability to offer the covering for a filled sandwich that is
tasty and different And if they contain improved protein
of the Cornell recipe and are filled with an extended meat
mixture, you've a main dish for a picnic or patio supper
that is satisfying, as well as interesting to Family and guests,
..
Figure 16. CornelL pizza makes a snack or a meal that is tasty
ond nutritious.
Flgure 17. When the plt4s bake, they puff up and n1ake pockets.
Here two are cut open and all ready for a delicious filling . .ruc:-h
as chicken or tuna salad.
MAKE up the basic "white" bre.addough. Aftertheseoond
rising, SHAPE dough into balls about the size of lemons.
Roll in cornmeal.
FLA TIEN these into roWlds about
1
/ inch thick. Place on
an oiled baking sheet.
LET RJSE: for 20 to 30 minutes and BAKE at 425" F.
about 10 minutes, until golden brown.
Whole Wheat and Carrot Pita
(makes about 12 pitasJ
Here is another interesting recipe for pita, made with
whole wheat and carrots-delicious and easy if you have a
blender or food processor. This recipe can also be used for
Mexican tortillas.
PLACE in mixing bowl and let dissolve:
21fr cups warm water (105 to 115 F.)
1 package active dry yeast
Meanwhile PREPARE:
2 cups finely grated carrots
3 teaspoons sea salt
ADD carr-ots and salt to yeast mixture and STIR IN to
make a soft dough:
3 tablespoons wheat germ
lj, cup full-fat nour
3
/ . cup nonfat dry milk
4 to 5 cups whole wheat flour
TURN onto board and ADD mo.re Oour until dough can
be handled.
KNEAD 5 to 10 minutes, until smooth.
FOR PlTAS:
PULL off a ball of dough the of a lemon.
PRESS ball of dough into cornmeal on all sides.
ROll.. out into a circle V. thick.
PLACE ON an oiled pan, and let rest about 20 to 30
minutes.
BAKE at 425 F. until brown and puffy, about 10
minutes.
FOR TO'RTlLUS:
PUll off a piece of dough the siz.e of a golf b<tll.
ROll. out on a board covered with cornmeal into very,
very thin circles.
PLACE each on a hot heavy skillet, without oil and cook a
few minutes on each side, until light brown. Tortillas
should be soft.
French-Style Bread
(also for Cuban, italian and Viennese rtyles]
While you are working with the basic "white" recfpe,
you must manipulate it }J la franflli# for a change. If there
is any bread that has earned paeans of praise-"crusty,
crisp outside, loose and open inside, hearty, satisfying,
flavorful, downright delicious, etc. etc. ," it ls the common
bread of France. Italian, Cuban and Viennese breads are
also favorites in the same crusty style.
These a.re all water breads, baked on the floor of the
oven at high temperature with steam. While the Comell
formula will not duplicate the French, Jt can also be crisp
and crusty and far more valuable healthwise.
Here's how:
MAKE up the Comell "white" bread dough. Follow
rections for mixing. Let the dougb be soft. MJx it thor-
oughly in the bowl. then turn it onto the board to knead
with a little more flour. Let -rise in the greased bowl to
double its size, at a cooler temperature if possible, 70 to
78 F., for 1 to Jlh hours.
TlfRN onto floured board, adding a little more flour if ne-
cessary. RoWld up. Cover and Jet rise on b-oard to double
again. Divide into four balls.
LET RlSE while you oil 2 baking sheets.
SHAPE the baUs into loaves which may be long and nar-
row. JS x 2 inches, or round.
PLACE on the baking sheets. LET RISE to double in size.
With a sharp lmie or razor, cut diagonal rn the
top of the long loaves and a cross on the round ones. A
The Cornell Bread Book 9
Figurt 18. For a Continental touch, try the French-style Cornell loaf.
Fil;ure 19. Instead of investing in a French bread pan to give
round loaves. t hung the loaf from a nourcd cloth to prevent it
from flattening.
.Figure 20. Spraying the wRh water helps to keep the crust
crisp and thin.
10 The Cornell Bread Book
sprinkling of sesame seeds i.'> delicious, but first brush on
egg white mixed with a little water to make them stick.
INDUCE ll.-team by .c.-praying the with water, and
place a shallow pan of boiling water in the bottom of a
hot oven, 425 F. One Francophile puts a few ice cubes
in the oven. The idea is to have steam for the first few
minutes or baking so the dough will expand fully
without making a heavy crust.
BAKE the loaves at 425 F. about 30 minutes in all. or un-
til they brown and sound hollow when tapped. Cool on a
rack.
When freshly baked, this bread is delightfully crusty.
Wrap it carefully and :.tore in the freezer. Heat before serv-
ing to restore the criwncss.
Crusty Rolls
When you are making up the Cornell dough, save part of
it for hard, c:rusty rolls. Aftrr the second rising, form the
dough into 16 or 18 balls. Place on an oiled baking sheet.
Cover. Let rise till double. about 45 minutes. Brush with
egg white and water and sprinkle with sesame or poppy
seeds. Spray with water. Bake at F'., as for the French
bread above, with a shallow pan of boiling water in the
bottom of the oven. They should be done in 1 0 to 12
minutes .
. - cen fu hfs C'hoice of sweet substonccs one can choose
hCFrn'lJ or dark molcmes such as the sorghums that prooide
other foodstuffs than meruugar. Many of these substances
ore little undn-stood todily but we know they e:dst.-
C.,\1.M.
Fi t{urt' 21. Tht> finger ll':"l tells whrn mlh, "'t>ll as loctH., , h.aH'
rt'lt'n long enough.
Figun 22. Crust} mils cool on a rJck.
Refrigerator Potato RoDs
!makes 3 to 4 tkm:n rolls}
BOIL 3 mcdlums-ized potatoes until sort, saving potato
watrr. MASH. (Or make up I cup of inshml mashed
potatoes according to dircctiom on package.) COOL
PLACE in a large bowl, and I 1:.1 S1 AND for 5
I cup warm (105 to 115 F). Part may b<? potato
water
2 packages active dr) )cast
ADD:
1
h cup salad oil
!13 cup honey. brown sugar or fructose
2 teaspoons sea salt
1 cup mashed potatoes, cooled
2 eggs (reserve a little egg white to brush lOJp5 of rolls)
3 tablespoons wheat genn
1,1., cup full-fat soy flour
1
/2 cup nonfat dry milk
STIR and gradually ADD
5 to 6 cups unbleached flour (you may substitute J or 2
cups of whole wheat. bran or rye for part of the" hite
nour)
Figutl' 23. F'ormmgllic potato rolk
1-igurT 24. Rolls haH' riS<'n and art' ready to bake.
. Thl' dulllll' in lhl' u ,. of potalot-s Is anothn lragl'dy In
lhl' Ame'rit'an nutntton plc'turl'. rl'ry study of polatol's
mad I' an our laboratory crl'att rmrul'd rtspet'tfor thi.s ru
pl'rb food-one of thl' brjl etvr dbC'oLrud by man. But
proplr who suffer from laC'k of t:cercise prefer Ml to work
thrir flabby muscii'S in carriJIIII( a bag of potatot's up tht
apartment $lalr11.-C .. \1 ..
. .. Potatoes to favor a lonJ.( span of llfe.-C.M. a\.1.
.. Potatoes ore t>tctllrot food far all agr.s. br$1 ,up-
pll'mmt for th.-m 1$ milk or chl'tSI'. In tl'sts U.'ith potatoi'S
using laboratory anamals such as u:hitl' rats, It has bt'm
found that this food i.s onl' of the best to insurl' long lifr
utth good htalth un bread il a good supplt>ment for
potato,.,,-C.M. \I.
The Cornell Bread Book I I
BEAT for as long as possible with egg beater or electric
mlxer.
TURN dough out on a floured board or cloth, using more
flour as needed, but keeping dough soft. KNEAD lightly.
PLACE in oiled bowl. Crease top of dough. Cover con-
tainer and set in refrigerator until needed. (1f desired, the
rolls can be shaped, allowed to rise, and baked without
refrigerating. Or divide the dough-u.o;e hall imme-
diately and chnl the for a later day.)
REMOVE dough rrom refrigerator and shape into pocket-
book rolls.
FLATrEN dough with a rolling pin. CUT OUT rotmcb.
brushing each with melted butter. FOLD OVER and
place on oiled baking pan. PAINT rolls with egg white
stirred with a little water. SPRfNKLE with sesame seed.
LET RiSE to double in size. If the dough Is cold it will take
longer, but if it has not boon chilled, 20 minutes may be
enough time.
BAKE at 350 F. for about 20 minutes.
STORE in plastic bags in deep freeze, and reheat before
serving.
12 The CornelL Bread Book
... Dry nutritional yeast is a unique food that Is coming
into modem use. lfl oldm men drank yeast
pended in beer and the bakery was often loca.ted near the
brewery since the baker drew his supply of live yeast fr() m
the brewery. In modem times much yeast is dried after U i$
N!moved from making beer. A pound of dry yet:Ut Is pf'o-
from every hundred ga/U,ns of beer. Yeast is very
rich in all water-.soluble IJilomirlf e:c;cepl B/2. It contatns
about twice as much protlrin a.s meat a11d its protein is a
uery good .supplement for wheat protein. Thus bread con-
tainiflg $% per cent of nutritional yea$1 luis htgh protein
value.-C.M.M.
. .. Some time ago a writer de$cribed "enrlchment"ln re-
gnrd t O wheat flour as analogou.s to S<Jying that a thief en
rlched one if h,. first stole aU lhe .silvcnoore from a house
hold 011d then retumcd a few 31JOOns.-C.M.M.
... Ev.en a r;egetarlan diet protldes adequote iron if it con-
tain.s liberal amounts of ueget4bles, whole wheat bread,
aru.l dark mo/.a$S.II$, Whole wheat bretJd cont.alm the wheat
germ, which is a remarkable .storehouse for many inO'r-
ganic essential.$ ruch a5 irati and m<Jnganese,-C.M.M.
1
!
I
Cornell Pot and Batter Breads
Many bw.y homemakers enjoy making "easy-mix" and
"no-knead" loaves and roUs. The basic "white'' and other
Cornell bread recipes can be used tn this way.
.Beat all ingredients well, as they are added, until a soft
dough is formed. Remove all o( dough from the
sides of the bowl. Brush the surface with oiL Cover and let
rise in a warm place until double.
You can either punch the dough down and let it rise a
second time, or stir it briskly a few seconds and pour it into
oiled pans or a casserole. Let rise and ba:ke as usual.
This bread will not compete with your standard loaves.
But when served warm in a or pot, it makes a
delicious luncheon or breakfast bread.
The batter breads make a good introduction for the first-
time baker who is frightened at the thought of kneading
dough, letting it rise, and using all that "judgment" My
guess .is that alter a few batter breads and some sticky
fingers, you'll be punching and kneading with the best of
them!
Yeast.Raised Com Bread
[makes 2 round loaves that
are delicious for brealdast or supper)
Pl.i\CE in mixing bowl:
P/2 cups warm water (105 to 115 F.)
2 packages active dry yeast
.. cup honey or brown sugar
2 sea sal t
1
/1 cup salad oil
2 eggs (room temperature)
STIR and BEAT IN gradually:
1
1
/2 tablespoons wheat germ
cup full-fat soy flour
1
h cup nonfat dry milk
I 'h cups yellow com mea I
31!t cups unbleached flour
BEAT until well blended. Batter will be somewhat .stiff.
DIVIDE batter between tVw'O oiled 8-inch round cake pans
or cast-iron skillets.
COVER and LET RISE in a warm place unt:il doubled,
about 1 hour.
BAKE at 375 F. for minutes, or until done. Serve
warm.
A cup or crumbled cooked sausage or bacon may be
added to the batter.
100% Whole Wheat Batter Bread
[makes 3 loaves or 2 loaves and a pan of muffins)
PLACE in mixing bowl:
3 cups warm water (105 to IJS F.)
2 packages active dry yeast
2 tablespoons honey or molasses
2 tablespoons salad oil
3 teaSIX)Ons sea salt
Flgun 25. Fmh brt!ad make$ any luncheon a occasion, with very little
work.

Sally Lunn
(makes 1 large loan
A famous sweet batter bread is Sally Lunn, which is said
to be a corruption of the soleillune, or sun and
moon cake. With our additions of spice, brown sugar,
citron or dried fruits, it isn't so yellow and white as the
original must have been when made butter and white
sugar. But do make up a fresh Sally Lunn for special tea or
coifee guests.
PLACE in miJCing bowl:
1 cup warm water to F. )
1 pack.age active dry yeast
LET STAND while you measure and ADD:
honey, brown sugar or fructose
1 teaspoon sea saJt
V1 cup salad oil
3 eggs at room temperature
1
1
/ 7 tablespoons wheat germ
1
/ cup full-fat soy flour
cup nonfat dry milk
1
h teaspoon cinnamon
teaspoon nutmeg
3
1
/t cups unbleached flour
BEAT mixture for 3 minutes. using a spoon or electric
mixer.
ADD 'h cup of any dried fruit. such as citron. raisins, cher-
ries, or chopped apricots, and lf2 cup of broken nuts, il
desired.
BEAT in more flour, if needed, to make a stiff batter.
COVER the bowl and let rise in a warm place to double in
size. about l hour.
STIR batter and pour into oiled and floured angel food
pan.
COVER and LET RISE again for almost an hour until
double in size.
SPRINKLE over the top a mixture of 3 tablespoons sugar,
1
/z teaspoon cinnamon and teaspoon nutmeg.
BAKE for 10 to 50 minutes in moderate oven, 350 F., until
done.
REMOVE carefully from the pan, as this cake is large and
fragile. Serve warm.
Raised Fruitcake
More fruits a nd nuts may be added to the batter for a
holiday coffee cake such as this.
MAKE the Cornell Sally Lunn batter and ADD to it:
I cup soft prunes. chopped
I cup da tes. pitted and chopped
1
/z cup soft apricots, chopped
1
/2 cup raisins
1
h cup each walnuts and almonds. chopped
I cup candied fruit
8 cardamon seeds, shelled and crushed
Continue and bake as for the Sally Lunn.
Czech Babovka
[Czecho.stovakian Easter bread]
MAKE the Sally Lunn batter and to it ADD;
1
12 te.aspoon almond extract
I cup golden raisins
'12 cup almonds, finely chopped
6 candied cherries, sliced
l tablespoon grated orange rind
After the fi rst rising, stir in fruit and nuts. Pour into an
oiled and floured crown mold or angel cake pan and pro
ceed as for Sally Lunn cake.
.. plant food.s $!1Ch a.s contain subatantial
amounts of calcium. Sesame set!ds art! staplt! articles of
diet I n many area$. Such $teds should b.e Mterl witho-ut the
remoool of the husks becau$e contain the w lcfum.
-C.M.M.
.. In t e&U wfth whlterats, W#t: fed tJS 1m per ctmt of
the dry dtet for the whole of life. No special dlseaus wer-t
observed old age and the life $pan of the animals U.'CS
norrMI. Hence f rom am mal tNtsthere 1$ no t:l)lde-nce
eggs ore Injurious. Since the egg serl)e$ CJf o compk te
food it insure the older- penon in regard lo
and trflomins tJ$ well as iron and trace minerals.
-C.M.M.
The Cornell Bread Book 1 5
-
Sally Lwm
(makes 1 large loaf)
A fa mow sweet batter bread is Sally L...unn. which is said
to be a corruption of the French 30/eilluM, or sun and
moon cake. With our additions of spice, brown sugar,
citron or dried fruits, it isn't so yellow and white as the
original mwt have been when made with butter and whJte
sugar. But do make up a fresh Sally Lunn for special tea or
coffee guests.
PLACE in mixing bowl:
I cup warm water (Ia; to 115 F.)
I package active dry yeast
LET STAND while you measure and ADO:
1
/, cup honey, brown sugar or fructose
1 teaspoon sea salt
Va cup salad oil
3 eggs at room temperature
l l/2 tablespoons wheat germ
1
1 cup full-fat soy flour
1
h cup nonfat dry mUk
1
/a cinnamon
'I teaspoon nutmeg
3
1
12 cups unbleached flour
BEAT mL"tture for 3 minutes, wing a spoon or electric
mixer.
ADD
1
12 cup of M )' dried fruit, such as citron, raisins, cher-
ries, or chopped apricots, and
1
/J cup of broken nuts, if
desired.
BEAT in rnore flour, if needed, to make a stiff batter.
COVER the bowl and let rise in a warm place to double in
size, about l hour.
STIR batter and pour into oiled and floured angel food
pan.
COVER and LET RISE again for almost an hour until
double in size.
SPRINKLE over the top a mixture of 3 tablespoons sugar,
'h teaspoon cinnamon and 'I teaspoon nutmeg.
BAKE for 40 to 50 minutes in moderate oven. 350 F., until
done.
REMOVE carefully from the pan, as this cake is large and
fragile. Serve warm.
Raised Fruitcake
More fruits and nuts may be added to the batttcr for a
holiday coffee cake such as this.
MAKE the Cornell Sally Lunn batter and ADD to it :
I cup soft prunes, chopped
I cup dates, pflted and chopped
'11 cup soft apricots, chopped
Lh cup raisins
1
/ t cup each walnuts and al monds, chopped
I cup candied fruit
8 cardamon seeds. shelled and crushed
Continue and bake as for the Sall y Lunn.
Czech Babovka
[Czechoslovakian Easter breadl
MAKE the Sally Lunn batter and to it ADO:
1
h teaspoon almond extract
I cup golden raisins
1
12 cup almonds. finely chopped
6 candied cherries, sliced
I tablespoon grated orange rind
After the first rising, stir in fruit and nuts. Pour into an
oiled and floured crown mold or angel cake pant and
ceed as Cor Sally Lunn cake.
. . plant foodt wch a& sromt contain substantial
amounts of calci um. Sesomt' fteds arc staple arttlcle.s of
diet In many areas. Such suds should eaten the
removal of the hu.s.k.s becou&e these conUJin the C'4lcium.
- C.M.M.
... In with white rat5, tggswtre fed a.s cent of
the dry for of lift'. No special dbeann wee
ob$tT\ied in old oge and the lift span of tht' animtah W4l
normal. Hence such animal there is no e'l.lldt1tce
that eggs ore injurlow. Since the egg servcs as a c.omplete
food II may Insure the older ptr10n In regard to protdn
and oftamln.s a.s well a.s Iron and trace m lnera!.t.
-C.M.M.
The Cornell Bread Book J 5
Cornell Health Breads
It' a puzzlement-to call some "health" foods. when all
food should be heallhful. But we do have to admit there ate
"junk" foods that yield only "naughty" calories as a doctor
friend calls them-the white nour. white sugar, white fat
mixtures that are detrimental to the diabetic, the
heart patient and others whose health is threatened.
So we go to the "natural food" stores. grateful to ind a
splendid array o( higb<Iuality nutrit[onal ingredients. For-
tunatel y, regular groceries are catching on and now offer a
greater variety or whole grains, dark honey,
seeds. sprouted beans. nuts and dried fruits.
Many of the breads bak<'<l by young people for their
community meals and markets combine an imaginative
mixture of these nah.aral foods. A letter from a young friend
says, " I have just discovered the natural foods ' trip' and 1
find it really satisfying that I am giving myself the best
focxl."
When making the dark breads, I USlJBII)' use halfsil.tl
tins, because the special loaves make such popular gifts.
Ab-o it is easier to cut the heavier bread in thinner slices.
Rye Bread with Beer
(makes 2 loaves!
PLACE in mixing bowl:
I 12-oz. can ( llf2 cups) warm beer ( la5 to I JS F.)
I package active dry yeast
1
/2 cup dark molasses (if desired)
2 tablespoons salad oil
2 tca5p00nS sea salt
I carawa)' seeds, crushed
MEASURE and MIX together in another bowl:
2 tablespoons wheat germ
If cup full-fat soy flour
cup nonfat dry milk
l
1
h cups rye nour
1
1
h cups Wlbleached nour
SflR the liquids and ADD while )tirring:
The nour mixture
BEAT vigorously, about 75 strokes by hand. or 2 minutes
with electric mixer.
ADD more nour. if needed, to make a soft dough.
BEAT thorough!)' and vigorousl y.
TURN dough onto noured board, using more of the rye
and white nour as needed.
KNEAD 5 minutes to make the dough smooth.
PLACE in an oiled bowl. Cover with plastic.
LET RISE in a warm place until double in size, about an
hour.
Figure 29. When l')'e bread is almost clone, brush it with milk,
salt water or cornstarch solution for a tough, shiny
PUNCH dough down, fold edges under, turn upside down
to rise to double again.
TURi'J onto board, and divide into 2 portions.
FOLD each into the oenter to make 2 smooth, tight balls
for round loaves, or stretch out into 2 long loaves.
PLACE on a greased baking sheet.
LET RISE until double in size, about l hour. With a sharp
knife or razor. make .several lashes across the tops.
BAKE in a moderate oven, 350 F., for X) to 40 minutes.
until loaves sound hollow when tapped.
REMOVE from pan and coot on a rack.
U you do not wish to use beer, you can substitute warm
water, warm potato water, or warm buttermilk. Com meal
is often sprinkled over the baking hoot to give a crisp
tom crust. Also, sometimes the loaves are brushed with
milk. salt water (lh teaspoon salt in
1
1 cup water). or a lea
spoon of cornstarch djs:solved in
1
1 cup cold water,
the last few minutes of baking to give a tough, shiny crust.
Swedish Limpa Bread
To giv(' that flavor . make up the
rye bread. with the beer. ln addition to the caraway
(or without them). add '12 teaspoon ground anise seed,
2 teaspoons of grated orange rind. Proceed as for the
nell rye.
. .. For thru u nturle$ the of Ireland, Poland,
Wales, and many other paru of thf' world hace
both energy and prot.ein from th#J potato. - C.M.M.
John's Oabneal Porridge Bread
(makes 3 loavesJ
MIX together in large bowl:
3 cups boiling water
2 cups oatmeal, uncooked (or other whole grain break-
fast cereal, such as wheat or a mixture of grains)
LEr COOL to )(:6 to 115 F. and ADD:
2 packages active dry yeast
STIR to soften yeast and ADD:
3 tablespoons salad oil
1
n cup hooey. brown sugar or molasses
3 teaspoons sea salt
1
1 cup sesame seeds
I cup raisins, dates or prunes
MEASURE and STIR IN:
3 tablespoons wheat germ
1
11 cup full-fat soy nour
3
/ cup nonfat dry milk
I cup rye. buckwheat or whole wheat nour
STlR IN:
2 to 3 cups unbleached nour
BEAT about 75 strokes by hand, or 2 minutes with the
electric mixer.
MIX IN more flour. if needed.
KNEAD until dough is smooth and elastic on board. about
5 minutes.
PLACE dough in oiled bowl. Crease top lightly and cover.
LET RISE until nearly double in siz.e, about an hour.
PUNCH DOWN, fold over edges and turn upside down to
rise another 20 minutes.
TURN onto board and DIVIDE into 3 parts.
MAKE into smooth. tight balls. Cover and let stand 10
minutes.
SHAPE into 3 loaves as described for white bread. Place
in oiled tins. Oil tops lightly and cover. LEr RISE until
double in size. about I hour.
Figure 30. John's bread has and is ready to bake.
BAKE in moderate oven. 350 F., for about 00 minutes. Jr
the loaves begin to brown in IS or 20 minutes, reduce
temperature to 325 F.
REMOVE the bread from the pans and put on a rack to
cool.
Whole Wheat and Brewer's Yeast Bread
[makes 2 loaves]
PLACE in large bowl and STIR:
2 cups warm water ( I os to 115 F.)
2 packages active dry y('ast
'!. cup brown sugar
'A cup dark molasses
2 teaspoons sea salt
2 tablespoons salad oil
I egg (room temperature)
MEASURE and STIR IN:
1
1
/3 tablespoons wheat germ
1
1 cup full-fat soy nour
'Ia cup nonfat dry milk
2 tablespoons brewer's yeast
2 tablespoons sesame seeds
3 tablespoons Mexican pumpkin seeds. sunrlower
seeds or nuts
'I cup raisins
4'12 cups whole wheat nour
BEAT as long as you can with an egg beater or electric
mixer. Th.en continue mixing and beating with your
band for at teast S minutes, until the dough becomes
Firm and elastic.
TURN onto noured board, using more nour if needed.
KNEAD and SHAPE into smooth ball. PLACE dough into
oiled bowl.
LET RISE in warm place until double in sit.e, about I
hour.
PUNCH DOWN, turn upside down and let rise ;motlwr
20 minutes.
DrVIDE dough into 2 portions. ROUND UP and let rest
10 minutes while you oil 2 loaf pans.
SHAPE into 2 loaves as for white bread.
LEr RISE for about an hour.
BAKE at 350 F. for about an hour. or until loaves
sound hollow when tapped.
BRUSH tops with oil. Remove from pan and cool on
rack.
BREWER'S YEAST, included with the dry ingredients.
is called "brewer's )'east'' because it was a byproduct from
the brewing of beer. Now it is grown just for its nutritional
value. It is the foremost natural source of the B vitamins as
well as high-quaJity protein. Clive felt it was so valuable
that it should be used r requently. He encouraged our Co-op
Food Store to sell it by the pound, and homemakers to add
it to their baked foods. The navor varies, accOrding to the
brand, so experiment. You can increase the amount if you
desire .
. . . constant study of fooch offorcU o hobby
since It can be in all paru of the world ond ir1
much of the recorded of man.-C.M.M.
The Cornell Bread Book 1 7
Cornell Sweet Doughs
Sweet yeast breads are favorites the world over. It would
be fun to. collect the stor-ies and customs that center around
these special coffee breads Lhat appear at Christmas and
Easter.
Fortunately, the recipes all adapt readily to the Cornell
ingredient$, which not only make t:hem a little rkher look-
ing and tasting. but contribute their nutrients and
improve keeping quality as well.
Sticky Rolls
2 do:z.en rolls and I c:orree ring)
Here we give the procedure for Cornell sticky rolls and
indic.ate how it may be changed for some of the popular

PLACE in large bowl. and LET STAND:
2 cups warm water (105 to Jl5 F.)
2 packages active dry yeast
1
/z cup honey, brown sugar or fructose
% cup salad oil
2 teaspoons sea salt
2 eggs (room temperature)
MEASURE and STIR together:
2 tablespoons wheat germ
1/s cup full-fat ooy flour
1
/z cup nonfat dry milk
6 cups unbleached nour
STIR the yeast mixture and ADD while
1
h to % the nour mixture
BEAT vigorously, about 75 .strokes by hand, or 2 minutes
with electric mixer.
ADD remainder of flour mixture and beat it in thoroughly.
TURN OUT on a floured board, using l to 2 cups more
nour if needed, but keeping dough soft.
K.J'JEAD lightly and PLACE in a.n oiled !Jowl to rise. Grease
lop of dough lightly.
COVER and LET RISE in a warm place until double in
site, about I hour.
PUNCH dough down, fold over edges and tum upside
down to rise another 20 minutes.
TURN onto board and divide into two portions.
FOLD eaeb i.l'l toward the center to make smooth, tight
balls. Cover and let stand 10 minutes on the board.
CREASE 2 about 9 x 9 inches with hutter or marga-
rine. For a stickv surface, cover the bottom of the ,tin
with a thin layer' o( brown sugar. Nuts can be added. i
Sprinkle with 2 tablespoons water.
ROLL dough to
1
/. inch in thickness with rolling pin. Brush
with melted butter, sprinkle with cinnamon, brown
sugar, raisins, and br-oken nuts. Roll up like jelly roll.
FOR CI NNAMON ROLLS: and plact" cut sides
Figure 31. Dough rolled out for oofiee cake mel cinnamon rolls.
Figure 32. Slicing the dough ror cinnamon rolls.
down on sugared tin to rise.
FOR COFFEE .RlNG: Place roll on greased tin and join
ends to fonn a ring. Pinch together. Cut top with .$cJS:SOrs at
on('-fnch intervals to show filling.
COVER and LET RISE in wann place until double in size,
about 45 minutes.
BAKE in moderate oven, 350 F . for about 30 minutes. If
rolls brown too fast, reduce the temperature or CQver
with foil.
REMOVE the sweet breads from the pans onto a rack to
cool. Tum s-ticky rolls upside down.
Some other delicious fillings to roll up in the dough are:
APIUCOT OR PRUNE: Cook dried fruits until soft, and
sweeten to taste. and C()OI. Add slivered almonds, if
dc:!>ire<L
ORANG& Warm together
1
/ cup butter,
1
/2 cup honey,
grated rind of I large orange and 2 tablespoons orange
juice. Cool.
t
fo'lgure 33. Snipping the top of the coffee
34. The sticky rolls, hot from th<.> oven. arc ready to be
cooled on a rack.
HONEY, NUTS MtD RAISINS: Wann together lh cup
honey, I cup nuts (!>'Wlflower or pumpkin seeds). 'h
cup butter, 2 leaspoons cinnamon, and I cup raisins. Cool
and spread oveT dough.
ALMONDS AND FRUIT:
1
h cup slivered almonds.
gr::tted rind and juice of I lemon, 'h cup candied citron and
cherries, oprmkling of mace, and
1
/J cup raisins. SprinklE'
over dough and roll up.
... Whole grain, dark flours should be the ones of choice
unless people cannot tokrate thnr fiber. Howecer
flours ore 8Ubject to muoct lnft'sloHons because insects
nf'ed mony of the some titomms os man. Theuo flours oho
ti'T!d to beromr rcmcid and nef'd to bf' stored In a cool ploc,.
or et.en I.:J.pt til a froun food COM'. The old rok applie$ in
the of whole grain flours namely "select foods that
pmsh readily. but eat them before they doi"-C.M.M.
Apple Coffee Cake
Press dough into greased round tin. Brush top w1th but
ter and press slices or cooking apple into it. Sprinkle with
cinnamon and brown sugar Let rise and bake.
Genrnan Ch.rimnas Stollen
Make up the Cornell dough for sticky rolls. When re-ady
to shape knead in:
I cup raisins
I cup candied fruits
I
1
/t cups nuts, broken
I tablespoon cardamon seeds (remove seeds from their
shells and crush in a mortar)
Divide dough into three b::tlls. Let stand 10 minutes
Then press each ball into a flat oval. Fold the long way and
press together fi11mly into a crescent. Put onto oiled baking
sheet. Let rise and bake as usual. When cool, iC'e and
dee<>rate with m;ore fruit and nut , if desired.
Russian Kulitch
For Jrulttch, 8J Russian Easter cake. bake the stollen
dough in large, deep tin cans, such as coffee comes in.
Cenerouslr oil the cans and fill 'h to % full . Let rise till
dough fills the cans and bake at 400" F. for IS minutes.
Reduce the temperature to 350" F., and continue baking
for about 30 min1utes more, until done. Remove from cans
to cool. Icc and decorate as c.Jesired. Serve in slices about an
inch thick. Return the top slice to the cake to keep it moist.
Italian Panettone
Ponettone from Italy ts another sweet bread, chock-full
of candied fruits. raisins, and pine nuts, flavored with anise
and baked in a !high, round loaf. Again )'OU can use the
Cornell stollen recipe, adding the pignolias and anise.
Before baking, cut a cross tn the top with a sharp knife.
This loaf can be deeoratLod for serving.
Swedish Cardamon Braid
(makes 3 loaH'5I
Make up the sweet dough for Cornell sticky rolls. Add 8
rnrdamon seeds that have been frct.'d from the shell and
crushed. Some dried rruits mav also be included. if de:.iretl.
Put the dough in an bowl and let rise in a warm
place until double in size. Punch down and let rise again.
Divide Into 3 ballls. Divide each ball into 3 sectiOns. Roll
each section into a long, slender strand and make into 3
braids.
These may be JPUt on an oiled bakmg sheet to rise, or in
loaf tins. Either wa)'. thC) look interesting.
When double in size, bake in a moderate oven, 350" F ..
about 30 minutes, or unti l they sound hollow when tapped.
Cool on a rack and ice, 1f desired.
The Cornell Bread Book 19
Figurt 35. Thl' cardamon braids .m: on an oiled bakang

f igun.o 36. A catch today-.t Swrda'h Nrd.tnlon braid.
figurr 37. A of )-unflowcr Moed' on top of the
houry adnK.
Brown Butter and Honey Glaze
lltrc 1s my favorite topping for )WCCt breads:
HEAT in a saucepan until lightly bro"vncd:
2 tablespoons butter or margarine
ADD:
4 tabll'spoons honey
2 tnblespoons lemon or orange juiCX' with some grated
rind (if desired)
STIR .md COOL. TIUCKEN with:
6 to S tabll"''ppOns pm .... derro
POUR on stollen or holiday cakes and sprinkle with sun-
nower st'Cd.s. nuts and dri<-d 3!> ck-sired.
20 The Cornell Bread Book
...
38. ShapinA thl' butter horns.
f'iguno 39. Butter boms are a hit and so much (un to
makl'.
Butter Hom Rolls
Make up the Cornell sweet dough for sticky rolls. Let rise
10 bawl. After it has doubled in size. tum onto board.
01vidc into 2 or 3 portiom. Roll each 1nto <1 large pie shape
about'/ inch thick with a rolling pin. Spread with soft but-
t(r or margarine.
With a knife or pastry whed. cut into pic-shaped
Roll up each one. at tht- .,., idt'Sl of th<-
Curve a little to make a crescent. Put on oiled pan
.md let riS{' until light and double in size.
each roll with a little egg white mixed with water.
Sprinkle with .sesame or popp)
8.1ke at 350 F. for about 10
. . 8rl'ad C'an be gicm incrt'a&rd nutrltlttt calur at an ad-
ditional co3t of about ont" unl per pound for thl' ntra In-
grrdirnt<;.-C.M.M.
.. that any of us can do Is lo makl' thl' bl'&t U!l' of
atollablr knowledg<' w,. all apprec1alf' that this i$ seldom
dom.-C.M . .\1.
For tht' presen:ation of strong boneJ. u:e hace comt' to
that milk i11 the lattl"f half of lift' b fully m ampor-
tont for oldt"r peopk as milk an thl' firtt part of [Jjc.-
C \f..\f
FOR FRENCH CROISSANTS: Chill the dough after the
fir..1 rising. Roll it out thin. Cut cold butter or margarine
into thin slivers and place over the dough. Fold the dough
up and roll out again. Repeat several times. and then pro-
ceed as for the butter horns.
[(you enjoyed making mud pies as a child, )Ou'lllove
playing w1th dough. for it is dclightf\llly malleable and you
can feel its lire in your fingers
When the dough is read) to shape. instead of making it
all into loa' es. sa' e out a port ion for some creations. II you
haven't time at the moment, put the dough 10 the refrigera
tor to use later.
There are the Parkerhouse or pockt'tbook rolls we used
for the Come II refrigerator potato rolls, described on page
II . and the butler horns on page 20.
Here are other suggestions:
CLOVER l..EAI' ROLLS: Shape dough into small balls,
dip into melted butter, and put 3 little ball into each muf
fin cup.
LUCKY CLOVER: Put one l:trger ball into a muffin cup
und then. with scissors, cut a cross in the top to divide the
roll into fours.
DOUBLE DECKERS: Put one larger ball into a muifin
cup. Brush the top with butter. and put a little ball of
dough on top. If your dough is sweet. you "ill have a
French brioehe.
SNAII.S: Form pie<:es of dough into slender ropes. about
6 inches long. Then coil each piece into a snail.
80\VKI\'OTS: Roll dough about
1
/. inch thick. Brush
with oil or butter. Cut in s1np:s about
1
/: inch wide and 6
inches long. Tie 10 knob
;: TWISTS: Roll the dough as for the knots. 8 inches long.
Twist each end in opposite direction. Bring ends together
and twist loop end.
Loa,es. too, can carry )'Our own trade mark. They can
be cut with scissors to make a v.shaped design on top.
They can be slashed with a sharp ra1:or or knife to make
long lines, or squares, or hc-tac-toe marks. Then how about
dimples, just by pressing in a finger here and there?
Do all of this branding when the dough has already risen
and is ready to bake.
Whole Wheat Yeast Doughnuts
[mnke\ 3 tlOI.('II doughnuts with to
It may be a moot question Ln your family as to whether
doughnuts ar<' good for you. This is a dec1sion we mtL<d
each make for ourselves. Hov. evcr. there are millions of
Americans who choose doughnuts dail)' as their favorite
brPakfast food.
If you are one of these. by all me.tns make them con
tribute more than "naughty calories" by including the
Cornell protein-improving ingredients of soy. milk and
wheat germ. FT) them in cholesterol-free salad oil, as
corn or safflower oil. Use whole wheat. nutritionaJ yeast,
sesame seeds. honey. and sea salt to produce a food that
will stick to the ribs and also add health values.
Clive was extreme!) practical and he belie\.ed that the
popular, palatable doughnut could give a real slug of
nutrition to the harried commuter's snack breakfast. He
loved to make them himself.

40. An arrJ) or Comtll rolls-before and after ooking.
PLACE tn a large bowl
I cup \1.'3rm water (I OS to I 15 F.)
2 packagt>S actJ' e dr)'
,/. to I cup honey. brown sugar or fructose
I teaspoon sea s.tlt
'h cup salad oil
2 to 3 beaten eggs
LET STAND while you MEASURE and togetht.-r:
2 cups unbleached flour
2 cups whole wheat nour
'/ cup full-fat 'In)' flour
V3 cup nonfat dry milk
1
12 trospoon cmnamon
Tile Cornell Book 21
figure 41. Deep-frying doughnuts.
'14 tea.)-poon nutmeg
2 tablespoons yeasi (iJ desired)
2 tablespoons sesame seeds (if desired)
ADD flour mix gradually to the liquids, beating vigorously
with an egg beater or electric mixer as long as you can.
ADD remainder of the mix, using your hand as beater. The
dough will be soft.
PLACE dough in a gfleasOO bowl. Grease top. Cover with
plastic. Refrigerate I)Vemight.
PLACE desired amount on floured board. ROll. to l inch
thkk. CUT OUT with doughnut cutter. LET RISE 30
mintdes and FRY in deep oil, heated to 360 to 370 F.
Brown on each side and drain on paper towels.
SPRINKLE with suga1r, carob powder or sesame seeds,
as dcsirt.'CI.
Dough can be stored 4 or 5 days in the refrigerator be-
fore frying.
22 The Cornell Bread Book
42. Dougbnuts <."an be given a final dusting of powdered
sugar.
.. Among the major factors that led to a subJtantiollm
prouemtnt In the entire n&Atritional program in t/u> twenty
SetleTI mental hospitals of New York State wos the intro-
duction of special foods of high nutririue I.IOl&Ae
such as soy flour and dry skim milk into thr dietary. in the
course of two years thr of dry $kim mllk cmd sag fll)ur
were each increased by more thtm a million an-
nuollg.-C.M .M.
... Whole wheat flour probabl!l contains nutru,nts such
as vitamins In proper ratios that hal)(: been balanced by
0$4'lmflati011 Into the liuing plant.-C.M.M.
... Breads con serve as foods that art> complete if
rhey ore wpplemented with colci&Amrich sk;m milk, pro-
tMn-rlch $01} flour, tJitamin-rich n&Airltionol yea3t and
wheat germ.-C.M,J\.f.
Cornell Sourdough Breads
If you want to branch out from the ordtnary, it's fun to
play with sponges and sourdoughs. These bre.tds
are tastY indet>d.
1be idea is to mak(' up a soft mixture of water, yeast and
flour and let 1t st.md to ferment for 'll!\eral hours, o-.er
night or ('\l'n S('\lt"Ti.IJ days. ThiS d>veJOp\ 3 yeast) navor
which many people csp<'cially like. The sourdough breads
arc delicious w[th du-esc, l'Oid culs and rtavosful meats
such as ham, rorn<.od beef and tongue. They are a pleasant
cnange from the usual daily bread.
Perhaps the\ appeal to our primJtiV<' instincts, because
this is the way thJt the or bread rnJking probabl)
developed-y>ru.1s from the air. on moi!it nour,
causing it to ferment nnd to become light when baked.
We have all heard of the th<>westem pros-
pectors and the early homesteadfrs-the sponge or
"startPr" of the sourdough on for month." or even
)'ears. Some ts taken out for baking. then more flour and
water arc addoo to the rnnai.ID to be! savc.-d for the next
time. HoweHr, if you are not making \Ourdough bre.1d
regularly. it is JUs! as wdl to usc it up 'iOOn and to start w1th
a fresh batth for lht> next lime.
. . . Gardtotlfltg, baking and the proussltll( of foodt afford
bltnettlnJi: hobbrt's and one of thl' brsl means of
for 1/u- oldn- pasou.-C .. \1 '-1.
Sourdough "White"
To make the starter. PL>\CE m a bov .. l:
2 cups "ann w,1terC 105 to 115 F.J
1 package ac:tive dl) }Past
2 cup$ unbleached flour
\11X tog('thcr (lnd let stand in a warm place If
more flavor desired, let stand for l\vo or three days at
room temperature. Stir at inll'rvnls.
PLACE tn a larg<' bowl '"-hen to make the bread:
2 cups warm wal<'r (105 to 115 F.l
I package atliH dry yeast
LET ST At\0 for 5 minutes.
STIR and BLEND in:
11/t cups
2 table ;poons honey or brown suFtar
2 salad oil
3 teaspoons wa c;alt
3 tablespoons wht>at germ
'h cup full-fat 'iO) flour
);.. cup nonf,tl dry milk
5 to 6 cups unbleached A our (part m.ty be bran or whole
wheat)
WORK and MIX flour in thoroughly and vigorously .
TURN onto floured board, using more nour if
needed.
Figurr 43. An appetizing or ..ourdough ltlJ\f'S and rolls.
...
Figun 44. These starters for ''white." rye and wholt' wheat sour-
dough brt'3cls have ~ n standmg oil night.
KNEAD until dough is smooth and elastic.
PLACE in oiled bowl. Crease top of dough lightly and
cover.
LET RISE in a warm place until nearly double in size.
PUNCH dough down and let rest while you prepare the
pans.
SHAPE into 3 loaves.
LET RISE in pans and BAKE in a moderate oven, 3S0 F.,
until brown and loaves sound hollow when tapped.
REMOVE from pans and cool on rack.
For later baking, carry over the starter. To replenish add
I cup more each of nour and warm water and J teaspoon
sugar. Mix well , cover and keep in a warm place if it is to
be used soon. Otherwise, pot in the refrigerator.
The sourdough breads may be used in aU the ways that
the Cornell basic mix can appear- loaves, ha mburger
bWlS, with sprouts, etc. Sourdough pltO$ are especially
good.
Sourdough Whole Wheat
lmakt'S 2 loavt'S)
To make the whole wheat starter. PLACE in a large bowl:
2 cups warm water (los to Its F.)
24 The Cornell Bread Book
I package active dry yeast
2 cups whole wheat flour
MIX together and let stand in a warm room overnight. 1f
more flavor is desired, let it stand for two or thm: days at
room temperature. Stir at intervals .
PLACE in a large mixing bowl and BLEND:
1
/ cup warm water
I package active dry yeast
2 cups whole wheat starter
2 tablespoons wheat germ
; .. cup full-fat soy flour
Y.. cup nonfat dry milk
'I cup dark molas.ses
I tablespoon sea salt
3 tablespoons salad oil
BEAT IN gradually:
2 to 3 cups unbleached flour
TURN dough onto board, using more flour if nee!OO<:!.
KNEAD vigorously a boutS minutes, until dough i!>smooth
and elastic.
PLACE in an oiled bowl. Crease top of dough liglhtly and
cover with plastic.
LET RISE in a warm place until double in s i ~ . an1 hour or
more.
TURN onto board nnd divide into 2 portions. Let rest
while you oil the baking pans. I put one portion in a loaf
pan. 8 x 4
1
/t x 3 inches. and braid the other to hake onto
a sheet.
LET RISE to double in size, about an hour.
BAKE in a moderate oven. 350 F., for about 40 minutes,
until loaves sound hollow when tapped.
REMOVE from pans and put on rack to cool.
Sourdough Rye
(makes 3 long slender loaves or 2 loaves and 10 rolls!
To make the starter, PLACE in a large bowl:
2 cups warm water (IOS
0
to 115 F.)
I package active dry yeast
2 cups rye flour
MLX together and let stand in a warm room overnj_ght. If
more flavor is desired, let stand for 2 or 3 days at room
temperature. Stir at intervals.
PLACE in large mixing bowl:
l cup warm water ( IOS
0
to IJS F.)
I package active dry yeast
STIR and BLEND IN:
1
1
/ t cups rye starter
1
/. cup dark molasses
2 tablespoons caraway seeds
I egg
I tablespoon sea salt
I to 2 cups rye nour
3 tablespoons $3lad oil
3 tablespoons wheat germ
1
/t cup ful l-fat soy flour
'I cup nonfat dry milk
BEAT IN gradually:
3 to 4 cups unbleached flour
TURN dough onto noured board, using more flour if
needed.
I
Figure 45. A braid and a loaf of sourdough whole wlneat nre
ready to bake..
Figure 46. Loaves of sourdough rye ready to balke.
KNEAD vigorously about 5 minutes. until dough is smooth
and elastic.
PLACE in an oiled bowl. Grease top of dough lightly and
cover.
LET RJSE in a warm plaoe until nearly double. 1about 1
hour.
TURN onto board and divide into three LET
REST while you sprinkle cornmeal on a baking; sheet.
FORM dough into long, narrow rolls and place tot rise on
pan, about an hour, until double in size.
CUT diagonal slashes on the top of each loaf with a sharp
.knife or razor.
BAKE in a moderate oven, 350 to 375 F., till! crusty
and brown and loaves sound hollow when tapped.
REMOVE from pan and cool on rack
Sourdough Silver DoUar PancakE!S
!serves 2 persons)
The whole wheat starter or, in ract, any of the sour-
doughs, may be included in any bread recipe tot give a
deUcious flavor. Simply adjust your recipe by adding a lit-
tle more flour to give the right consistency to the tdough.
47. Cornell waffles- a breakfast treat that's good !or you
tool
These sourdough sponges or starters make delicious pan-
cakes and wafnes.
PLACE in measuring cup:
1 tablespoon full-fat soy flour
1 tablespoon nonfat dry milk
I teaspoon wheat germ
F1LL rest of cup with unbleached Oour and ADO to 1 cup
of starter (white, whole wheat or rye):
)egg
1
12 cup water
1
/ 3 teaspoon sea salt
I tablespoon salad oil or bacon grease (if desired)
1 teaspoon honey or molasses
STTR with an egg beater and LET STAND for 10 or IS
minutes while you are preparing rest of the breakfast.
DROP by spoonfuls onto a hot, greased griddle and
serve at once.
Sourdough Waffles
[makes 4 ,vaJfles)
PLACE in mixing bowl nnd MIX:
I cup warm water (105 to 115 F.)
1 package actjve dry yeast
2 cups sourdough !.1arter, which has ripened overnight
or longer (either white, whole wheat or rye)
1 tablespoon honey
1
/ 1 Cl,lp salad oil
I teaspoon sea salt
LET STAND while you MEASURE into another bowl:
2 tablespoons wheat germ
1
1 cup full-fat soy flour
'h cup nonfat dry milk
2 tablespoons sesame seeds (if desired)
l
1
/1 cups unbleached nour (part can be whole wheat,
buck-.vheat, etc. )
STIR the dry ingredients into the liquid ingredients with a
spoon.
SEPARATE 2 large eggs. BEAT whites and yolks separate-
ly. STill in yolks and lightly FOLD IN whites,
SET batter aside to rise for an hour or more.
BAKE on a hot waffle iron until waffle5 are crisp and
brown.
The Cornell Bread Book 25

..
Cornell Formula for the Bakery
Large Bakery Recipe
fstraight-dough method; makes 200 loaves)
First to make the Cornell bread for large groups was the
New York State Department of Mental Hygiene, Albany,
New York, under the direction of Mrs. Katherine E. Flack,
Director of Institution Services. This pioneer work to im
prove the diets of some one hundred thousand patients tn
the state's mental hospitals was a cooperative venture of
Mrs. Flack, Cornell, and Mr. John Silva of the Dry Milk
Institute.
Mrs. Finck recently reported the good news that the ori
gina! Cornell formula is still being baked today in New
York mental hospitals, as it has been these last twenty
years. This is a marvellous record and a great compliment
to Mrs. Flack and to all who helped to bring it about.
Here is the fom1Uia used by the bakers of the Depart-
ment of Mental Hygiene in New York State:
I 00 pounds Northwest unbleached flour
72 (approximately) pounds water
2 pounds yeast
2 pounds salt
4 ounces yeast food
1 to 2 pounds sugar
1 pound malt (non-diastatic)
2 pounds shortening
8 pounds nonfat dry milk
6 pounds full-fat soy flour
2 pounds wheat germ
METHOD: It is important that the dough be properly
mixed. It should be mixed enough to incorporate the in-
gredients together properly to secure a smooth dough.
The mixing period depends on the type and speed of the
mixer. The nonfat dry milk as well as the soy flour and
wheat germ should be added on top of the flour and the
mixing continued until the dough is dry <snd pliable.
TEMPERATURE: This depends largely on the tempera-
ture of the dough room. The most suitable temperature
is 78 to SO F. With normal water conditions, doughs
.. We bnn worldngfor many yeors on problnn
of malntoinlng bonn and teeth In old age. From num-
ber of broken hips and brokm oertt>bru, 1 haue cottU to
reallu how Important this is for hund1WU of pt"ople. We
hoot anlmau for thl'lr whole upon test diets. and
thtn stud ltd their bones and tuth dwth ... The bnt
tuth we ho11e seen are fn anlmau that have had milk
throughout the whok of life. In fact, the only teeth
hoot seen that are not decayed in old age are the teeth
of our experimental onfmob that been fed on a
liberal milk dlet.- C.M.M.
should be set so that when fully matured and ready to go
to the bench or divider they will have a temperature
ranging between 81 and 82 F. Therefore, the dough
should be delivered from the mL'<ing machine at a tem-
perature which will result in the proper temperature at
the tfme of its maturity. Generally, this means that the
dough is set so that di rectly alter mixing it will have a
temperature between 78 and 79 F.
FERMENTATION: After mixing, allow dough to rise until
fl is light enough so that it will reeede if the band is in
serted and quickly withdrawn. Tum dough by pulling
the ends and sides well in, and aiiO\.v it to rest for 30 min
utes. Tum again and take to bench or divider in 15
minutes.
PROOFING: During pan proof, too much moisture should
not be applied to doughs containing high percentages of
nonfat dry milk. If too much moisture is present the re-
sulting crust will be somewhat tough and will have a
foxy red color. It is also good to give this dough a little
less proof before going to the oven. When this dough is
properly mixed and fermented it will have a very good
oven spring. Temperature of proof box should be around
go to 94 F. with enough humidity so the loaves will
not form a crust.
BAKING: lf the sugar and malt contents are properly ad-
justed the baking temperature and time will be about the
same as for regular bread. This type of bread. because of
the high percentage of nonfat dry milk as \vtll as
flour, will color more quickly in the oven than will milk-
free bread. The temperature or the oven should be such
that the loaves will to color in about 10 to 12 min
utes after being placed in the oven. This type bread
should be baked at 400 to 440 F. flash heat. Tem-
porary excessive oven temperature at the start should be
avoided inasmuch as it will cause a rapid crust forma-
tion and color too deeply. Underbaked bread will have
an aroma suggestive of greenness. the texture will be
over-moist and it will not slice and \VTap well.
... No from our study lndiCOU$ that milk will
lead to any Spt"ciol such m hardening of tht
ortmcs or cancer.-C . .M.M.
... The lack of info""otfon Is not the problem in nutrition
today. The uitol block.s are a dlsinternt In leamfng,lack of
self41scipline in food selection and tM failure to realiu
that what one his heolth.-C.M.M.
... Older f't'Ople nud to their consumption of
sugar but when they ure sweeten !rag they will find brown
rugor and dark to contain some ess.mtlol& auch os
irora.- C.M.M.
Small Bakery Recipe
!makes 25
The following is a formuln for a small bakery based on
the one used by Mrs. Flock's bakers. This was baked for me
by Gwaltney's Pastry Shop in Englewood. F1orida. It can
easily be used by camps, school lunches, restaurants and
other health-conscious groups. Take this formula to your
fa.,orite baker. Persuade others to join in calling for the
Cornell loaf so that you too can obtain good bread in your
community.
8 pounds warm water
12
1
/l pounds unbleached Northwest or gluten nour
12 ounces yeast
4 ounces sea salt
4 ounces sugar
4 ounet.>s shortening
I pound nonfat dry milk
3 ounces honey
3 ounces molasses
12 ounces full-fat soy flour
4 ounces wheat germ
METHOD: Put water in bowl first. Scale ingredients and
add to water. Mix in first speed on a 3-speed mixer. Mix
from 12 to IS minutes. This dough must puJI away from
bowl. lf not, add more nour so it will not be sticky.
TEMPERATURE: This depends on the temperature of the
shop. Keep the dough covered with a cloth so it won' t
crust over. Mixing temperature is 78 to 80 F. Keep the
temperature on the dough bench, 82" to 85" F.
FERMENTATION: After mixing allow dough to rise 20 to
30 minutes. Then divide into l-pound loaves. Let rise
about 20 minutes. "Then put in bread pans.
PROOFlNC: Put in proof box with temperature about 90"
to 94" F. for 20 to 30 minutes, or until bread is at top or
pans.
BAKlNC: Bake in oven at 400 F. for 20 to 25 minutes.
Take from oven and wash with shortening.
Any baker may make the Cornell formula without per-
mission and without charge. However, each baker is re-
quested to print the formula on the wrappers, including
how much of each ingredient. Anyone ron print "milk" on
his label. but who knows whether rt is a pinch or pound?
11le label on Cornell bread shouJd read that for every
I 00 parts of unbleached nour there are:
2 parts wheat germ
6 parts rull-rat soy nour
8 parts nonfat dry milk
Jr you find these proportions on the wrapper. you'll
know that you have Cornell bread.
... Rats were untll thf'y dltd of old age. The rerults
wcre thoroughlytesud, but anyone tt'Mng the rats at the
age of one year. or half-woy through their $plln of 11/e.
would haue noticed thl' dlf/ererlce immedlateliJ. Thou fed
rlu! poor bread were sickly and most of tlu!m died young.
These rault$ Indicate that one had better choose either thc
best bread available or eot more
... The nutritionalltatvr of every person lies lllrgely in hil
own hands during the latter half of lift and depends large-
ly upon hu ability to curb hi& Intake of such common
foods (U sugar, alcohol. low-gradt cereou and many Jots,
a' well at hll ability to select foods of high nutntional
oalue.-C.M .M.
.. To get better breed, plus othl'r goods and
mixes as well, the goal of el-'ClJ howewlfe ahould be to In-
sist on on "Optn Formula"-a forrnulll upon every pack-
age tclllng the noct amount oflngredlmts and tlu! name
and amount of any special chemicals used fn the
product.-C.M .M
. .. Thl& bread wos baked by a nl'w prlnclplr that hod not
b1.'1!11 tried prevfou.sly a.s far a.s we were a wort. The for-
mula of thl' bread was printed on thtr wroppcr.-C.M.M.
The Cornell Bread Book 2 7
..
Heroes in the Laboratory
Here are representatives of two large groups of experi
mental animals. They are the same ages, but Comelllbread
has given the first one health and the power to grow, while
the little one who ate ordinary bread, was unable to grow
and soon died.
A booklet about Cornell bread would not be complete
without this photo that tells the story of many repeatied ex
periments at Cornell. It shows how the protein of dry milk
and soy flour can bring the missing amino acids to wheat
so that animals can live in health on bread and butte'r and
reproduce successfully. Because these little heroes and! man
have similar nutritional needs, what's good for th<em is
usually good for us.
Clive made many studies to learn how far the life span of
the white rat could be stretched by a careful selection of
high-quality foods. Here is his conclusion:
... The best method we houe dl&couered for retarding the
o ~ t of old-<Jge diosn l.t to keep animoh thin upon a
modest allowance of a diet more than adequate in f()iXU
rich in tJitomins, m i ~ a h and protefns.-C.M.M.
Figun 48. These little fellows are both the same age-but the
one on the left has been fed on Cornell bread. while his friend
was given ordinary bread.
rorHE
C011\NELL
BREJ.lDBOOK
S4 Recipes for Nutritious Loaves,
Rolls antd Coffee Cakes
Clive M. McCaJr & Jeanette B. McCay
In the 19!10s, Or. Clive M. McCay, a Cornell University sdemist engaged in nutrition
research, made a momentous discovery- be found that by feeding laboratory animals
a lowcalorie diet rich in minerals, vitamins and protein, he could both retard the
onset of old age and dramatically increase the animals' longevity. His research at
tracted the auenrion of New York Stare, which asked him to help improve the diets of
the state's mental patients. Dr. M1tCay developed a fonnula for a highly nutritious
bread, made with soy flour, wheat germ, wheat flour and nonfat dry milk. lu nutri
tiona! values were so high that laboratory animals thrived on a diet consisting solely of
"Cornell" bread and butter.
In 1955. in response to numerous requesu, Dr. McCay and his wife published a small
booklet of recipes based on the Come! I formula. The booklet was a great success. Over
the yean, it was reprinted several times and sold many thousands of copies among
people eager to bake their own tasty and nourishing Cornell loaves. This Dover volume
reproduces the original booklet, newly revised and expanded by j eanette B. McCay. In
addition to the basic recipe for Cornell bread- the foundation of all the other recipes
- this book shows you bow to make enriched versions of many other kinds of baked
goods, including herb and wholewheat breads. hamburger buns, pina, bread sticks,
pita bread, French-style bread, c:rusty rolls, fruitcakes, coffee cakes, sourdough
breads, pie crusts, and more. You'll also team how to usc the Cornell formula to make
such tasty ethnic trea.u as: Cz,cchoslovakian Easter bread, Swedish limpa bread, Ccr
man Christmas stollen, Russian kulitch, Italian paneuone, and others.
BC$idC$ being delicious and high in protein. mineral& and 8 vitamins, the Cornell
recipes can be adjusted to meet a,lmost any dietary need, including lowsalt. low
cholesterol, low or high-roughage, etc. Easytofollow stepbystep instructions, sup
plementcd with numerous illustrations. insure successful breadmaking whatt'ver your
le\el of baking expertise. MT'$, McCay also offers valuable tips for avoiding common
breadmaking pitfalls and has augmented the text with many interesting and infor
mative quotes from the late Profes:sor McCay's writings on food and nutrition.
Acclaimed by The New Yor-4! TimtJ (who called it the "Do-Good Loaf'), and included
in such staples of the kitchen bookshelf as The Fanny Farmer CooA!boo-4!, Cornell
Bread has attracted a wide following among people who enjoy baking thu bread both
for iu delicious wte and iu extral)rdinary nutritional qualities. The Cornell Bread
Boolt is your guide to preparing a wide variety of baked goods based on the Cornell
formula - as satisfying to make as they are to eat.
Revised and enJarged edition of the! privately printed 1975 edition, entitled You Can
Mde Cornell Bread. Nearly 50 illwnrations. !12pp. 8% x 11. Saddlewired.
Paperbound.
ProP' counesy of S ~ Harbor Amiquc: S ~ . Sag Harbor. N. V. (::Cl\er photo by Betty & Bill Pell rSBN 04862S9950 $2. 00 in U.S.A.
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bread

My Modifications to Original Recipe
1st mod.old:
2 cups whole milk
1 cup water
2 Tablespoons dry bakers yeast
2 Tablespoons sugar
2 teaspoons salt
1 egg
6 cups white flour
3 Tablespoons wheat germ
3 Tablespoons wheat bran
1 Tablespoon brewers/nutritional yeast
1/2 cup full fat soy flour
Present mod. after request for lighter bread:
3 cups whole milk
2 Tablespoons dry bakers yeast
up to 1/2 cup sugar
2 teaspoons salt
1 egg
6 cups white flour
3 Tablespoons wheat germ
3 Tablespoons wheat bran
1 Tablespoon brewers/nutritional yeast
1/2 cup full fat soy flour
1/2 cup Olive oil