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INTRODUCTION TO PRACTICAL MARINE ENGINEERING

by

Alan L. Rowen
Professor Emeritus of Marine Engineering, Webb Institute

Raymond F. Gardner
Professor of Marine Engineering, US Merchant Marine Academy

Jose Femenia
Professor of Marine Engineering, US Merchant Marine Academy

Edwin G. Wiggins
Professor of Marine Engineering, Webb Institute

Copyright 2001 The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers

This publication is intended for the exclusive use of students of Webb Institute, SUNY Maritime College, and USMMA. Some figures were extracted from publications of the United States Naval Institute and of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, and from other sources as noted. Portions of this material have appeared in different form in Modern Marine Engineers Manual, 2nd Edition, published by Cornell Maritime Press, and in SNAME publications.

CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION TO THE MARINE POWER PLANT 1.1 Purpose 1.2 Historical context 1.3 Current status 1.4 A typical ocean-going merchant ship 1.5 A typical medium-sized warship 1.6 Fuels 1.7 Combustion 1.8 Comparison of steam, diesel, gas turbine, and nuclear plants 1.9 Prominent features of steam and diesel plants for a merchant ship 1.10 Energy distribution and losses; shaft power and brake power 1.11 Power requirements vs. ship speed STEAM PLANT OVERVIEW 2.1 The steam cycle 2.2 A typical steam ship engine room 2.3 Properties of steam 2.4 Feedwater BOILERS: BASIC FEATURES 3.1 Introduction: basic principles and major components 3.2 Feedwater and circulation 3.3 Generating tubes 3.4 Drums and headers 3.5 Superheaters 3.6 Furnaces 3.7 Casings and supports BOILERS: HEAT RECOVERY EQUIPMENT 4.1 Introduction: principle of heat recovery 4.2 Cold-end corrosion 4.3 Economizers 4.4 Air heaters 4.5 Summary BOILERS: ACCESSORIES 5.1 Internal fittings and mountings 5.2 External fittings and mountings 5.3 Burners 5.4 Instrumentation and automation BOILER OPERATIONS 6.1 Preparation and lighting off 6.2 Raising steam and cutting in on the line 6.3 Routine operation 6.4 Emergency procedures 6.5 Securing

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STEAM TURBINES: BASIC PRINCIPLES 7.1 Introduction: basic principles and major components 7.2 Number of nozzles 7.3 Multi-stage turbines; pressure compounding 7.4 Types of turbine stages 7.5 Available energy: vacuum exhaust STEAM TURBINES: EXAMPLES AND FEATURES 8.1 Cross-compound propulsion turbines 8.2 A high-pressure turbine with reaction stages 8.3 A double-flow, low-pressure turbine 8.4 A single-cased propulsion turbine 8.5 A ships-service generator turbine 8.5 Turbines for pumps and fans STEAM TURBINES: DETAILS 9.1 Turbine casings, bearing housings, and bedplates 9.2 Rotors 9.3 Blades 9.4 Nozzles and diaphragms 9.5 Packing glands 9.6 Journal bearings 9.7 Thrust bearings STEAM TURBINE OPERATIONS 10.1 Preparation, raising vacuum, warming the turbine 10.2 Maneuvering 10.3 Routine operation 10.4 Securing 10.5 Emergency operation 10.6 Starting auxiliary turbines DIESEL ENGINES: BASIC PRINCIPLES 11.1 A two-stroke cycle, low-speed engine 11.2 Major components; piston motion vs. crankshaft torque 11.3 Two-stroke cycle events 11.4 Camshaft action in a two-stroke engine 11.5 Ignition and combustion 11.6 Fuel injection 11.7 Supercharging, turbocharging, and aftercooling 11.8 Loop-scavenged engines 11.9 Summary of basic principles DIESEL ENGINES: FOUR-STROKE CYCLE ENGINES 12.1 A four-stroke cycle, trunk piston, medium-speed engine 12.2 Four-stroke cycle events 12.3 Camshaft action in a four-stroke engine 12.4 Fuel injection, ignition, and combustion 12.5 Supercharging, turbocharging, and aftercooling 12.6 Comparison of two- and four-stroke cycles

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DIESEL ENGINES: TYPES, CONFIGURATIONS, FUELS, AND FEATURES 13.1 Classification and categories 13.2 Fuels for diesel engines 13.3 Starting and reversing DIESEL ENGINES: COMPONENTS 14.1 Bedplates, bearings, and crankcases 14.2 Crankshafts 14.3 Crossheads and connecting rods 14.4 Pistons 14.5 Cylinders and cylinder heads 14.6 Injection pumps and injectors DIESEL PLANT ARRANGEMENTS AND OPERATIONS 15.1 A motorship engine room 15.2 Preparation and starting 15.3 Maneuvering 15.4 Running in after an overhaul 15.5 Routine operation 15.6 Emergency operation 15.7 Maintenance PROPULSION POWER TRANSMISSION 16.1 Reasons for transmissions 16.2 Principle of gearing 16.3 Multiple input gearing 16.4 Single-reduction and double-reduction gearing 16.5 Multiple torque paths 16.6 Quill shafts 16.7 Clutches 16.8 A gear set for diesel engines 16.9 Gears vs. electric drive SHAFTING, BEARINGS, AND PROPELLERS 17.1 Shafting arrangements 17.2 Line-shaft bearings 17.3 Stern tubes 17.4 Strut bearings 17.5 Propeller shafts and stern-tube shafts 17.6 Propellers: fixed-pitch and controllable-pitch 17.7 Withdrawal of propeller and stern-tube shafts

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GAS TURBINE PLANTS 18.1 Characteristics of gas-turbine plants 18.2 Gas turbines vs. other prime movers 18.3 Principles and major components of a gas turbine 18.4 Temperature limits, excess air, and bleed-air cooling 18.5 Waste-heat recovery vs. simple-cycle gas turbines 18.6 Maintenance by replacement 18.7 Compressor and turbine types 18.8 Number of shafts 18.9 Combined prime movers NUCLEAR PROPULSION 19.1 Background 19.2 Fission, heat release, and the chain reaction 19.3 Pressurized water reactor 19.4 Primary circuit components 19.5 Containment and shielding 19.6 Secondary cycle 19.7 Arrangements, and comparison with conventional propulsion plants PUMPS 20.1 Fundamentals 20.2 Types of pumps 20.3 Centrifugal pumps 20.4 Reciprocating pumps 20.5 Rotary pumps 20.6 Jet pumps 20.7 Blowers and fans 20.8 Compressors 20.9 Pump operation 20.10 Starting procedure for a centrifugal pump 27.6 Starting procedure for a positive-displacement pump PIPING COMPONENTS 21.1 Introduction 21.2 Pipe and tubing 21.3 Valves 21.4 Basic valve maintenance 21.5 Vent and sounding tubes 27.6 Fundamentals of fluid flow PIPING SYSTEMS 22.1 Fuel-oil transfer system 22.2 Fuel-oil service systems 22.3 Steam, condensate, and feedwater systems - steam ships 22.4 Waste-heat recovery / steam systems - diesel ships 22.5 Steam systems for tanker cargo services 22.6.1 Seawater circulating and cooling water systems - steam ships 22.6.2 Seawater circulating and cooling water systems - diesel ships 22.7 Freshwater cooling systems - diesel ships 22.8 Main lubricating-oil system - steam ships 22.9 Diesel engine lubricating-oil systems 22.10 Bilge system 22.11 Ballast system 22.12 Ships service compressed air / control air systems

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Compressed air systems - diesel ships Firemain system Potable water Sanitary water system Tanker cargo-handling systems

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ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS 23.1 Fundamentals of electricity 23.2 Electrical terms; direct vs. alternating current; resistance; magnetic field; impedance; open circuits, short circuits, and grounds 23.3 Electrical power 23.4 Basic electrical circuits 23.5 Electrical components and instruments 23.6 Alternators and generators 23.6 Electric motors 23.7 Transformers 23.9 Motor starters 23.10 Batteries and fuel cells 23.11 Shipboard electrical systems 23.12 Electric propulsion POWER PLANT AUXILIARIES 24.1 REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS 25.1 Refrigeration cycle 25.2 System Components: compressor, evaporator, condenser, expansion devices 25.3 Refrigerants 25.4 Operation of refrigeration systems HEATING, VENTILATION, AND AIR-CONDITIONING 26.1 Fundamentals of air conditioning 26.2 Psychrometry 26.3 Ventilation 26.4 Test and balancing procedures 26.5 Categories of air-conditioning systems 26.6 Direct vs. indirect expansion 26.7 Compressors, chillers, and condensers 26.8 Absorption systems HULL MACHINERY 27.1 Introduction and scope 27.2 Hydraulic machinery 27.3 Steering gear arrangements 27.4 International agreement on steering gear capabilities and operation 27.5 Windlasses, winches, and capstans 27.6 Arrangement of deck machinery SHIPBOARD SAFETY EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS 28.1 SHIPBOARD PROCEDURES 29.1 Reporting aboard 29.2 Shipboard organization 29.3 Watch standing and routine duties

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Bunkering Arriving the ship Preparing for shipyard work or drydocking Departing the ship Oil record book