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PAPER 3

PAPER 3 1. 2. 3. 4.

EXPERIMENTING SKILLS making inference making hypothesis planning experiment analysing data

INFERENCE Based on the information or observations, relate two variables involved ( responding variable ). depends on ( manipulated variable ) HYPOTHESIS To relate two variables from the observation / inference When (manipulated variable) increases, (responding variable) will increased / decreased PLANNING EXPERIMENT Aim To investigate the relationship between (manipulated variable) and (responding variable) Variables Manipulated: Responding: Fixed variable: list of apparatus : ( Able to get 1 set of data ; manipulated and responding variables) Set Up (Functioning and labeled) Procedure i. State way to constant fixed variable and measured manipulated variable ii. State ways to measure responding variable

iii. Repeating ( 4 times ) iv. Tabulating data v. Plotting graph

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ANALYSING DATA Tabulating data Draw columns and rows ( Number of columns depends on the given question) Write down the name, symbol and unit of the quantity. ( manipulated is on the left side) The quantities should be written according to its sensitivity. Graph Plotting Variables ( with unit ) are at the right axis Scales begin at origin and must be on a uniform and even scales Datas transffered has to be of the same value as in table Plotting graph has to be smooth The size of the graph is BIG. GRADIENT Draw a big triangle Values are easy to read Answers with unit RELATIONSHIP Directly proportional y decrease linearly with x

Inversely proportional

Increasing linearly 4531/3 @2009

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SECTION A
1. A student carries out an experiment to investigate the relationship between the difference height, h, of a U-tube manometer and the temperature, , of a fix mass of air. The arrangement of the apparatus is shown in Diagram 1.1. Seorang murid menjalankan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji hubungan antara perbezaan tinggi tiub-U manometer, h, dan suhu, , udara berjisim tetap. Susunan radas bagi eksperimen ini ditunjukkan pada Rajah 1.1. Thermometer Termometer

Diagram 1.1 Rajah 1.1 The beaker is heated until the temperature , , reaches 40 oC. The actual reading of the difference height, h, of the manometer is shown in Diagram 1.2 The experiment is repeated with the temperature, = 50 oC, 60 oC , 70 oC and 80 oC .The corresponding actual reading of the difference height, h, of the manometer is shown in Diagram 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 and 1.6. Biker dipanaskan sehingga suhu , , mencapai 40 oC . Bacaan sebenar perbezaan tinggi manometer , h, ditunjukkan dalam rajah 1.2. Eksperimen diulangi dengan suhu, = 50 oC, 60 oC , 70 oC and 80 oC Bacaan sebenar perbezaan tinggi manometer, h, yang sepadan ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 dan 1.6.

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h1

h1

h2

h3

h4

h5

For the experiment describe, identify: 4531/3 @2009

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Bagi eksperimen yang diterangkan , kenal pasti: (i) The manipulated variable. Pembolehubah dimanipulasikan. .. [ 1 mark ] The responding variable. Pembolehubah bergerak balas. [ 1 mark ] The fix variable. Pembolehubah dimalarkan. [ 1 mark ] (b) Based on Diagrams 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 and 1.6, determine the differences in height, h, of the manometer. Write your answers in the spaces provided in the corresponding diagrams. Berdasarkan rajah 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 dan 1.6, kenal pasti perbezaan tinggi manometer, h. Tulis jawapan anda dalam ruang yang disediakan dalam rajahrajah yang sepadan. [ 5 marks ] (c) Tabulate your results for all values of and h in the space below. Jadualkan keputusan anda bagi semua nilai dan h dalam ruang di bawah.

(ii)

(iii)

[ 2 marks ] (d) On the graph paper, plot a graph h against . 4531/3 @2009

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Pada kertas graf, lukis graf h melawan . [ 5 marks ] (e) Based on the your graph in 1(d), state the relationship between and h. Berdasarkan graf anda di 1(d), nyatakan hubungan antara dan h. [ 1 mark ] 2. A student carries out against Graph x an experiment to investigate the relationship between the distance between two coherence sources of sound waves, a, and the distance between two consecutive loud positions, x. The distance between the loudspeakers and the location where the sound detected, D, is 4.0 m. Seorang murid menalankan eksperimen untuk mengkaji hubungan antara jarak antara dua sumber gelombang bunyi koheren, a, dan jarak antara dua unyi kuat, x. Jarak antara pembesar suara dan kedudukan di mana bunyi dikesan, D, ialah 4.0 m. 1 The results of the experiment are shown in a graph of x against in diagram 2.1. a 1 Keputusan eksperimen di tunjukkan dalam graf x melawan dalam Rajah 2.1. a

x(m)

0.4

0.8

1.2

1.6

2.0

2.4

(m-1 )

Diagram 2.1 Rajah 2.1

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(a)

Based on the graph in Diagram 2.1: Berdasarkan graf pada rajah 2.1: (i) State the relationship between x and Nyatakan hubungan antara x dan 1 . a 1 . a

[ 1 mark ] (ii) 1 = 2.5 cm. a Show on the graph how you determined x. 1 Tentukan nilai x apabila = 2.5 cm. a Tunjukkan pada graf itu bagaimana anda menentukan nilai x. Determine the value of x, when

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[ 3 marks ]

x = .. m (iii) Calculate the gradient, m, of the graph. Show on the graph how you determined m. Hitung kecerunan, m, bagi graf itu. Tunjukkan pada graf itu bagaimana anda menentukan m.

m = . [ 3 marks ] (b) The gradient, m, of the graph is given by the formula m = D. In the experiment, D = 4.0 m. Calculate the value of . Kecerunan, m, bagi graf itu diberi oleh formula eksperimen iini nilai D ialah 4.0 m. Kira nilai . m = D. Dalam

= [ 2 marks ]

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( c)

The student repeat the experiment using another value of the distance between two consecutive loud positions, x. = 10 m. D Using the formula x = and the value of in 2(b), calculate the value a of x. Murid itu mengulangi eksperimen itu menggunakan nilai x = 10 m. D Menggunakan formula x = dan nilai dalam 2(b), hitung nilai x. a

x = [ 2 marks ] (d) State one precaution that should be taken to improve the result of this experiment. Nyatakan satu langkah berjaga-jaga memperbaiki keputusan eksperimen ini. yang perlu diambil untuk

. [ 1 mark ]

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SECTION B
3. Diagram 3.1 shows two identical electric kettle, R and S, containing different amounts of water. When the kettles are swithed on simultaneously, the water in kettle R takes less time to boil compare to the water in kettle S Rajah 3.1 menunjukkan dua cerek elektrik yang serupa, R dan S, mengandungi amaun air yang berbeza. Bila cerek itu dihidupkan serentak, air di dalam cerek R mendidih lebih cepat berbanding air di dalam cerek S.

Water Air

Based on the information and observation: Berdasarkan maklumat dan pemerhatian tersebut: (a) (b) (c) State one suitable inference. Nyatakan satu inferens yang sesuai. State one suitable hypothesis. Nyatakan satu hipotesis yang sesuai. [1 marks] [1 marks]

With the use of apparatus such as immersion heater, beaker , measuring cylinder and other necessary apparatus, describe one experiment to investigate the hypothesis stated in 3(b). Dengan menggunakan radas seperti pemanas rendam, biker, silider penyukat dan lain-lain radas yang sesuai, terangkan satu eksperimen untuk menyiasat hipotesis yang dinyatakan di 3(b).

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In your description, state clearly the following: Dalam penerangan anda, nyatakan dengan jelas perkara berikut: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) The aim of the experiment. Tujuan eksperimen. The variables in the experiment. Pembolehubah dalam eksperimen. The list of apparatus and materials. Senarai radas dan bahan. The arrangement of apparatus. Susunan radas. The procedure of the experiment which should include one method of controlling the manipulated variable and one method of measuring the responding variable. Prosedur eksperimen yang mesti termasuk satu kaedah mengawal pembolehubah dimanipulasikan dan satu kaedah mengukur pembolehubah bergerak balas. The way you tabulate the data. Cara anda menjadualkan data. The way you analyse the data. Cara anda menganalisis data. [10 marks]

(vi) (vii)

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4.

A hawker set up a stall in a night market. He set up two identical lamps on his stall with both connected to a 12V car battery, as shown in Diagram 4.1. A shorter length of wire connects to the one of the lamp and another longer length of wire connects to another lamps. He observes that the light given out by the lamp situated nearer to the battery is brighter than the other. Seorang penjaja menyiapkan sebuah gerai di pasar malam. Dia memasang dua lampu yang serupa pada gerainya menggunakan sebuah bateri kereta 12 V, sebagaimana dalam Rajah 4.1. Salah satu lampu disambung menggunakan wayar pendek manakala lampu yang satu lagi menggunakan wayar yang lebih panjang. Penjaja itu mendapati cahaya yang yang dihasilkan oleh lampu yang dekat lebih cerah daripada lampu yang lebih jauh.

Batery Bateri Lampu Lamp

Diagram 4.1 Rajah 4.1 Based on the information and observation: Berdasarkan maklumat dan pemerhatian tersebut: (a) (b) State one suitable inference. Nyatakan satu inferens yang sesuai. State one suitable hypothesis. Nyatakan satu hipotesis yang sesuai. [1 marks] [1 marks]

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((c)

With the use of apparatus such as dry cell, constantan wires, rheostat and other necessary apparatus, describe one experiment to investigate the hypothesis stated in 3(b). Dengan menggunakan radas seperti sel kering, dawai konstantan, reostat dan lain-lain radas yang sesuai, terangkan satu eksperimen untuk menyiasat hipotesis yang dinyatakan di 3(b). In your description, state clearly the following: Dalam penerangan anda, nyatakan dengan jelas perkara berikut: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) The aim of the experiment. Tujuan eksperimen. The variables in the experiment. Pembolehubah dalam eksperimen. The list of apparatus and materials. Senarai radas dan bahan. The arrangement of apparatus. Susunan radas. The procedure of the experiment which should include one method of controlling the manipulated variable and one method of measuring the responding variable. Prosedur eksperimen yang mesti termasuk satu kaedah mengawal pembolehubah dimanipulasikan dan satu kaedah mengukur pembolehubah bergerak balas. The way you tabulate the data. Cara anda menjadualkan data. The way you analyse the data. Cara anda menganalisis data. [10 marks] [10 markah]

(vi) (vii)

THE END
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SKEMA
SECTION A
Marks

1 (a) (i) (ii) (iii ) (b ) (c)

Temperature / Difference height / h Mass of air / Volume of air h1 = 6.0 cm, h2 = 6.6 cm, h3 =7.2 cm, h4 = 7.8 cm, h5 = 8.4 cm Temperature / / oC 40 50 60 70 80 Ticks 7 6-5 4-3 Marks 5 4 3 Difference height / h / cm 6.0 6.6 7.2 7.8 8.4 Ticks 2 1 Marks 2 1

1 1 1 5

(d )

(e)

h is increasing linearly to TOTAL

h/ cm 9. 0 8. 0 7. 0 6. 0 5. 0 4. 0 3. 0 2. 0 x x x x

1 16

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1. 0 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 / oC

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(a) (i) (ii) (iii )

x is directly propotional to

1 a

Draw an extrapolation Draw horizontal line x = 6.0 m Draw triangle ( 8 cm X 8 cm ) 6.0 substuition m = 2.5 = 2.4 m2 with correct unit = m 2.4 = D 4.0 = 0.6 m

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

(b )

(c)

x=

1 1 1 12

(d )

Repeat the experiment and take the average Total

SECTION B 3 a Inference The time taken for water to boil is affected by its volume ( mass ) b Hypothesis The larger the volume ( mass ) of water, the longer is the time required for water to boil c i Aim of experiment To investigate the relationship between the volume ( mass ) of water and the time required for the water to boil. ii Variables: Manipulated : Volume/ mass of water Responding: Time required to boil the water Fix : The power rating of the immersion heater. iii Apparatus and materials: 1 1 1

1 1

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1

Stopwatch, measuring cylinder. * needed to measure the manipulated and responding variable. Arrangement of the apparatus: iv * with label.

Thermometer

Measuring cylinder

Stopwatch Immersion heater

Procedure of experiment: 100 cm3 of water is measured using cylinder and pour into a beaker. A thermometer and an immersion heater are placed into the water in the beaker. The heater is then switched on and at the same time the stopwatch is started . The water is heated until its the temperature reached 100 oC and the time is recorded according to the stopwatch reading. The experiment is repeated using different volume of water of 200 cm3, 300 cm3, 400 cm3, 500 cm3. Tabulation of data: Volume of water, v ( cm3 ) 100 200 300 400 500 Time for water to boil, t ( s )

1 1

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Analysis of data - The graph time for water to boil against volume of water is drawn.

t(s)

v ( cm3 ) TOTAL MARKS 4 (a) (b) (c) (i) (ii) Inference: The resistance of the constantan wire is affected by / depends on the length of the wire. Hypothesis: The resistance of the conductor increases when the length of the wire increases. Aim of experiment: To investigate the relationship between the resistance of conductor and its length. Variables: Manipulated : Length of constantan wire// Responding : Resistance of constantan wire // R Fixed : Temperature of the conductor / The cross-sectional area of the conductor / Type of conductor / size of conductor (iii ) Apparatus and materials: Meter rule, Ammeter and Voltmeter Mark is given for this three item is noted down. 12

1 1 1

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Voltmeter V X Y Ammeter 1 Rheostat

Constantan wire

(v)

Procedure of the experiment: The length of 20 cm constantan wire is held across the point X and Y The circuit is switched on and the rheostat is adjusted and the reading of an Ammeter and Voltmeter is recorded. The experiment is repeated using the length of constantan wire of 30 cm, 40 cm, 50 cm and 60 cm. Tabulation of data: Length / cm 20 30 40 50 60 Current / A Voltage / V Resistance /

1 1 1

(vi)

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