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Understanding DWDM and ROADM Networks

Crosstalk (XT)
1 1-3
Attenuation (dB/km)

Power spectrum of DFB-Tx

Optical Transport Networks


WSS ROADM ROADM WSS ROADM WSS ROADM PLC ROADM DEMUX Raman Ampli er
E ect of ch Add/Drop with ROADM needs in-band OSNR testing

Optical Bands
0.5
12 60 13 60 14 60 15 30 15 65 16 25 16 75

0.4

Crosstalk DEMUX 2

SSMF 0.3 AWF 0.2

DWDM signal

MUX

Crosstalk occurs in devices that lter and separate wavelengths. A proportion of optical power intended for a speci c channel is found in an adjacent or di erent channel. E ects: generation of additional noise a ecting optical signal to noise ratios (OSNR), leading to bit errors. Solutions: use appropriate optical channel spacing, for example 0.4 nm 10 Gbps.

Tx Tx Tx

1 2 3 EDFA

WXC

1 2 3

Rx Rx Rx

0.1

O
0.0 1200 1300

E
1400

S
1500

L
1600

U
1700

Wavelength (nm)

SSMF standard single-mode ber O original band E extended band S short band

AWF all wave ber

Four Wave Mixing (FWM)


Original channels

Tx

OAM Module FBG

C conventional band L long band U ultra long band

EDFA Pump

Rx

f132 f231 f112

f321 f231 f332

Interference products

f312 f223

Power spectrum of 27 ch system

f113

f223

f221

f331

Drop
f

Add
Maximum Number of Channels Channel Spacing [GHz] 200 22 35 100 45 70 50 90 140 25 180 280 12.5 360 560

This interference phenomenon produces unwanted signals from three frequencies (fxyz = fx + fy fz) known as ghost channels. As three channels automatically induce a fourth, the term four wave mixing is used. FWM is problematic in systems using dispersion-shifted bers (DSF). Wavelengths traveling at the same speed at a constant phase over long periods increase the e ect of FWM. E ects: power transfer to new signal frequencies (harmonics), channel crosstalk, and bit errors. Solutions: use of bers with CD and irregular channel spacing.

Glossary
E ect of CD comp. with FBG lters

C-band

Span Loss and Dispersion Management of a Link


Tx Power OAM OAM OAM

Chromatic Dispersion (CD)

Raman Ampli er

Rx

Managing CD can reduce FWM crosstalk in long-distance high-speed networks. Optical ampli ers with integrated dispersion compensators (OAM) are distributed along the link to recover the optical power and to overcome the positive dispersion of the ber. Each ampli er will reduce the OSNR due to the ASE noise.

Positive chromatic dispersion

DGD 0

OSNR =
OSNR

E ects: decrease of peak power, pulse broadening, and bit errors.

Solutions: use of bers or modules with reverse CD values (DCF/DCM).

NRZ-DB
NRZ

ROADM Types
Wavelength Blocker (WB) Small Switch Array (PLC)
Out

NRZ

Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)


DGD

Wavelength Selective Switch (WSS)

Wavelength Cross Connect (WXC)


Low PMD PMD
Eye pattern

Block Diagram

High PMD

In

DEMUX

DEMUX

MUX

Wavelength Blocker

In

Out

In

Out MUX
NRZ

Slow Fast Ports Network Function 2 DWDM ports (1 In, 1 Out) Dynamic channel equalizer + wavelength blocking Long-haul, ultra long-haul Point to point 2 degree ROADM
Drop Add

In/ Add

Out/ Drop

Optical spectrum

Splitter

Combiner

New modulation techniques are used in highspeed 40G networks to shift dispersion limitations. NRZ formats are used to overcome large CD. RZ formats are used to handle high PMD.

n
Add/Drop

2 DWDM ports + N single ports (1 In + 1 Out + N Add + N Drop) Not colorless Dynamic Thru and Add channel balancing Metro/Edge Lowest cost 2 degree ROADM

N+1 DWDM ports (1 In + 1 Out + N-1 Add/Drop) Colorless switches s from In to Out/Drop and Add to Out Metro/Edge Ring structure 2 degree ROADM

2N DWDM ports (N-1 In + N-1 Out + 1 Add + 1 Drop) Colorless switches s from In or Add to Out or Drop Ring interconnection Mesh cross-connect 3 degree ROADM

Phase modulation is used to increase transmission distances that a ect the complexity and cost of the system. Modulation techniques directly impact the optical spectrum and the eye pattern. NRZ RZ DB non-return-to-zero return-to-zero duo-binary DPSK di erential phase shift keying DQPSK di erential quadrature phase shift keying

PMD refers to the e ect when di erent polarization modes (fast axis and slow axis) of a signal statistically travel at di erent velocities due to ber imperfections. The time di erence is called Di erential Group Delay (DGD). E ects: decrease of peak power, distortion of pulse shape, and bit errors. Solutions: lay ber carefully (no stress), use new ber with low PMD values, exact ber geometry.

Application

Understanding DWDM and ROADM Networks

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Note: Speci cations, terms, and conditions are subject to change without notice. 10143228 502 0811 DWDM.PO.FOP.TM.AE

Optic Fiber
Volum e2

g Testin

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Complexity/cost

Distance

CD refers to the phenomenon when di erent wavelengths of an optical pulse travel at di erent velocities along a ber and arrive at di erent times in the receiver.

Optical signal power Optical noise power

ASE CD CWDM DCF DCM Demux DFB DGD DWDM EDFA FBG FWM MUX OAM OSNR PLC PMD ROADM WB WSS WXC XT

ampli ed spontaneous emission (noise) in an optical ampli er chromatic dispersion coarse wavelength division multiplexing dispersion compensation ber dispersion compensation module optical demultiplexer distributed feedback laser di erential group delay dense wavelength division multiplexing erbium-doped ber ampli er ber Bragg grating four wave mixing optical multiplexer optical ampli er module (incl. dispersion compensation) optical signal-to-noise ratio planar lightwave circuit polarization mode dispersion recon gurable optical add-drop multiplexer wavelength blocker wavelength selective switch wavelength cross-connect crosstalk

L-band

Maximum Number of Channels (at 1550 nm) GHz nm 200 1.6 100 0.8

= {c/2} 50 0.4 25 0.2 12.5 0.1

40G Modulation Techniques


High CD
NRZ-DPSK

CD

Low CD
RZ-DPSK

NRZ-DQPSK

RZ-DQPSK