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GSM Systems Division

UTRAN Optimisation Guide


RNC 5000
UMTS System Requirements & Architecture Group (SAR)
Abstract
This document provides a description and optimisation guideline for the UTRAN RF
algorithms and related configuration parameters.
1
Release History
Version Release Date Author(s) Change History
1.0 March 28,
2003
UMTS System Architecture Initial release ver 1.0 for USR1.0
1.1 July 15, 2003 UMTS System Architecture:
Darek Godyn
Esperanza Alonso
Julie Chen
Ignacio Rivas
Jose-Miguel Torres
Release 1.1 for USR1.0.
RNC 5000 algorithms description update
recommendation extensions according to
RNC 5000 software load 12.0.0.8.
1.2 September 30,
2003
UMTS System Architecture Release 1.2 for USR1.0.
RNC 5000 algorithms description update
recommendation extensions according to
RNC 5000 software load 12.0.0.10 and
12.0.0.11
ADD DCCCMC and SET COIFTIMER
are now internal commands
Name change for two parameters in
"ADD CELLFRC":
UlSrvrcDecisionThd ->
UlPsTraffDecThs and
DlSrvrcDecisionThd -> DlPsTraffDecThs
Name change for one parameters in
"ADD CELLRLPWR":
RLMaxDlTxPower ->RLMaxDlPower
1.3 December 30,
2003
UMTS System Architecture:
Darek Godyn
Julie Chen
Ignacio Rivas
Jose-Miguel Torres
Release 1.3 for USR 1.0.
RNC 5000 algorithms description update
recommendation extensions according to
RNC 5000 software load 12.0.0.10 and
12.0.0.11
LCS Cell ID algorithm
Sensitivity analysis
Expexted KPI values
2.0 June 30, 2004 UMTS System Architecture:
Darek Godyn
Esperanza Alonso
Julie Chen
Ignacio Rivas
Jose-Miguel Torres
Weihung Lin
Ike Penas
Algorithm complinat with RNC software
release 13.0.0.5.0
2.1 September 20,
2004
UMTS System Architecture: Algorithm compliant with RNC software
2
Darek Godyn
Ignacio Rivas
Jose-Miguel Torres
Weihung Lin
Ike Penas
Walter Featherstone
release 13.0.0.8.0
Modifications and extention of KPIs
definitions.
2.2 May 5,2005 UMTS System Engineering:
David Bhatoolaul
Eric Viller
Mike Witherell
Walter Featherstone
Weihung Lin
Algorithms update with RNC software
release 1.3.0.0.15.0
3
Table of Contents
1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................... 13
1.1 OPTIMISATION SCENARIO DESCRIPTION ...................................................................... 13
1.1.1 Standard Optimisation Scenario ................................................................. 13
2 RANDOM ACCESS ................................................................................................ 15
2.1 RANDOM ACCESS ALGORITHM .................................................................................. 15
2.1.1 Algorithm Overview .................................................................................... 15
2.1.2 Related Data base Parameters ................................................................... 20
2.1.3 Key Performance Indicators ....................................................................... 24
2.1.4 Optimization Guidelines ............................................................................. 24
3 POWER CONTROL ............................................................................................... 27
3.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................ 27
3.2 OPEN POWER CONTROL LOOP .................................................................................. 27
3.2.1 Downlink Open Power Control Loop ......................................................... 28
3.2.2 Uplink Open Power Control Loop .............................................................. 28
3.2.3 Related Data base Parameters ................................................................... 31
3.2.4 Key Performance Indicators ....................................................................... 32
3.2.5 Optimization Guidelines ............................................................................. 32
3.3 CLOSED POWER CONTROL LOOP ............................................................................... 35
3.3.1 Downlink Closed Power Control Loop ....................................................... 35
3.3.2 Uplink Closed Power Control Loop ........................................................... 51
4 HANDOVER CONTROL ...................................................................................... 75
4.1 MEASUREMENT CONTROL ........................................................................................ 75
4.1.1 Algorithm Description ................................................................................ 75
4.1.2 Related Database Parameters .................................................................... 80
4.1.3 Optimisation Guidelines ............................................................................. 81
4.2 SOFT / SOFTER HANDOVER ..................................................................................... 83
4.2.1 Algorithm Description ............................................................................... 83
4.2.2 Related Database Parameters .................................................................... 89
4.2.3 Most Relevant Key Performance Indicators ............................................... 91
4.2.4 Optimisation Guidelines ............................................................................. 93
4.3 INTRA-FREQUENCY HARD HANDOVER ....................................................................... 99
4.3.1 Optimisation Guidelines ............................................................................. 99
4.4 INTER-FREQUENCY HARD HANDOVER ..................................................................... 101
4.4.1 Algorithm Overview .................................................................................. 101
4.4.2 Related Database Parameters .................................................................. 103
4.4.3 Most Relevant Key Performance Indicators ............................................. 104
4.4.4 Optimisation Guidelines ........................................................................... 105
4.5 INTER-RAT HARD HANDOVER .............................................................................. 106
4.5.1 Algorithm Overview .................................................................................. 106
4.5.2 Related Database Parameters .................................................................. 108
4.5.3 Most Relevant Key Performance Indicators ............................................. 109
4.5.4 Optimisation Guidelines ........................................................................... 110
4.6 COMBINED INTER-FREQUENCY & INTER-RAT HARD HANDOVER ............................... 110
4.7 COMPRESSED MODE CONTROL ................................................................................ 112
4.7.1 Algorithm Overview .................................................................................. 112
4
4.7.2 Related Database Parameters .................................................................. 119
4.7.3 Most Relevant Key Performance Indicators ............................................. 121
4.7.4 Optimisation Guidelines ........................................................................... 122
4.8 PRIORITY OF DIFFERENT HANDOVER TYPES .............................................................. 125
4.9 RADIO LINK SYNCHRONISATION ASPECTS ................................................................. 125
4.9.1 Algorithm Overview .................................................................................. 125
4.9.2 Related Database Parameters .................................................................. 125
4.9.3 Optimisation Guidelines ........................................................................... 126
4.10 LAYERED CELL TRAFFIC ABSORPTION ................................................................... 127
4.10.1 Algorithm Overview ................................................................................ 127
4.10.2 Related Database Parameters ................................................................ 129
4.10.3 Most Relevant Key Performance Indicators ........................................... 131
4.10.4 Optimisation Guidelines ......................................................................... 131
5 DYNAMIC CHANNEL CONFIGURATION CONTROL ............................... 133
5.1 DYNAMIC CHANNEL CONFIGURATION CONTROL AND UE STATE SWITCHING ALGORITHMS
133
5.1.1 Algorithm control switches ....................................................................... 135
5.1.2 Detailed Description ................................................................................. 135
5.1.3 RRC state switching algorithm ................................................................. 143
5.1.4 Related Data base Parameters ................................................................. 145
5.1.5 Key Performance Indicators ..................................................................... 152
5.1.6 Optimization Guidelines ........................................................................... 153
6 AMR RATE CONTROL OVER AIR INTERFACE ......................................... 162
6.1 AMR RATE CONTROL NORMAL OPERATION (NO TFO) .......................................... 162
6.1.1 Algorithm Overview .................................................................................. 162
6.1.2 Related Data base Parameters ................................................................. 166
6.1.3 Key Performance Indicators ..................................................................... 177
6.1.4 Optimization Guidelines ........................................................................... 179
7 RAB RECONFIGURATION AND RAB/RB MAPPING ................................. 187
7.1 RAB TO RB MAPPING ALGORITHM ....................................................................... 187
7.1.1 Algorithm Overview .................................................................................. 187
7.1.2 Related Data base Parameters ................................................................. 203
7.1.3 Key Performance Indicators ..................................................................... 207
7.1.4 Optimization Guidelines ........................................................................... 208
8 RADIO ADMISSION CONTROL ...................................................................... 218
8.1 MEASUREMENT BASED CALL ADMISSION CONTROL ALGORITHM ................................. 218
8.1.1 Algorithm Overview .................................................................................. 218
8.1.2 Trigger of Admission Request ................................................................... 219
8.1.3 Calculation of Load Factor ...................................................................... 222
8.1.4 Background Noise ..................................................................................... 228
8.1.5 BLER vs. Eb/No Curves ............................................................................ 228
8.1.6 Activity Factor .......................................................................................... 228
8.1.7 Cell Environment Type ............................................................................. 229
8.2 EQUIVALENT NUMBER OF USER CALL ADMISSION CONTROL ALGORITHM ..................... 229
8.2.1 Uplink Load Factor ................................................................................... 230
8.2.2 Downlink Load Factor .............................................................................. 230
8.3 RELATED DATA BASE PARAMETERS ......................................................................... 231
5
8.3.1 Key Performance Indicators ..................................................................... 236
8.3.2 Optimization Guidelines ........................................................................... 237
9 CONGESTION CONTROL ................................................................................. 241
9.1 ALGORITHM OVERVIEW ......................................................................................... 241
9.1.1 Node B Measurements (Event-triggered or Periodic) .............................. 242
9.1.2 Algorithm Implementation ........................................................................ 244
9.2 RELATED DB PARAMETERS .................................................................................... 246
9.3 KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS ............................................................................. 248
9.4 OPTIMISATION GUIDELINES ..................................................................................... 248
10 CELL SELECTION / RE-SELECTION .......................................................... 250
10.1 ALGORITHM OVERVIEW ....................................................................................... 250
10.1.1 Cell Selection Procedure ........................................................................ 250
10.1.2 UE Measurements ................................................................................... 251
10.1.3 Cell Reselection Procedure in Idle Mode ............................................... 252
10.1.4 Cell Reselection in RRC Connected Mode .............................................. 254
10.2 RELATED DB PARAMETERS .................................................................................. 255
10.3 KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS ........................................................................... 256
10.4 OPTIMISATION GUIDELINES ................................................................................... 258
11 POTENTIAL USER CONTROL ....................................................................... 262
11.1 ALGORITHM OVERVIEW ....................................................................................... 262
11.2 RELATED DATA BASE PARAMETERS ....................................................................... 264
11.3 KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS ........................................................................... 267
11.4 OPTIMIZATION GUIDELINES ................................................................................... 269
11.4.1 Parameters and Recommendation .......................................................... 269
11.5 EXPECTED KPI VALUE ....................................................................................... 269
11.6 SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS ........................................................................................ 270
12 CELL BREATHING ........................................................................................... 271
12.1 ALGORITHM OVERVIEW ....................................................................................... 271
12.2 RELATED DATA BASE PARAMETERS ....................................................................... 272
12.3 KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS ........................................................................... 274
12.4 OPTIMIZATION GUIDELINES ................................................................................... 276
12.4.1 Parameters and Recommendation .......................................................... 276
12.4.2 Expected KPI Value ................................................................................ 278
12.4.3 Sensitivity Analysis .................................................................................. 279
13 INTER-CARRIER LOAD BALANCING ........................................................ 280
13.1 ALGORITHM OVERVIEW ....................................................................................... 280
13.1.1 Node B Periodic Measurements .............................................................. 281
13.1.2 Algorithm Implementation ...................................................................... 281
13.2 RELATED DB PARAMETERS .................................................................................. 283
13.3 KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS ........................................................................... 284
13.4 OPTIMISATION GUIDELINES ................................................................................... 285
14 LOCATION SERVICES .................................................................................... 286
14.1 CELL ID POSITIONING METHOD ........................................................................... 286
14.1.1 Related Data base Parameters ............................................................... 288
14.1.2 Key Performance Indicators ................................................................... 290
6
14.1.3 Optimization Guidelines ......................................................................... 290
14.2 ASSISTED GPS POSITIONING METHOD ................................................................... 292
14.2.1 Related Data base Parameters ............................................................... 295
14.2.2 Key Performance Indicators ................................................................... 301
14.2.3 Optimization Guidelines ......................................................................... 301
15 DIRECT RETRY DECISION ............................................................................ 303
15.1 ALGORITHM OVERVIEW ....................................................................................... 303
15.1.1 4.2 RRC Retry Decision procedure ......................................................... 304
The RRC connection establishment process is performed through several
messages as indicated in Figures below. .......................................................... 304
15.1.2 4.3 Redirection procedure ...................................................................... 306
15.2 RELATED DATA BASE PARAMETERS ....................................................................... 307
15.3 KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS ........................................................................... 308
15.4 OPTIMIZATION GUIDELINES ................................................................................... 308
15.4.1 Parameters and Recommendation .......................................................... 308
16 ATM CAC (CONNECTION ADMISSION CONTROL) ............................... 310
16.1 ALGORITHM OVERVIEW ....................................................................................... 310
16.1.1 Algorithm for dynamic ATM connections ............................................... 310
16.2 RELATED DATA BASE PARAMETERS ....................................................................... 313
16.3 KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS ........................................................................... 313
16.4 OPTIMIZATION GUIDELINES ................................................................................... 314
16.4.1 Parameters and Recommendation .......................................................... 314
17 SRNS RELOCATION ........................................................................................ 316
17.1 ALGORITHM OVERVIEW ....................................................................................... 316
17.1.1 Relocation Triggered by Iur Delay ......................................................... 317
17.1.2 Relocation Triggered by Iur Traffic Occupancy ..................................... 317
17.2 RELATED DB PARAMETERS .................................................................................. 317
17.3 KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS ........................................................................... 319
17.4 OPTIMISATION GUIDELINES ................................................................................... 320
7
REFERENCES:
20.011-340 Service accessibility
23.003 Numbering, Addressing and Identification
25.133-360 Requirements for Support of Radio Resource Management
(FDD)
25.211-360 Physical channels and mapping of transport channels onto
physical channels (FDD)
25.214-360 Physical layer procedures (FDD)
25.215-360 Physical layer; Measurements (FDD)
25.304-360 UE Procedures in Idle Mode and Procedures for Cell
Reselection in Connected Mode
25.331-370 RRC Protocol Specification
25.401-360 UTRAN Overall Description
25.413-360 UTRAN Iu interface RANAP signalling
[SEA2-RRM01] Description of the Taurus v1.2 Soft Handover Algorithm, S.
Barrett and E. Villier, June 03.
SEA1-C-Feb2 Simulation analysis of the DCCC and Transport Channel
switching algorithm v1.0 (9/15/03)
[SEA2-SHO3] Soft Handover Results for USR1 Optimisation Guide, E.
Villier, June03.
Taurus v1.2 with CRs Soft Handover Algorithm Simulation
Results, E. Villier, June 03.
Comparison of Simulation Results of Soft Handover
Algorithms for Taurus, E. Villier, June 03.
[SEA2-SHO4] Simulation Results for Taurus Soft Handover Algorithm2, E.
Villier, Aug 03.
[SEA2-SHO9] Sensitivity Analysis of the Taurus Soft Handover
Algorithm2, E. Villier, Nov 03.
Simulation Results for Sensitivity Analysis of the Taurus Soft
Handover Algorithm2, E. Villier, Nov 03.
[SEA2-RRM02] SHO Algorithm1 Description v2, E. Villier, Li Zhen, June
03.
[SEA2-RRM03] SHO Algorithm2 Description v1.4, E. Villier, Li Zhen, July
03.
[SEA2-SHO4] Simulation Results for Taurus Soft Handover Algorithm2, E.
Villier, Aug 03.
[SEA02-PC] Simulations on the Taurus V1.2 UL OLPC algorithm for the
optimisation guide. Asoka Korale Aug/03.
[QoS38-F1] Description of the Huawei Inter-RAT Hard Handover
Algorithm, S. Benes, June 03.
HM_RRM_AD_02 Description of the Taurus UL Outer Loop Power Control
Algorithm v.5.1 Asoka Korale Jul 03.
[QoS38-E2]
[QoS38-F2]
Combined Inter-RAT HHO Compressed Mode Parameters,
L. Downing, S. Benes, June 03.
[HM_RRM_AD_02] Description of the Taurus UL Outer Loop Power Control
Algorithm, A. Korale, June 11.
[HM_RRM_AD_11] DPB Algorithm Description for Huawei ver1.0 Fu Yusun
[EDE-SW-99-242-D] Europa Programming Model and Host ICD, Ian Wylie,
8
Graham Johnson, Jun 01.
[HM_RRM_SR_02] Simulation of the Taurus V1.2 Outer Loop Power Control
Algorithm, A. Korale, May 03.
[SEA/RAN/03/032] Outer-Loop Power Control Taurus v1.2 Simulation, E.
Villier, June 03.
[SEA/RAN/03/095] Outer-Loop Power Control Taurus v1.2 Simulation, A.
Korale, Nov 03.
[SEA/RAN/04/095] Simulation results on the v1.3 OLPC algorithm with respect to
data mode BER target parameter, low BLER service and multi-
RAB for the optimisation guide, Asoka Korale
[HM_RRM_AD_02a] Taurus v1.3 UL Outer Loop Power Control (ver 8.0), Asoka
Korale, Eric Villier, 04/27/2004
[SEA/RAN/04/014]
Simulation and analysis of the Taurus v1.2 Downlink power
balancing algorithm for the optimisation guide, Asoka Korale,
4/30/2004
Planning Guide http://compass.xx.com/go/98866920
DV&V RNC configuration Database
http://www.cig. xx.com/~adg003/rnc5000conf.html
[QoS38-Task7a] Recommended Compressed Mode Patterns for Inter-RAT
Hard Handover, S. Benes, D. Schaeffer and L. Downing,
June 04
[SEA/RAN/04/019] RACH Sensitivity Analysis, Eric Villier, SEA-2, June 2004
9
Glossary
AAL2 ATM adaptation layer 2
AAL5 ATM adaptation layer 5
AC Access Class
AICH Acquisition Indicator Channel
AMRC AMR Rate Control
ARFCN Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number
ASC Access Service Class
BCCH Broadcast Control Channel
BCH Broadcast Channel
BER Bit error rate
CAC Congestion Admission Control
10
CCPCH Common Control Physical Channel
CM Compress Mode
CMCF Compress Mode Configuration
CPICH Common Pilot Channel
DCH Dedicated Channel
DPCCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel
DPDCH Dedicated Physical Data Channel
Ec/No The ratio of received chip energy (Ec) to the power spectral
density of the noise (No).
FER Frame Error Rate
FRC Fundamental Resource Configuration
LCC Load Congestion Control
LDB Load Balancing
LDM Load Monitoring
LMT Local Maintenance Terminal
MAC Medium Access Control
MLP Mac Logical Priority
MM Mobility Management
NAS Non Access Stratum
NBAP Node B Application Part
NIB Network Interface Board
OMC Operation and Maintenance Centre
OVSF Orthogonal Variable Spread Factor
PLMN Public land mobile network
PMM Packet Mobility Management
PRACH Physical Random Access Channel
QoS Quality Of Service
RACH Random Access Channel
RLC Radio Link Control
RNC Radio Network Controller
RRC Radio Resource Control
RSCP Received Signal Code Power after dispreading
RSSI Received Signal Strength Indicator
SF Spreading Factor
SFER Service Frame Error Rate
SIB System Information Broadcast
SIR Signal to Interference Ratio
SR Spacing Rate
STTD Space Time Transmission Diversity
TFCI Transport Format Combination Indicator
TFS Transport Format Set
TGPS Transmission Gap Pattern Sequence
TPC Transmit Power Control
TSTD Time Switched Transmission Diversity
TTI Time Transmission Interval
UE User Equipment
UTRAN UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
VC Virtual Circuit
11
VP Virtual Path
12
1 Introduction
This document provides information to optimise the UTRAN system through the
modification of RF related parameters. Every optimisation area covers the following
information:
Optimized DB parameters: The most relevant DB parameters in the context of given
algorithm / feature.
Key Performance Indicators (KPI): are estimators that drive the optimisation process
that result in the increase of UTRAN performance. The high UTRAN
performance is obtained when we simultaneously observe:
Low transmission Block Error Rate (BLER)
Low transmission delay
High number of service satisfied users
High system coverage area
Low drop call rate
Optimisation Guidelines: The guidelines are to provide recommended value to the
main system configurable parameters that set the behaviour of a given algorithm /
feature. Guideline are given in terms of (i) DB parameter impact on KPIs, (ii)
interaction with other features and (iii) abnormal situations, as applicable.
1.1 Optimisation Scenario Description
It is clear that different system parameters should be set up under a different radio,
traffic and load conditions. A standard scenario has been defined in the following
sections as a baseline for the optimisation and system simulation. Unless otherwise
specified, the database parameter recommendations and the UTRAN Performance
measures (KPIs) provided in this document are based on this particular scenario.
1.1.1 Standard Optimisation Scenario
A) RF CONDITIONS
3GPP Typical Urban RF Environment with a UE speed of 3 km/h (TU3) is chosen for
the standard scenario. The channel model is defined in 3GPP TS 25.943.
B) TRAFFIC MIX.
Typical traffic profiles are defined in the Unified Simple Traffic Model (USTM).
However, certain simplifications have been taken due to limitations on system
simulators when translating the USTM services to supported user categories. In the
standard scenario, the following traffic mix is considered per profile:
80% of AMR voice users at 12.2 Kbps
20% of data traffic
o FTP 64 kbps
13
o FTP 144 kbps
o FTP 384 kbps
Voice users have an activity factor of 0.5 and they are continuously active (infinite
session duration)
FTP users download a file of 48 Kbytes of size, every 43.2 seconds.
C) NETWORK LOAD
Network load refers to cell loading from the point of view of CDMA noise rise in the
uplink and carrier power in the downlink. For system simulations, SATURN is used
to obtain the number of voice users and data users (for each service) in the network in
order to produce the desired load.
The following load scenarios are considered:
Load: 10 %
Load: 50 %
The load factors are related with noise rise defined as ratio:
N
INT
P
P
NR
,
where:
INT
P
- is total received wideband power,
N
P
- is the power of wideband thermal noise,
then load factor equals:

,
_


10
] [
10 1
dB NR
Load
[%],
The relation between system load factor and noise rise is illustrated on the following
chart
D) SERVICE TO RAB MAPPING
UTRAN assigns a radio bearer to each user according to the service type and QoS
requested. The following mapping of services to RBs has been considered,
Voice users: AMR rate at 12.2 Kbps
FTP64: DCH at 64 kbps
FTP144: DCH at 144 kbps
FTP384: DCH at 384 kbps
14
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Noise Rise NR [dB]
L
o
a
d

[
%
]
2 Random Access
2.1 Random Access Algorithm
Whenever UE needs to access network service and initate uplink transmittion it must
execute the random access procedure using UL common transport channel.
The random-access transmission is based on a Slotted ALOHA approach with fast
acquisition indication carried through AICH DL channel. The procedure consists of
transmission at randomly selected moment of the time, one or more preambles in the
available uplink access slots until network grants access to channel for sending
message part. The open power control loop is used for that message part transmission.
The following subsections provide concept overview of the physical transport main
and it describes the most relevant aspects regarding the UE RACH access procedure.
The random access procedure takes place in RLC/MAC and PHY layers of the UE
and is controlled by UTRAN through RRC signalling.
UTRAN can prioritise the PRACH usage by assigning the Access Service Classes
(ASCs) to UEs requesting for service access. This is done through different PRACH
resources allocation i.e. channel and scrambling codes, UL slots and random access
probabilities assessment for each ASC.
There are 8 possible Access Service Classes numbered form 0 to 7. UTRAN selects
the ASC within the allowed ASC set based on OMC provisioned AccessServiceClass
parameter value. It is allowed that more than one ASC is assigned to the same
PRACH resource.
2.1.1 Algorithm Overview
2.1.1.1 PRACH Transmission Resources
The PRACH transmission structure consists of one or several preambles and a
message part. The preamble channelization code of length 16 is generated based on
the allocated preamble signature, which also depends on Access Service Classes i
value assignment.
For a given Access Class the use of preamble signatures is limited by range given by
provisionable parameters AvailablesignatureStartIndex and
AvailablesignatureEndIndex.
(Issue: What is algorithm preamble signature selection for given ASC?)
The PRACH resources consist of access timeslots and preamble signatures. Those
resources are classified into several access service classes (ASC) to ensure providing
random access with different priorities.
One or all ASCs might be allocated to the same access timeslots or preamble
signatures. The ASC defines the partition of certain PRACH resources with associated
(access probability) P
i
The ASC is numbered within the range from 0 to 7. The ASC=0 has highest priority
and ASC=7 indicated the lowest priority.
15
The scrambling code selection for PRACH transmission is evaluated upon OMC
provisioned value of ScrambCodeNum parameter.
It is also worth to note that message part scrambling code is directly derived from the
preamble scrambling code [TS 25.213].
UTRAN sets random-access message part structure of radio frame based on
provisioned from OMC number of available slot format for random access procedure
TotalSlotFormat and direct indication of slot format given by SlotFormat1
SlotFormat2, SlotFormat3, and SlotFormat4 parameter value, which specifies the
following items:
Channel bit and symbol rate
Spreading factor of channelization code
Number of bits in the timeslot
Number of bits in radio frame
Number of user data in the slot

#0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14
5120 chips
radio frame: 10 ms radio frame: 10 ms
Access slot
Random Access Transmission
Random Access Transmission
Random Access Transmission
Random Access Transmission
Message part Preamble
10 ms or 20 ms (one or two radio frame)
Preamble Preamble
4096 chips
Figure 2.1-1 Random Access Transmission
The UE transmits the preamble in the beginning of time intervals called access slot.
There are 15 access slots per every 2 radio frames. Each of them occupies a time
interval of 5120 chips. Access slots are grouped into 12 sub-channels however
consecutive slots belong to the different sub-channel.
The classification of access slots into sub-channels is calculated based on broadcasted
selection of RACH sub-channels numbers RACHSubChNum and available number
16
of subchannels in Access Services Classes identified by parameter
AvailableSubchannelNumber [TS 25.214].
(Issue: What is assignment algorithm of ASC with RACH subchannel?)
An example of relationship between ASC and subchannels is show in the Figure 2.1-
2.
available preamble signatures (max 16)
available
subchannels
(max 12)
PRACH partitions
(one partition per ASC,
max. 8 per PRACH)
ASC 0 ASC 1 ASC 2 ASC 0 ASC 1 ASC 2
PRACH
(max 16 per cell)
PRACH 0 PRACH 1
RACH
(max 16 per cell)
RACH 0 RACH 1
Preamble scrambling code
(max 16 per cell)
Preamble
scrambling
code 0
Preamble
scrambling
code 1
0
15
0
11
0
15
0
11
ASC 3 ASC 0 ASC 1 ASC 2
PRACH 2
RACH 2
Preamble
scrambling
code 2
0
9
0
11
ASC 0 ASC 1
PRACH 3
RACH 3
Preamble
scrambling
code 2
10 15
0
11
Partition not available
on PRACH 2
Partition not available
on PRACH 3
Coding Coding Coding Coding
Figure 2.1-2 Example of RACH/PRACH configuration
2.1.1.2 Persistence
UE transmission of random-access information occurs with certain probability
characterized by persistence parameter P
i
.
Each time the UE wants to transmit a transport block to the physical layer it generates
a random number between 0 and 1 of the uniform distribution. If this number is lower
then P
i
value, the UE may start the random-access preamble transmission.
The persistence scaling factor provisioned by PersistScalingFactor only Access
Service Class from ASC2 to ASC7.
For ASC
0
the persistence value P
0
has always value of 1 regardless of persistence. The
UE has always granted permission to start random-access preamble transmission since
this probability is equal to 1.
For ASC
1
the persistence scaling factor has always value of 1.
2.1.1.3 ASC Selection
UE in RRC IDLE Mode
All UEs are members of one out of ten randomly allocated mobile populations,
defined as Access Classes 0 to 9. The population number is stored in the SIM/USIM.
In addition, mobiles may be members of one or more out of 5 special categories
(Access Classes 11 to 15), also held in the SIM/USIM. These are allocated to specific
high priority users as follows. (The enumeration is not meant as a priority sequence):
Class 15 - PLMN Staff;
Class 14 - Emergency Services;
17
Class 13 - Public Utilities (e.g. water/gas suppliers);
Class 12 - Security Services;
Class 11 - For PLMN Use.
If the UE is a member of at least one Access Class, which corresponds to the
permitted classes as signalled over the air interface, and the Access Class is applicable
in the serving network, access attempts are allowed. Otherwise access attempts are not
allowed.
Access Classes are applicable as follows:
Classes 0 - 9 - Home and Visited PLMNs;
Classes 11 and 15 - Home PLMN only;
Classes 12, 13, 14 - Home PLMN and visited PLMNs of home country only.
Any number of these classes may be barred at any one time.
An additional control bit known as "Access Class 10" is also signalled over the air
interface to the UE. This indicates whether or not network access for Emergency Calls
is allowed for UEs with access classes 0 to 9 or without an IMSI. For UEs with access
classes 11 to 15, Emergency Calls are not allowed if both "Access class 10" and the
relevant Access Class (11 to 15) are barred. Otherwise, Emergency Calls are allowed.
[TS 22.011, 4.2].

All Emergency Calls use ASC
0
, and all ACs being in the range from 0 to 9 are
mapped to ASC
1
. (Parmeter Ac09ToAsc is set to 1).

The AC10 to AC15 are in turn mapped to ASC
i
, where i=2,,7 respectively.
Mapping function is specified by fixed assignment AC to ASC based on OMC
provisionable parameters encoded by Ac09ToAsc, Ac10ToAsc, Ac11ToAsc,
Ac12ToAsc, Ac13ToAsc, Ac14ToAsc, and Ac15ToAsc tag.
Access Classes are only be applied at initial access, i.e. when sending an RRC
CONNECTION REQUEST message. A mapping between Access Class (AC) and
Access Service Class (ASC) is indicated by the information element "AC-to-ASC
mapping" in System Information Block type 5. The correspondence between AC and
ASC is indicated as follows.
AC 0 - 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
ASC 1
st
IE 2
nd
IE 3
rd
IE 4
th
IE 5
th
IE 6
th
IE 7
th
IE
In the table, "n
th
IE" designates an ASC number i in the range 0 - 7 to AC.
For the random access, the parameters implied by the respective ASC must be
employed. In case the UE is member of several ACs it should select the ASC for the
highest AC number.
UE in Connected Mode
At radio bearer setup/reconfiguration each involved logical channel is assigned a
MAC Logical channel Priority (MLP) in the range form 1 to 8. When the MAC
sublayer is configured for RACH transmission in the UE, these MLP levels shall be
employed for ASC selection on MAC.
18
The following ASC selection scheme shall be applied, where NumASC is the highest
available ASC number and MinMLP the highest logical channel priority assigned to
one logical channel:
When all Transport Blocks in the TB set have the same
MLP, select ASC = min(NumASC, MLP);
When Transport Blocks in a Transport Blocks Set have
different priority, determine the highest priority level
MinMLP and select ASC = min(NumASC, MinMLP).
When an RRC CONNECTION REQUEST message is sent RRC determines ASC by
means of the access class. [TS 25.321, TS 25. 331]
(Issue: How does RNC assign MLP?)
2.1.1.4 UE MAC Random Access Procedure
This procedure is executed when the UE MAC entity has some data to transmit.
Basically the procedure initiates the random-access preamble transmission based on
the result of Persistence estimation described above. The algorithm backs off for
interval of 10ms until preamble transmission is granted again. The successful result of
persistence algorithm triggers transmission of preamble.
If UE receives positive AI in AICH, the MAC layer instructs the physical layer to
transmit the random-access message part.
If UE does not receive any acquisition indicator AI the entire procedure is repeated
every 10 ms but no more then a certain maximum number of times indicated by OMC
provisionable value of the PreambleRetransMax parameter.
If UE receives negative acquisition indicator AI in AICH, the MAC layer procedure is
time lagged for sum of 10 ms and some additional number of 10ms-intervals. This
additional time interval is randomly selected form the range confined by two OMC
provisionable parameters:
NB01Min
NB01Max
This sub-routine is repeated no more then number of times given by value of
PreambleRetransMax parameter.
If UEs MAC Layer algorithm cannot initiate the preamble transmission, it reports the
failure to the Layer 3 and procedure ends [TS 25.321].
2.1.1.5 UE Physical Random Access Procedure
This procedure allocates and configures parameters related with radio transmission of
preamble and message part of random-access information.
19
The transmission process begins from selection access slot and signature.
The UE chooses randomly the UL access slot among the available RACH sub-
channels and given ASC
i
, where i=0,,7 based on values encoded into
AccessServiceClass parameters.

Then the signature selection is carried out based on available signature pool assigned
to given ASC and provisioned by OMC configurable parameter values encoded into
PreambleSignatures tags. [TS25.214]
UE estimates the initial preamble transmission power level assuming identical value
of path loss in both UL and DL direction.
Preamble transmission initial power setting is explained in Power Control Chapter.
If Node B detects and successfully decodes preamble transmission it sends an
Acquisition Indicator using AICH.
If UE neither receives nor decodes Acquisition Indicator in the following preamble
transmission DL slot on AICH, it repeats preamble retransmission up to certain,
maximum number of times defined by OMC provisionable parameter
PreambleRetransMax.
The preamble transition power level is incremented for every next retransmission by
ramp step value specified by OMC provisionable parameter PowerRampStep.
If UE preamble transmission power exceeds the maximum allowed power by 6 dB the
UE exits physical random access procedure [TS 25.214] (see the Uplink Open Power
Control Loop section).
If no Acquisition Indicator is decoded after maximum number of preamble
retransmissions, UE repeats entire procedure no more than Mmax times and then it
exits procedure passing a Layer 1 status no ACK on AICH to MAC sub-layer if no
acknowledgement is received during that time.
If UE decodes negative Acquisition Indicator it exits physical random access
procedure, passing a Layer 1 status Nack on AICH received to MAC sub layer.
If UE decodes positive Acquisition Indicator then it initiates transmission of the
message part. The transmission of random access massage starts after the defined
number of uplink access slots of the last transmitted preamble. The deferral number of
access slots is specified by OMC provisionable parameter AICHTxTiming according
to the following rule:
If AICHTxTiming = 0 then message transmission starts after 3 access slots,
If AICHTxTiming = 1 then message transmission starts after 4 access slots.
2.1.2 Related Data base Parameters
Tag 3GPP stand for Standard 3GPP parameter and label Xx stands for Xx
implementation specific parameter.
20
Parameter Name Range Descriptions Controlling
Command
PhyChId Value
range:0~255;
Step: 1
Unique physical
channel identifier in
the cell.
Xx
ADD PRACHASC
AccessServiceClass Value range:
ASC0, ASC1,
ASC2, ASC3,
ASC4, ASC5,
ASC6, ASC7
ASC identifier
3GPP
ADD PRACHASC
AvailablesignatureStartIndex Value range: 0 ~
15;
Step: 1
Identifies the
available signature
starting index of an
ASC
Xx
ADD PRACHASC
AvailablesignatureEndIndex. Value range: 0 ~
15;
Step: 1
Identifies the
available signature
ending index of an
ASC
Xx
ADD PRACHASC
ScrambCodeNum Value range:
0~15;
Step: 1
Preamble
scrambling code
used by this
PRACH preamble
part
3GPP
ADD
PRACHBASIC
PrachSlotFormatNum Value range: 1~4;
Step 1
The number of
PRACH slot
formats available
3GPP
ADD
PRACHSLOTFOR
MAT
SlotFormat(i) Value range: 0~3;
Step: 1
PRACH timeslot
formats available,
where i=1,,4
3GPP
ADD
PRACHSLOTFOR
MAT
RACHSubChNum Value range:
SUBCHANEL0,
SUBCHANEL1,
SUBCHANEL2,
SUBCHANEL3,
SUBCHANEL4,
SUBCHANEL5,
SUBCHANEL6,
SUBCHANEL7,
SUBCHANEL8,
SUBCHANEL9,
SUBCHANEL10,
SUBCHANEL11.
Sequence number
of the available sub-
channels. The
multiple choice is
all the 12 sub
channels (from sub-
channel 0 to 11)
3GPP
ADD
PRACHBASIC
21
Multiple choice
AvailableSubchannelNumber Value range: 0 ~
15;
Step: 1
The available
number of ASC
subchannels.
Xx
ADD PRACHASC
PersistScalingFactor Value range: 0.9
~ 0.2;
Step: 0.1
Factor used to
calculate the
corresponding
dynamic persist
value for ASC2-
ASC7
Xx
ADD PRACHASC
Ac09ToAsc Value range: 0 ~
7;
Step: 1
Defines the
mapping relation
between AC 0~9
and the ASC
Xx
ADD
PRACHACTOAS
CMAP
Ac10ToAsc Value range:0 ~
7;
Step: 1
Defines the
mapping relation
between AC 10 and
the ASC
Xx
ADD
PRACHACTOAS
CMAP
Ac11ToAsc Value range: 0 ~
7;
Step: 1
Defines the
mapping relation
between AC 11 and
the ASC
Xx
ADD
PRACHACTOAS
CMAP
Ac12ToAsc Value range: 0 ~
7;
Step: 1
Defines the
mapping relation
between AC 12 and
the ASC
Xx
ADD
PRACHACTOAS
CMAP
Ac13ToAsc, Value range: 0 ~
7;
Step: 1
Defines the
mapping relation
between AC 13 and
the ASC
Xx
ADD
PRACHACTOAS
CMAP
Ac14ToAsc Value range: 0 ~
7;
Step: 1
Defines the
mapping relation
between AC 14 and
the ASC
Xx
ADD
PRACHACTOAS
CMAP
Ac15ToAsc Value range: 0 ~
7;
Step: 1
Defines the
mapping relation
between AC 15 and
the ASC
ADD
PRACHACTOAS
CMAP
22
Xx
PreambleRetransMax Value range: 1 ~
64;
Step: 1
Maximum number
of preambles
transmitted in a
preamble ramping
cycle.
3GPP
ADD
PRACHBASIC
NB01Min Value range: 0 ~
50;
Step: 1
Lower limit of the
random back-off
delay
3GPP
ADD RACH
NB01Max Value range: 0 ~
50;
Step: 1
Upper limit of the
random back-off
delay
3GPP
ADD RACH
PreambleSignatures Value range:
SIGNATURE0,
SIGNATURE1,
SIGNATURE2,
SIGNATURE3,
SIGNATURE4,
SIGNATURE5,
SIGNATURE6,
SIGNATURE7,
SIGNATURE8,
SIGNATURE9,
SIGNATURE10,
SIGNATURE11,
SIGNATURE12,
SIGNATURE13,
SIGNATURE14,
SIGNATURE15.
Multiple choice
Sequence number
of the available
preamble
signatures.
The multiple
choice indicates
that all the 16
signatures are
available.
Xx
ADD
PRACHBASIC
Mmax Value range: 1 ~
32;
Step: 1
Maximum number
of random access
preamble ramping
cycles
3GPP
ADD RACH
AICHTxTiming Value range: 0 or
1;
The timeslot offset
between the access
preamble of the
PRACH and AICH
3GPP
ADD AICH
PowerOffsetPpm Value range: -5 ~
10;
Unit: dB;
Step: 1
Power offset
between the
preamble and the
message part of the
PRACH
ADD PRACHTFC
23
3GPP
MaxAllowedUlTxPower Value range: -50
~ 33;
Unit: dBm;
Step: 1
Maximum allowed
power UE
transmitted on
RACH.
3GPP
ADD
CELLSELRESEL
GainFactorBetaC Value range:
0~15;
Step: 1
UL DPCCH gain
set up
3GPP
ADD PRACHTFC
GainFactorBetaD Value range:
0~15;
Step: 1
UL DPDCH gain
set up
3GPP
ADD PRACHTFC
2.1.3 Key Performance Indicators
KPI Descriptions
PRACH Message
Detection Success
Ratio
Percentage of successfully detected PRACH messages to the total
number of transmitted PRACH messages by the UE.
PRACH Message
transmission Delay
Average and 95% percentile of time delay samples measured from
the time the first PRACH preamble is sent until the RACH message
part is successfully transmitted by the UE (Indicator of delay
introduced by the L1 PRACH power ramping procedure).
Preamble Detection
Success Ratio
Percentage of the successfully detected PRACH preambles and the
total number of transmitted PRACH preambles.
RACH Message Tx
Power
Average power level for the RACH messages transmission measured
at the output of the UE TX antenna.
2.1.4 Optimization Guidelines
2.1.4.1 Parameters and Recommendation
The recommendations marked as LAB come form DV&V and performance testing
configuration:
The recommendations marked as MML come form LMT software release 13.0.0.8.0
Parameter Name Recommended
Value
Source Comments
PhyChId See
planning
guide
AccessServiceClass ASC0 Lab
AvailablesignatureStartIndex 0 Lab
AvailablesignatureEndIndex. 15 Lab
24
ScrambCodeNum 0 Lab
TotalSlotFormat None
SlotFormat1 2 Lab
RACHSubChNum Subchannel0,
Subchannle1,
Subchannel2
Lab
AvailableSubchannelNumber 15 Lab
PersistScalingFactor TBD MML Mandatory
only for ASC2-
ASC7
Ac09ToAsc 1 Lab
Ac10ToAsc 2 Lab
Ac11ToAsc 3 Lab
Ac12ToAsc 4 Lab
Ac13ToAsc, 5 Lab
Ac14ToAsc 6 Lab
Ac15ToAsc 0 Lab
PreambleRetransMax 30 Lab
NB01Min 0 Lab MML
recomends
3
NB01Max 0 Lab MML
recomends
10
PreambleSignatures SIGNATURE0,
SIGNATURE1,
SIGNATURE2,
SIGNATURE3,
SIGNATURE4,
SIGNATURE5,
SIGNATURE6,
SIGNATURE7
MML
Mmax 3 Lab
AICHTxTiming 0 Lab 1 MML
PowerOffsetPpm 4.5 dB Simulation Lab value
of 6 dB is
excessive.
MaxAllowedUlTxPower 24 dBm Lab See planning
guide
GainFactorBetaC 10 Lab
GainFactorBetaD 15 Lab
25
2.1.4.2 Expected KPI Value
The random access procedure was validated in the AH lab testing for low <10%
system load, voice AMR 12.2 kbps and symmetric 64 kbps interactive/background
services.
KPI Expected KPI Values
PRACH Message Detection Success Ratio 100%
PRACH Message transmission Delay <30ms
Preamble Detection Success Ratio 100%
Note:
For power related parameters of the random access procedure see Power Control
section of this document.
26

3 Power Control
3.1 Introduction
The power control mechanism is essential part of cellular systems using spread
spectrum technique of medium access. There are two the most important functions of
power control.
First, is to support high system capacity, which is basically achieved in CDMA-based
systems by reducing level of adverse interferences. The major contribution to system
interference level, respectively in uplink and downlink direction comes from
simultaneous RF signal transmissions of many UEs and adjacent NodeBs on the same
frequency.
The second function of power control procedures is to preserve required radio
communication quality regardless of dynamic changes of propagation environment
result from mobility of UEs, alternating number of active users in the system, and
non-stationary propagation characteristics of radio channel. The quality may be
defined here as low delay and error-free transmission of digitized user data through
radio channel.
One of the ways to obtain at the same time large system capacity and high service
quality is to keep UEs and NodeBs RF signals transmission power at possibly lowest
level and adjust it dynamically upon variations of propagation condition. The more
accurate are UEs and NodeBs power control mechanisms to follow dynamic
characteristic of RF environment, the higher system capacity and service quality
performance may be achieved.
The most important goal of power control in WCDMA system is thus dynamic
interference controlling rather than wide coverage area support.
The UE and UTRAN power control procedures use different sources of feedback
information on temporal propagation channel condition in the process of adjusting
their transmitted signals power levels.
3.2 Open Power Control Loop
In the open power control loop transmission signal power level is estimated base on
received signal strength measured at the antenna connector incoming from opposite
direction and assumed symmetry of uplink and downlink channel characteristics.
If both received signal power and its transmission power level are known, it is
possible to estimate channel insertion losses called here pathloss.
The adjustment of the transmitted signal level in open power control loop requires
fulfilling of two basic assumptions.
The first states that RF channel is symmetrical respectively in uplink and downlink
directions, so temporal channel characteristics are approximately equal in both
27
directions. The second assumption specifies that signal power adjustment, which
compensates estimated pathloss, should ensure acceptable transmission quality.

Obviously the power control accuracy of the open loop approach is limited since real
properties of uplink and downlink channel are not perfectly correlated.
3.2.1 Downlink Open Power Control Loop
The information on DL common channel power level is a function of system capacity,
coverage area, services class, required quality of service and projected number of
users in the cell. The Planning Guide document contains information on common
physical channel power requirements
Current solution of Xx NodeB design does not allow to adjust accurately CPICH
power with signaled in NBAP common channel configuration value unless offset
between cell maximum DL transmitted power MaxTxPower and CPICH power
PCPICHPower is greater or equal 13dB.
3.2.2 Uplink Open Power Control Loop
In this case the UE makes decision on power adjustment based on symmetry
assumption of uplink and downlink RF channel characteristics. This process
requires initially estimation of DL pathloss. UE conducts this through subtraction
of measured received cell pilot signal strength from known by UE the downlink
pilot channel transmitted power. The cells P-CPICH power value is broadcasted
to all UEs in the cell as a part of the system information.
More preciously the open loop power control is used for uplink transmission of the
Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) to adjust its initial signal power during
access of UE to UMTS services.
In order to assist UE in accomplishing that goal UTRAN broadcasts in every cell on
the Common Broadcast Channel (BCH) in System Information Block number 5
(SIB5) the following data:
The cell transmitted power level of the Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-
CPICH) signal encoded in OMC provisionable parameter PcpichPower. (Note:
The PcpichPower value must be set in the range confined by parameter value of
MinPCPICHPower and MaxPCPICHPower. The range of CPICH power levels
gives flexibility in limiting or extending area of soft handover. Moreover the Cell
Breathing algorithm adjusts common pilot channel power level in the range
confined by these two parameters.
Recently measured value of cell interference power level in uplink channel UL
interference level,
The constant UE preamble transmission power offset that compensate inequality
in between UL and DL transmission channel. The selection of the offset value
should ensure that received at NodeB preamble signal has sufficient power level
to be detected. The offset is called constant value and it is encoded in OMC
28
provisionable parameter Constantvalue, which also specifies required level of C/I
in the uplink.
UE measures received pilot signal code power (CPICH_RSCP) to estimate downlink
path loss and then calculates the initial preamble transmission power level using the
following formula:
PRACH [dBm] = PcpichPower [dBm] CPICH_RSCP [dBm] + UL interference + Constantvalue [dB]
It worth to add that UL interference is the aggregate uplink channel additive noise and
multiplicative interference power level measured by NodeB per cell basis within
WCDMA frequency channel bandwidth. The value of UL inferences level is
broadcasted in cell using SIB 7.
In turn the Node B receiver sensitivity for preamble detection is controlled by
threshold given by parameter value of PreambleThd. If received at the NodeB
preamble signal power exceeds this level Node B may initiate process of preamble
decoding.
In order to increase probability of random access procedure success the
Constantvalue should be setup to high level and PreambleThd low value. However
too high Constantvalue increases UL interference reducing system capacity, and too
low PreambleThd level may result in increase of preamble information error rate due
to excessive number of errors obtained during demodulation of poor quality preamble
signal.
The NodeB sends random access acknowledgement to UE only if preamble is
successfully decoded and ratio between the averaged in the time of preamble period
received signal power to interference level is greater than PreambleThd.
If Node B decodes preamble information then it sends an Acquisition Indicator using
AICH with power level indicated by OMC provisioned parameter AICHPowerOffset.
This tag indicates relative AICH power to CPICH power level, which is encoded in
OMC provisionable PpichPower parameter value.
If UE neither receives nor decodes Acquisition Indicator in the following preamble
DL transmission slot on the AICH, it repeats preamble retransmission up to certain,
maximum number of times defined by OMC provisionable parameter
PreambleRetransMax.
The preamble transition power level is incremented for every next preamble
transmission by ramp step value P
o
specified by OMC provisionable parameter
PowerRampStep.
If UEs estimated preamble transmission power exceeds the maximum allowed power
by 6 dB the UE exits physical random access procedure [TS 25.214]. (Note: Verify
with UE vendor)
If no Acquisition Indicator is received and decoded after maximum number of
preamble retransmissions, UE repeats entire procedure but no more times than
number defined by OMC provisionable parameter Mmax. If during this time non
Acquisition Indicator has been decoded UE exits procedure.
29
If UE decodes the negative Acquisition Indicator it immediately quits physical
random access procedure.
If UE decodes the positive Acquisition Indicator it initiate transmission of the random
access message part. The transmission of random access massage starts after last
transmitted preamble followed by the defined number of uplink access slots. The
transmission delay time is given by the number of access slots provided by OMC
configurable parameter of AICHTxTiming according to the following rule:
If AICHTxTiming = 0 then transmission occurs after 3 access timeslots delay
between PRACH access preamble part and AICH acknowledgement,
If AICHTxTiming = 1 then transmission occurs after 4 access timeslots delay
between PRACH access preamble part and AICH acknowledgement.
Transmission power level of control message information of DPCCH is set to the
level of the last transmitted preamble and it is increased by P
p-m
offset given by OMC
provisionable PowerOffsetPpm parameter. The message transmission power offset
may be expressed as:
P
p-m
[dB] = P
message-control
[dBm] P
P
[dBm]
where:
P
message-control
is message transmission power,
P
P
is last preamble transmission power level
The UE transmission power on PRACH must not exceed a maximum limit specified
by OMC provisionable per cell basis parameter MaxAllowedUlTxPower.
The power level of data message part on DPDCH with respect to the DPCCH power
level is set by gains provisioned by OMC parameters GainFactorBetaC and
GainFactorBetaD. [TS 25.214 section 5.1.2.5.1]
If Gain Factor Selection Mode is configured as SIGNALED [TS 25.214 section
5.1.2.5.2] than applied BetaC and BetaD gain factors are directly communicated to
UE from RNC. They also may be calculated based in [TS 25.214 section 5.1.2.5.3].
A simplified power levels dependencies between preamble and message transmission
of random-access procedure are shown in the following figure:

Pp-m

Po

Po


Message
4096 chips 4096 chips 4096 chips 10 ms
Preamble
time
30
3.2.3 Related Data base Parameters
Tag 3GPP stand for Standard 3GPP parameter and label Xx stands for
Specific Xx parameter.
Parameter Name Range Descriptions
Controlling
Command
PcpichPower Value range:
-10 ~ 50;
Unit: dBm;
Step: 0.1.
Common Pilot channel
transmitted power level
Xx
ADD
PCPICH
Constantvalue Value range:
-35 ~ -10;
Units dB;
Step: 0.1
Preamble signal reception
threshold used to calculate
the transmit power of the
first preamble in the random
access process
3GPP
ADD
PRACHBASIC
PreambleThd Value range:
-36.0~0.0;
Step 0.5;
Unit: dB
(0 : -36.0,
1 : -35.5,
2 : -35.0, ...,
72 : 0.0)
This parameter defines the
preamble threshold of the
PRACH. The preamble will
be confirmed only when the
ratio between the preamble
power received in the
preamble period and the
interference is larger than
this threshold.
Xx
ADD
PRACHBASIC
AICHPowerOffset Value range:
-22 ~ 5;
Unit: dB;
Step: 0.1
Difference between the
transmit power PCPICH and
each of AICH.
3GPP
ADD
CHPWROFFSET
PreambleRetransMax Value range:
1 ~ 64;
Step: 1
Maximum number of
preambles transmitted in a
preamble ramping cycle.
3GPP
ADD
PRACHBASI
C
PowerRampStep Value range:
1 ~ 8;
Unit: dB
Step: 1
Power step up to be applied
by the UE when a Non
Acquisition Indicator is
received or when no
acquisition indicator at all is
received.
3GPP
ADD
PRACHBASI
C
Mmax Value
range:1 ~ 32;
Step: 1
Maximum number of
random access preamble
ramping cycles
3GPP
ADD RACH
AICHTxTiming Value range:
0 or 1;
The timeslot offset between
the access preamble of the
ADD
CHPWROFF
31
PRACH and AICH
acknowledgement
3GPP
SET
PowerOffsetPpm Value range:
-5 ~ 10;
Unit: dB;
Step: 1
Power offset between the
preamble and the message
part of the PRACH
3GPP
ADD
PRACHTFC
MaxAllowedUlTxPowe
r
Value range:
-50 ~ 33;
Unit: dBm;
Step: 1
Maximum allowed power
UE transmitted on RACH.
3GPP
ADD
CELLSELRESEL
GainFactorBetaC Value range:
0~15;
Step: 1
UL DPCCH gain set up
3GPP
ADD
PRACHTFC
GainFactorBetaD Value range:
0~15;
Step: 1
UL DPDCH gain set up
3GPP
ADD
PRACHTFC
RefTFCNum Value
range:0 ~ 3;
Step 1
Reference TFC ID used to
calculate the TFC gain
factor
3GPP
ADD
PRACHTFC
3.2.4 Key Performance Indicators
KPI Descriptions
PRACH Message
Detection Success
Ratio
Percentage of successfully detected PRACH messages to the total
number of transmitted PRACH messages by the UE.
PRACH Message
Transmission Delay
Average and 95% percentile of time delay samples measured from
the time the first PRACH preamble is sent until the RACH message
part is successfully transmitted by the UE (Indicator of delay
introduced by the L1 PRACH power ramping procedure).
Preamble Detection
Success Ratio
Percentage of the successfully detected PRACH preambles and the
total number of transmitted PRACH preambles.
3.2.5 Optimization Guidelines
3.2.5.1 Parameters and Recommendation
The recommendations marked as LAB come from DV&V and performance testing
The recommendations marked as MML come from LMT software release 13.0.0.8.0
Parameter Name Recommen
ded Value
Source Comments
PcpichPower 22 dBm Lab See planning guide.
The maximal value of
parameter is 30 dBm
32
(1W) assuming max.
DL cell power of 20W
and required 13dB
offset between max
cell DL transmitted
power and CPICH
power level.
Constantvalue -15 dB Lab
PreambleThd -14dB (44) Lab This change is for use
with GSD NB SW
41730.p15 and onwards.
This uses COE load
1.4D.0.7C which was the
first official COE load
using the WDM 1.0.7.10
line - the actual WDM is
called
WDM_1.0.7.10_ASIC-
T2. Andrew Gillions
AICHPowerOffset 0 dB
-3 dB
Lab
Xxo Analysis
RNC500
recommendation:
No Diversity: 5dB
STTD: -5.5dB
PreambleRetransMax 30 Lab
PowerRampStep 1 dB Lab/Simulati
on
Mmax 3 Lab
AICHTxTiming 0 Lab
PowerOffsetPpm 4.5 dB Simulation Lab value of 6 dB is
excessive.
MaxAllowedUlTxPower 24 dBm Lab See planning guide
GainFactorBetaC 5 Lab
GainFactorBetaD 15 Lab
RefTFCNum TBD
3.2.5.2 Expected KPI Value
Validation was conducted in AH system lab for low system load <10%, AMR 12.2
kbps voice and symmetric 64 kbps background/interactive service traffic class.
KPI Expected KPI Values
PRACH Message Detection Success Ratio 100% (Filed Testing)
PRACH Message transmission Delay < 30 ms (Filed Testing)
Preamble Detection Success Ratio 100% (Filed Testing)
33
3.2.5.3 Sensitivity Analysis
Based on simulation results presented in the SEA/RAN/04/019 report the following
performance has been investigated taking the following assumptions:
The number of 25 omni cells using wrap-around (no edge cells),
TU propagation environment model,
Population of 20 UEs per cell with fixed speed of 3 km/h,
RSCP is greater than 105 dBm,
Ec/Io of the CPICH channel greater than 15 dB,
Maximum allowed UL transmitted power on RACH of 18 dBm.
The histogram of required number of preamble retransmissions, which results in
successful random access with respect to the message-to-preamble power offset, is
illustrated in the following figure:
Figure RACH 1: Distribution of the number of preambles vs. message-to-preamble
power offset (Initial SIR target: 2dB)
The histogram of required number of preamble retransmissions ended successful
random access procedures with respect to the preamble power ramp up, is illustrated
in the next figure:
34
Figure RACH 2: Distribution of the number of preambles vs. preamble power ramp.
(Initial SIR target: 2dB, Message-to-Preamble power offset: 4.4 dB)
3.3 Closed Power Control Loop
The closed loop power control algorithm adjusts transmission power based on power
control information feedback provided in the additional channel closing the control
system loop. The power control channel is a complementary established physical
radio link. Power control feedback information contains primitive instruction to
increase or decrease transmitted power level with predefined step size. The feedback
primitives are evaluated base on: instantaneously observed propagation channel
conditions (radio link quality), and transmission quality. The Closed Power Control
Loop algorithm consists of two separate but interacting mutually regulation systems
responsible for tracking and equalization of RF channel characteristic variation in
order to obtain required transmission quality and keep at all time, possibly the lowest
level of excessive interferences introduced in the system by radio emissions in both
UL and DL.
3.3.1 Downlink Closed Power Control Loop
The closed downlink closed loop power controls level of NodeB transmitted power
for every radio bearer in order to sustain required DL transmission quality and keep
DL interference level at the lowest possible level. The entire power control power
control procedures reside in the UE since it measures all types of RF channel
transmission parameters, link quality estimates and sends back to the NodeB power
control feedback commands using UL DPCCH.
3.3.1.1 Downlink Closed Power Control Loop Initialization
Detection error probability of system control information carried trough downlink
radio channel on DPCCH may be kept at sufficient level by differentiating power
level during transmission intervals dedicated for bits of pilot, transport power control
(TPC) and transport format combination identifier (TFCI) as it is shown in the
following figure.
35

PilotPo
TfciPo
TpcPo
There are defined the following power offsets:
TpcPo is difference of transmitted power between virtual channel caring TPC
bits and channel dedicated for data bits in each time slot of the radio frame in DL
DPCH.
TfciPo is transmitted power offset between virtual channel caring TFCI bits and
virtual channel dedicated for data bits in each time slot of the radio frame in DL
DPCH.
PilotPo is difference of transmitted power between virtual channel caring pilot
bits and channel dedicated for data bits in each time slot of the radio frame in DL
DPCH.
(Note: For SCCPCH the TFCI bits channel power and Pilot bit channel power offset
is controlled respectively by provisinable parameters PO1 and PO3 communicated
over the NBAP user frame protocol).
The CRNC communicates DL DPCCH power offset parameters values to Node B
through Iub interface using user-plane messaging mechanism.
The Initial DL Transmission Power value setup is communicated from RNC to
NodeB in the Radio Link Set Up Request message. The RNC calculates radio link
initial power based on the following formula:

,
_

,
_

,
_

Total
CPICH
c
CPICH
DL
b
initial
P
N
E
P
N
E
W
R
P
0
0
[W],
where:
R - is the user data rate,
W - is the chip rate,
CPICH
c
N
E

,
_

0
- is a chip energy to interferences power spectral density ratio
reported by the UE,
36

- is downlink orthogonality factor, and


Total
P
- is total cell DL transmitted power (transmitted carrier power),
DL
b
N
E

,
_

0
- is the UE required bit energy to interference power spectral density,
CPICH
P
the primary pilot channel transmit power.
The initial DL traffic channel power presented in above formula is obtained assuming
that:
RSSI
RSCP CPICH
CPICH
c
P
P
N
E
_
0

,
_

,
RSCP CPICH
P
_
- is received signal code power, the received power on one code
measured on the Primary CPICH.
RSSI
P
- is received wide band power, including thermal noise and noise
generated in the receiver, within the bandwidth.

If UE is soft or softer handover state the above formula is used to estimate initial DL
transmitted power for every new radio link addition.
The range in which the downlink, transmitted power can be adjusted is specified
according to information provided by the RNC during cell power setup. The CRNC
may controls relative downlink transmission power to CPICH power level in the
range specified by lower and upper limit given by OMC configurable parameters
RLMinDlPwr and RLMaxDlPwr defined per cell, RAB type, and circuit or packed
switch domain basis.
The range of code domain DL transmitted power is constraint by DL power allocation
budget reflected in Node B design and 3GPP power control dynamic range
requirements of 25dB. Specifically, the channel power allocation for is limited in the
range:
dB 28 dB 3
CPICH MAX RL CPICH MAX
P P P P P ,
where:
MAX
P - is a cell maximum DL transmitted power (MaxTxPower),
CPICH
P
- is P-CPICH transmitted power (PCPICHPower),
RL
P - is power allocated to DL channel.
Taking also into consideration Node B requirement of at greater than -13dB offset
between downlink cell maximum transmitted power and P-CPICH power level the
following inequality is applicable:
dB 15 dB 10
_ _

MIN RL MAX RL
P P
,
where:
MAX RL
P
_
- is maximum, P-CPICH relative channel power RLMaxDlPwr
MIN RL
P
_
- is minimum, P-CPICH relative channel power RLMinDlPwr
37
The initial, RNC vendor recommendation for configuration of relative DL, minimal
and maximal transmitted power RLMinDlPwr and RLMaxDlPwr is shown in the
following table:
Table: DL Power Setup
Service
User Data Rate
[bps]
Maximum DL
power
RLMinDlPwr
(dB)
Minimum DL
power
RLMaxDlPwr
(dB)
CS
12,200 AMR -3 -15
64,000 0 -15
56,000 0 -15
32,000 -2 -15
28,800 -2 -17
57,600 -1 -15
PS
8,000 Conversational -8 -15
64,000 Streaming -2 -15
384,000
(Interactive/Background)
4 -11
256,000 2 -13
144,000 0 -15
128,000 0 -15
64,000 -2 -15
32,000 -4 -15
8,000 -8 -15
Signalling3.4k) -8 -15
(Note: The selection of the maximum DL code power is crucial for system capacity,
since call admission algorithm makes decision on accepting or rejecting a call base
on these values.)
In the current RNC power control algorithm implementation the DL transmitted
power ranges that are communicated in Radio Link Set Up Request Message, remain
the same for every new radio link added in soft or softer handover.
The NodeB starts transmission using the initial DL transmitted power on each DL
DPCCH until either UL synchronization on Uu is achieved or Power Balancing is
activated. There is no inner loop or power balancing used during this period.
The NodeB initiates process of achieving UL transmission synchronization on the Uu
interface after reception from RNC the Radio Link Setup Request message. The
successful acquisition of UL synchronization on the Uu interface is acknowledged by
sending to RNC the Radio Restore Indication message. Next, the DL and UL frame
protocol synchronization between NodeB and RNC is conducted and when this
process ends successfully the RNC starts communication with UE. If synchronization
process fails NodeB initiates the Radio Link Failure procedure.
3.3.1.2 Downlink Closed Inner Power Control Loop
The DL inner loop power control process adjusts DL radio link transmitted power to
compensate quick variation of RF channel characteristics. The inner power control
loop algorithm decides to increase or decrease power level as a result of comparing
38
current RF link quality parameter value to its given target value. Commonly used RF
link quality estimate is SIR (Received signal power to Interference power level Ratio)
or E
b
/N
0
(Bit energy to power spectral density of noise and interference).
The algorithm resides in UE and it starts from comparing received downlink SIR
estimates with initial SIR target value.
At physical channel establishment, the UE sets an initial downlink target SIR value
based on the received IEs "DCH quality target" - BLER. The IE "DCH quality target"
for a given DCH is used by the UE to set the target SIR for the downlink power
control in case BLER measurement is possible for this DCH, i.e. CRC exists in all
transport formats in downlink TFS.
The UE measures the SIR on a slot-by-slot basis comparing the SIR estimate to its
target value. If target SIR is greater than SIR estimate then UE transmits power up
command (TPC) bits into the uplink Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH),
otherwise UE instructs NodeB to decrease its transmitted power level inserting power
down TPC command.
When NodeB decodes power control, it increases or decreases transmitted in
downlink DPCH signal power starting from beginning of next time slot. The power
step size is defined by value of OMC provisionable FddTpcDlStepSize parameter.
The frequency of power adjustments depends on the DPC mode selection, which is
defined by the value of OMC configurable parameter value DpcMode. The DL power
control mode operates according to the following scheme:
If DPC mode flag is set to SINGLE_TPC then transmitted power change occurs
at the beginning of every next time slot after reception of new TPC command,
which results from power control rate of 1500Hz.
In turn if DPC mode flag is set to TPC_TRIPLET_IN_SOFT then transmitted
power change occurs at the beginning of next time slot after reception 3
consecutive TPC commands. In this case power control rate is decreased to
500Hz. This mode is primary activated when UE is in soft handover state.
The downlink inner loop power control algorithm operates with a single timeslot
delay. This means that the TPC bits received in uplink timeslot N results in an
appropriate adjustment to downlink power used to transmit timeslot N+1.
The inner loop power control convergence may only as accurate as propagation
environment changes occurred in the period of 2 timeslots.
When UE is in soft handover state RNC is managing separate radio links served by
different Node Bs in the active set, each Node B adjusts its transmitted power
according to procedure described in TS25.214 section 5.2.1.2.2 and DL power
balancing.
Incase of softer handover the radio links associated with the same UE connection are
managed by the same Node B, which combines TPC commands received from each
link and formulate a unified decision.
39
3.3.1.2.1 RELATED DATA BASE PARAMETERS
Tag 3GPP stand for Standard 3GPP parameter and label Xx stands for Xx
implementation specific parameter.
Parameter Name Range Descriptions Controlling
Command
TpcPo Value range: 0~6;
Unit dB;
Step 0.25
The difference of
transmitted power between
virtual channel caring TPC
bits and virtual channel for
data bits in each time slot
of the radio frame in DL
DPCH
3GPP
SET FRC
TfciPo Value range: 0~6;
Unit dB;
Step 0.25
The transmitted power
offset between virtual
channel caring TFCI bits
and virtual channel for
data bits in each time slot
of the radio frame in DL
DPCH
3GPP
SET FRC
PilotPo Value range: 0~6 ;
Unit dB;
Step 0.25
The difference of
transmitted power between
virtual channel caring pilot
bits and virtual channel for
data bits in each time slot
of the radio frame in DL
DPCH.
3GPP
SET FRC
RLMinDlPwr Value range:
-35 ~ 15;
Unit dB;
Step 0.1
Lower limit of DL
transmitted relative to
CPICH power for service
type (for CS/PS and Data
rate).
3GPP
ADD
CELLRLPWR
RLMaxDlPwr Value range:
-35~15;
Unit dB;
Step 0.1
Upper limit of DL
transmitted relative to
CPICH power for service
type (for CS/PS and Data
rate)
3GPP
ADD
CELLRLPW
R
FddTpcDlStepSize Value range:
0.5 ~ 2;
Unit: dB;
Step: 0.5
The step size DL, TPC
used in downlink inner
loop power control.
3GPP
ADD
PRACHBASI
C
DpcMode Value range:
SINGLE_TPC or
The rate of DL power
adjustments 1500Hz or
ADD RACH
40
TPC_TRIPLET_IN_
SOFT
500Hz
3GPP
3.3.1.2.2 KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS
KPI Descriptions
Std (SIRtarget - SIR
estimate)
Standard deviation of difference between target and SIR estimate:

1
0
2
) (
1
1
N
i
te i te
d
N
,
where:
) ( ) ( i SIR i SIR d
E T i

,

1
0
1
N
i
i te
d
N

) (i SIR
T
-is target SIR of the CCTrCH obtained from outer power
control loop for i-th timeslot in dB scale (see OLPC section)
) (i SIR
E
-is SIR estimate of the CCTrCH measured in inner power
control loop for i-th timeslot in dB scale (see OLPC section)
N - is number of observed timeslots should not be less then:
Confidence
Level
Required Std. Error

of
Estimator (+/-)
Sample Size N
(Timeslot
number)
95% 1% 38,414
90% 1% 27,055
80% 1% 16,424
3.3.1.2.3 OPTIMIZATION GUIDELINES
3.3.1.2.4 PARAMETERS AND RECOMMENDATION
The recommendations marked as LAB come from DV&V and performance testing
configuration: http://compass.xx.com/doc/126253903/, also available online at
http://www.cig.xx.com/~adg003/rnc5000conf.html
The recommendations marked as MML come from LMT software release 13.0.0.8.0
Parameter Name Recommended Value Source Comments
TpcPo 3 dB QoS13 Lab uses 4.75
dB
TfciPo 0 dB QoS13 Lab uses 4.75
dB. Seems to
be overdriven
since TFCI is
channel coded.
PilotPo 3 dB QoS13 Lab uses 4.75
41
dB
RLMaxDlTxPwr See table: DL Power Setup MML Upper limit of
RL DL TX
power relative
to CPICH
power level
refers
difference
between
processing gain
of CPICH
channel and
DPDCH
RLMinDlTxPwr See table: DL Power Setup MML RLMaxDlTxP
wr 25dB
Standards
requires
dynamic range
of DL power
control loop
should be at
least 25 dB,
this parameter
should be 25dB
lower than
RLMaxDlTxP
wr.
FddTpcDlStepSize 1 dB Lab
DpcMode SINGLE_TPC Lab
3.3.1.2.5 EXPECTED KPI VALUE
KPI Expected KPI Values
Std (SIRtarget - SIR estimate) Not Relevant for UTRAN since it is UE algorithm.
3.3.1.3 Downlink Closed Outer Power Control Loop
The downlink outer loop resides in the UE and is totally under the control of the UE.
The outer power control loop process is responsible indirectly for power level
adjustment through out estimating target value of RF link quality value base on
difference between relatively slower variation of current transmission quality BLER
estimate and its target or required value. The transmission quality or service quality is
defined here as transmission of digitized information with given and usually small
numbers of errors. For power control purpose commonly used estimate of service
quality is Bit Error Rate (BER) or Block Error Rate (BLER). The Core Network
42
explicitly declares transmission quality target value, which depends on user data rate
and acceptable service delay.
3.3.1.4 Power Balancing
Power balancing procedure operates effectively when UE is soft or softer handover
state and there are established more than one active radio link between UE and RNC.
(Note: The Node B Communication Context contains the necessary information for
the Node B to communicate with a specific UE. The Node B Communication Context
is created by the Radio Link Setup and deleted by the Radio Link Deletion procedure.)
The instantaneous adjustments of DL transmitted power on different radio links in
active set can result in imbalance of DL transmitted power due to either poor quality
of signals providing information on TPC power control commands received from UE
or misalignment between power level of existing radio links in active set and initial
DL transmitted power associated with a newly added radio link.
This drift may cause either increase level of DL interferences, or dropping radio links
and after all decrease of system capacity. In order to reduce unfavourable drift of DL
transmitted power of different radio links the power balancing adjustment procedure
is applied. The algorithm is superimposed on the inner loop power control. It
estimates and provides to the Nodes B downlink power correction P
bal
(k) according to
which radio links transmission powers of the active set are adjusted toward common
reference power level.
Node B, based on received from UE TPC command estimates the TPC
est
commands to
be 0 or 1 and updates the power every slot (DPC_MODE = 0).
The Node B adjusts the current downlink power P(k-1) to a new power P(k) according
to the following formula:
P(k) = P(k - 1) + P
TPC
(k) + P
bal
(k),
where:
P
TPC
(k) - the k:th is power adjustment due to the inner loop power control [TS
25.433 section 8.3.7; TS25.214 section 5.2.1.2.2]
P
bal
(k) is k:th power correction result from power balance adjustment
algorithm.
k - is successive timeslot number.
The P
TPC
(k) is calculated according to the below formula if the value of Limited
Power Increase Used parameter is 'Not used':

'

0 ) ( TPC if
1 ) ( TPC if
) ( P
est TPC
est TPC
TPC
k
k
k
[dB],
where:
TPC

- is a power adjustments step size.


The current NodeB design does not support Limited Power Increase, so the
modification of DlPowerAverageWindowSize and PowerRaiseLimit parameter has no
effect.
43
The Node B activates the DL power balancing upon reception from CRNC the DL
Power Control Request NBAP message. If the Power Adjustment Type IE is set to
flag Common or Individual, which means that power adjustments are conducted
for individual radio link or commonly for all radio links in active set. However,
neither RNC nor NodeB supports the Individual power control adjustment mode so
far.
The power balancing adjustment may be suspended if within Node B the
Communication Context the Power Adjustment Type IE is set to flag None.
The algorithm executes adjustment of DL transmitted power for all existing and future
Radio Links associated with NodeB Communication Context ID, using a common for
all these radio links, reference power level
REF
P , delivered to NodeB in the DL
Reference Power IE.
The RNC updates reference power estimate periodically, when the new NBAP
dedicated measurement report is obtained. At any moment of time t reference power
is calculated using the following formula:
[ ] [ ]
) ( _ ) ( ) ( _ ) (
0 0 0 0
) (
100
1 ) (
100
) (
j CPICH P MIN j RL i CPICH P MAX i RL REF
P t P
a
P t P
a
t P

,
_

+
[dB],
and
)} ( { max arg
) (
0
0
0
t P i
i RL
M i

,
)} ( { min arg
) (
0
0
0
t P j
j RL
M j

,
where:
0
M
- is a number of radio links in active set,
a
- is a weighting factor configurable by parameter RatioForMaxPower,
) (
) (
0
t P
i RL
- is the largest in active set absolute value of DL code power
measurement of DPCCH allocated to radio link
0
i
, estimated for the latest
cycle of dedicated measurement period, preceding current power
adjustment period,
) (
) (
0
t P
j RL
- is the lowest, in active set a value of DL code power measurement
of DPCCH allocated to radio link estimated for the latest cycle of
dedicated measurement period, preceding current power adjustment
period,
) ( _
0
i CPICH P MAX
P

- is cell P-CPICH channel power level assigned to radio link i
0
given by parameter PCPICHPower,
) ( _
0
j CPICH P MIN
P

- is cell P-CPICH channel power level assigned to radio link j
0
given by parameter PCPICHPower.
Note: Currently power balancing adjustment algorithm in the RNC initiates NBAP
Dedicated Measurement Procedure to obtain relative code domain DL transmitted
power, when there are at least 2 radio links in the active set and UE is soft handover
state. The NBAP DEDICATED MEASUREMENT INITIATION REQUEST indicates
only Dedicated Measurements Object Type set to RL radio link, what implies
measurement reports for all indicated (addressed) radio link.
44
If UE is in softer HO state RNC initiates dedicated measurements procedures
separately for each radio link in NodeB Communication Context.
Xx Node B allows the following setup of maximum and minimum P-CPICH power
level:
MaxPCPICHPower = MaxTxPower 0dB [dBm]
MinPCPICHPower = MaxTxPower 13dB [dBm].
However it is not recommended since variable range of P-CPICH power level has not
been taken into account during NodeB design, and in reality transmitted P-CPICH
power level is be different from required in the NBAP massage setup if offset
between maximum DL transmitted cell power and P-CPICH power level is lower than
13dB.
The power adjustment is a cyclic process repeated with the period given by parameter
AdjustPeriod corresponding to the number of N radio frames of length 10 ms. Entire
cycle is restarted when CFN=0 and it stops when either new DL Power Control
Request message is received or the Node B Communication Context ends.
Assuming asynchronous power balancing adjusting and dedicated measurement cycle
the downlink power control P
bal
(k) power balancing correction in k:th timeslot is
calculated according to the following formula:
1
1
]
1

,
_

1
]
1

,
_

+
1
]
1




1 1 ) 1 ( ) (
0
0
fN
k
fN P P
f
k
f P r k P
init CPICH P REF bal

[dB],
where:
r
- is the power balancing Adjustment Ratio given by AdjustRatio parameter,

,
_

+
1
]
1


1
0
0

f
k
f P
REF
- is reference power level value in k:th timeslot
estimated in measurement cycle preceding beginning of current power
adjustment cycle,
]

- is operation of rounding toward integer value closer to zero.

- is normalized by 10 ms duration of radio frame the dedicated measurement


period given by RptPeriod,
0

- is the initial phase offset between power balancing adjustment and


dedicated measurement cycle expressed in number of timeslots. It is a result
of unsynchronised initialisation of power adjustment and dedicated
measurement period.
f
- is number timeslots in the radio frame equal 15,
CPICH P
P

- is P-CPICH transmitted power configured by PCPICHPower
parameter,

,
_

1
]
1

1
fN
k
fN P
init
- is DL radio link code power for k:th time slot. It is DL
radio link power level transmitted in the last timeslot of the radio frame
belonging to the previous adjustment period. If the last timeslot of the
previous adjustment period is in compressed mode gap then the P
init
value is
taken from last timeslot before beginning of transmission gap.
45
The RNC initiates DL power balancing adjustment whenever in measurement report
period the following condition is detected:
START THD j RL i RL
P t P t P
_ ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
0 0

[dB] (i),
and procedure stops when:
STOP THD j RL i RL
P t P t P
_ ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
0 0
<
[dB] (ii),
where:
START THD
P
_
- is threshold given by configurable parameter DPBStartThd,
START THD
P
_
- is threshold given by configurable parameter DPBStopThd.
The conditions (i) and (ii) are checked every measurement report period.
The power correction within one adjustment period cannot exceed neither the value
given by maximal DL power balancing adjustment step configurable by the
MaxAdjustStep parameter nor value of maximal DL relative channel power defined
by RLMaxDlPwr parameter.
3.3.1.4.1 RELATED DATA BASE PARAMETERS
Tag 3GPP stand for Standard 3GPP parameter and label Xx stands for Xx
implementation specific parameter.
Parameter Name Range Descriptions Controlling
Command
DlPowerAverageWindowSiz
e
Value range:
1~60;
Unit:
Timeslot;
Step 1
Size of the time window
within increase of DL transmit
power cannot exceed the
maximum value given by
PowerRaiseLimit. NodeB does
not support Limited Power
Increase.
3GPP
ADD
CELLSETUP
PowerRaiseLimit Value range:
0~10;
Unit: dB;
Step: 1
The maximum value of DL
transmitted power increase
within the period of time
specific by
DlPowerAverageWindowSize
. NodeB does not support
Limited Power Increase.
3GPP
ADD
CELLSETUP
RptPeriod Value range:
10 ~ 60000;
Unit: ms
Step: 10
Downlink power measurement
period
SET DPB
DPBMeasFilterCoef Value range:
D0, D1, D2,
D3, D4, D5,
Determine the filter
coefficient for the
measurement value in NodeB.
SET DPB
46
D6, D7, D8,
D9, D11,
D13, D15,
D17, D19.
Unit:
Step:
The DL code power is IIR
filtered by this parameter
before being reported to the
RNC.
Xx
DPBStartThd Value range:
0 ~ 127.5
Unit: dB
Step: 0.5
The difference in Tx powers
between legs at which power
balancing starts.
Its threshold against which
the ratio between the
maximum and minimum DL
code power across the active
set is compared. If the ratio is
greater than or equal to this
threshold power balancing is
started.
Xx
SET DPB
DPBStopThd Value range:
0 ~ 127.5
Unit: dB
Step: 0.5
Downlink power balance stop
threshold.
Its threshold against which
the ratio between the
maximum and minimum DL
code power across the active
set is compared. If the ratio is
less than or equal to this
threshold, power balancing is
stopped
SET DPB
MaxAdjustStep Value range:
1 ~ 10
Unit: Slot
Step: 1
The maximum adjustment
power step should not exceed
1dB during downlink radio
link power adjustment period
defined by this parameter
MaxAdjustStep refers to a
number of slots. The
accumulated power
adjustment cannot exceed 1
dB over this time period. This
does not include the power
adjustment made by the inner
loop.
Xx
SET DPB
AdjustPeriod Value range:
1 ~ 256.
Unit: Frame
Step: 1
Power Balancing adjustment
period.
The period over which the
balancing power adjustment is
made. If the balancing
adjustments are unable to
completely account for the
total measured imbalance, the
SET DPB
47
remainder is dropped.
3GPP
AdjustRatio Value range:
0 ~ 1;
Unit:
Step: 0.01
Downlink Power Balancing
Adjustment ratio. It is used for
selecting a proportion of the
total imbalance. It is this
filtered value of the total
imbalance that will be
adjusted during an adjustment
period.
3GPP
SET DPB
RatioForMaxPower Value range:
0 ~ 1;
Unit:
Step: 0.01
Ratio of the maximum power
in calculation of reference
power for Downlink Power
Balancing.
Its a linear parameter that is
used to compute a weighted
average of the maximum DL
code power relative to CPICH
and the minimum DL code
power relative to CPICH. The
relative code power
measurements are in dB.
This weighted average
determines the reference
power level (dB).
Xx
SET DPB
DefaultCPICHPower Value range:
0 ~ 100
Unit: dBm
Step: 1
Default power of transmitted
the CPICH.
3GPP
SET DPB
3.3.1.4.2 KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS
KPI Descriptions
DPB Gain Downlink power balancing gain defined as average difference
between overall transmitted DL power across all Node B
Communication Contexts when Power Adjustment Balancing
enabled and disabled.
Imbalance The average maximum imbalance across the DL code power in
active set given time calculated as the ratio of the highest DL
transmit, code power to the lowest DL code power in the active
set. This ratio is determined for UEs that has at least 2 RL in the
active set at least one code power measurement report available
for two RLs in the active set.
48

,
_

1
0 min
max
10
] )[ (
] )[ (
log 10
N
k
W kT P
W kT P
N
T
D
[dB s]
) (
max
kT P
- Reported maximal DL transmitted code power
(TS25.215 section 5.2.5) in the active set
) (
min
kT P - Reported minimal DL transmitted code power
(TS25.215 section 5.2.5) in the active set
T - DL code power measurement report period,
N - is significant number of measurement reports
(>1540 @ Confidence Level 95% and confidence interval 5%)
3.3.1.4.3 OPTIMISATION GUIDELINES
3.3.1.4.4 PARAMETERS AND RECOMMENDATION
The recommendations marked as MML come from LMT software release 13.0.0.8.0
Parameter Name Recommen
ded Value
Source Comments
RptPeriod 2000 ms Simulation SEA2 Iur interface
capacity and
NodeB processing
capabilities may
require to extend
this value to 3.4
sec
DPBMeasFilterCoef 0 Simulation SEA2
DPBStartThd 3 dB Simulation SEA2 MML
recommendation
is 6 dB seems a
bit on the high.
DPBStopThd 0 dB Simulation SEA2
MaxAdjustStep 10 (slots) Simulation SEA2
AdjustPeriod 8 (frames) Simulation SEA2
AdjustRatio 0 Simulation SEA2
RatioForMaxPower 50 Simulation SEA2 This corresponds
to a physical
value of
RatioForMaxPow
er/100 ( or
50/100)
DefaultCPICHPower 33 dBm Simulation SEA2 See Planning
Guide
49
The shorter DPB periods, smaller max adjustment step values and shorter adjustment
periods results in lowering the average imbalances among radio links in active set. As
a result parameter selection of measurement report periods less then 2000ms, maximal
adjust step values less than 10 slots or adjustment periods less than 8 frames will all
result in improving DPB algorithm performance. However this impacts negatively
Node B processing capabilities and increase signalling load. It is important to keep in
mind that the common measurement periodicity should never be lower then 100 ms,
but such a low value in recommended anyway.
3.3.1.4.5 EXPECTED K PI VALUE
KPI Expected KPI Values
DPB Gain TBD
Imbalance 6.25 dB * 2000ms: Voice 12.2 kbps,
4.77 dB* 2000ms: 64 kbps Interactive
3.3.1.4.6 SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS
Each of the scenarios the DPB parameters were configured as code power
measurement period 700ms, Maximum adjustment step 5 slots, adjustment period 8
frames except with respect to the particular parameter used in the sensitivity analysis
(and all other parameters set as table 1.3.1.4.4. The expected KPI for imbalance given
in table 1.3.1.4.5 is obtained by setting parameters as per table 1.3.1.4.4, which are the
recommended parameter settings.
The average true maximum imbalance for 12.2 kbps voice and 64 kbps interactive
service with respect to common measurement periodicity:
The average true maximum imbalance for 12.2 kbps voice and 64 kbps interactive
service with respect to DPB Maximum Adjust Step:
50

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
100 400 700 1200 2000
Common measurement periodicity (ms)
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

t
r
u
e

m
a
x
i
m
u
m

i
m
b
a
l
a
n
c
e

[
d
B
]


12.2 kbps 64 kbps/Int
The average true maximum imbalance for 12.2 kbps voice and 64 kbps interactive
service with respect to DPB Adjustment Period:
3.3.2 Uplink Closed Power Control Loop
The closed uplink loop controls UE transmitted power level in order to sustain
required UL transmission quality and keep UL interference level at the lowest
possible level. The entire power control procedure resides in the UTRAN. NodeB and
RNC estimates RF channel transmission quality and instructs UE to increase or
decrease its transmitted power by sending power control feedback commands using
DL DPCCH.
3.3.2.1 Uplink Closed Power Control Loop Initialization
The regulation process starts from calibration and adjusting of inner power control
loop. Before transmission data on DPDCH, UE send a certain number of frames on
DPCCH specified by value of OMC configurable parameter pcPreamble. Moreover
the data transmission on SRB0 to SRB4 is additionally postponed during the further
number of frames given by provisionable SrbDelay parameter.
During this time period power control loop stabilizes Node B power regulation
process by reconciliation of estimated SIR with initial SIR target set up.
The initial UE DPCCH power level is calculated according to the following formula
(see 25.331 section 8.5.3):
51

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
1 4 7 10
DPB Maximum Adjust Step (slots)
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

t
r
u
e

m
a
x
i
m
u
m

i
m
b
a
l
a
n
c
e

[
d
B
]


12.2 kbps 64 kbps/Int

0
2
4
6
8
4 8 16 32
DPB Adjustment Period (Frames)
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

t
r
u
e

m
a
x
i
m
u
m

i
m
b
a
l
a
n
c
e

[
d
B
]


12.2 kbps 64 kbps/Int
DPCCH
Initial_power
[dBm] = DPCCHpower_offset [dBm] CPICH_RSCP[dBm]
where:
DPCCHpower_offset [dBm] = PcpichPower [dBm] + UL interference + DefaultConstantValue[dB],
AND
DefaultConstantValue - is configuration parameter provided per cell basis,
CPICH_RSCP is UE measured CPICH pilot signal code power.
When UL inner power control loop stabilized the relative transmit power offset
between DPCCH and DPDCH is determined by OMC provisionable values of BetaC
and BetaD parameter.
The UTRAN power control processing of received from the UE TPC information
depends on selection one of two available, standardized power control algorithm used
by UE to derive combined TCP command [TS 25.214]. The OMC configurable
parameter PwrCtrlAlg informs UE about the selection of UL power control algorithm
number 1 or number 2 [see TS 25.214].
The uplink power adjustment step size is defined by OMC provisionable to UE
parameter UlTpcStepSize. If power control command combining algorithm flag is set
ALGORITHM1 then uplink power step size is equals to 1dB or 2dB. If combining
algorithm flag indicates algorithm ALGORITHM2 than uplink power step size is
always equals 1dB.
The SRNC provides to all Nodes B with established UE radio links the initial target
SIR value presented in section Uplink Closed Outer Power Control Loop. The SIR
target updates are conducted by NBAP user plane procedure outer loop PC
information.
CRNC also provides for UE the upper limit of the maximum allowed UL transmitted
power level. This power limit is OMC configurable by set parameters:
MaxUlTxPowerforConv, MaxUlTxPowerforStr, MaxUlTxPowerforInt
MaxUlTxPowerforBac respectively for conversational, streaming, interactive and
background services class.
3.3.2.2 Uplink Closed Inner Power Control Loop
The algorithm essence is a calculation of power step up or power step down command
as a result of comparing known SIR target to SIR estimate value measured for every
slot of received signal according to the following rule:
If SIR estimate >= SIR target then TPC command = 0 (power step
down)
If SIR estimate < SIR target then TPC command = 1 (power step up)
52
The power adjustment step size is predefined value in range from 0.5dB to 2dB and
granularity of 0.5dB and given by UlTpcStepSize parameter.
The power control command is sent to the UE in the feedback loop in next available
DPCCH time slot, thus maximum achievable power control command rate is 1500Hz.
For each of radio links NodeB performs basic inner loop power control procedure
loop by comparing target to estimated SIR value and communicating TPC command
to the UE.
3.3.2.2.1 RELATED DATA BASE PARAMETERS
Tag 3GPP stand for Standard 3GPP parameter and label Xx stands for Xx
implementation specific parameter.
Parameter Name Range Descriptions Controlling
Command
pcPreamble Value range: 0
~ 7;
Unit: Timeslot;
Step: 1
Timeslot number of
uplink DPCCH
transmission prior to the
start of the uplink
DPDCH transmission
3GPP
ADD CELLCAC
SrbDelay Value range: 0
~ 7;
Unit: Timeslot;
Step: 1
Data transmission delay
on SRB0 to SRB4
3GPP
ADD CELLCAC
DefaultConstantValue Value range:
-35~-10;
Unit: dB;
Step: 1
Threshold, which UE
uses to compute the UL
DPCCH_Power_offset
and further the UL
DPCCH initial Tx
power during the open
loop power control
process.
Xx Proprietary
SET FRC
BetaC Value range:
0~15;
Step: 1
UL DPCCH gain set up
3GPP
ADD
TYPRABBASIC;
ADD
TYPSRBBASIC
BetaD Value range:
0~15;
Step: 1
UL DPDCH gain set up
3GPP
ADD
TYPRABBASIC;
ADD
TYPSRBBASIC
PwrCtrlAlg Value range:
ALGORITHM
1,
ALGORITHM
2.
Selection of UL power
control algorithm
number #1 or number
#2
SET FRC
53
3GPP
UlTpcStepSize Value range: 1,
2;
Unit dB
The step size of the
closed inner loop power
control performed on
UL DPDCH
3GPP
SET FRC
MaxUlTxPowerforConv Value range:
-50 ~ 33
Unit dBm
Upper limit of UL
transmitted power for
conversational service
in a specific cell.
ADD CELLCAC
MaxUlTxPowerforStr Value range:
-50 ~ 33
Unit dBm
Upper limit of UL
transmitted power for
streaming service in a
specific cell.
ADD CELLCAC
MaxUlTxPowerforInt Value range:
-50 ~ 33
Unit dBm
Upper limit of UL
transmitted power for
interactive service in a
specific cell.
ADD CELLCAC
MaxUlTxPowerforBac Value range:
-50 ~ 33
Unit dBm
Upper limit of UL
transmitted power for
background service in a
specific cell.
ADD CELLCAC
3.3.2.2.2 KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS
KPI Descriptions
Std (SIRtar - SIR est) Standard deviation of difference between target and SIR estimate:

1
0
2
) (
1
1
N
i
te i te
d
N
,
where:
) ( ) ( i SIR i SIR d
E T i

,

1
0
1
N
i
i te
d
N

) (i SIR
T
-is target SIR obtained from outer power control loop for
i-th timeslot in dB scale
) (i SIR
E
-is SIR estimate measured in inner power control loop
for i-th timeslot in dB scale
N - is number of observed timeslots should not be less then:
Confidence
Level
Required Std. Error

of
Estimator (+/-)
Sample Size
(Timeslot
number)
95% 1% 38,414
90% 1% 27,055
80% 1% 16,424
54
3.3.2.2.3 OPTIMISATION GUIDELINES
3.3.2.2.4 PARAMETERS AND RECOMMENDATION
The recommendations marked as LAB come from DV&V and performance testing
configuration: http://compass.xx.com/doc/126253903/ available also online at
http://www.cig. xx.com/~adg003/rnc5000conf.html
The recommendations marked as MML come from LMT software release 13.0.0.5.0
Parameter Name Recommended
Value
Source Comment
pcPreamble 6 Lab
SrbDelay 3 Lab
DefaultConstantValue -23 dB MML
BetaC 8 (for 12.2 kbps)
5 (for 64 kbps )
5 (for 128 kbps )
3 (for 384kbps )
Xx POAP QoS 13 (voice)
but Lab testing
override loss of RL
by driving higher
SIR value by
setting this to 12
(0.8).
BetaD 15 Lab QoS 13 (all
services)
PwrCtrlAlg ALGORITHM1 MML
UlTpcStepSize 1dB MML
MaxUlTxPowerforConv 24 dBm Lab/MML See Planning Guide
MaxUlTxPowerforStr 24 dBm Lab/MML See Planning Guide
MaxUlTxPowerforInt 24 dBm Lab/MML See Planning Guide
MaxUlTxPowerforBac 24 dBm Lab/MML See Planning Guide
3.3.2.2.5 EXPECTED KPI VALUE
The following results are obtained from simulations of SEA 02, in a network
consisting of 75 cells with OLPC algorithm configuration described in section Uplink
Closed Outer Power Control Loop.
KPI Expected KPI Values
Std (SIRtar - SIRest)
[voice 12.2kbps]
0.604 dB @ BLER target = 1%, Load = 10%, VAF=50%, 10km/h
Std (SIRtar - SIRest)
[Int/Bkg 64kbps]
0.31 dB @BLER target = 10%, Load = 10%, AF=33%, 10km/h
Std (SIRtar - SIRest)
[Int/Bkg 32kbps]
0.31 dB @BLER target = 10%, Load = 10%, AF=50%, 10km/h
Std (SIRtar - SIRest)
[Convers 64kbps]
0.3 dB @BLER target = 0.2%, Load = 10%, AF=50%, 10km/h
55
3.3.2.3 Uplink Closed Outer Power Control Loop
The outer power control loop process influence has indirect impact on transmitted UE
power level. The outer loop algorithm calculates target RF link quality (target SIR or
E
b
/N
0
) base on difference between current transmission quality estimate and its
required value for given service traffic class. Commonly, it is assumed that electrical
propagation characteristic of the environment changes slower than the variation of the
transmission quality measurements.
The transmission quality or service quality measurement is defined here as
transmission of digitized information with given and usually small numbers of
elementary errors. For power control purpose commonly used estimate of service
quality is Bit Error Rate (BER) or Block Error Rate (BLER).
Specifically, outer loop power control algorithm adjusts the SIR target of a particular
signal transmission on DPCCH in order to achieve a required transmission quality
given by target BLER for data transmission on the DPDCH.
The algorithm updates the SIR target periodically with service traffic class dependant
update interval given by OMC configurable SIR target adjustment period value
SirAdjustPeriod. When services are multiplexed the algorithm selects the longest
value of the update interval amongs all TrCh in controlled CCTtrCh, which is used as
the common SIR adjustment period applicable to all services.
The SIR target adjustments range is limited by the two configurable parameters: Two
numbers always bound the SIR target:
MaxSirTarget maximum service dependent SIR target value and
MinSirTarget minimum serivce dependent SIR target value.
Outer loop algorithm is capable to control separately transmission quality of
multiplexed services for each transport channel using different for each service
algorithm configuration parameters values. In the result RNC provides to the all Node
Bs involved in transmissions of the particular transport channel data the combined
SIR target value with granularity of 0.1 dB. It worth to notice that algorithm conducts
all calculation based on not quanitized SIR target value.
The algorithm fully supports the multiplexing of physical layer transport channels
CCTrCh as well as multiplexing of MAC layer logical channels.
When a TrCH carries data from a Radio Bearer then this TrCH is used by the OLPC
to adjust the CCTrCH SIR target.
However, if a TrCH carries a Signaling Radio Bearer, there is a switch that enables or
disables driving algorithm processing by SRB data stream.
In case of multiplexed services, multiple MAC layer multiplexed service RABs are
always multiplexed together into a single transport channel TrCh and service of the
lowest target transmission quality (BLER/BER) value is used as a driver for
calculation of this TrCh SIR target. The algorithm measures the transport channel
56
BLER during SIR adjustment period as block error rate of a composite data stream
including all MAC layer multiplexed logical channels streams.
Every time when new RAB is added the algorithm starts form selection for all
multiplexed TrCh a unique initial SIR target value chosen among configurable service
dependant InitSirTarget parameter value. The initial SIR target value is calculated
using the following formula:
) , arg ( M et InitSirT f SIR
m CCTrCh

[dB], (I)
where:
combining function
) , ( f
, is described in the Algorithm Description
Document ( http://compass.xx.com/go/136487340 ) is given below:
) ,..., 1 ( , , , , , ) , (
0
M i RM PG
N
E
SIR comb M SIR f
i
d
c
i i
i
b
m m

1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

where:
m
is new RAB index,
M is the number of transport channels in the CCTrCh
i
PG
is UL processing gain result for used given spreading factor for TrCh
i
RM
is a relative gain result for rate matching of particular TrCh,
i
d
c

,
_

is ratio of gains applied in UL DPCCH and DPDCH of TrCh.


Algorithm operates in two modes for each transport channel TrCh:
Data mode - when during SIR adjustment period at least one transport
block is received on the TrCh. In this mode for each transport channel
algorithm uses averaged BLER measurement to control transport channel
transmission quality.
DTX mode - when during SIR adjustment period there is no data received
on any of transport channel of the CCTrCh. In this mode algorithm uses
for estimation SIR target, either fixed service dependant target BER
configurable value, or dynamic target BER. The dynamic BER target is a
result of the single exponential smoothing (II) of the lowest value of the
averaged in the SIR adjustment period, BER measurement selected across
BER measurements form all K Radio Link Sets associated with different
Node Bs.
) ,..., 1 ( , ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) (
)} ( { min
K j BER a n BER a n BER
j BER
meas TARGET TARGET
meas
+
(II),
where
n
denotes consecutive SIR adjustment period, and
a
is service
based configurable parameter DTXBerTarFilterCoef. It is worth to note
that if 0 a then algorithm turns off the dynamic estimation of BER target
process and instead, it utilizes fixed BER target assigned to the value of
the service configurable TypicalBERdpcch parameter. The initial BER
target value for combined service is selected across the values of
TypicalBERdpcch that corresponds to the service that gives the highest bit
rate in the transport format combination.
57
Although algorithm drives adjustments of SIR target for CCTrCh based on BER only
DTX mode it is recommended to for algorithm, if dynamic BER target update is
selected, to keep continuous BER filtering process activated also during periods in
which algorithm operates in Data mode. In this way, transitions of the calculated SIR
target values between moments of DTX and Data mode switching may be smooth and
preserve time long-term evolution of transmission quality characteristic. Therefore
algorithm provides additional, service dependant configuration parameter
NoneDTXBerTarFilterCoef, which modifies value of the BER filter coefficient
a

when algorithm operates in the data mode.
From the perspective of preserving in the data mode the high and reliable transmission
quality and to avoid possible low correlation between BER target updates (II)
estimated amongst many Node B and specific TrCh BLER measurements, it is
currently recommended to set configurable parameter DTXBerTarFilterCoef to zero.
In the Data mode the SIR target for TrCh is calculated based on the measured BLER
on each of transport channel and selected in previous adjustment period the CCTrCh
SIR target.
The BLER is computed as the ratio of transport blocks that fail CRC check to the total
number of received transport blocks in the SIR adjustment period.
In the presence of user data on the UL DPDCH algorithm identifies either the DTX or
Data mode.
In Data mode, the SIR target value for given TrCh is estimated based on the BLER
measured during the past SIR adjustment period and it is proportional to the relative
BLER value given by formula:

,
_



j
j i meas
j i TrCh
yValue BLERQualit
yValue BLERQualit BLER
Step SirAdjust actor SirAdjustF SIR
) (
) (
[dB],(III)
where:
SirAdjustFactor and SirAdjustStep are respectively, cell specific (service
independent) and service dependant, configurable weighting factors,
BLERQualityValue is configurable target service specific BLER value,
meas
BLER
- is number of block with CRCI = 1 counted during SIR adjustment
period,
M is the number of transport channels in the CCTrCh,
j
is RAB index.
When the UE is in soft handover state the OLPC algorithm measures BLER after
combining signals energy from all radio link branches of the RAKE receiver.
Finally the SIR target for each of TrCh in the Data Mode is calculated according the
following formula:
) ( ) ( i TrCh CCTrCh i TrCh
SIR SIR SIR +
[dB],
) ,..., 1 ( M i
(IV)
The SIR target adjustment in Data mode cannot exceed during the single SIR
adjustment period the maximum and minimum limits given by two service dependant
configurable parameters MaxSirStepUp and MaxSirStepDown.
58
Finally, OLPC algorithm selects the CCTrCh SIR target by picking up among all M
calculated for different TrCh SIR targets the highest value of ) (i TrCh
SIR
.
In the next step the range of estimated CCTrCh SIR target is check. The SIR target
adjustments range is limited here by the two configurable parameters:
MaxSirTarget maximum service dependant SIR target value and
MinSirTarget minimum service dependant SIR target value.
The appropriate selection of the upper and lower limit of the SIR target value is
conducted based of combining function given in formula (I):
) , arg ( arg M et MaxSirT f et MaxSirSIRT
m CCTrCh

[dB],
) , arg ( arg M et MinSirT f et MinSirSIRT
m CCTrCh

[dB],
where:
m
is new RAB index,
M is the number of transport channels in the CCTrCh.
In DTx mode, when all the TrCHs are in DTx mode for a given adjustment period, the
CCTrCH SIR target is updated according to the physical channel BER measurements
reported periodically by the Node Bs every transmission time interval (TTI) by the
Node Bs in the across active radio link set. The CCtrCh SIR target is incremented by
service dependent SirStepUpOnBER parameter value if there is satisfied the
following condition:
> < + > K i i , 1 , BERtarget BER BERmeasure :
1 TARGET i
where:
K is the number radio link sets associated with different Node Bs,
BERtarget1 is configurable and service dependant variables,
i
BERmeasure
is the average radio link set BER measurement reported from
the i-th Node B,
TARGET
BER
is the maximal value of the BER target calculated based on
formula (II).
The CCTrCh SIR target is decremented by service dependent configurable value of
SirStepDownOnBER parameter if there is satisfied the following condition:
> < < K i i , 1 , BERtarget BER BERmeasure :
2 TARGET i
, (2)
where:
K is the number radio link sets associated with different Node Bs,
BERtarget2 is configurable and service dependent parameter,
i
BERmeasure
is the average over i-th Node Bs radio link set BER
measurement,
TARGET
BER
is the maximal value of the BER target calculated based on
formula (II).
It is worth to mention that algorithm always selects the highest values of BERtarget1,
BERtarget2, SirStepUpOnBER and the lowest value of SirStepDownOnBER
parameter among all services multiplexed in CCTrCh.
59
The CCTrCh SIR target is not adjusted (frozen) when neither condition (1) nor (2) is
fulfilled.
It is worth notice here that for speech service. The AMR RAB subflows are
configured so that a CRC is attached in every single 20 ms frame. This CRC is
attached to either a speech frame, or a silence indicator descriptor (SID) frame or an
empty frame (no speech). The OLPC algorithm uses only CRCs of speech frames to
adjust the SIR target based on the measured BLER. The other 2 types of frames are
not used for power control purpose. So, if no speech frame were received during an
adjustment period, the algorithm uses the physical channel BER to adjust the SIR
target, according to the rules given above for the DTX mode.
MAC Multiplexing Configuration
The multiplexing occurs at the MAC layer where the data streams for several logical
channels are combined together on the same TrCH. The RAB-to-RB mapping
algorithm supports the multiplexing of two PS RABs and 3 to 4 SRB into one TrCh.
The OLPC algorithm performs the following selection of configuration for MAC
multiplexed services:
The lowest value of BLERQualityValue parameters among all multiplexed in
one TrCh services,
The largest value of the SirAdjustStep, MinSirStepDown and MaxSirStepUp
parameters among all multiplexed in one TrCh services.
Abnormal State (Freezing OLPC algorithm)
There is a particular situation, referred to as an abnormal state that leads to the SIR
target to be frozen instead of being adjusted. The Node B is configured to initiate the
Dedicated Measurement Report trigger by event E or event F (see TS25.433), using
the SIR error [TS 25.215] measurement is defined as following:
TARGET MEASURE
SIR SIR
ERROR
SIR
[dB]
Whenever the SIR error (a signed quantity) is consistently above a given threshold
(SirConvergeTh) for a certain period of time (SirReportHyst), an event E report type
A is sent to the SRNC.
When the SIR error goes below that same threshold for the same period of time, event
E report type B is triggered. The SRNC always keeps a memory of which of these two
reports were received last, for each cell or Node B in the active set.

For example, a boolean flag flagE(i), where i is an active cell, is set to true when the
report type A is received and it is set to false when report type B is received.
A flag is initialized to false when a cell is first added to the active set.
Whenever the SIR error is below threshold -SirConvergeTh for a certain period of
time (SirReportHyst), an event F report type A is sent to the RNC. When the SIR
60
error goes above that threshold -SirConvergeTh for the same period of time, event F
report type B is triggered.
Here again, the RNC keeps a record of which of these two types of reports were
received last, for each cell or Node B in the active set, e.g. using a boolean flag
flagF(i). The flag is set to true if report type A was received and flag is set to false if
report type B was obtained.
The OLPC algorithm freezes adjustments of the SIR target or enters an abnormal state
when either:
All cells in the active set have their flags flagF(i) set to true or,
At least one cell in the active set has its flag flagE(i) set to true.
If none of the conditions are true, the algorithm is in a normal state and the SIR target
is adjusted according to the rules detailed above.
If a new RAB is added while the OLPC is in a state of abnormal conditions, the
abnormal conditions state is cleared and the algorithm returns to the normal mode of
operation.
OLPC Algorithm Parameters
The recommendations come from software release 13.0.0.8.0, and from technical
reports of SEA 02. lists the parameters used by the OLPC algorithm. Table PC1 gives
the LMT commands that may be used to set/configure each OLPC algorithm
parameter, its mapping between physical and LMT value, the recommended value and
information on its service dependency. Table PC3 shows recommended values for
each OLPC parameter, indexed by service. (See for more [HM_RRM_AD_02a]).
61
3.3.2.3.1 OPTIMISATION GUIDELINES
3.3.2.3.2 PARAMETERS AND RECOMMENDATION
The recommendations come from software release 13.0.0.8.0, and from technical
reports of SEA 02.
Table PC1: The LMT commands and parameter values correspond to software release
v1.3.0.0.15.0.
62
Parameter name
Value
taking
meaning
Explanations/ Definitions
Controlling
Command
SIRMEASFILTERCOEF Measured SIR
error filtering
coefficient
It is the service independent layer 3 filter
parameter that is used to filter the SIR error
before it is reported to the RNC.
SET OLPC
SIRCONVERGETHD
SIR error
checking
threshold value
This is the service independent threshold against
which the size of the SIRerror measurement is
checked to see whether an event triggered report
should be sent to the RNC. These event
triggered reports are used to determine whether
the OLPC is in a normal or abnormal state.
SET OLPC
SIRERRREPORTHYST
SIR error
reported
hysteresis time
The service independent duration of time for
which the Sir Error must be above or below the
SirConvergeThd before an event triggered
measurement report is sent to RNC.
SET OLPC
SIRADJUSTFACTOR SIR adjusting
factor
The service independent parameter used in Data
mode to fine tune an update to the SIR target. It
is a multiplier used to scale the Data mode SIR
target adjustment. See Data mode.
SET OLPC
INITSIRTARGET Initial SIR
Target
The initial SIR target of that service.
MOD TYPRABOLPC
BLERQUALITY BLER Target BLER Target used for that service. MOD TYPRABOLPC
MAXSIRTARGET Maximum SIR
target
The service dependent maximum SIR target
applicable to that service
MOD TYPRABOLPC
MINSIRTARGET Minimum SIR
target
The service minimum SIR target applicable to
that service
MOD TYPRABOLPC
SIRADJUSTPERIOD Sir Adjustment
Period
Service dependent parameter giving duration
over which the BLER and BER is estimated. It is
also the SIR target update frequency (the
maximum value is selected when services are
multiplexed). BLER/BER estimated over non-
over lapping time periods.
MOD TYPRABOLPC
MAXSIRSTEPUP Maximum SIR
step up size
Service dependent parameter used in Data mode
to place an upper limit to a SIR target increment
(step up) during an adjustment. See Data mode.
MOD TYPRABOLPC
MAXSIRSTEPDOWN
Maximum SIR
step down size
Service dependent parameter used in Data mode
to place a lower limit on a decrement (step
down) to the SIR target during an adjustment.
See Data mode.
MOD TYPRABOLPC
SIRADJUSTSTEP Outer loop
power control
adjusting step
size
Service dependent parameter used in Data mode
to scale the adjustment made to the SIR target.
See Data mode/
MOD TYPRABOLPC
TYPICALBERDPCCH BER Target BER target corresponding to that service. A
quality target used in DTx mode against which
BER measurements from across the AS are
compared in order to make decision on SIR
target adjustment.
MOD TYPRABOLPC
BERTARGET1 Upper hysteresis
limit on the
BER target
A service dependent upper limit used to place a
hysteresis around the BER target. Only relevant
to SIR target updates made during DTx mode of
operation. Maximum value chosen when
services multiplexed. The See DTx mode.
MOD TYPRABOLPC
BERTARGET2 Lower
hysteresis limit
on the BER
target
A service dependent lower limit used to place a
hysteresis around the BER target. Only relevant
to SIR target updates made during DTx mode of
operation. Maximum value chosen when
services multiplexed. See DTx mode.
MOD TYPRABOLPC
SIRSTEPUPONBER BER
measurement
based SIR target
step up
A service dependent SIR target step up
(increment) used in DTx mode. Maximum value
chosen when services multiplexed. See DTx
mode.
MOD TYPRABOLPC
SIRSTEPDOWNONBER BER
measurement
based SIR target
step down
A service dependent SIR target step down
(decrement) used in DTx mode. Minimum value
chosen when services multiplexed. See DTx
mode.
MOD TYPRABOLPC
NONEDTXBERTARFILT
ERCOEF
Data mode BER
target filter
coefficient
A service dependent IIR filter coefficient used to
filter the minimum BER measurement from
across the Node B active set and update the BER
target during Data mode. See DTx mode.
MOD TYPRABOLPC
63
DTXBERTARFILTERCO
EF
Data mode BER
target filter
coefficient
A service dependent IIR filter coefficient used to
filter the minimum BER measurement from
across the Node B active set and update the BER
target during DTx mode. See DTx mode.
MOD TYPRABOLPC
SIG_DCH_OLPC_SWITC
H
SRB
contribution to
OLPC
Service independent parameter used to turn
on/off the facility of SR contributing to OLPC.
When turned on the OLPC treats the SRB as yet
another TrCH contributing to OLPC.
SET
CORRMALGOSWITC
H
Table PC2: The LMT commands and values provided below correspond to software
release v1.3.0.0.15.0
64
OL-PC Parameter
Service
dependency
Recommended
Value
Value Range/ step
size
Physical Range/ step size
SIR MEASFILTERCOEF Independent 0 (default from v1.2)
(0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,11
,13,15,17,19);
(0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,13,15,1
7,19)
SIRCONVERGETHD Independent
3 dB (default from
v1.2)
0~63; 0~31.5, step 0.5 dB
SIRERRREPORTHYST Independent
80ms (default from
v1.2)
1~6000; 10~60000msStep 10 ms.
SIRADJUSTFACTOR Independent
1.0 (default in both
v1.2/v1.3)
0~10; 0.0~1.0, step 0.1
INITSIRTARGET Dependent Table 9~255 -8.2~17.3, step 0.1dB
BLERQUALITY Dependent Table -63~0 -6.3~0 step 0.1 dB
MAXSIRTARGET Dependent Table 9~255 -8.2~17.3, step 0.1dB
MINSIRTARGET Dependent Table 9~255 -8.2~17.3, step 0.1dB
SIRADJUSTPERIOD Dependent
Table (v1.2 default
400ms)
1~100 10~1000ms,step 10ms
MAXSIRSTEPUP Dependent Table 0~10000; 0.0~10.0step 0.001 dB
MAXSIRSTEPDOWN Dependent Table 0~10000; 0.0~10.0,step 0.001 dB
SIRADJUSTSTEP Dependent
Table (v1.2 default
0.1dB)
0~10000 0.0 ~10.0, step 0.001dB
TYPICALBERDPCCH Dependent Table 0~10000; 0.0~1.0, step 0.0001
BERTARGET1 Dependent
Table (v1.2 default 0
%)
0~10000 0.0~1.0, step 0.0001
BERTARGET2 Dependent
Table (v1.2 default 0
%)
0~10000 0.0~1.0, step 0.0001
65
SIRSTEPUPONBER Dependent Table 0~10000 0~10, step 0.001dB
SIRSTEPDOWNONBER Dependent Table 0~10000 0~10, step 0.001dB
NONEDTXBERTARGET
FILTERCOEF
Dependent Table 0~1000 0~1, step 0.001
DTXBERTARGETFILTE
RCOEF
Dependent Table 0~1000 0~1, step 0.001
SIG_DCH_OLPC_SWITC
H
Independent - On = 1/ Off = 0
66
Table PC3: This table of OLPC parameter values from vendor and SEA-02 report. Software release 1.3.0.0.15.0.

OLPC_Conf.xls
67
3.3.2.3.3 KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS
KPI Descriptions
Std dev. of BLER
The normalized transmission quality estimator standard
deviation estimator defined by the following formula:

,
_

1
0
2
_
) (
) ( ) (
1
1
M
j trg
trg est
NORM BLER
j er
j er j er
M
,
where:
) ( j er
est
- is either current value of the block error rate
BLER estimate, which is used for power control purpose at the
current moment if a new transport block is received, or current
value of the bit error rate BER estimate if at the current
moment none transport block was received i.e. due to DTX
mode.
j
- is consecutive number of observation period, which
is equal to the time interval of the one transport block TTI for
the observed RAB.
) ( j er
trg
- is specific for each service traffic class the
target BLER if at the observation moment
j
the transport block
was received, or specific for each service traffic class target
BER value used by the power control algorithm if at the
observation moment
j
, was not received any transport block.
M - is statistically significant number of observations to
draw the conclusion at certain level of confidence.
For multi RAB configuration KPI supposed to be evaluated for
each RAB separately.
RAB's estimated BLER (Block Error Rate) is defined as ratio
of received in UL transport blocks to the total number of blocks
that fail CRC.
Algorithms performance increases when KPI value decreases.
Target
BLER/BER
Confidence
Level
Required Std.
Error

of
Estimator (+/-)
Observed
number BLER
measurements
M
(Number of
Adjusting
Periods)
1% 75% 10% 1,323,304
2% 90% 10% 676,385
68
5% 95% 5% 614,632
10% 95% 2%
960,362
3.3.2.3.4 EXPECTED KPI VALUE
The following results are obtained for a probe UE, in a network consisting of 75 cells
and meant to demonstrate the operation of the OLPC algorithm using the
recommended values given in table PC3.
KPI Expected KPI Values
Std dev. of BLER (voice) 12.2kbps 0.24% (ver1.2 0.46%) @BLER target = 1%, Load = 10%,
VAF=50%, 10km/h
Std dev. of BLER (Int/Bkg) 64kbps 1.4% (ver 1.2 2.01%) @BLER target = 10%, Load =
10%, AF=33%, 10km/h
Std dev. of BLER (Int/Bkg) 32kbps 1.7% (ver 1.2 4.23%) @BLER target = 10%, Load =
10%, AF=50%, 10km/h
Std dev. of BLER (Convers) 64kbps 0.38% @BLER target = 0.2%, Load = 10%, AF=50%,
10km/h
RAB Average Std dev. of BLER
(12.2kbps + 64 kbps Int)
0.15% @BLER AMR target = 1%, 64 kbps traget = 10%
Load = 10%, AF=50%, 10km/h
(I). VOICE SERVICE
12.2 kbit/s AMR voice service: Offered load 1125 Erlangs , 30s average call duration,
average talk spurt length 3 s, activity factor 0.5.
Figure presented are color coded with respect to filter parameter value, 0.0 blue, 0.1
green, 0.3 red, 0.5 yellow, 0.8 cyan, 1.0 black. (The dot dash in blue represents
voice service at AF 1.0).
(II) 64 kbit/s Conversational data service: Offered load 10 sessions per second, 1
packet call per session, 600 packets per packet call, 400 bytes per packet, 64 kbit/s
69
average data rate during a packet call. This scenario gives an average call length of
30s, and an average load of 4 sessions per cell:
(Note: To SIR target value on the chart requires adding 25dB to reconcile USS
simulation)
(III). 64 KBIT/S INTERACTIVE/BACKGROUND SERVICE: OFFERED
LOAD 10 SESSIONS PER SECOND, 1S READING TIME BETWEEN
PACKET CALLS, 15 PACKET CALLS PER SESSION, 20 PACKETS PER
PACKET CALL, 400 BYTES PER PACKET, 64 KBITS/S AVERAGE DATA
RATE DURING A PACKET CALL. THIS TRAFFIC HAS AN ACTIVITY
FACTOR APPROXIMATELY 0.5. THE AVERAGE SESSION LENGTH OF
30S GIVES RISE TO AN AVERAGE LOAD OF 4 ACTIVE SESSIONS PER
CELL
(IV). 32 KBIT/S INTERACTIVE/ BACKGROUND SERVICE: OFFERED
LOAD 10 SESSIONS PER SECOND, 1 S READING TIME BETWEEN
PACKET CALLS, 15 PACKET CALLS PER SESSION, 10 PACKETS PER
PACKET CALL, 400 BYTES PER PACKET, 32 KBIT/S AVERAGE DATA
RATE DURING A PACKET CALL. THE TRAFFIC HAS AN ACTIVITY
70
FACTOR APPROXIMATELY 0.5. THE AVERAGE SESSION LENGTH OF
30S GIVES RISE TO AN AVERAGE LOAD OF 4 ACTIVE SESSIONS PER
CELL.
(V) Multi-RAB 12.2 kbit/s AMR voice service and 64 kbit/s interactive services (at
BLER targets of 1.0% and 10.0% respectively)
3.3.2.3.5 ALGORITHM SENSITIVITY
(I). The BLER standard deviation estimation for voice service of 12.2 kbps with
respect to BER filter coefficient:

0
1
2
3
4
0 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.8 1
NoneDTxBERTargetFilterCoeff
B
L
E
R

S
t
d

D
e
v

E
s
t
i
m
a
t
o
r

AMR 12.2 kbsp @ 1% 64kbps PS @ 10%
32kbps PS @ 10%
(II) The BLER standard deviation estimation for voice 12.2 kbps service with respect
to mismatch between BER to BLER mapping. Initial BLER/BER mapping error
varies form -10% to +10%
71
(III) The BLER standard deviation estimation for 64 kbps interactive service with
respect to mismatch between mapping BER to BLER. Initial BLER/BER mapping
error varies form -10% to +10%
(IV) The BLER standard deviation estimation for 32 kbps interactive service with
respect to mismatch between mapping BER to BLER. Initial BLER/BER mapping
error varies form -10% to +10%
72
-
1
0
.
0
%
0
.
0
%
1
0
.
0
%
0.00
0.10
1.00
0.000
0.500
1.000
1.500
2.000
2.500
3.000
3.500
BLER Std Dev
Estimator
Mis-match in
initial BLER
vs. BER
targets
NoneDTxBERTargetFi
lterCoeff
AMR 12.2 kbsp @ 1%
-10.0%
0.0%
10.0%
0.00
0.80
1.00
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
BLERStd Dev
Estimator
Mis-match in
initial BLERvs.
BERtargets
NoneDTxBERTarget
FilterCoeff
64kbps Interactive @ BLER=10%
(IV) The BLER standard deviation estimator with respect to SIR adjustment period
for different services:
73

0.0021
0.0042
20 100 200 400
SirAdjustPeriod (ms)
B
L
E
R

S
t
d

D
e
v

E
s
t
i
m
a
t
o
r

64 kbit/s conv/stream @ 0.2% BLER target

0.00375
0.0038
0.00385
0.0039
0.00395
20 100 200 400
SirAdjustPeriod (ms)
B
L
E
R

S
t
d

D
e
v

E
s
t
i
m
a
t
o
r

64 kbit/s conv/stream @ 0.2% BLER target

0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
100 200 400
SirAdjustPeriod (ms)
B
L
E
R

S
t
d

D
e
v

E
s
t
i
m
a
t
o
r

AMR @ BLER 1%: MaxSirStepUp 0.5 dB 64 kbit/s Data @ BLER 10%: MaxSirStepUp 0.4 dB
AMR @ BLER 1%: MaxSirStepUp 3 dB 64 kbit/s Data @ BLER 10%: MaxSirStepUp 3 dB
-10.0%
0.0%
10.0%
0.00
0.50
1.00
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
1.60
BLER Std Dev
Estimator
Mis-match in initial BLER vs.
BER targets
NoneDTxBER
TargetFilterC
oeff
32kbps PS @ 10%
When services are multiplexed sometimes is may be needed to add 3dB,, 5dB to the
value of MaxSirStepUp parameter to preserve required service quality for all
multiplexed services.
74

0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
100 200 400
SirAdjustPeriod (ms)
W
e
i
g
h
t
e
d

R
A
B

A
v
e
r
a
g
e

B
L
E
R

S
t
d

D
e
v

E
s
t
i
m
a
t
o
r

Multi-RAB @ normal MaxSirStepUp Multi-RAB @ Increased MaxSirStepUp

0.56
0.58
0.6
0.62
0.64
0.66
0.68
100 200 400
SirAdjustPeriod (ms)
S
I
R

S
t
a
n
d
a
r
d

D
e
v
i
a
t
i
o
n

E
s
t
i
m
a
t
o
r

Multi-RAB @ normal MaxSirStepUp Multi-RAB @ Increased MaxSirStepUp
4 Handover Control
The handover function in UTRAN manages the mobility of the UE and the radio
interface. It is based on radio measurements and cell topology and it is used to
maintain the Quality of Service requested by the Core Network regardless of UE
mobility. USR2 supports the following handover types: intra-frequency soft, softer
and hard handover, inter-frequency hard handover and inter-RAT hard handover in
both CS and PS domains. Also, the procedure may be intra-RNC or inter-RNC and
may require performing SRNS relocation.
The decision on what handover type needs to be performed depends on a number of
conditions and parameters that are presented in the following sections. In general,
soft/softer handover has higher priority than intra-frequency hard handover and inter-
frequency and inter-RAT HHO only occurs in border cells that have inter-frequency
or inter-RAT neighbouring cells configured accordingly.
Three different handover causes are supported in USR2: (i) handover due to poor
radio link quality, (ii) handover due to radio interface overload, and (iii) operator
forced handover. This section covers the first handover cause; the second is described
in the Inter-carrier Load Balancing section.
4.1 Measurement Control
4.1.1 Algorithm Description
The handover algorithm also controls the measurement reporting performed by the
UE in CELL_DCH state for handover purposes. The MEASUREMENT CONTROL
message is used to set-up and modify the way measurements are taken by the UE. The
contents and frequency of the MEASUREMENT REPORT messages from the UE
depends on the measurement type, the UE state and its measurement capability.
The list of cells that the UE must monitor is divided into three different categories.
Active Set: Group of UTRAN cells which the UE has a radio link established to,
i.e. it is in soft/softer handover with. The Active Set contains only UTRAN cells
that operate on the same UMTS frequency. In USR2 the maximum number of
cells in the Active Set is fixed to 3. This is a hard coded parameter in USR2.
Monitored Set: Cells that are not currently in the Active Set, but the UE is
monitoring for handover according to a neighbour list assigned by UTRAN
(stored as CELL_INFO_LIST in the UE). The Monitored Set may contain
UTRAN and GSM cells and the UTRAN cells may be under different UMTS
frequencies. The maximum number of cells to measure in USR2 is: 32 intra-
frequency, 32 inter-frequency and 32 inter-RAT cells.
Detected Set: Cells that are not included in the neighbour list to monitor but are
detected by the UE on its own. The UE only reports detected UTRAN cells that
are under the same frequency as the active cells and only when in CELL_DCH
state. The purpose is to provide information to the network operator for manually
updating the neighbour cell list of cells.
75
USR2 supports the provisioning of a neighbour list per cell through the MML
commands ADD INTRAFREQCELL, ADD INTERFREQCELL and ADD
INTERRATNCELL. This static list is broadcast on SIB11 to be used in idle mode and
also when transitioning to connected mode. Once in connected mode, the neighbour
list is dynamically determined through the Monitored List Determination algorithm
and sent to the UE within the MEASUREMENT CONTROL message. However, in
USR2, a cell can be configured with inter-frequency neighbours only, inter-RAT
neighbours only or both. The indication of whether inter-frequency and/or inter-RAT
measurement control information should be broadcast on SIB11 is set via the
parameter InterFreqInterRATMeasInd in the command ADD CELLMEAS.
Note that virtual active set management with UE autonomous update mode is not
supported in USR2.
4.1.1.1 Measurement Type
The same type of measurements may be used as input to different functions in
UTRAN. Hence, the UE must support a number of measurements running in parallel
(see TS 25.133). Also, the UE must support that each measurement is controlled and
reported independently of every other measurement. There are different types of
measurements defined in the standards; the following are supported in USR2.
Intra-frequency measurements: Measurements on downlink physical channels
with the same frequency as the active set.
Inter-frequency measurements: Measurements on downlink physical channels at
frequencies that differ from the frequency of the active set.
Inter-RAT measurements: Measurements on downlink physical channels
belonging to another radio access system than UTRAN, e.g. GSM.
UE Internal measurements: Only measurements of UE Rx-Tx time difference
for radio link synchronisation, i.e. 6F/6G events (see Section 4.9).
Note that UE traffic volume measurements are also supported in USR2 and used in
the DCCC algorithm. Inter-carrier load balancing algorithm is based on Node B
transmit carrier power measurements, as it can be seen in Section 15.
In the remainder of the discussion on measurements, only information pertaining to
intra-frequency, inter-frequency and inter-RAT measurements will be covered since
these are used to process handovers due to poor radio link quality in USR2.
4.1.1.2 Measurement Reporting Mode
The measurement reporting mode associated with a specific measurement indicates
when a MEASUREMENT REPORT message is sent by the UE to the UTRAN (event
driven or periodic) and whether or not the UE expects an acknowledgement.
In general, periodic reports are sent in RLC unacknowledged mode and event-
triggered reports in RLC acknowledged mode. This information is given to the UE in
the IE Measurement Reporting Mode contained in the MEASUREMENT
CONTROL message.
76
Intra-frequency handover is based on even-triggered reporting. However, for
events 1A and 1C, when a cell that triggered the reporting is not used to update the
active set, the UE reverts to periodic reporting until UTRAN receives and
processes these events. The amount-of-reporting (PeriodMRReportNumfor1x)
and reporting-interval (ReportIntervalfor1x) parameters in the command ADD
CELLINTRAFREQHO set the attributes of this periodic reporting mechanism.

Periodic
Measurement
Reports
Reporting
Terminated
Figure 4-3. Event-triggered periodic measurement reporting
Inter-frequency handover is based on a combination of periodic and event-
triggered reporting depending on the quality of the used frequency. The interval
for periodic measurements is configured in the PeriodReportInterval attribute of
the command ADD CELLINTERFREQHO.
Inter-RAT handover is based on periodic reporting. The interval between
measurement reports is controlled by the attribute RptInterval in the command
ADD CELLINTERRATHO.
4.1.1.3 Measurement and Reporting Quantities
The measurement quantity specifies what the UE must measure. If the measurement
meets the reporting criteria, a MEASUREMENT REPORT message will be sent from
the UE to UTRAN. The choice of measurements varies for different measurement
types (see TS 25.215 for details) but the following UTRAN/GSM quality indicators
are used in USR1.
CPICH Ec/No, for intra-frequency and inter-frequency measurements
CPICH RSCP, for inter-frequency measurements
GSM Carrier RSSI, for inter-RAT measurements
UE Rx-Tx Time Difference, for UE internal measurements
On the other hand, the reporting quantity specifies what the UE must include in the
MEASUREMENT REPORT message to UTRAN. It is a common practice to include
an estimate of UTRAN quality within inter-RAT measurement report messages as
well as an estimate of intra-frequency quality within inter-frequency measurement
reports. According to 3GPP 25.331,
If the measurement report was triggered by an event (not a periodical report), the
UE must set the IE Event results in the MEASUREMENT REPORT command
according to the event that trigger the report.
77
In any case (event-driven or periodic reporting), the UE must always set the IE
Measured Results in the MEASUREMENT REPORT command to include
measurements according to the IE reporting quantity in the MEASUREMENT
CONTROL command
As a measurement quantity for frequency quality estimate, both CPICH Ec/No and
CPICH RSCP are used in USR2 depending on the location of the cell in the network
layout. Cells located in the centre of the carrier frequency coverage use CPICH Ec/No
while cells sited in the border area of the carrier coverage use CPICH RSCP as the
quality estimate. This behaviour is configured for each cell with the CellProperty
attribute of the ADD CELLINTERFREQHO command.
4.1.1.4 Filtering of the UE Measurements
A layer3 filtering function is applied at the UE to intra-frequency, inter-frequency and
inter-RAT measurements, according to the formula below.
n n n
M a F a F +
1
) 1 (
Where,
F
n
is the updated filtered measurement result.
F
n-1
is the old filtered measurement result
M
n
is the new measurement to be filtered.
a = 1/2
(k/2)
, where k is the IE Filter coefficient received in the MEASUREMENT
CONTROL message. When k is set to 0 no layer 3 filtering is applied.
USR1 allows the provisioning of the filter coefficient parameter independently for
each type of measurement through the parameter FilterCoef in the MML commands
ADD CELLINTRAFREQHO, ADD CELLINTERFREQHO and ADD
CELLINTERRATHO respectively.
4.1.1.5 Intra-frequency Event Driven Measurement Reporting Criteria
The events that trigger the reporting of an intra-frequency measurement are described
in the following table. USR2 supports all the intra-frequency event types given in
3GPP 25.331. Processing of these events at the RNC to perform soft/softer handover,
and configuration through MML commands are presented in Section 4.2.
Event
Name
Event Description
Event 1a A cell enters the reporting range. This is, a non-active cell measurement is within a
threshold below the active set quality metric.

Active Set Cells
Monitored Set Cells
Reporting Range
78
Event 1b A cell leaves the reporting range. This is, an active cell measurement is less than a
threshold below the active set quality metric.

Active Set Cells
Monitored Set Cells
Reporting Range
Event 1c
A non-active cell becomes better than an active cell (i.e. the weakest cell in the active set)
Event 1d
Change of best cell

Active Set Cells
Monitored Set Cells
Event 1e
A cell becomes better than an absolute threshold

Monitored Set Cells
Absolute Threshold
Event 1f A cell becomes worse than an absolute threshold

Monitored Set Cells
Absolute Threshold
4.1.1.6 Inter-frequency Event Driven Measurement Reporting Criteria
The events that trigger the reporting of an inter-frequency measurement are described
in the following table. Only events 2D and 2F are supported in USR2, in addition to
periodic reporting. Processing of these events at the RNC, and configuration through
MML commands are presented in Section 4.4.
Event Name Event Description Associated Parameters
Event 2d The estimated quality of the currently
used frequency is below a certain
threshold
Hysteresis Value
Time-to-trigger
79
Monitored Set Cells
Active Set
Event 2f The estimated quality of the currently
used frequency is above a certain
threshold
Hysteresis Value
Time-to-trigger
4.1.1.7 Inter-RAT Measurement Reporting Criteria (Hard Handover)
Event-driven measurement reporting (events 3x) is not supported in USR2, only
periodical reporting is used.
4.1.1.8 Cell Individual Offsets
The behaviour of intra-frequency, inter-frequency and inter-RAT measurement
reporting can be modified by assigning an offset to each cell that is monitored. The
offset can be either positive or negative. The UE receives the cell individual offset for
each monitored cell in the measurement object field of the MEASUREMENT
CONTROL message.
This offset (dB) is added to the measurement quantity before the UE evaluates if an
event has occurred in a way that measurement reports are triggered when primary
CPICH plus the corresponding offset fulfils the reporting criteria. The mechanism
provides the network with an efficient tool to change the reporting of an individual
cell. For instance, by applying a positive offset, the UE will send measurement reports
as if the primary CPICH is offset x dB better than what it really is.
USR1 allows the provisioning of cell individual offsets on a per neighbour basis for
intra-frequency, inter-frequency and inter-RAT measurements with the parameter
CellIndividualOffset of the ADD INTRAFREQCELL, ADD INTERFREQCELL and
ADD INTERRATNCELL commands.
4.1.2 Related Database Parameters
Parameter Name Range Description
CellProperty {MACRO_CELL,
MICRO_CELL_CARRIE
R_FREQUENCY_CENT
ER,
MICRO_CELL_CARRIE
R_FREQUENCY_VERG
E,
NONLAYERED_CELL_
CARRIER_FREQUENC
Y_CENTER,
NONLAYERED_CELL_
CARRIER_FREQUENC
Y_CENTER}
Location of the cell in a two-tier
network layout. Cells in the center
of the carrier coverage use CPICH
Ec/No as the measurement quantity
for inter-frequency reports. Cells in
the border area use CPICH RSCP.
This is set per cell with the ADD
CELLINTERFREQHO command.
FilterCoef {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 13, 15, 17, 19}
Coefficient for layer 3 filtering of
intra-frequency, inter-frequency and
inter-RAT measurements. This is
defined per cell with a different
value for each measurement type.
This is set per cell with the ADD
CELLINTRAFREQHO command.
PeriodMRReportNumfor1 {1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, Maximum number of cell addition
80
A infinity} reports to be sent in event-triggered
periodic reporting. This is set per
cell with the command ADD
CELLINTRAFREQHO.
ReportIntervalfor1A {NON_PERIODIC_REP
ORT, 250, 500, 1000,
2000, 4000, 8000, 16000}
Unit: ms
Period for sending event-triggered
periodic cell replacement reports.
This is set per cell with the ADD
CELLINTRAFREQHO command.
PeriodMRReportNumfor1
C
{1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64,
infinity}
Maximum number of cell
replacement reports to be sent in
event-triggered periodic reporting.
This is set per cell with the ADD
CELLINTRAFREQHO command.
ReportIntervalfor1C {NON_PERIODIC_REP
ORT, 250, 500, 1000,
2000, 4000, 8000, 16000}
Unit: ms
Period for sending event-triggered
periodic cell addition failure
reports. This is configured per cell
with the command ADD
CELLINTRAFREQHO.
PeriodReportInterval {250, 500, 1000, 2000,
4000, 8000, 16000,
20000, 24000, 28000,
32000, 64000}
Unit: ms
Inter-frequency measurement
reporting period. This is set per cell
with the command ADD
CELLINTERFREQHO.
RptInterval {250, 500, 1000, 2000,
3000, 4000, 6000, 8000,
12000, 16000, 20000,
24000, 28000, 32000,
64000}
Unit: ms
Time interval in which UE
periodically reports inter-RAT
measurement results. This is set per
cell with the command ADD
CELLINTERRATHO.
CellIndividualOffset -10 to 10
Unit: dB
Step: 0.5
Cell offset to be used for UE event
evaluation in the handover
algorithm.
IntraFreqMeasInd {REQUIRE,
NOT_REQUIRE}
Indication of whether intra-
frequency measurement control
information is broadcast in system
information. This is set per cell via
the command ADD CELLMEAS.
InterFreqInterRATMeas
Ind
{NOT_REQUIRE,
INTER_FREQ,
INTER_RAT,
INTER_FREQ_AND_IN
TER_RAT}
Indication of whether inter-freq
and/or inter-RAT measurement
control information is broadcast in
system information. This is set per
cell via the command ADD
CELLMEAS.
4.1.3 Optimisation Guidelines
The following values for database parameters are suggested.
Parameter Name Recommended Value Source Comments
CellProperty Per cell layout and border
coverage areas
FilterCoef Intra-freq: 5 (0.2)
Inter-freq: 4 (0.25)
Inter-RAT: 4 (0.25)
MML
81
PeriodMRReportNumfor1A 4 Simulation
ReportIntervalfor1A 2000 msec Simulation
PeriodMRReportNumfor1C 4 Simulation
ReportIntervalfor1C 2000 msec Simulation
PeriodReportInterval 500 msec MML
RptInterval 1000 msec MML
CellIndividualOffset 0 dB MML
IntraFreqMeasInd REQUIRE
InterFreqInterRATMeasIn
d
According to cell layout
A filtering coefficient of 4 (RNC default) for intra-frequency measurements gives a
weighting of 0.2 for the new measurement and a weighting of 0.8 for the old
measurements.
82
4.2 Soft / Softer Handover
4.2.1 Algorithm Description
The figure shows the scenario where a mobile moves from one cell to another. It can
be seen that in CDMA there is blur zone where the mobile can be connected to both
cells, reducing the impact of hard switching of the transmission channel on the quality
of service. This is what is called soft handover.
The handover control function for soft handover is responsible of the following tasks.
Determine whether a soft handover is necessary.
Receive intra-frequency measurement reports from UE (intra-frequency
measurement results and information about intra-frequency events that triggered
the measurement report), which may refer to NodeBs under the same of different
RNC.
Decide whether to add any of these reported cells to the active set or drop any of
the cells from the active set (adding or deleting the radio links)
When radio links are added, splitting/combining or splitting/selection functions in
the appropriate network elements are also instructed to begin diversity processing
with the new radio link.
Note USR1 provides a parameter to set the maximum data rate at which soft/softer
handover is executed. For UEs using RT/NRT RABs above BEBitRateThd, intra-
frequency hard handover is performed instead (see Section 4.3).
4.2.1.1 Intra-frequency Reporting Events
Soft handover algorithms rely on setting up intra-frequency events 1A through 1F to
trigger MEASUREMENT REPORT messages at the UE. USR2 supports the
configuration of all event 1x measurement report parameters defined in 3GPP on a per
cell basis.
83
This section describes the most relevant USR2 soft handover parameters as per event
type (1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 1e, 1f), but before several concepts are introduced below.
Hysteresis delays the report until
the new cell is better than the
active cell by a minimum value
assigned to the hysteresis
parameter. Triggering condition is
t H
1x
/2 around the nominal
threshold.

H1c
H1c
Time-to-Trigger delays the report
until the new cell has remained in
the reporting range for a given
amount of time


The hysteresis value and time-to-trigger delay, together with the triggering criteria,
define the conditions at which measurements reports for a given event are sent. The
hysteresis and time-to-trigger parameters are common to all the event types. In USR2,
this can be configured with the ADD CELLINTRAFREQHO command attributes
Hystfor1x and TrigTime1x respectively. Conversely, the triggering criterion is
different for each event type and so the parameters associated.
EVENTS 1E AND 1F
Events 1E and 1F control the addition and deletion of pilots to the active set according
to their absolute strength. Measurement reports are generated when the estimated
quality of the candidate CPICH is above (or below) a given threshold and the
hysteresis and time to trigger conditions are fulfilled. The absolute threshold level can
be configured in USR1 with the parameter IntraAblThdFor1x.
EVENT 1C
Event 1C occurs when one of the non-active pilots surpasses an active set pilot,
regardless of its absolute strength. The hysteresis and time to trigger parameters
described above control this cell addition mechanism. In addition, the parameter
Replacement_Activation_Threshold (hard-coded to 3 in USR2) sets the minimum
size of the active set required for this event to be triggered.
EVENTS 1A AND 1B
Events 1A and 1B enable, respectively, the addition and deletion of cells to the active
set according to a relative dynamic criterion given by 3GPP TS 25.331. The criteria
for cell addition is fulfilled when the signal strength (EcNo) of a new cell is good
enough compared to the best cell (in general to all cells in the active set), i.e. the
candidate cell measurement is within a threshold below the best cell measurement. In
particular, event 1A is triggered when the UE enters the reporting range defined by
the following formula,
84
), 2 / ( 10 ) 1 ( 10 10
1 1
1
a a Best
N
i
i New
H R LogM W M Log W LogM
A
+

,
_

Similarly, event 1B is triggered when the UE leaves the reporting range defined by the
formula,
), 2 / ( 10 ) 1 ( 10 10
1 1
1
b b Best
N
i
i Old
H R LogM W M Log W LogM
A
+ +

,
_

where,
M
New
is the measurement result of the cell entering the reporting range.
M
Old
is the measurement result of the cell leaving the reporting range.
M
i
is a measurement result of a cell in the active set.
N
A
is the number of cells in the current active set not forbidden to affect the
reporting range.
W is the filtering weight sent to the UE from UTRAN.
R
1x
is the reporting range constant.
H
1x
is the hysteresis parameter.
The addition window of cells in event 1A is configured with the reporting range
constant parameter IntraRelThdFor1A, together with the hysteresis and time to
trigger parameters. However, the occurrence of event 1A is conditional on a report
deactivation threshold parameter called Report_Deactivation_Threshold (hard-coded
to 2 in USR2).
Similarly, the drop window of cells in event 1B is configured with the reporting range
constant parameter IntraRelThdFor1B in USR1. Finally, the filtering weight to apply
during the processing of both events is given by the parameter Weight.
EVENT 1D
Event 1D is used to keep track of the best cell at all times. The triggering condition
for this event is completely defined by the hysteresis and time to trigger parameters.
4.2.1.2 Soft Handover Processing
The soft handover algorithm in USR1 suffered modifications in USR1 RNC load
1.2.0.0.10 as a consequence of the modelling and validation activity carried out. The
original algorithm (implemented in RNC loads 1.2.0.0.9 and before) is described in
detail in [SEA2-RRM01] and also in previous versions of this document.
Currently, from USR1 load 1.2.0.0.13 and in any USR2 load, there are two different
soft handover algorithms available. Selection of the active algorithm in the RNC is
achieved by setting the parameter SHOMethod via the command SET HOCOMM.
SHO_METHOD1 is a loose mode only soft handover algorithm derived from the
original SHO algorithm.
SHO_METHOD2 is a new soft handover algorithm based on ABCD events only.
DESCRIPTION OF SHO_METHOD1
Figure 4-4 shows the processing flow of event 1x measurement reports by the soft
handover algorithm SHO_METHOD1 (see [SEA2-RRM02] for a more detailed
description). The algorithm makes use of all intra-frequency reporting events (1A, 1B,
85
1C, 1D, 1E and 1F) in the same way as Loose mode did in the original algorithm.
Hence, a cell is added to the active set when either events 1A or 1E are received
(provided the active set is not full), and a cell is deleted from the active set only when
both events 1B and 1F are received (provided the active set is not empty).
To keep track of which events are triggered by which cell, the SRNC sets two cell-
specific boolean flags, one for the reception of 1B events and the other one for the
reception of 1F events. These flags are raised (set to TRUE) by events 1B and 1F
respectively, and reset (set to FALSE) by events 1A and 1E. Note that when entering
CELL_DCH, both flags are initialised to FALSE for all active and monitored cells.

Enter
CELL_DCH
Event 1D
New monitored set
New SHO params
Meas Ctrl msg
Event 1A
Event 1E
Accept
Leg Reject Leg
AS < 3 AS = AS +1
AS Update msg
AS == 3
Event 1D
New monitored set
New SHO params
Meas Ctrl msg
Event 1C
Accept Leg
Add new cell
Delete worst cell
1B Flag = FALSE
1F Flag = FALSE
AS Update msg
Reject Leg
Event 1B
Event 1F
AS = AS -1
AS Update msg
AS NOT
FULL

AS
FULL

Change
Best Cell

CAC &
OVSF

ADD
LEG

Change
Best Cell

CAC &
OVSF

REPLACE
LEG

DROP
LEG

1B Flag = TRUE

1F Flag = TRUE

1B Flag = FALSE
1F Flag = FALSE
1B Flag = FALSE
1F Flag = FALSE
If (1F Flag == TRUE)
If (1B Flag == TRUE)
If (1F Flag == FALSE)
If (1B Flag == FALSE)
1B Flag = TRUE
1F Flag = TRUE
Event 1F
Event 1B
If (1F Flag == FALSE)
If (1F Flag == TRUE)
DROP
LEG

If (1B Flag == TRUE)
AS = AS -1
AS Update msg
AS NOT
FULL

If (1B Flag == FALSE)
Figure 4-4. SHO_METHOD1 algorithm processing flow
86
The behaviour is also different depending on the size of the active set (maximum
active set size is hard-coded to 3). If the active set is full, neither events 1A or 1E are
processed. The algorithm relies in that case on events 1C to be triggered. An event 1C
is only processed when the active set is full, in which case an existing active set can
be replaced by a better monitored cell. Also, before adding a cell to the active set,
radio resources have to be successfully reserved, i.e. radio admission control and
OVSF code allocation have to succeed.
Event 1D is only used to register a change of best cell. Then a new monitored list is
built and a MEASUREMENT CONTROL message sent to the UE to communicate
the neighbour list and also update any parameters to the settings of the new best cell.
DESCRIPTION OF SHO_METHOD2
Figure 4-5 shows the processing flow of event measurement reports by the soft
handover algorithm SHO_METHOD2 (see [SEA2-RRM03] for a more detailed
description). The algorithm makes use of intra-frequency reporting events 1A, 1B, 1C
and 1D only. Hence, a cell is added to the active set when an event 1A is received
(provided the active set is not full), and a cell is deleted from the active set when an
event 1B is received (provided the active set is not empty).

Enter
CELL_DCH
Receive Meas
Report
AS < 3
No
CAC &
OVSF
Reject Leg
ADD
LEG
AS > 1
DROP
LEG
Event 1B
Event 1A
Yes
Yes
No
Change
Best Cell
Event 1D
New Monitored set
New SHO params
Meas Ctrl msg
AS < 3
CAC &
OVSF
ADD LEG
Yes
Accept Leg
Accept Leg
Reject Leg
REPLACE
LEG
Add new cell
Delete worse cell
AS Update msg
AS = AS - 1
AS Update msg
AS = AS + 1
AS Update msg
AS = AS + 1
AS Update msg
Event 1C
Figure 4-5. SHO_METHOD2 algorithm processing flow
87
In addition, cells are also added to the active set on the reception of events 1C or 1D
triggered by a monitored cell (not in the active set). In any case, before adding a cell
to the active set, radio resources have to be successfully reserved, i.e. radio admission
control and OVSF code allocation have to be successful.
When the active set is full, the algorithm relies on event 1C to replace an active set
cell with a better monitored cell and on event 1D to keep track of the best cell in the
active set. When the best cell changes, a new monitored list is built and a
MEASUREMENT CONTROL message sent to the UE to communicate the neighbour
list and also update any parameters to the settings of the new best cell.
MONITORED LIST DETERMINATION
USR1 uses the best cell in the active set to control the monitored list. The strategy is
as follows:
If there is only one cell in the active set, use its neighbour list to build the
monitored set list.
If there is more than one cell in the active set use the neighbour list of the best cell
to build the monitored set list.
If a 1D event is received, indicating a new best cell, use the neighbour list of the
new best cell to build the monitored set list.
If the best cell is removed, use the neighbour list of the best cell amongst those left
in the active set at that time in order to build the new monitored list.
SOFTER HANDOVER
The decision on whether an added radio link should be soft combined with existing
radio links at the Node B or whether the new added radio link should be treated as a
new SHO leg, is usually left to the Node B. This is achieved by setting the Diversity
Control field in the NBAP RL ADDITION REQUEST message to may. Then it is
up to the Node B to decide whether the current radio link is combined with the
already existing radio links. However, USR1 allows the modification of this
behaviour on a per RNC basis by setting the parameter DivCtrlField differently.
DETECTED SET MANAGEMENT
The purpose of Detected Set Management is to utilize the detection capabilities of the
UE and provide information for the operator to manually update the neighbour cell list
of cells. This can be accomplished by recording the number of times a given cell is
detected and the identity of the cells that were in the active set when a given cell is
detected.
In USR1, reporting of information of the cells in the monitored set can be enabled and
disable through the parameter DetectStatSwitch in the ADD CELLINTRAFREQHO
command.
SIMULTANEOUS AS UPDATE PROCEDURES
88
The 3GPP standards allow up to 4 active set update procedures to be taken
simultaneously. However, USR2 only supports a single ongoing procedure at a time.
If measurement reports are received whilst a procedure is ongoing, then those
measurement reports are queued and processed afterwards.
4.2.2 Related Database Parameters
Parameter Name Range Description
Hystfor1A 0 to 7.5
Unit: dB
Step: 0.5
Hysteresis value for intra-frequency
measurement event 1A.
TrigTime1A {0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100,
120, 160, 200, 240, 320, 640,
1280, 2560, 5000}
Unit: ms
Amount of time to delay the
reporting of a 1A event to ensure the
criteria are not transient.
IntraRelThdFor1A 0 to 14.5
Unit: dB
Step: 0.5
Relative threshold for the reporting
of event 1A.
Hystfor1B 0 to 7.5
Unit: dB
Step: 0.5
Hysteresis value for intra-frequency
measurement event 1B.
TrigTime1B {0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100,
120, 160, 200, 240, 320, 640,
1280, 2560, 5000}
Unit: ms
Amount of time to delay the
reporting of a 1B event to ensure the
criteria are not transient.
IntraRelThdFor1B 0 to 14.5
Unit: dB
Step: 0.5
Relative threshold for the reporting
of event 1B.
Weight 0 to 1
Step: 0.1
Filtering weight to be used on the
best cell measurement versus the
active set aggregate strength for
event 1A/1B.
Hystfor1C 0 to 7.5
Unit: dB
Step: 0.5
Hysteresis value for intra-frequency
measurement event 1C.
TrigTime1C {0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100,
120, 160, 200, 240, 320, 640,
1280, 2560, 5000}
Unit: ms
Amount of time to delay the
reporting of a 1C event to ensure the
criteria are not transient.
Hystfor1D 0 to 7.5
Unit: dB
Step: 0.5
Hysteresis value for intra-frequency
measurement event 1D.
TrigTime1D {0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100,
120, 160, 200, 240, 320, 640,
1280, 2560, 5000}
Unit: ms
Amount of time to delay the
reporting of a 1D event to ensure the
criteria are not transient.
Hystfor1E 0 to 7.5
Unit: dB
Step: 0.5
Hysteresis value for intra-frequency
measurement event 1E.
TrigTime1E {0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100,
120, 160, 200, 240, 320, 640,
1280, 2560, 5000}
Amount of time to delay the
reporting of a 1E event to ensure the
criteria are not transient.
89
Unit: ms
IntraAblThdFor1E -24 to 0
Unit: dB
Step: 1
Absolute threshold a candidate cell
must exceed in order to trigger event
1E.
Hystfor1F 0 to 7.5
Unit: dB
Step: 0.5
Hysteresis value for intra-frequency
measurement event 1F.
TrigTime1F {0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100,
120, 160, 200, 240, 320, 640,
1280, 2560, 5000}
Unit: ms
Amount of time to delay the
reporting of a 1F event to ensure the
criteria are not transient.
IntraAblThdFor1F -24 to 0
Unit: dB
Step: 1
Absolute threshold for a candidate
cell to trigger event 1F.
DetectStatSwitch {ON, OFF} Monitoring set statistics switch. If
enabled, UE measurement reports
contain cell status information so as
to provide statistic data for network
optimisation.
DivCtrlField {MAY, MUST,
MUST_NOT}
Diversity control field sent in the
NBAP RL ADDITION REQUEST
message as a NB indication to do
soft or softer combination.
MaxCellInActiveSe
t
1 to 3
Step: 1
Maximum number of cells in the
active set. This parameter is decided
by system specification and so
modification is not suggested to
ensure correct functioning of the
soft handover algorithm.
PenaltyTime 1 to 255
Unit: sec
Step: 1
When a UE is rejected by the
admission and load control module
of a cell, the handover module will
resend the request to enter into the
cell after the penalty time specified
by this parameter. The HO module
continues to try to add the leg for as
long as the criteria is met.
BEBitRateThd {8, 32, 64, 128, 144, 256, 384}
Unit: kbps
Threshold to perform soft handover.
If a UE carries best effort traffic at a
data rate above this threshold, intra-
freq hard handover is executed on
the reception of 1D events. Note
that for CS bearer and CS+PS
multirab, soft handover is always
used.
SHOMethod {SHO_METHOD1,
SHO_METHOD2}
Soft handover algorithm method
selection. There are two soft
handover methods in this release:
method 1 is loose mode algorithm,
method 2 is a relative threshold
algorithm.
Note that all the event 1x parameters are set per cell with the LMT command ADD
CELLINTRAFREQHO. However, RNC default values can be set with the command
90
SET INTRAFREQHO. This global algorithm parameter configuration is used when
cell-specific parameters are not specified.
On the other hand, parameters MaxCellInActiveSet, DivCtrlField, PenaltyTime,
BEBitRateThd and SHOMethod are set per RNC with the command SET
HOCOMM.
HARD-CODED SHO PARAMETERS
Parameter Name Value Description
Maximum AS Size 3 Maximum allowed size of the active set.
Triggering Condition 1 Active set It specifies which cells can trigger an event 1B and
1F. It can take on enumerated values: Active set
cells, Monitored set cells, Active and Monitored set
cells.
Triggering Condition 2 Monitored
set
It specifies which cells can trigger an event 1A and
1E. It can take on enumerated values: Active set
cells, Monitored set cells, Active and Monitored set
cells, Detected set cells, detected set and monitored
set cells.
Replacement_Activation
_
Threshold
3 Minimum size of the active set for event 1C to be
triggered.
Report_Deactivation_
Threshold
2 Maximum active set size for event 1A to be
triggered
4.2.3 Most Relevant Key Performance Indicators
KPI Description
SHO RRC Signalling
Load
(priority=1)
Estimation of signalling load (RRC messages) required to
support the soft handover algorithm, and so the processing load
associated and backhaul requirements. This is measured in
number of Meas Rpt + AS Update messages per call (and/or
sec). Other possibility is to express this in kbps.
Simulations have shown the sensitivity of this indicator to sho
algorithm implementation.
Soft Handover Gain
(priority=1)
Reduction in UE Transmit Power when a second leg is added to
the AS (a cell from a different NB, i.e. selection), compared to
that of a single leg.
It can be also measured as the reduction of the Eb/No required
with several UL/DL SHO legs from the value required with only
one leg. This is the Eb/No reduction due to SHO procedure
Softer Handover Gain
(priority=2)
Reduction in UE Transmit Power when a second leg is added to
the AS (a cell from the same NB, i.e. combination), compared to
that of a single leg.
Active Set Size
(priority=2)
Distribution (historgram) of the number of legs in the active set
of a uniformly distributed UE population. High active set sizes
may indicate too much overlap between cells and so an increase
in neighbour cell interference and a capacity decrease.
Softer Handover Factor
(priority=2)
Percentage of CS/PS calls that are in soft handover, i.e. having
one or more additional intra-NodeB radio links
91
Soft Handover Factor
(priority=2)
Percentage of CS/PS calls that are in soft handover, i.e. having
one or more additional inter-NodeB radio links
SHO Success Rate
(priority=1)
Ratio of the number of successfull soft handovers over the total
number of attempts.
Max Power Per Code
Hits
(priority=2)
Percentage of time the Max Power per Code is reached on the
downlink, for the duration of the call. Assuming that cell
planning and Pwr Ctrl are correct, a high value indicates failure
to execute soft-HO on time.
Power Imbalance
between SHO legs
(priority=2)
Max difference in EcIo between all cells in the UE active set,
for the duration of the call. High imbalance means wrong SHO
parameters, since legs with low power compared to the best cell
do not contribute to QoS.
Power Imbalance
between Serving and
Neighbour Cells
(priority=2)
Min difference in EcIo between monitored and serving cells, for
the duration of the call. Low imbalance denotes that the
neighbour is a good candidate to be added to the active set.
Event1x Reporting Rate
(priority=2)
Number of measurement reports messages that contain a given
intra-frequency SHO event per unit time.
Add event response Time
(priority=1)
Interval elapsed between the time when the UE transmit an add-
cell event measurement report and the moment when UE sends
the Active Set Update Complete. Note that this time includes the
NBAP Radio Link Setup/Addition between the RNC and the
Node-B.
Delete Event Response
Time
(priority=2)
Interval elapsed between the time when the UE transmit a
delete-cell event measurement report and the moment when UE
sends the Active Set Update Complete. Note that this time does
not include the NBAP Radio Link Deletion between the RNC
and the Node-B
During the validation of the soft handover algorithm through simulations, the
following performance metrics were considered.
Call quality and outage (average FER over the call duration, per call)
RRC signalling load (measurement report and AS update messages)
Transmitted power per cell
Noise rise per cell
Number of active legs per cell
Average number of cells and number of Node Bs in the active set
The first high-level statistics to examine are the voice quality (FER) and outage
probability. Typically the FER target is set at 2%, and the outage probability is
defined by a FER threshold which was set (arbitrarily for the simulations) at the FER
target + 10%, i.e. 2.2%. The meaning of that metric is the percentage of calls that do
not meet their QoS criterion. An outage would occur e.g. if the maximum downlink
Tx power per code is reached for a long enough period of time. That could happen
when the addition of a better cell to the active set is delayed due to the SHO
algorithm. This is called call quality outage probability.
92
The call quality outage probability showed mean values between 1% and 3.3% in the
assessment of the original soft handover algorithm in strict mode, which points to a
possible problem in the algorithm design. Note that when studying the KPI results, in
addition to the mean values, one should also pay attention to the distribution and
evolution in time and/or in the cell layout of the metric. Figure 4-6 is an example that
highlights situations of unacceptable performance of the soft handover algorithm
(even though the mean outage seems low).
Figure 4-6. Call quality and outage for original strict mode SHO algorithm
Another key metric for the validation is the RRC signalling load required to support
the soft handover algorithm, and so the processing load associated. This includes the
number of 1x measurement reports, active set update, active set update complete and
measurement control messages. Clearly, the signalling load strongly depends with the
UE mobility, cell layout and fading environment, but in the same situation this
statistic may be a determinant factor to prefer one algorithm to another.
Finally, the DL NB transmit power and UL noise rise characterise the cell load at
which the algorithm is being evaluated, but shows little sensitivity to implementation
details or parameter settings (at least at low-medium load).
4.2.4 Optimisation Guidelines
The soft handover algorithm (both, SHO_METHOD1 and SHO_METHOD2) has
been assessed through simulations, together with the USR1 OLPC algorithm. The
assessment was carried out in the USS with the purpose of validating the algorithm
implementation and its performance with a reasonable set of parameter values. This
section presents recommendations based on those simulation results, and the
sensitivity analysis carried out, for both soft handover methods supported in USR2.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SHO_METHOD1
Three different scenarios were considered: (i) PED_A at 3km/h, (ii) TU3, and (iii)
PED_A at 60 km/h. In all cases, the cell layout consists of 5x5 Node Bs, 3-sector (75
cells), equi-spaced 1000 m apart, in wrap-around mode (no border effects). The
antenna pattern has 60 beamwidth and a max gain of 17 dB. The offered traffic
93
consists of 2,250 voice calls uniformly distributed over the 75 cells. This corresponds
to a low-medium cell load (UL Noise rise = 1 dB, DL Tx Pwr = 40%).
The choice of radio channel (Pedestrian A vs. TU) has a significant impact on the 1x
events parameters, particularly the 1E and 1F thresholds. This is due to the fact that
one channel is much more dispersive than the other and the model of the UE pilot
measurements uses only the strongest path to compute the EcIo. So, for equal Tx
power and pathloss, the EcIo measured at the UE will be smaller for a TU channel
compared to a Pedestrian A channel; about 5 dB smaller.
Table 4-1 shows the current parameter recommendations for PED_A and TU channel
models when using SHO_METHOD1. Although no proper optimisation and
sensitivity analysis has been performed on those, they have shown reasonable good
performance. Special attention has been paid to the setting of the 1E and 1F
thresholds. In particular, the 1F threshold is set to a lower value (and the hysteresis
increased) in the TU environment to account for the lower EcIo measured by the UE.
In addition, the 1E threshold, hysteresis and time to trigger are set to the maximum
allowed values (0 dB, 7.5 dB and 5 sec) to minimise the probability of event 1E being
triggered.
Recommended Value
Parameter Name PED_A TU3 Source
Event 1A
IntraRelThdFor1A 5 dB Simulation
Hystfor1A 3 dB Simulation
TrigTime1A 640 ms Simulation
PeriodMRReportNumfor1
A
4 Simulation
ReportIntervalfor1A 2 sec Simulation
1A & 1B Weight 0 Simulation
Event 1B
IntraRelThdFor1B 5 dB Simulation
Hystfor1B 3 dB Simulation
TrigTime1B 640 ms Simulation
Event 1C
Hystfor1C 3 dB Simulation
TrigTime1C 640 ms Simulation
PeriodMRReportNumfor1
C
4 Simulation
ReportIntervalfor1C 2 sec Simulation
Event 1D
Hystfor1D 4 dB Simulation
TrigTime1D 640 ms Simulation
Event 1E
IntraAblThdFor1E 0 dB Simulation
Hystfor1E 7.5 dB Simulation
TrigTime1E 5000 ms Simulation
Event 1F
IntraAblThdFor1F -16 dB -18 dB Simulation
Hystfor1F 3 dB 4 dB Simulation
TrigTime1F 640 ms Simulation
DetectStatSwitch OFF Engineering
judgment
DivCtrlField MAY Engineering
judgment
PenaltyTime 30 sec MML
94
BEBitRateThd Engineering
judgment
SHOMethod SHO_METHOD1
Table 4-1. SHO parameter recommendations for SHO_METHOD1
The unusual 1E event triggering settings are a consequence of the algorithm
implementation details and the changes (CRs) included, specifically due to the use of
the 1B and 1F boolean flags. They have been chosen to basically disable event 1E
measurement reporting and so make the algorithm work mainly with events 1A, 1B,
1C and 1D as SHO_METHOD2 does. Then, cells are added and deleted based on
their relative signal strength and 1E/1F flag is never set. Occasionally, a cell may be
dropped by a 1F event when its absolute strength becomes too low before a 1B event
is triggered. These settings have been proven in simulations to be a more robust way
to run the current soft handover algorithm.
SHO settings
Parameter Name Config A
(1A, 1B, 1C,
1D)
Config B
(1A, 1B, 1C, 1D, 1E, 1F)
IntraAblThdFor1
E
0 dB -14 dB
Hystfor1E 7.5 dB 2 dB
TrigTime1E 5 sec 640 ms
Table 4-2. SHO settings to effectively enable/disable event 1E
However, other settings are also possible. Table 4-2 shows typical settings for normal
behaviour in which 1E event is enabled (1A, 1B, 1C, 1D, 1E and 1F mode). The
disadvantage in this case is an increase in the RRC signalling load required, with no
gain in terms of radio performance.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SHO_METHOD2
For the evaluation of the SHO_METHOD2 algorithm, two different scenarios have
been considered: (i) PED_A at 3 km/h and (ii) PED_A at 10 km/h. The cell layout
consists of 5x5 Node Bs, 3-sector (75 cells), equi-spaced 1000 m apart, in wrap-
around mode (no border effects). The offered traffic is a mix of voice and data
services. The data traffic is best effort performing web browsing sessions with two
different RABs, one symmetrical (64/64 kbps) and another asymmetrical (32/144
kbps), with a BLER target of 10%.
The parameter recommendations for SHO_METHOD2 are the same as those shown
in Table 4-1, ignoring settings for events 1E and 1F. Table 4-3 and Table 4-4 show
the call quality statistics (measured FER for voice and BLER for data) in uplink and
downlink. As it can be seen, the OLPC tends to lead to a lower than requested average
FER (0.7% instead of 1%) and much higher standard deviation. This is a known
behaviour of OLPC (see Power Control section).
Voice FER
(%)
Data BLER (%)
95
Scenario Traffic mix Mean Std Mean Std
PED_A @ 3 km/h Voice only 0.71 0.124 - -
PED_A @ 10
km/h
Voice + Data (64/64) 0.70 0.180 9.9 0.61
PED_A @ 10
km/h
Voice + Data (32/144) 0.72 0.239 9.5 6.26
Table 4-3. Uplink call quality statistics for SHO_METHOD2
Voice FER
(%)
Data BLER (%)
Scenario Traffic mix Mean Std Mean Std
PED_A @ 3 km/h Voice only 1.03 0.035 - -
PED_A @ 10
km/h
Voice + Data (64/64) 1.03 0.035 1.0 0.09
PED_A @ 10
km/h
Voice + Data (32/144) 1.06 0.066 1.03 0.45
Table 4-4. Downlink call quality statistics for SHO_METHOD2
Statistics on the RRC signalling load required to support SHO are given in Table 4-5,
together with some metrics related to the associated RNC processing load. Finally, the
average NodeB transmit power is about 6 W and the uplink noise rise about 1 dB.
Typically, only 20% to 30% of the calls have more than one cell in their active set.
The full set of simulation results for the validation of the SHO algorithm can be seen
in [SEA02-SHO4].
Scenario + Traffic mix
Signalling Voice
only
3km/h
Voice +
64/64
10km/h
Voice +
32/144
10km/h
Measurement Report 1A 2,162 2,074 1,124
Measurement Report 1B 884 1,654 650
Measurement Report 1C 385 628 275
Measurement Report 1D 867 1,362 599
Measurement Report 4,298 5,718 2,648
Active Set Update 3,058 4,165 1,971
Measurement Control 867 1,362 599
Total 11,281 15,140 7,189
Avg # MRs per call 1.9 5.1 2.7
Avg # AS updates per
call
1.4 3.7 2.0
Avg # Add Leg per call 1.1 2.5 1.5
Avg # Drop Leg per call 0.5 2.0 0.9
Table 4-5. Signalling and processing load statistics for SHO_METHOD2
PERFORMANCE COMPARISON BETWEEN SHO_METHOD1 AND SHO_METHOD2
In general, the preferred soft handover algorithm in USR1 is SHO_METHOD2 due to
its simplicity, robustness and good performance with lower RRC signalling load. In
terms of FER/BLER, outage probability, transmitted power and noise rise, both
96
algorithms deliver similar numbers but there is consistently a slight advantage for the
SHO_METHOD2 algorithm. This is also true for the average number of cells and
Node Bs in the active set, meaning less modems and less backhaul requirements for
the same amount of carried traffic (see [SEA02-SHO3] for more details).
However, there is a large difference in the RRC signalling load required by each
algorithm in terms of measurement reports and active set updates to support the soft
handover function. Table 4-6 shows the relative increase or decrease in the total RRC
signalling load compared to that of the USS default algorithm. It can be seen that
SHO_METHOD1 is clearly very demanding in signalling load, actually the original
SHO algorithm (in load 1.2.0.0.9) was even more demanding. Implementation of the
changes does improve things, but the load is still quite higher that that of
SHO_METHOD2.
SHO_METHOD2 SHO_METHOD1 Original SHO
Algorithm
PED_A, 3km/h -11 % 50 % 88 %
TU, 3km/h 23 % 41 % 122 %
PED_A, 3km/h 4 % 34 % 58 %
Table 4-6. Relative RRC signalling load to support SHO
Finally, it is recommended from IS-95 experience and earlier simulation results that a
value of 0 is used for the Weight factor, so that reporting of relative events 1A and 1B
is done with respect to the best cell only, as opposed to some aggregate quantity.
SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF SHO ALGORITHM (SHO_METHOD2)
Further to the previous simulation studies, a sensitivity analysis of the soft handover
algorithm was performed, with voice traffic only, in order to investigate the effect of
the variation of a number of parameters on the system performance (see [SEA02-
SHO9] reports for full details). The emphasis of the analysis was on events 1A and 1B
parameters, but also some radio environment factors were varied. Following there is a
summary of the findings.
Reporting range of event 1A and event 1B
Variation of the reporting range of event 1A (R1a) and event 1B (R1b), together
with the hysteresis value, effectively changes the size of the handover window, i.e.
the difference between the EcIo level at which a cell is added to the active set and
that at which a cell is deleted from the active set.
For a fixed R1b, the signalling load increases with R1a, both in terms of
measurement reports and active set updates. Using R1a=3 dB makes it too
difficult for a cell to join the active set, which translates into higher inter-cell
interference and higher number of UEs reaching the maximum power per code in
the downlink. On the other hand, R1a=7 dB makes too easy for a cell to join the
active set, which means higher signalling load and a larger size of the active set.
Therefore R1a=5 dB is a compromise between signalling load, average active set
size and radio resource usage.
97
When R1a is fixed, the average active set size increases with R1b. This is due to
the fact that a cell can stay longer in the active set, even when its EcIo is
degrading. So R1b=5 dB is preferred over R1b= 7 dB since it leads to lower
resource utilisation, although higher RRC signalling. Note that the effect of R1b
parameter is compounded by the event 1C parameter settings, which may be
responsible of deleting cells from the active set that would have stayed there
otherwise for R1b=7 dB. This is the reason why higher interference level is not
shown in the simulations when R1b=7 dB.
Time-to-trigger of event 1A and event 1B
Simulations from different values of the time-to-trigger parameter for event 1A
(T1a) and event 1B (T1b) in the range from 0 sec to 1280 ms, showed low
sensitivity in the average number of cells and Node Bs in the active set as well as
the call quality.
Regarding the signalling load, for a given T1b, as T1a increases, the number of
MRs triggered by event 1A decreases. Hence, also decreases the number of MRs
triggered by other events (1B & 1C) since the average active set size decreases
too. For a given T1a, as T1b increases, the number of MRs triggered by event 1B
decreases but those triggered by event 1C increases as 1C is triggered before 1B in
this situation. Also, since 1C is likely to lead to a swap of cells in the active set, it
reduces the number of events 1A too.
Results of time-to-trigger values are not conclusive, partly because the KPIs are
not appropriate, and partly because it was not foreseen that the settings of event
1C parameters influence the results. Hence a value of 640 ms is initially chosen
for both events 1A and 1B, as a compromise between signalling load and
handover speed.
CPICH power
The variation of CPICH power from 1W to 2W, has a clear impact on the network
interference level as the minimum downlink transmit power from each cell
increases. However, it has no impact on the signalling load or the number of cells
and Node Bs in the active set. This is consistent with the fact that the SHO
algorithm2 does not use absolute events 1E and 1F, but only events based on the
relative comparison of EcIo levels. In addition, the voice call quality was identical
(mean and std-dev of FER) and meeting the target values. This means that the
system was properly dimensioned for 1W CPICH and that no coverage advantage
was gained from increasing the CPICH power.
Loading (carried traffic)
In the simulations, the cell load was increased from 30 to 45 voice calls per cell on
average to see the impact on system performance. Results showed basically no
difference in the statistics apart from an increase in the downlink transmit power
and uplink noise rise. Hence it was conclude that the system could handle the
offered load (note that there is no OVSF code limitation) and that further runs at
60 and 75 voice calls per cell could be of interest.
98
Radio channel model
In addition to the algorithm parameters, the system performance also depends on
the characteristics of the radio environment. In the simulations, two different well-
known radio models were used, Pedestrian A and Vehicular A. The Pedestrian A
channel is not very dispersive. At most two paths contribute significantly to the
received signal level and one of them is 10 dB below the other one on average. On
the contrary, the Vehicular A model is much more dispersive, with mostly four
paths contributing to the signal within 10 dB of each other on average.
Results show that the RRC signalling load metrics are not affected by the channel
model considered. This is clearly an advantage of using soft handover events
based on relative thresholds, which would not be the case with events 1E and 1F.
Also, there is an increased downlink transmit power and lower noise rise in the
uplink for the Vehicular A channel, as expected from the higher number of
multipaths.
UE Mobility
As a pilot scenario, a simulation run was carried out increasing the mobility of the UE
population to a constant speed of 30 km/h for all mobiles, as opposed to the usual
speed distribution with 16.2 km/h on average, all other conditions and parameters
being equal. Unsurprisingly, the results show an increase in the measurement
reporting rate and active set update closely related to the speed ratio between both
scenarios. Also, the average downlink transmit power increases by nearly 25% while
the noise rise is unaffected.
4.3 Intra-frequency Hard Handover
Although soft/softer handover is the preferred procedure to handle RRC connection
mobility in USR2, there are times when only a hard handover can be performed. The
hard handover procedure removes all the RL(s) in the active set and establishes new
RL(s). An intra-frequency hard handover is only performed when one of the following
conditions apply.
There is no Iur interface between the source and target RNC.
The UE is using a PS RAB at a bit rate above a preset threshold BEBitRateThd.
If one of the conditions described above holds, intra-frequency hard handover is
performed on the reception of 1D events. Then the handover criteria is controlled by
the parameters Hystfor1D and TrigTime1D. Once the hard handover is executed, the
monitored set becomes the neighbour list of the new best cell.
4.3.1 Optimisation Guidelines
The parameter BEBitRateThd, gives the operator the possibility to handle best effort
services with bit rates above certain threshold in hard handover. This is to avoid
99
employing too many valuable resources (OVSF codes, NodeB power, etc) on radio
bearers and coverage areas for which the system has not been designed.
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
DL max power per code for Data UE (Voice + Data 64/64)
M
a
x

P
w
r

p
e
r

C
o
d
e

l
i
m
i
t

(
%
)
#calls
64k HHO
64k SHO
Figure 4-7. Percentage of UEs that reach the max power per code for a service of 64k data, for each
simulation run in case of SHO Vs HHO
The question of whether it is more efficient to operate data calls (above certain rate) in
hard handover or in soft handover has been initially addressed in [SEA02-SHO3] with
a comparison of 64/64 and 32/144 RABs in both soft and hard handover. From the
point of view of interference and downlink power consumption, in HHO it is expected
higher power to be transmitted from one cell, whereas in SHO lower power is
expected to be transmitted from more than one cell. This increases the probability of
reaching the maximum power per code in the case of HHO as it can be seen in Figure
4-7 for the case of a 64/64k data service with and without soft handover. On the other
hand, from an OVSF code and backhaul point of view, it is obviously more efficient
to operate high data rate services in HHO as less resources are consumed.
The balance between hard/soft handover and resource utilisation is closely linked to
the guaranteed service coverage given by the operator. During cell planning, the
network is normally designed to have voice coverage in all the cell area, and also for
data services up to a certain rate (usually 64 kbps). Then, for services with a higher
rate, coverage can only be achieved if soft handover is used, as otherwise the
maximum power per code is hit systematically. Then, for even higher rate services,
only very limited coverage is possible within the cell, irrespective of whether SHO is
enabled or not. A rule of thumb is to set BEBitRateThd to the maximum bit rate with
guaranteed cell coverage.
100
4.4 Inter-frequency Hard Handover
4.4.1 Algorithm Overview
To allow for multi-carrier deployment, USR2 supports inter-frequency hard handover
for both CS and PS domains. This is necessary to avoid discontinuous carrier
coverage during UE movement. This section covers inter-frequency handover due to
poor radio link quality but note that the hard handover mechanism is also applied to
inter-carrier load balancing (which is covered in another section of this document).
Inter-frequency handover is based on a combination of periodic and event-triggered
reporting depending on the quality of the used frequency. The UE is commanded to
evaluate events 2D and 2F. When the RNC receives a 2D event and the strongest pilot
in the active set (serving cell) has inter-frequency neighbours, compressed mode is
activated if required and a new MEASUREMENT CONTROL message is sent to
begin periodic measurement reporting of inter-frequency neighbouring cells.
Conversely, when the RNC receives a 2F event or the strongest pilot in the active set
no longer has inter-frequency neighbours, periodic inter-frequency reporting ends.
The flag InterFreqInterRATMeasInd indicates whether the cell has inter-frequency
cells, inter-RAT neighbour cells, or both in its idle mode neighbour list (as
broadcasted on SIB11). Note that, inter-frequency and inter-RAT compressed mode
gap patterns can run simultaneously.
Evaluation of 2D/2F events is made by using either Ec/No or RSCP depending on
whether the cell is marked as a center cell or as a verge (edge) cell in the
CellProperty attribute. Inter-frequency HHO is permitted from both centre and verge
(edge) cells. All that is required is that the serving cell has inter-frequency
neighbouring cells defined in the database.
The HOSWITCH parameter in the SET CORRMALGOSWITCH command is used to
turn on/off this functionality via the INTER_FREQUENCY_HANDOVER_SWITCH
flag.
4.4.1.1 Inter-frequency Reporting Events
The events that trigger the reporting of an inter-frequency measurement are described
in the following table. Only events 2D and 2F are supported in USR2, in addition to
periodic reporting. Note that event 1D is used to detect changes in the strongest active
set pilot. This is important for monitoring the strongest pilot neighbour configuration.
Event Name Event Description Associated Parameters
Event 2d The estimated quality of the currently
used frequency is below a certain
threshold
Threshold used frequency
Hysteresis value
Time to trigger
Event 2f The estimated quality of the currently
used frequency is above a certain
threshold
Threshold used frequency
Hysteresis value
Time to trigger
The criterion for events 2D and 2F is defined according to an absolute threshold.
Measurement reports are generated when the estimated quality of the used frequency
is above (or below) a given threshold and the hysteresis and time to trigger conditions
101
are fulfilled. The absolute threshold level can be configured in USR2 independently
for each traffic type (PS, CS or signalling only), event (2D or 2F) and quantity (RSCP
or EcIo) with the parameters InterFreqxThdFor2Dy and InterFreqxThdFor2Fy
(where x=CS, PS or SIG and y=RSCP or ECIO measurement).
The frequency quality estimate is defined in 3GPP as an aggregate measure of the
quality of all cells in the active set with the following expression.
j Best j
N
i
j i j j carrier j carrier
LogM W M Log W LogM Q
j A
+

,
_

10 ) 1 ( 10 10
1
Where,
Q
carrier j
is the estimated quality of the active set on frequency j.
M
carrier j
is the estimated quality of the active set on frequency j.
M
i j
is a measurement result of cell i in the active set on frequency j.
N
A j
is the number of cells in the active set on frequency j.
M
Bestj
is the measurement result of the best cell in the active set on frequency j.
W
j
is a parameter sent from UTRAN to UE and used for frequency j.
Then, the triggering condition for events 2D and 2F are respectively,
2 2
2 2 2 2 F F carrier D D carrier
H Threshold Q and H Threshold Q +
As the measurement quantity, both CPICH Ec/No and CPICH RSCP are used in
USR2 depending on the location of the cell in the network layout. Cells located in the
centre of the carrier frequency coverage use CPICH Ec/No while cells sited in the
border area of the carrier coverage use CPICH RSCP as the quality estimate. This
behaviour is configured for each cell with the CellProperty attribute. Consequently,
different thresholds need to be set per cell for each event type and measurement
quantity.
The filtering weight Wj defines how much relevance is given to the quality of the best
cell with respect to the remaining cells in the active set. This is given in USR2 by the
parameter WeightForUsedFreq on a per cell basis.
Finally, the hysteresis and time to trigger delay values can be configured per cell in
USR2 with the parameters Hystfor2z and TrigTime2z (where z = D or F) respectively.
4.4.1.2 Inter-frequency Periodic Reporting
Once a 2D event is received by UTRAN in a cell in the boundary to FDD carrier
coverage, the UE is configured to perform periodic monitoring of FDD cells on
different frequencies. The interval for periodic measurements is configured in the
PeriodReportInterval attribute. On the reception of a 2F event, periodic inter-
frequency reporting is disabled.
4.4.1.3 Inter-frequency Hard Handover Processing
During inter-frequency periodic reporting, the RNC receives quality estimates of all
(intra-frequency or inter-frequency) cells in the monitored set within the
MEASUREMENT REPORT message. Then, the RNC estimates the quality of the
used frequency with the following equation
102
, 10 ) 1 ( 10 10
1
H LogM W M Log W LogM Q
j Best j
N
i
j i j j carrier j carrier
j A
+ +

,
_

Where,
Q
carrier j
is the estimated quality of the active set on frequency j.
M
carrier j
is the estimated quality of the active set on frequency j.
M
i j
is a measurement result of cell i in the active set on frequency j.
N
A j
is the number of cells in the active set on frequency j.
M
Bestj
is the measurement result of the best cell in the active set on frequency j.
W
j
is a parameter sent from UTRAN to UE and used for frequency j.
H is the hysteresis parameter.
Then, if the estimated quality of the active set is worse than the reported quality of
another carrier and the time to trigger condition is fulfilled, inter-frequency hard
handover is performed. In addition, the quality of the destination cell for the handover
has to be above certain CPICH Ec/No and CPICH RSCP minimum thresholds.
The expression used to estimate the frequency quality is the same as the one used by
the UE for the reporting of events 2D and 2F. However, the equation parameters are
different. The hysteresis and time to trigger values for HHO processing are given in
USR2 by the parameters HystforHHO and TrigTimeHHO, respectively. And the
lowest acceptable CPICH RSCP and Ec/No levels of the hard handover destination
cell are set in the ADD CELLINTERFREQHO command attributes
HHOThdToMacroForRSCP and HHOThdToMacroForEcNo, respectively.
Note that it is only during periodic reporting that inter-frequency handover may
actually occur; reception of events 2D and 2F do not trigger the execution of a hard
handover but simply enable and disable compressed mode and periodic reporting.
4.4.2 Related Database Parameters
Note that inter-frequency handover may need to operate under compress mode, and so
related parameters need also be set appropriately. The table below presents inter-
frequency handover specific parameters. These are set per cell with the ADD
CELLINTERFREQHO command.
Parameter Name Physical Range Description
Hystfor2D 0 to 14.5
Unit: dB
Step: 0.5
Hysteresis value for inter-frequency
measurement event 2D.
TrigTime2D {0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100,
120, 160, 200, 240, 320,
640, 1280, 2560, 5000}
Unit: ms
Amount of time to delay the reporting of a
2D event to ensure the criteria are not
transient.
InterFreqxThd
For2DEcNo
(x=CS, PS, SIG)
-24 to 0
Unit: dB
Absolute threshold below which events
2D are triggered, when the measurement
quantity is Ec/No.
InterFreqxThd
For2DRSCP
(x=CS, PS, SIG)
115 to 25
Unit: dBm
Absolute threshold below which events
2D are triggered, when the measurement
quantity is RSCP.
Hystfor2F 0 to 14.5
Unit: dB
Hysteresis value for inter-frequency
measurement event 2F.
103
Step: 0.5
TrigTime2F {0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100,
120, 160, 200, 240, 320,
640, 1280, 2560, 5000}
Unit: ms
Amount of time to delay the reporting of a
2F event to ensure the criteria are not
transient.
InterFreqxThd
For2FEcNo
(x=CS, PS, SIG)
-24 to 0
Unit: dB
Absolute threshold the quality of the used
frequency must exceed in order to trigger
event 2F, when the measurement quantity
is Ec/No.
InterFreqxThd
For2FRSCP
(x=CS, PS, SIG)
115 to 25
Unit: dBm
Absolute threshold the quality of the used
frequency must exceed in order to trigger
event 2F, when the measurement quantity
is RSCP.
WeightForUsedFre
q
0 to 1
Step: 0.05
Filtering weight to be used on the best cell
measurement versus the active set
aggregate strength for event 2D/2F.
HystforHHO 0 to 14.5
Unit: dB
Step: 0.5
Hysteresis value of the inter-freq hard
handover execution. This is a USR2
proprietary parameter.
TrigTimeHHO 0 to 64000
Unit: ms
Inter-frequency hard handover trigger
delay time. This is a USR2 proprietary
parameter.
HHOThdToMacro
ForRSCP
-115 to 25
Unit: dBm
The lowest RSCP of the inter-freq hard
handover destination cell. This is a USR2
proprietary parameter.
HHOThdToMacro
ForEcNo
-24 to 0
Unit: dB
The lowest Ec/No of the inter-freq hard
handover destination cell. This is a USR2
proprietary parameter.
PeriodReport
Interval
{250, 500, 1000, 2000,
4000, 8000, 16000, 20000,
24000, 28000, 32000,
64000}
Unit: ms
Inter-frequency measurement reporting
period.
CellProperty {MACRO_CELL,
MICRO_CELL_CARRIER
_FREQUENCY_CENTER,
MICRO_CELL_CARRIER
_FREQUENCY_VERGE,
NONLAYERED_CELL_C
ARRIER_FREQUENCY_C
ENTER,
NONLAYERED_CELL_C
ARRIER_FREQUENCY_C
ENTER}
Location of the cell in the Network. Cells
in the center of the carrier coverage use
CPICH Ec/No as the measurement
quantity for inter-frequency reports. Cells
in the border area use CPICH RSCP.
4.4.3 Most Relevant Key Performance Indicators
KPI Description
Inter-Freq HHO RRC
Signalling Load
(priority=1)
Estimation of signalling load (RRC messages) required to
support the inter-Freq hard handover algorithm, and so the
processing load associated and backhaul requirements. This is
measured in number of Meas Rpt + Phy Chann Reconfig
messages per call (and/or per sec). Other possibility is to express
this in kbps.
104
AMR Quality during
Inter-Freq HHO
(priority=1)
MOS (Mean Opinion Score) during inter-Freq hard handover
execution for AMR services
Inter-Freq HHO Failure
Rate
(priority=1)
Percentage of attempts failed when the system is trying to
handover the call to another frequency
Inter-Freq HHO rate
(priority=2)
Average number of incoming/outgoing inter-Freq Hard
Handovers completed per unit time.
Inter-Freq HHO delay
(priority=1)
Average time required to complete an inter-Freq HHO
procedure, from the MR triggered is received until reception of
the Phy Chann Reconfig Complete message by the RNC
Event2x Reporting Rate
(priority=2)
Number of measurement reports messages that contain a given
inter-frequency HHO event per unit time.
4.4.4 Optimisation Guidelines
The following values for database parameters are suggested for USR2. Note that these
are physical values and that conversion may be required to obtain the RNC database
values.
Parameter Name Recommended
Value
Source Comments
InterFreqxThdFor2DEcNo
(x=CS, PS, SIG)
-19 dB Simulation Acceptable voice
performance up to about
-20 dB. See RID-20 report
InterFreqxThdFor2DRSCP
(x=CS, PS, SIG)
-95 dBm MML
Hystfor2D 3 dB MML Common hysteresis value
TrigTime2D 640 ms MML
InterFreqxThdFor2FEcNo
(x=CS, PS, SIG)
-19 dB Simulation Acceptable voice
performance up to about
-20 dB. See RID-20 report
InterFreqxThdFor2FRSCP
(x=CS, PS, SIG)
-90 dBm MML
Hystfor2F 3 dB MML
TrigTime2F 640 ms MML
WeightForUsedFreq 0 Engineering
judgment
HystforHHO 3 dB MML
TrigTimeHHO 640 ms MML
HHOThdToMacroForRSC
P
-90 dBm Simulation
HHOThdToMacroForEcNo -19 dB Simulation Acceptable voice
performance up to about
-20 dB. See RID-20 report
PeriodReportInterval 500 msec MML
CellProperty - According to cell layout
and coverage border areas
105
4.5 Inter-RAT Hard Handover
The purpose of the inter-RAT handover procedure is to, under the control of the
network, transfer a UE connection from one radio access technology (e.g. UTRAN) to
another (e.g. GSM). USR1 supports both, handover from GSM to UTRAN and
handover from UTRAN to GSM on CS and PS domains (Cell Change Order), but not
simultaneously. This section covers only handover from UTRAN to GSM.
4.5.1 Algorithm Overview
In order to offer worldwide coverage, the handover from UTRAN to GSM is a key
feature especially during early deployment stages where islands of UMTS coverage
are envisaged. The procedure is initiated from UTRAN with a RRC message
HANDOVER FROM UTRAN COMMAND. Then the UE must establish the
connection to GSM and release all UMTS radio resources.
The handover can be implemented without simultaneous use of two receiver chains at
the UE. In this case, the UE can do the measurements by using idle periods in the
downlink transmission created by the Compressed Mode procedure. Compressed
Mode is under the control of the UTRAN, which should communicate to the UE
which frame is slotted (see Section 4.7).
Inter-RAT handover is based on periodic measurement reports and only applies to
cells in the UTRAN coverage area, which have GSM cells included in the neighbour
list. Initially, the UE is commanded to evaluate the quality of the used frequency
through events 2D and 2F, as defined in Section 4.4.1.1. When the RNC receives a 2D
event, a new MEASUREMENT CONTROL message is sent to begin periodic
measurement reporting of GSM neighbouring cells. Conversely, when the RNC
receives a 2F event, periodic inter-frequency reporting ends. Selection of whether
EcIo or RSCP is to be used as the measurement quantity for events 2D and 2F is
perform by setting the CellProperty attribute in the ADD CELLINTERRATHO
command.
For inter-RAT handover (and also compressed mode) to be enabled in a given cell, the
cell must have GSM adjacent cells. In addition, the InterFreqInterRATMeasInd flag
(ADD CELLMEAS command) indicates whether the inter-frequency and/or inter-
RAT neighbours will be broadcasted on SIB11 for a given cell (i.e. in its idle mode
neighbour list). However, the connected mode neighbour list will be composed of all
defined neighbours in the data base, irrespective of the settings of the ADD
CELLMEAS command. Note that in USR2, a cell can be configured as having inter-
frequency, inter-RAT or both types of neighbours.
The HOSWITCH (in the SET CORRMALGOSWITCH command) parameter, via the
INTERRAT_HO_OUT_SUPP_SWITCH and INTERRAT_HO_IN_SUPP_SWITCH
flags, is used to allow inter-RAT HHO out of or into the UMTS system. The
INTERRAT_PS_HO_SUPP_SWITCH flag is used to control PS traffic handover out
of UMTS.
106
4.5.1.1 Inter-RAT Periodic Reporting
Once a 2D event (current active set quality is below a given threshold) is received by
UTRAN in a cell in the boundary to GSM coverage, the UE is configured to perform
periodic monitoring of GSM neighbouring cells. The measurement quantity is GSM
carrier RSSI, but BSIC identification and reconfirmation must be also attempted. The
interval for periodic measurements is configured with the RptInterval attribute of the
CELL INTERRATHO command. During inter-RAT measurements, the UE continues
to monitor the quality of the current active set and on the reception of a 2F event,
periodic inter-RAT measurement reporting is disabled.
USR2 supports independent configuration of the 2D/2F thresholds for CS, PS and
signalling only RABs. This is set with the parameters InterRATxThdFor2Dy and
InterRATxThdFor2Fy, where x = CS, PS or SIG, and y = RSCP or ECIO.
4.5.1.2 Inter-RAT Handover Processing
During inter-RAT periodic measurement reporting, the RNC receives quality
estimates of all GSM cells in the monitored set within the MEASUREMENT
REPORT message. The quality measure used is GSM carrier RSSI, but in addition,
the UE also performs GSM BSIC identification and GSM BSIC reconfirmation.
Then, if the GSM carrier RSSI is greater than certain threshold (including hysteresis)
and the time to trigger expires, inter-RAT hard handover is performed. The target
GSM cell should be the best-ranked whose BSIC has been identified and reconfirmed.
However, if there are no cells with BSIC identified, the cell with the best RSSI value
is chosen (actually there are different handover criteria for BSIC verified and non-
verified, see below). Note that BSIC reconfirmation is not currently used in the
handover metric.
Configuration of the GSM RSSI threshold level, hysteresis value and time to trigger
delay is achieved in USR2 through the attributes GsmRssixThd (there is a different
parameter for CS, PS and signalling RABs), HystThd and TimeToTrigForx (where
x=Verify or NonVerify) respectively, with the ADD CELLINTERRATHO command
on a per cell basis.
A cell enters the candidate list for handover when the RSSI (plus cell individual
offset) is greater than GsmRssixThd + HystThd/2 at least during a period of
TimeToTrigForVerify (for GSM cells reported with BSIC verified) or
TimeToTrigForNonVerify,(for GSM cells reported with BSIC non-verified).
Handover is executed to the first GSM cell that fulfils the criteria above, and if
there is more than one cell in the candidate list, the one with strongest RSSI is
chosen.
A cell exits the candidate list for handover when the RSSI (plus cell individual
offset) is less than GsmRssixThd - HystThd/2 any time. It must re-satisfy the
above conditions to re-enter the candidate list.
If a handover to a GSM cell fails for whatever reason, the RNC will not initiate a
handover to that GSM cell for that UE for a period of PenaltyTimeForSysHO.
Note that it is only during periodic reporting that inter-system handover may actually
occur; reception of events 2D and 2F do not trigger the execution of a hard handover
107
but simply enable and disable inter-RAT measurement reporting and compressed
mode operation.
4.5.2 Related Database Parameters
Note that inter-RAT handover is closely linked to inter-frequency handover and
compress mode operation, and so parameters for those need also to be set suitably.
The table below presents inter-RAT handover specific parameters. These are set per
cell with the ADD CELLINTERRATHO command.
Parameter Name Physical Range Description
GsmRssiCSThd
110 to 48
Unit: dBm
Step: 1
Minimum GSM cell RSSI threshold for
inter-RAT handover of CS calls.
GsmRssiPSThd
110 to 48
Unit: dBm
Step: 1
Minimum GSM cell RSSI threshold for
inter-RAT handover of PS calls.
GsmRssiSIGThd
110 to 48
Unit: dBm
Step: 1
Minimum GSM cell RSSI threshold for
inter-RAT handover of signalling only
RABs.
HystThd 0 to 7.5
Unit: dB
Step: 0.5
Hysteresis value for inter-RAT
handover.
TimeToTrigForVerif
y
0 to 64000
Unit: ms
Time to trigger delay for inter-RAT
handover towards GSM cells reported
by the UE with BSIC verified. GSM
cell quality criteria must be satisfied
during this period for inter-RAT
handover to occur.
TimeToTrigFor
NonVerify
0 to 64000, 65535
Unit: ms
Time to trigger delay for inter-RAT
handover towards GSM cells reported
by the UE with BSIC non-verified.
GSM cell quality criteria must be
satisfied during this period for inter-
RAT handover to occur. The value
65535 means that handover will never
be initiated to a non-verified GSM cell.
RptInterval {250, 500, 1000, 2000,
3000, 4000, 6000, 8000,
12000, 16000, 20000,
24000, 28000, 32000,
64000}
Unit: ms
Time interval in which UE periodically
reports inter-RAT measurement results
to the RNC.
InterRATCSThd
For2DEcNo
-24 to 0
Unit: dB
Absolute threshold the quality of the
used frequency must exceed in order to
trigger event 2D for CS calls, when the
measurement quantity is Ec/No.
InterRATCSThd
For2FEcNo
-24 to 0
Unit: dB
Absolute threshold the quality of the
used frequency must exceed in order to
trigger event 2F for CS calls, when the
measurement quantity is Ec/No.
InterRATPSThd
For2DEcNo
-24 to 0
Unit: dB
Absolute threshold the quality of the
used frequency must exceed in order to
108
trigger event 2D for PS calls, when the
measurement quantity is Ec/No.
InterRATPSThd
For2FEcNo
-24 to 0
Unit: dB
Absolute threshold the quality of the
used frequency must exceed in order to
trigger event 2F for PS calls, when the
measurement quantity is Ec/No.
InterRATSIGThd
For2DEcNo
-24 to 0
Unit: dB
Absolute threshold the quality of the
used frequency must exceed in order to
trigger event 2D for signalling only
RABs, when the measurement quantity
is Ec/No.
InterRATSIGThd
For2FEcNo
-24 to 0
Unit: dB
Absolute threshold the quality of the
used frequency must exceed in order to
trigger event 2F for signalling only
RABs, when the measurement quantity
is Ec/No.
InterRATCSThd
For2DRSCP
-24 to 0
Unit: dB
Absolute threshold the quality of the
used frequency must exceed in order to
trigger event 2D for CS calls, when the
measurement quantity is RSCP.
InterRATCSThd
For2FRSCP
-24 to 0
Unit: dB
Absolute threshold the quality of the
used frequency must exceed in order to
trigger event 2F for CS calls, when the
measurement quantity is RSCP.
InterRATPSThd
For2DRSCP
-24 to 0
Unit: dB
Absolute threshold the quality of the
used frequency must exceed in order to
trigger event 2D for PS calls, when the
measurement quantity is RSCP.
InterRATPSThd
For2FRSCP
-24 to 0
Unit: dB
Absolute threshold the quality of the
used frequency must exceed in order to
trigger event 2F for PS calls, when the
measurement quantity is RSCP.
InterRATSIGThd
For2DRSCP
-24 to 0
Unit: dB
Absolute threshold the quality of the
used frequency must exceed in order to
trigger event 2D for signalling only
RABs, when the measurement quantity
is RSCP.
InterRATSIGThd
For2FRSCP
-24 to 0
Unit: dB
Absolute threshold the quality of the
used frequency must exceed in order to
trigger event 2F for signalling only
RABs, when the measurement quantity
is RSCP.
4.5.3 Most Relevant Key Performance Indicators
KPI Description
Inter-RAT HHO RRC
Signalling Load
Estimation of signalling load (RRC messages) required to
support the inter-RAT hard handover algorithm, and so the
processing load associated and backhaul requirements. This is
measured in number of Meas Rpt + Phy Chann Reconfig
messages per call (and/or per sec). Other possibility is to express
this in kbps.
109
AMR Quality during
Inter-RAT HHO
MOS (Mean Opinion Score) during inter-RAT hard handover
execution for AMR services
Inter-RAT HHO Rate Average number of incoming/outgoing Inter-RAT Hard
Handovers completed per unit time.
Inter-RAT HHO failure
Rate
Percentage of attempts failed when the system is trying to
handover the call to another technology
Inter-RAT HHO delay Average time required to complete an inter-RAT HHO
procedure, from the MR triggered is received until the HO
FROM UTRAN COMMAND message is sent to the UE
4.5.4 Optimisation Guidelines
The following values for database parameters are suggested for USR2. Note that these
are physical values and that conversion may be required to enter the RNC database.
Parameter Name Recommended
Value
Source Comments
GsmRssiCSThd -90 dBm MML
GsmRssiPSThd -85 dBm MML
GsmRssiSIGThd -90 dBm MML
HystThd 2 dB Simulation [QoS38-F2]
TimeToTrigForVerify 0 ms MML Initiate Ho immediately
upon BSIC verification
TimeToTrigForNonVerify 65535 Turn timer off
RptInterval 1000 msec MML
InterRATCSThdFor2DEcNo -19 dB Simulation Acceptable voice
performance up to about
-20 dB. See RID-20
report
InterRATCSThdFor2FEcNo -19 dB Simulation
InterRATPSThdFor2DEcNo
InterRATPSThdFor2FEcNo
InterRATSIGThdFor2DEcN
o
InterRATSIGThdFor2FEcN
o
InterRATCSThdFor2DEcNo -95 dBm MML
InterRATCSThdFor2FEcNo -90 dBm MML
InterRATPSThdFor2DEcNo
InterRATPSThdFor2FEcNo
InterRATSIGThdFor2DEcN
o
InterRATSIGThdFor2FEcN
o
4.6 Combined Inter-frequency & Inter-RAT Hard Handover
In addition to stand-alone inter-frequency or inter-RAT hard handover, USR2 also
supports a combined hard handover algorithm, in case a cell has both types of
neighbours defined: inter-frequency and GSM.
110
In broad terms, the algorithm implementation is very similar for any mixture of
neighbour cells. The difference relies in the configuration parameters to be used,
compressed mode configuration and the selection of the target cell (especially in
situations when there is more than one candidate in the list).
The quality of the used frequency is evaluated by using the RRC events 2D & 2F. On
reception of event 2D, the UE begins periodic measurement reporting of all inter-
frequency and GSM neighbouring cells defined in the database. On reception of event
2F, periodic inter-frequency and inter-RAT measurement reporting ends. Setting of
the 2D/2F thresholds (per service), is achieved with the standard inter-frequency or
inter-RAT attributes depending on the value of the CoexistMeasThdChoice parameter
in the command ADD CELLINTERFREQHO.
Once a 2D event is received, the conditions for hard handover execution are
monitored at the RNC. Handover can be triggered by either an inter-freq or an inter-
RAT neighbour, whichever meets the minimum level, hysteresis and time-to-trigger
conditions first, with no further distinction. By setting those parameters
(independently for inter-freq and inter-RAT neighbours), priority can be given to one
or another type as desired. However, if one or more inter-freq neighbour cells and one
or more inter-RAT neighbour cells qualify simultaneously for hard handover, priority
is given to the inter-freq neighbour as target cell.
In case the UE requires using compressed mode in order to take the measurements,
the RNC starts a three gap pattern for the following measurement purposes: FDD
measurement, RSSI and BSIC identification.
111
4.7 Compressed Mode Control
4.7.1 Algorithm Overview
Compressed mode is used to allow UEs to perform inter-frequency and inter-RAT
measurements. The prerequisite is that the UE supports the functionality. USR2
supports compressed mode in uplink, downlink and combined uplink + downlink,
according to UE capabilities.
Compressed Mode (CM) operation is used when a dual mode UE (UMTS + GSM
and/or DCS1800) or a dual band UE (UMTS + UMTS) nears the limit of coverage in
a UMTS system that borders a GSM, DCS1800, or another UMTS system on a
different frequency. The CM algorithm creates a hole or gap in the transmitted DL
and/or UL radio frame, allowing the UE receiver to change frequency and monitor the
adjacent GSM or DCS1800 system (for inter-RAT handover) or UMTS system (for
inter-frequency handover). Even though there is a gap in the transmitted frame no
data is lost. All of the data that would normally have been sent in the frame is
compressed to fit into fewer slots.
The process for compressing the data to fit into fewer than the normal 15 slots is
called time compression. Several time compression methods are available:
spreading factor reduction by 2 (SF/2), puncturing (rate matching), and higher layer
scheduling. Puncturing refers to applying rate matching techniques for creating a
transmission gap in a radio frame. SF/2 consists of reducing the spreading factor by 2
during one compressed radio frame to enable transmission of the information bits in
half of the radio frame (7.5 slots). And in the higher layer scheduling method, only a
subset of the allowed TFCs are used in the compressed mode frame. In USR2
puncturing and spreading factor reduction by 2 methods are supported.
The UE can be configured with a single compressed mode pattern sequence for each
measurement purpose. The following types of gap patterns can be configured per
RNC via the compressed mode purpose (TGMP) attribute in the SET TGPSCP
command.
For inter-frequency measurements
FDD measurement
For inter-RAT measurements
GSM carrier RSSI measurement
Initial BSIC identification
BSIC reconfirmation
Depending on whether the UE needs to perform FDD measurements only, GSM
measurements only or both, the RNC activates the appropriate gap patterns. For FDD
operation only, a single FDD measurement gap is activated. For GSM operation
only, three simultaneous gap patterns are activated (RSSI, BSIC_ID, and BSIC_re-
confirm). And for combined FDD and GSM operation, three simultaneous gap patters
are used (RSSI, BSIC_ID and FDD measurement). The BSIC re-confirmation gap
112
pattern is not used when the UE needs to measure simultaneously inter-frequency and
inter-RAT neighbours in order to decrease the impact of compressed mode operation
on quality and performance.
The compressed mode procedure is initiated by the CRNC in USR2 by sending a
RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION PREPARE message to the Node B with a
modification of the Transmission Gap Pattern Sequence Code Information radio link
parameters. On the other hand, deactivation is achieved via the COMPRESS MODE
COMMAND.
The HOSWITCH parameter in the SET CORRMALGOSWITCH command is used to
configure downlink CM operation via the CMCF_SUPP_SWITCH flag. When the
CMCF_PUNCTURING_SUPP_SWITCH flag is set, downlink frame time
compression by puncturing is allowed, otherwise SF/2 is used in all cases.
4.7.1.1 Gap Pattern Description
The following parameters characterise the transmission gap pattern according to
3GPP 25.215.
TGSN (Transmission Gap Starting Slot Number): A transmission gap pattern
begins in a radio frame, henceforward called first radio frame of the transmission
gap pattern, containing at least one transmission gap slot. TGSN is the slot number
of the first transmission gap slot within the first radio frame of the transmission
gap pattern;
TGL1 (Transmission Gap Length 1): This is the duration of the first transmission
gap within the transmission gap pattern, expressed in number of slots;
TGL2 (Transmission Gap Length 2): This is the duration of the second
transmission gap within the transmission gap pattern, expressed in number of
slots. If this parameter is not explicitly set by higher layers, then TGL2 = TGL1;
TGD (Transmission Gap start Distance): This is the duration between the starting
slots of two consecutive transmission gaps within a transmission gap pattern,
expressed in number of slots. The resulting position of the second transmission
gap within its radio frame(s) shall comply with the limitations of 3GPP TS
25.212. If this parameter is not set by higher layers, then there is only one
transmission gap in the transmission gap pattern;
TGPL1 (Transmission Gap Pattern Length): This is the duration of transmission
gap pattern 1, expressed in number of frames;
TGPL2 (Transmission Gap Pattern Length): This is the duration of transmission
gap pattern 2, expressed in number of frames. If this parameter is not explicitly set
by higher layers, then TGPL2 = TGPL1
113
DOCUMENTTYPE
TypeUnitOrDepartmentHere
TypeYourNameHere TypeDateHere
Transmission
Transmission gap 2
gap 2
TGSN TGSN
TGL2 TGL2
TG pattern 2
#TGPRC
gap 1
Transmission Transmission
gap 1
TGD TGD
TGPL1 TGPL2
TG pattern 1 TG pattern 2
TGL1 TGL1
#1 #2 #3 #4 #5
TG pattern 1 TG pattern 1 TG pattern 2 TG pattern 1 TG pattern 2
Figure 4-8. Illustration of compressed mode pattern parameters
In addition, the following parameters control the transmission gap pattern sequence
start and repetition.
TGPRC (Transmission Gap Pattern Repetition Count): This is the number of
transmission gap patterns within the transmission gap sequence. Note that only
infinite TGPRC is supported in USR1.
TGCFN (Transmission Gap Connection Frame Number): This is the CFN of the
first radio frame of the first pattern within the transmission gap pattern sequence.
The pattern parameters that define a gap sequence are defined at the RNC. The
system operator cannot add, delete, or modify the parameters. However, the RNC
manufacturer can set or change the gap pattern parameters with the SET TGPSCP
internal command. The patterns are selected based on METHOD, CELL TYPE, and
TGPS (Transmission Gap Pattern Sequence, also referred to as Transmission Gap
Measurement Purpose - TGMP).
INTER-RAT GAP PATTERNS
For UMTS to GSM hard handovers, three TGPSs (measurement types) are used:
RSSI, BSIC_Verification, and BSIC_Reconfirm. These three types of patterns are run
simultaneously and form a composite pattern. The RNC has three sets of composite
patterns predefined in software for USR2, shown in Table 4-7, Table 4-8, and Table
4-9. In total the RNC can support up to eight sets of patterns (in addition to the eight
inter-frequency patterns). The SET TGPSCP command is used to enter additional sets
of patterns or to modify any of the pattern sets including the predefined sets. The
Frame Mode column indicates if the gap is a single frame gap or a double frame gap
(the gap spans a radio frame boundary). The double frame method allows the
definition of longer gaps since the specifications set a maximum idle length of 7 slots
per one 10 ms radio frame. When the transmission gap spans two consecutive radio
frames, parameters must be chosen so that no more than 7 slots in each radio frame
are idle.
114
Method: Puncturing
Cell Type: Low Speed, Middle Speed, High Speed
TGPS
TGL
1
(slot)
TGL2
(slot)
TGD
(slot
)
TGPL
1
(frame
)
TGPL
2
(frame
)
Treconfbort
(sec)
Nidabort
(pattern
)
GSMdeltaCfn
(frame)
TGSN
(slot
#)
Frame
Mode
RSSI 5 5 15 12 TGPL1 -- -- 0 5 Single
BSIC_
Verificatio
n
10 TGL1 270 12 TGPL1 -- 24 4 10 Double
BSIC_
Reconfirm
10 TGL1 270 12 TGPL1 3.0 -- 4 10 Double
Table 4-7. Puncturing gap pattern parameters for inter-RAT
Method: SF/2
Cell Type: Low Speed
TGPS
TGL
1
(slot)
TGL2
(slot)
TGD
(slot
)
TGPL
1
(frame
)
TGPL
2
(frame
)
Treconfbort
(sec)
Nidabort
(pattern
)
GSMdeltaCfn
(frame)
TGSN
(slot
#)
Frame
Mode
RSSI 10 10 75 24 TGPL1 -- -- 0 10 Double
BSIC_
Verificatio
n
14 TGL1 270 24 TGPL1 -- 22 9 8 Double
BSIC_
Reconfirm
14 TGL1 270 24 TGPL1 5.0 -- 5 8 Double
Table 4-8. SF/2 gap pattern parameter set #1 for inter-RAT
Method: SF/2
Cell Type: Middle Speed and High Speed
TGPS
TGL
1
(slot)
TGL
2
(slot)
TGD
(slot
)
TGPL
1
(frame
)
TGPL
2
(frame
)
Treconfbort
(sec)
Nidabort
(pattern
)
GSMdeltaCfn
(frame)
TGSN
(slot
#)
Fram
e
Mode
RSSI 5 5 15 12 TGPL1 -- -- 0 5 Single
BSIC_
Verification
7 7 38 12 TGPL1 -- 24 3 7 Single
BSIC_
Reconfirm
7 7 38 12 TGPL1 3.0 -- 5 0 Single
Table 4-9. SF/2 gap pattern parameter set #2 for inter-RAT
The Cell Type row in the tables above is related to the setting of the cell parameter
CmcfCellType with the ADD CELLCMCF command as follows,
Low Speed refers to LOW_SPEED_AND_MEDIUM_COVERAGE_CELL,
LOW_SPEED_AND_HIGH_COVERAGE_CELL
Middle Speed refers to MID_SPEED_AND_HOT_SPOT_CELL
High Speed refers to HIGH_SPEED_AND_MEDIUM_COVERAGE_CELL,
HIGH_SPEED_AND_HIGH_COVERAGE_CELL,
HIGH_SPEED_AND_HOT_SPOT_CELL
The remaining enumerations WALKING_SPEED_AND_HOT_SPOT_CELL and
OTHER_CELL do not have predefined gap patterns associated with them
115
All three TGPS measurement patterns (GSM_CARRIER_RSSI_MEASUREMENT,
GSM_INITIAL_BSIC_IDENTIFICATION, GSM_BSIC_RE-CONFIRMATION)
run simultaneously but have their starting CFN (Connection Frame Number) offset by
the GSM
deltaCfn
value in the tables so that they do not overlap (note that the command
SET CMCFDELTACFN is used to set the GSM
deltaCfn
values, and that improper
settings can result in gap overlap). To determine the CFN for a particular
measurement pattern when starting compressed mode at the Node B and UE the
following formula is used.
TGCFN
RSSI
= (DeltaCFN + CFN
curr
+ 0) MOD 256
TGCFN
BSIC_Verificatioin
= (CFN
RSSI
+ GSMdeltaCfn1) MOD 256
TGCFN
BSIC_reconfirm
= (CFN
BSIC_Verification
+ GSMdeltaCfn2) MOD 256
Where:
TGCFN: CFN of the first radio frame of the first pattern within the TGPS
DeltaCFN is set with the command SET CMCF per RNC (default 80 frames)
CFN
curr
is the current CFN (frames)
GSMdeltaCfn1,2 is the frame offset for TGPS measurement type
The N
idabort
column refers to the N Identify abort IE within the DPCH compressed
mode info IE. This indicates the maximum number of repeats of patterns that the UE
shall use to attempt to decode the GSM cell BSIC (note that TGPL1 and TGPL2 are
considered separate patterns). Similarly, the T
reconfabort
column (3GPP T Reconfirm
abort IE) indicates the maximum time allowed for BSIC re-confirmation of a GSM
cell.
Finally note that some patterns in the tables have TGD = 270, this means that there is
only one transmission gap in the transmission gap pattern.
INTER-FREQ GAP PATTERNS
The RNC has four patterns predefined in software (USR2) for UMTS to UMTS hard
handovers. These patterns are shown in Table 4-10. In total the RNC can support up
to eight inter-frequency patterns (in addition to the eight inter-RAT pattern sets). The
SET TGPSCP command is used to enter additional patterns or to modify any of the
pattern sets including the predefined sets.
TGPS TGL1
(slot)
TGL2
(slot)
TGD
(slot)
TGPL1
(frame)
TGPL2
(frame)
TGSN
(slot#)
FRAME
MODE
METHOD CELL
TYPE
TGPS a 7 7 24 10 TGPL1 7 Single SF/2 default
TGPS b 7 7 24 4 TGPL1 7 Single SF/2
High
Speed
TGPS c 10 5 40 10 TGPL1 10
Double &
Single
Puncturing default
TGPS d 10 5 40 5 TGPL1 10
Double &
Single
Puncturing
High
Speed
Table 4-10. Inter-freq gap pattern parameter sets
4.7.1.2 Frame Structure Types in Compressed Mode
The frame structure for uplink compressed frames is illustrated in Figure 4-9.
116
Slot # (N
last
+ 1)
Data
Pilot TFCI FBI TPC
Slot # (N
first
1)
Data
Pilot TFCI FBI TPC
transmission gap
Figure 4-9. Frame structure in uplink compress mode transmission
In the downlink, there are two different types of frame structures defined for
compressed frames. Type A maximises the transmission gap length and type B is
optimised for power control.
With frame structure of type A, the pilot field of the last slot in the transmission
gap is transmitted. Transmission is turned off during the rest of the transmission
gap (Figure 4-10).
Slot # (N
first
- 1)
T
P
C
Data1
TF
CI
Data2 PL
Slot # (N
last
+ 1)
PL Data1
T
P
C
TF
CI
Data2 PL
transmission gap
Figure 4-10. DL frame structure type A
With frame structure of type B, the TPC field of the first slot in the transmission
gap and the pilot field of the last slot in the transmission gap is transmitted.
Transmission is turned off during the rest of the transmission gap (Figure 4-11).
Slot # (N
first
- 1)
T
P
C
Data1
TF
CI
Data2 PL
Slot # (N
last
+ 1)
PL Data1
T
P
C
TF
CI
Data2 PL
transmission gap
T
P
C
Figure 4-11. DL frame structure type B
The frame structure type is predefined in USR1 to slot format type A for all TGPs.
This attribute can be modified by the system manufacturer through the parameter
DLFrameType in the SET TGPSCP command.
4.7.1.3 Power Control in Compressed Mode
In compressed mode, compressed frames may occur in uplink, downlink or both. In
compressed frames, the transmission of DPDCCH(s) and DPCCH is stopped during
transmission gaps. The aim of power control in uplink or downlink compressed mode
is to recover as fast as possible a SIR close to the target SIR, after each transmission
gap.
Basically, the behaviour is the same in compressed mode as in normal mode, except
that the target SIR and step size is offset by higher layer signalling, as specified in TS
25.214, during a given recovery period, expressed as a number of slots. In the UE,
offsets are computed from database parameters UEDeltaSIR1, UEDeltaSIRAfter1,
and (if UEDeltaSIR2Valid and UEDeltaSIRAfter2Valid are set to Valid)
UEDeltaSIR2, and UEDeltaSIRAfter2. Likewise the Node B offsets are computed
from NodeBDeltaSIR1, NodeBDeltaSIRAfter1, and (if NodeBDeltaSIR2Valid and
NodeBDeltaSIRAfter2Valid are set to Valid) NodeBDeltaSIR2, and
NodeBDeltaSIRAfter2.
117
In addition, the parameters ITP (Initial Transmit Power mode) and RPP (Recovery
Period Power control mode) further define transmit power control behaviour in
compressed mode. The power control method ITP Mode 0 and 1 operate in the uplink
and RPP Mode 0 and 1 operate in both the uplink and downlink. Use of ITP Mode 0
and RPP Mode 0 are equivalent to non compressed mode or normal mode (NM)
operation.
In USR2, compressed mode power control parameters are predefined to the following
values for all transmission gap patterns.
ITP = 1
RPP = 0
UEDeltaSIR1 = UEDeltaSIRAfter1 = 0 dB
UEDeltaSIR2 = UEDeltaSIRAfter2 = 0 dB
NodeBDeltaSIR1 = NodeBDeltaSIRAfter1 = 0 dB
NodeBDeltaSIR2 = NodeBDeltaSIRAfter2 = 0 dB
4.7.1.4 Compressed Mode Operation
UE and Node B compressed mode operation is triggered by the inter-RAT or inter-
frequency handover algorithm when certain criteria are met. RNC processing for
compressed mode control can then be summarised in the following steps and
functions.
1. Compressed mode activation. The trigger condition for the initiation of
compressed mode (i.e. measurement of inter-RAT and/or inter-freq neighbours) is
when the current active set quality is below the 2D event threshold and the
strongest cell in the active set has inter-frequency or inter-RAT neighbours
defined. Similarly, compressed mode is exited, at a radio frame boundary, when
the current active set quality is above the 2F threshold or when the UE is
commanded to handover to another RAT and leave the UMTS system.
2. Selection of UL only, DL only or UL and DL compressed mode operation based
on UE capabilities (single or dual receiver) and neighbouring cell information (i.e.
RatCellType and BandInd settings of the ADD GSMCELL command).
DL only. To allow single receiver UEs to measure GSM BCCH or CPICH
UL and DL. To allow single receiver UEs to measure close-by carriers (e.g.
DCS 1800 and other FDD frequencies)
UL only. To allow dual receiver UEs to measure close-by frequencies
3. Selection of the compressed mode method (SF/2 or puncturing)
In the uplink, only spreading factor reduction is used.
In the downlink USR2 software supports both SF/2 and puncturing. The
parameter SFTurnPoint defines the minimum spreading factor for which SF
reduction is applied. Puncturing is applied if the current RAB SF is less than
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SFTurnPoint provided that the CMCF_PUNCTURING_SUPP_SWITCH flag
is set.
If SF/2 method is selected and the desired SF code is not available, use
alternative scrambling codes.
4. Selection of the transmission gap pattern parameters from the predefined set by
the setting of parameters CmcfCellType and SFTurnPoint. Note that both UE and
Node B must use the same gap pattern if UL and DL compressed mode is active,
but not necessarily the same time compression method.
5. Initiate compressed mode operation at the UE and Node B by sending a RADIO
LINK RECONFIGURATION PREPARE message to the Node B.
Note that during and following a transmission gap pattern, alternative power recovery
modes are available as described in Section 4.7.1.3.
4.7.2 Related Database Parameters
4.7.2.1 O&M Parameters
Parameter
Name
Physical Range Description
CmcfCellType {WALKING_SPEED_AND_
HOT_SPOT_CELL,
MID_SPEED_AND_
HOT_SPOT_CELL,
HIGH_SPEED_AND_
HOT_SPOT_CELL,
LOW_SPEED_AND_
MEDIUM_COVERAGE_CELL,
HIGH_SPEED_AND_
MEDIUM_COVERAGE_CELL,
LOW_SPEED_AND_
HIGH_COVERAGE_CELL,
HIGH_SPEED_AND_
HIGH_COVERAGE_CELL,
OTHER_CELL }
CM type of the cell. The CMCF
parameters are configured based on the
cell type. Each CM cell type has two CM
sequences, corresponding to the two
downlink CM implementation methods,
spreading factor reduction and
puncturing. This is set per cell with the
command ADD CELLCMCF.
SFTurnPoint {4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256} CM implementation approach selection.
When the actual spreading factor of UE is
greater than or equal to this parameter
value, spreading factor reduction is used.
Otherwise, puncturing is applied. This is
set per cell with the ADD CELLCMCF
command.
DeltaCFN 0 to 255
Unit: frame
Time difference between CM start time
and current time so that UE and NodeB
can start CM simultaneously. Usually it
ranges 500~1500ms. This is set per RNC
with the SET CMCF command.
CellProperty {MACRO_CELL,
MICRO_CELL_CARRIER_FRE
QUENCY_CENTER,
Location of the cell in the Network, being
verge cells the edge cells of the UMTS
system. One of this has to be the strongest
119
MICRO_CELL_CARRIER_FRE
QUENCY_VERGE,
NONLAYERED_CELL_CARRI
ER_FREQUENCY_CENTER,
NONLAYERED_CELL_CARRI
ER_FREQUENCY_CENTER}
cell in the active set for the initiation of
the CM operation.
HOSWITCH flag:
CMCF_SUPP_SWITCH
CMCF_PUNCTURING_
SUPP_SWITCH
Flags used to control CM operation
4.7.2.2 Internal Parameters Transmission Gap Patterns
The internal command SET TGPSCP can be used by the manufacturer to modify the
predefined gap sequence pattern parameters for a given CmcfCellType, according to
the CmMethod, CmMeasType and TGMP values used in the cell.
Parameter
Name
Physical Range Description
CmMethod {0, 1} Compression method: 0 = punching, 1 =
SF/2 reduction
CmMeasType {CMCF_MEAS_TYPE_FDD,
CMCF_MEAS_TYPE_GSM,
CMCF_MEAS_TYPE_FDD_GSM}
Compressed mode measurement type,
i.e. whether this is for FDD only, GSM
only or combined FDD & GSM.
TGMP {FDD_MEASUREMENT,
GSM_CARRIER_RSSI_
MEASUREMENT,
GSM_INITIAL_BSIC_
IDENTIFICATION,
GSM_BSIC_RE-
CONFIRMATION}
Compressed mode purpose
TGSN 0 to 14 Compression mode starting slot number
TGL1 1 to 14 Compression mode gap 1 width
TGL2 1 to 14 (default = TGL1) Compression mode gap 2 width
TGD 15 to 269 (270 for no gap) Compression mode gap distance
TGPL1 1 to 144 Compression mode sample 1 length
TGPL2 1 to 144 (default = TGPL2) Compression mode sample 2 length
4.7.2.3 Internal Parameters Power Control in Compress Mode
The internal command SET TGPSCP can be used by Xx to modify the predefined
power control settings when entering compress mode.
Parameter Name Physical Range Description
RPP {0, 1}
Default: 0
Power control mode in recover
period. 0 = mode 0, 1 = mode 1
ITP {0, 1}
Default: 1
Initial transport power in recover
period. 0 = mode 0, 1 = mode 1
DLFrameType {0, 1}
Default: 0 (type A)
Downlink frame type. 0 = A, 1 = B
DeltaCfn1 0 to 255
Unit: frame
CFN offset to DeltaCFN to start gap
pattern for BSIC verify purpose.
Command SET CMCFDELTACFN
DeltaCfn2 0 to 255 CFN offset to DeltaCFN to start gap
120
Unit: frame pattern for BSIC reconfirm purpose.
Command SET CMCFDELTACFN
UEDeltaSIR2Valid {0, 1} UEDeltaSIR2 validity indicator. 0 =
UEDeltaSIR2 active, 1 =
UEDeltaSIR2 not active
UEDeltaSIRAfter2Valid {0, 1} UEDeltaSIRAfter2 validity ind. 0 =
active, 1 = not active
UEDeltaSIR1 0 to 3
Unit: dB, Step: 0.1 dB
Default: 0 dB
Delta in DL SIR target value if the
start of the first gap is within the
current UL frame.
UEDeltaSIRAfter1 0 to 3
Unit: dB, Step: 0.1 dB
Default: 0 dB
Delta in DL SIR target value if the
current UL frame follows the frame
with the start of the first gap.
UEDeltaSIR2 0 to 3
Unit: dB, Step: 0.1 dB
Default: 0 dB
Delta in DL SIR target value if the
start of the second gap is within the
current UL frame.
UEDeltaSIRAfter2 0 to 3
Unit: dB, Step: 0.1 dB
Default: 0 dB
Delta in DL SIR target value if the
current UL frame follows the frame
with the start of the second gap.
NodeBDeltaSIR2Valid {0, 1} 0 = NodeBDeltaSIR2 active, 1 =
NodeBDeltaSIR2 not active
NodeBDeltaSIRAfter2Vali
d
{0, 1} 0 = active, 1 = not active
NodeBDeltaSIR1 0 to 3
Unit: dB, Step: 0.1 dB
Default: 0 dB
Delta in DL power offset if the start
of the first gap is within the current
UL frame.
NodeBDeltaSIRAfter1 0 to 3
Unit: dB, Step: 0.1 dB
Default: 0 dB
Delta in DL power offset if the
current UL frame follows the frame
with the start of the first gap.
NodeBDeltaSIR2 0 to 3
Unit: dB, Step: 0.1 dB
Default: 0 dB
Delta in DL power offset if the start
of the second gap is within the current
UL frame.
NodeBDeltaSIRAfter2 0 to 3
Unit: dB, Step: 0.1 dB
Default: 0 dB
Delta in DL power offset if the
current UL frame follows the frame
with the start of the second gap.
4.7.3 Most Relevant Key Performance Indicators
KPI Description
SIR Deviation in CM
(priority=2)
Max, Avg, Std deviation of SIR Error (target - estimated) in
compressed mode frames, for the duration of the call
AMR Quality in CM
(priority=1)
MOS (Mean Opinion Score) during compressed mode operation for
AMR services
DL Tx Pwr Increase
in CM
(priority=1)
Percentage increase of downlink transmit power during compressed
mode frames compared to normal frames. Compressed mode frames
are sent with higher power than normal frames to compensate for
the lower SF or higher puncturing.
UE Tx Pwr Increase
in CM
(priority=2)
Percentage increase of UE uplink transmit power during compressed
mode frames compared to normal frames
Time to report inter-
RAT neighbour
Average time required by the UE to measure and report an inter-
RAT neighbour; from the time the neighbour cell has a value above
121
(priority=2) threshold until the time when the measurement report is sent.
Averaged over all cells in the neighbour list
BSIC Decode Time
(priority=1)
Average time required by the UE to decode the BSIC of an inter-
RAT neighbour; from the moment RxLev is above threshold until
the moment when a measurement report is sent
Prob BSIC Decoding
(priority=1)
Percentage of inter-RAT HHO attempts to a neighbours which
BSIC has been decoded, over total number of attempts
4.7.4 Optimisation Guidelines
There are two distinct areas to be taken into account for the optimisation of
compressed mode. One refers to the optimisation of the TGPS parameters and their
associated power control recovery parameters. In USR2 this is not under the control
of the network operator but a limited number of choices are predefined at the RNC.
The other area is that of setting the O&M cell-specific parameters so that the most
appropriate set out of the predefined list is chosen for a given cell environment.
4.7.4.1 O&M Parameters Optimisation
The list of available O&M parameters is given in Section 4.7.2.1. However, prior to
setting those parameters, the operator must ensure the correct identification of cells as
center cells or verge cells through the CellProperty attribute so that compressed
mode and inter-RAT/inter-freq handover functionalities are enabled in all inter-system
boundary cells. Clearly, any cell that limits with an inter-RAT or inter-freq neighbour
needs to be defined as a verge cell. The decision of whether a second ring of
neighbouring cells should also be included depends on the UE mobility, radio
environment and cell layout.
Selection of the desired time compression method in the downlink is performed by
setting the cell parameter SFTurnPoint. Generally, spreading factor reduction is a
safer method from the point of view of radio bearer performance under compressed
mode since no data is lost (just compressed into fewer slots). The drawback is the
subsequent shortage of OVSF codes and higher interference introduced into the
system (i.e. capacity decrease). On the contrary, puncturing removes bits from the
encoded bit stream, thereby decreasing the coding gain. This may lead to block
retransmissions especially at high data rates.
Simulations have also shown good performance for voice service in compressed mode
through SF/2. Therefore the recommendation is to use SF/2 for voice and low data
rate services (i.e. up to 64 kbps) and puncturing for high data rate services.
Finally, selection of the gap pattern out of the available set for each measurement
purpose is achieved by the setting of the CmcfCellType parameter. Currently, two
different default sets are provided for each compressed mode method, one for high
speed environment and another for low-medium speed. The idea here is to account for
the radio channel variation, and so shorter and more frequent gaps are preferred for
high speed environments as opposed to longer and less frequent gaps. Note, however
that the measurement occasion, in total, is similar in both cases.
Parameter
Name
Recommended
Value
Source Comments
122
CellProperty - According to cell layout, coverage
limits and border areas
CmcfCellType - According to UE mobility environment
SFTurnPoint 64 MML Puncturing is preferred for high data
rates
DeltaCFN 80 frames MML
4.7.4.2 Internal Parameters Optimisation
The system manufacturer must ensure that the TGPS parameter set predefined at the
RNC provides good enough performance under a variety of scenarios, i.e. gives
enough flexibility to the network operator. Suitable compressed mode patterns need to
take into account minimum requirements for UE measurements of RSSI, BSIC and
FDD carriers, as given by TS 25.133. Modelling results from [QoS38-Task7a] show
that the optimum gap patter depends on the number of GSM neighbours to measure
and recommends the parameters in Table 4-11 to Table 4-18 below.
TGMP GSMDelta
CFN
TGSN TGL1 TGL2 TGD TGPL1 TGPL2
Nidabort
(pattern)
Treconfabort
(sec)
RSSI 4 7 7 165 12 12
BSIC ID 110 8 14 14 60 12 12 10
BSIC Recon 62 8 14 14 60 12 12 1.5
Table 4-11. Recommended gap pattern parameters for SF/2 and long GSM neighbour list
TGMP GSMDelta
CFN
TGSN TGL1 TGL2 TGD TGPL1 TGPL2
Nidabort
(pattern)
Treconfabort
(sec)
RSSI 4 4 4 165 12 12
BSIC ID 110 8 14 14 60 12 12 10
BSIC Recon 62 8 14 14 60 12 12 1.5
Table 4-12. Recommended gap pattern parameters for SF/2 and short GSM neighbour list
TGMP GSMDelta
CFN
TGSN TGL1 TGL2 TGD TGPL1 TGPL2
Nidabort
(pattern)
Treconfabort
(sec)
RSSI 4 7 270 6 6
BSIC ID 104 4 7 7 45 6 6 20
BSIC Recon
Table 4-13. Recommended gap pattern parameters for puncturing and long GSM neighbour list
TGMP GSMDelta
CFN
TGSN TGL1 TGL2 TGD TGPL1 TGPL2
Nidabort
(pattern)
Treconfabort
(sec)
RSSI 4 4 270 6 6
BSIC ID 104 4 7 7 45 6 6 20
BSIC Recon
Table 4-14. Recommended gap pattern parameters for puncturing and short GSM neighbour list
TGMP DeltaCFN TGSN TGL1 TGL2 TGD TGPL1 TGPL2
FDD Measurement 90 4 7 7 165 12 12
Table 4-15. Recommended gap pattern parameters for inter-freq only and SF/2 method
TGMP DeltaCFN TGSN TGL1 TGL2 TGD TGPL1 TGPL2
FDD Measurement 83 4 7 270 6 6
Table 4-16. Recommended gap pattern parameters for inter-freq only and puncturing method
123
TGMP GSMDelta
CFN
TGSN TGL1 TGL2 TGD TGPL1 TGPL2
Nidabort
(pattern)
Treconfabort
(sec)
RSSI 4 7 7 165 12 12
BSIC ID 110 8 14 14 60 12 12 10
FDD Meas 4 7 7 165 12 12
Table 4-17. Recommended gap pattern parameters for combined inter-freq-RAT and SF/2 method
TGMP GSMDelta
CFN
TGSN TGL1 TGL2 TGD TGPL1 TGPL2
Nidabort
(pattern)
Treconfabort
(sec)
RSSI 4 7 270 6 6
BSIC ID 104 4 7 7 45 6 6 10
FDD Meas 4 7 270 6 6
Table 4-18. Recommended gap patterns for combined inter-freq-RAT and puncturing method
In terms of compressed mode power control parameters, according to [QoS38-E2],
link level simulation results recommend to set UE/NodeB DeltaSIR1, DeltaSIRafter1,
DeltaSIR2 and DeltaSIRafter2 to 1.0 dB for speech and data services for compressed
mode by puncturing. For compressed mode by SF reduction, these offsets should be
set to 0.0 dB for both speech and data services. Moreover, further results have shown
that the use of different settings for UE Delta SIR and NB Delta SIR has a minimal
effect on the frame erasure rate, and so it is not a critical optimisation issue. See
Figure 4-12 as an example of variation of voice FER with Delta SIR. As it can be
seen, the figure shows a flat line (essentially no change) performance over the range
of delta examined.
From the point of view of alternative power recovery modes during compressed
mode, the current recommendation is to set ITP = 0 & RPP = 0, i.e. equivalent to
power control operation during uncompressed (normal) frames. However, note that
validation of the compressed mode algorithm and parameter optimisation is still
ongoing through system simulations.
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
DELTA_SIR_1
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
E
r
a
s
u
r
e

R
a
t
i
o
CMfwdFER
TotalFwdVoiceFer
TotalRevVoiceFer
FER v. DeltaSIR (Downlink CM Only)

Figure 4-12. Downlink FER versus DeltaSIR (dB)
124
4.8 Priority of Different Handover Types
USR1 supports intra-frequency soft, softer and hard handover, inter-frequency hard
handover and inter-RAT hard handover. Intra-frequency handover has the highest
priority since inter-frequency and inter-RAT handovers are only used at the border of
the carrier or WCDMA coverage, respectively.
Appropriate setting of the event 2D/2F reporting criteria is key for optimum
performance since reception of event 2D (active set quality is below a given
threshold) triggers periodic reporting of inter-frequency and inter-RAT measurements
in preparation for a hard handover. Similarly, reception of event 2F (active set quality
is above a given threshold) stops inter-frequency and inter-RAT measurements.
4.9 Radio Link Synchronisation Aspects
4.9.1 Algorithm Overview
In addition to intra-frequency, inter-frequency and inter-RAT measurements, in USR2
the UE is commanded to perform measurements of UE Rx-Tx time difference for all
radio links included in the active set. The requirement is to keep the Rx-Tx time
difference within 1024t 148 chips in order to satisfy power control performance
requirements. In order to meet the requirement, the network need to adjust the
downlink DPCH transmission timing of each radio link based on events 6F/6G
measurement reports.
USR2 does not support the mechanism to keep the Rx-Tx time difference in the valid
range. Hence, if a radio link Rx-Tx time difference becomes greater than certain
threshold, it is deleted through a radio link setup or radio link addition message. In
particular, any radio link that trigger an event 6F or 6G is removed from the active set.
Event
Name
Event Description Associated
Parameters
Event 6F The UE Rx-Tx time difference for a radio link included in
the active set becomes larger than an absolute threshold
Absolute Threshold
Time-to-trigger
Event 6G The UE Rx-Tx time difference for a radio link included in
the active set becomes less than an absolute threshold
Absolute Threshold
Time-to-trigger
USR2 allows the provisioning of the threshold and time to trigger parameters that set
the measurement reporting criteria for events 6F and 6G on a per RNC basis with the
MML parameter SET HOCOMM.
4.9.2 Related Database Parameters
Parameter
Name
Physical Range Description
RxTxtoTrig6F 678 to 1280
Unit: chip
Step: 1
Absolute threshold of the 6F event. When
the UE Rx-Tx time difference becomes
larger than this threshold, a 6F event
measurement report is sent.
125
TrigTime6F {0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100,
120, 160, 200, 240, 320,
640, 1280, 2560, 5000}
Unit: ms
Amount of time to delay the reporting of a
6F event to ensure the criteria are not
transient.
RxTxtoTrig6G 678 to 1280
Unit: chip
Step: 1
Absolute threshold of the 6G events. When
the UE Rx-Tx time difference becomes less
than this threshold, a 6G event measurement
report is sent.
TrigTime6G {0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100,
120, 160, 200, 240, 320,
640, 1280, 2560, 5000}
Unit: ms
Amount of time to delay the reporting of a
6F event to ensure the criteria are not
transient.
4.9.3 Optimisation Guidelines
The following values for database parameters are suggested for USR2. Note that these
are physical values and that conversion may be required to enter the RNC database.
Database Parameter Recommended Value
Event 6F
RxTxtoTrig6F 1172 chips
TrigTime6F 1280 ms
Event 6G
RxTxtoTrig6G 876 chips
TrigTime6G 1280 ms
USR2 does not have a mechanism for synchronizing downlink base site transmissions
to the UE over the Iub. Lack of synchronization between base sites can occur due to
base site clock stability or due to propagation delay differences. The problem from the
UE perspective is that the larger the offset in arrival time for transmissions from
different sites, the more memory is required for the RAKE receiver.
Regarding the absolute threshold for the UE Rx-Tx time difference, the
recommendation is to set it to the maximum (1024 + 148 = 1172 chips) and minimum
(1024 148 = 876 chips) allowed time difference according to 3GPP, for event 6F
and event 6G respectively. In order to determine the time to trigger parameter, we
have to ask how quickly can the time difference increase and what is the maximum
time difference (in addition to the 148 chips required to surpass the threshold) that the
UE can support before a radio link failure happens.
126
4.10Layered Cell Traffic Absorption
The layered cell traffic absorption functionality is based on the 3GPP concept of
hierarchical cell structure (HCS) described in TS25.922 and TS25.304, but applied to
UEs in CELL_DCH state. Note that USR2 does not support broadcast of HCS
information for cell selection and reselection.
4.10.1 Algorithm Overview
The Layered Cell Traffic Absorption algorithm (LCTA) is an extension of the inter-
frequency HHO algorithm that makes use of different cell types (micro-cells, macro-
cells and non-layered cells) to define a two-tier multi-carrier cellular structure.
Mobility is then achieved between the layers by applying different triggering
conditions for the inter-frequency handover depending on the source and target cell
type. Different layers need to use different carrier frequencies in the overlapping
areas, but each layer (either micro-cell or macro-cell) supports up to two separate
carrier frequencies.
Layered cells are those depoyed in a tiered structured, and can be clasified in micro-
cells and macro-cells. A macro-cell is defined as a cell in which there is at least one
smaller cell (a micro-cell) overlapped within its coverage area; and a micro-cell is
defined as a cell whose coverage area is within or overlapped by a macro-cell.
Conversely, a non-layered cell is defined as a cell with a coverage area that is not
wholly contained within another cell and that does not wholly contain another cell, i.e.
it is neither a macrocell or a microcell. However, non-layered cells may be partially
overlapped by other non-layered cells.
Configuration of the cell type is carried out by setting the CellProperty attribute in the
ADD CELLINTERFREQHO command, on a per cell basis. The same attribute also
sets whether CPICH RSCP or CPICH EcIo must be used as the measurement quantity
for inter-frequency hard handovers in micro-cells and non-layered cells (note that
macro-cells always use CPICH RSCP). According to this criteria, cells are further
classified into verge (edge) cells and center cells. A center cell is a cell that
has intra-frequency neighbouring cells in all directions; and a verge cell is a cell
that has no intra-frequency neighbours in one or more directions. By definition,
center cells use CPICH EcIo and verge cells use CPICH RSCP for outgoing hard
handovers. Note that the measurement quantity is a function of the source cell type
only, and that the same quantity is used for any target cell type.
4.10.1.1 Inter-frequency Measurement Reporting for LCTA
LCTA uses the same mechanisms as the standard inter-frequency HHO algorithm, i.e.
events 2D/2F configuration and periodic measurements of inter-frequency neighbour
cells. There is no real difference between layered and non-layered cells at this stage.
Also, the same parameters and commands are used in both cases, and there is a single
inter-frequency neighbour list defined per cell. The difference comes during HHO
execution, this is when different threshold levels are applied to hand-offs between
different layers.
This is summary of measurement reports used for LCTA/inter-frequency HHO.
127
If the current serving cell (or best cell in the active set) has inter-frequency
neighbours defined, the UE is requested to evaluate inter-frequency events 2D
and 2F. Configuration of the event-triggering criteria is carried out with the
command ADD CELLINTERFREQHO with the following attributes.
o HystFor2D, HystFor2F
o TrigTimeFor2D, TrigTimeFor2F
o WeightForUsedFreq
o InterFreqThdFor2DEcNo, InterFreqThdFor2DRSCP
o InterFreqThdFor2FEcNo, InterFreqThdFor2FRSCP
Once an event 2D is received, the UE is commanded to perform periodic inter-
frequency measurements with a given periodicity and filter coefficient.
o FilterCoef
o PeriodReportInterval
If an event 2F is received, periodic measurement of inter-frequency
neighbours stops.
4.10.1.2 Triggering of inter-frequency LCTA Hard Handover
During inter-frequency periodic reporting, the RNC receives quality estimates of all
monitored carrier frequencies within the MEASUREMENT CONTROL message.
Then, if the estimated quality of the active set is worse than the reported quality of
another carrier and the time to trigger and minimum threshold level conditions are
fulfilled, inter-frequency hard handover is performed.
The minimum threshold level for layered cell inter-frequency handover can be set
differently for each pair of source and target cell types (i.e. whether they are on the
same or on different layers), through the attributes: HHOThdToMacroForEcNo
(RSCP), and HHOThdToMicroForEcNo (RSCP). Note that there are different
parameters according to the quality measure to be used (either RSCP or EcIo). In
addition, there are the hysterisis (HystForHHO) and time to trigger attributes
(TrigTimeForHHO), which are common to all cell types. Finally, the quality measure
is given by the source cell type, which is set with the CellProperty attribute from the
list below.
MACRO_CELL
MICRO_CELL_CARRIER_FREQUENCY_CENTER
MICRO_CELL_CARRIER_FREQUENCY_VERGE
NONLAYERED_CELL_CARRIER_FREQUENCY_CENTER
NONLAYERED_CELL_CARRIER_FREQUENCY_VERGE
The general rule here is that center cells use CPICH EcIo as the inter-frequency
quality measure, whilst verge cells use CPICH RSCP. Macro-cells are assumed to
be always at the border of cell coverage, so they also use CPICH RSCP.
The triggering condition for a layered cell inter-frequency handover (after a 2D event
has been triggered) is that the estimated quality of the active set frequency is below
the reported quality of another carrier, and the quality of the target frequency is above
a minimum threshold level plus a hysteresis value, during a time to trigger period,
TrigTimeForHHO.
128
Hence, when the equation below is satisfied, the time to trigger counter starts.
Q
qual
> Q
thd
+ H/2
And only if the equation below is not satisfied during all the time to trigger period,
HHO execution is performed. Otherwise, the counter is reset.
Q
qual
< Qth - H/2
Where,
Q
qual
is the reported quality (RSCP or EcNo) of the target carrier frequency.
Q
thd
is the minimum threshold level for the target carrier frequency.
H is the hysteresis value used in the HHO evaluation, HystForHHO.
The table below details the attributes used by the LCTA algorithm during HO
evaluation as a function of the source and target cell types.
Source cell Quality
measure
Target
cell
Q
thd
MACRO_CELL RSCP Macro
Nonlayered
HHOTHDTOMACROFOR
RSCP
Micro HHOTHDTOMICROFOR
RSCP
MICRO_CELL_CARRIER_FREQUENC
Y_CENTER
EcNo Macro
Nonlayered
HHOTHDTOMACROFOR
ECNO
Micro HHOTHDTOMICROFOR
ECNO
MICRO_CELL_CARRIER_FREQUENC
Y_VERGE
RSCP Macro
Nonlayered
HHOTHDTOMACROFOR
RSCP
Micro HHOTHDTOMICROFOR
RSCP
NONLAYERED_CELL_CARRIER_FRE
QUENCY_CENTER
EcNo Macro
Nonlayered
HHOTHDTOMACROFOR
ECNO
Micro HHOTHDTOMICROFOR
ECNO
NONLAYERED_CELL_CARRIER_FRE
QUENCY_VERGE
RSCP Macro
Nonlayered
HHOTHDTOMACROFOR
RSCP
Micro HHOTHDTOMICROFOR
RSCP
4.10.2 Related Database Parameters
Parameter Name Physical Range Description
FilterCoef {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 13, 15, 17, 19}
Coefficient for layer 3 filtering of inter-
frequency measurements.
PeriodReport
Interval
{250, 500, 1000, 2000,
4000, 8000, 16000, 20000,
24000, 28000, 32000,
64000}
Unit: ms
Measurement reporting period for inter-
frequency measurements.
Hystfor2D 0 to 14.5
Unit: dB
Step: 0.5
Hysteresis value for inter-frequency
measurement event 2D.
129
TrigTime2D {0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100,
120, 160, 200, 240, 320,
640, 1280, 2560, 5000}
Unit: ms
Amount of time to delay the reporting of a
2D event to ensure the criteria are not
transient.
Hystfor2F 0 to 14.5
Unit: dB
Step: 0.5
Hysteresis value for inter-frequency
measurement event 2F.
TrigTime2F {0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100,
120, 160, 200, 240, 320,
640, 1280, 2560, 5000}
Unit: ms
Amount of time to delay the reporting of a
2F event to ensure the criteria are not
transient.
WeightForUsed
Freq
0 to 1
Step: 0.1
Filtering weight to be used on the best cell
measurement versus the active set
aggregate strength for event 2D/2F.
InterFreqxThdFor
2DEcNo
(x = CS, PS, SIG)
-24 to 0
Unit: dB
Absolute threshold below which events
2D are triggered, when the measurement
quantity is Ec/No.
InterFreqxThdFor
2DRSCP
(x = CS, PS, SIG)
115 to 25
Unit: dBm
Absolute threshold below which events
2D are triggered, when the measurement
quantity is RSCP.
InterFreqxThdFor
2FEcNo
(x = CS, PS, SIG)
-24 to 0
Unit: dB
Absolute threshold the quality of the used
frequency must exceed in order to trigger
event 2F, when the measurement quantity
is Ec/No.
InterFreqxThdFor
2FRSCP
(x = CS, PS, SIG)
115 to 25
Unit: dBm
Absolute threshold the quality of the used
frequency must exceed in order to trigger
event 2F, when the measurement quantity
is RSCP.
HHOThdToMacro
ForEcNo
-24 to 0
Unit: dB
Lowest RSCP level of the LCTA hard
handover for macro-cells and non-layered
target cells, when the measurement
quantity is EcNo.
HHOThdToMacro
ForRSCP
115 to 25
Unit: dBm
Lowest RSCP level of the LCTA hard
handover for macro-cells and non-layered
target cells, when the measurement
quantity is RSCP.
HHOThdToMicro
ForEcNo
-24 to 0
Unit: dB
Lowest RSCP level of the LCTA hard
handover for target micro-cells, when the
measurement quantity is EcNo.
HHOThdToMicro
ForRSCP
115 to 25
Unit: dBm
Lowest RSCP level of the LCTA hard
handover for target micro-cells, when the
measurement quantity is RSCP.
HystforHHO 0 to 14.5
Unit: dB
Step: 0.5
Hysteresis value of the inter-freq hard
handover execution. This is a proprietary
parameter.
TrigTimeHHO 0 to 64000
Unit: ms
Inter-frequency hard handover trigger
delay time. This is a proprietary
parameter.
CellProperty {MACRO_CELL,
MICRO_CELL_CARRIER
_FREQUENCY_CENTER,
MICRO_CELL_CARRIER
_FREQUENCY_VERGE,
NONLAYERED_CELL_C
ARRIER_FREQUENCY_C
ENTER,
Location of the cell in the Network. Cells
in the center of the carrier coverage use
CPICH Ec/No as the measurement
quantity for inter-frequency reports. Cells
in the border area use CPICH RSCP.
130
NONLAYERED_CELL_C
ARRIER_FREQUENCY_C
ENTER}
All the parameters above are used to configure the LCTA algorithm via the command
ADD CELLINTERFREQHO, but note that some are also required for standard inter-
frequency hard handover configuration.
4.10.3 Most Relevant Key Performance Indicators
KPI Description
LCTA Deployment
Efficiency
Average percentage of inter-frequency HHO that target a micro-cell
over the total amount (macro-cell + non-layered cell + micro-cell),
as a measure of how much traffic (number of calls) is being biased
towards micro-cells thanks to LCTA algorithm. A low value
indicates that there is low transference of calls between the macro-
cell and the micro-cell, which defeats the aim of LCTA deployment.
Micro-cell HHO
Gain
Reduction in UL UE Transmit Power (or DL NB Tx Pwr) after
LCTA hand-off to a micro-cell, compared to that required in a
macro-cell. This represents the capacity and quality gain due to
handling calls in the microcellular layer.
4.10.4 Optimisation Guidelines
The following values for database parameters are initially suggested for USR2. Note
that these are physical values and that conversion may be required to enter the RNC
database.
Parameter Name Recommende
d Value
Source Comments
FilterCoef 4 (0.25) MML
PeriodReportInterval 500 msec MML
Hystfor2D 3 dB MML
TrigTime2D 640 ms MML
Hystfor2F 3 dB MML
TrigTime2F 640 ms MML
WeightForUsedFreq 0 Engineering
judgment
InterFreqxThdFor2DEcNo
(x = CS, PS, SIG)
-19 dB Simulation Acceptable
voice
performance
up to about
-20 dB. See
RID-20
report
131
InterFreqxThdFor2DRSCP
(x = CS, PS, SIG)

-95 dBm MML
InterFreqxThdFor2FEcNo
(x = CS, PS, SIG)
-19 dB Simulation Acceptable
voice
performance
up to about
-20 dB. See
RID-20
report
InterFreqxThdFor2FRSCP
(x = CS, PS, SIG)
-90 dBm MML
HHOThdToMacro
ForEcNo
-103 dBm Simulation
HHOThdToMacro
ForRSCP
-22 dB Simulation Acceptable
voice
performance
up to about
-20 dB. See
RID-20
report
HHOThdToMicro
ForEcNo
-85 dBm MML
HHOThdToMicro
ForRSCP
-16 dB MML Acceptable
voice
performance
up to about
-20 dB. See
RID-20
report
HystforHHO 3 dB MML
TrigTimeHHO 640 ms MML
CellProperty - According
to cell
layout and
coverage
border areas
132
5 Dynamic Channel Configuration Control
5.1 Dynamic Channel Configuration Control and UE State
Switching algorithms
The dynamic channel configuration control (DCCC) algorithm is a connection
oriented algorithm which is in charge of rate reallocation for users having best effort
(BE) services (interactive and background). It deals with the burstiness of interactive
and background services by dynamically reconfiguring the channel bandwidth to
accommodate changes in the service transmission data rate. The benefit of the DCCC
algorithm is that downlink channel code and power resource utilisation is improved,
which in turn enhances system capacity. Note in USR2 the DCCC algorithm runs
independently from the UE state transition algorithm.
The decision to modify the connection bandwidth is based on traffic volume
measurements (TVMs) performed both on UL and DL. If the RLC buffer payload
becomes smaller than a configured threshold, the DCCC algorithm will reduce the
bandwidth for that user. If the RLC buffer payload is higher than a configured
threshold, the DCCC will increase the bandwidth for that user (there are certain
restrictions to this rate increase that will be explained later). If DL link quality
degrades, as indicated by an event Ea code power measurement, the channel
bandwidth is reduced.
The UE state transition algorithm controls RRC state transitions: CELL_DCH <->
CELL_FACH, CELL_FACH <-> CELL_PCH and CELL_PCH <-> URA_PCH, in
order to save resources and reduce signalling and control overhead.
Significant changes have been made to the DCCC algorithm for USR2 (as per Req
CCB CR#256), the changes are described through this section but the key aspects are
captured here for readers convenience:
1. DCCC UL and DL rate control thresholds are added (O&M configurable)
These thresholds define the minimum rate to which the bearer will be reconfigured
when a TVM 4b report is received. The purpose is to ensure that TCP performance in
one link / direction is not adversely affected by too slow a transmission of TCP
ACKs in the other direction. However, it is worth noting that PDCP IP header
compression is supported in USR2, which was not the case in USR1 and therefore
TCP ACKs should not be overly delayed even at lower rates other than through the
potentially longer TTI duration.
2. Optional two or three rate DCCC mechanism (O&M selectable)
The selection is controlled through the RateAdjLevel parameter in the SET DCCC
command, which was introduced in 1.3.0.0.7.0, but not fully functional until
1.3.0.0.8.0. The rates referred to are those that the DCCC will trigger rate switches
between based on TVM reports. When two rates are selected these will be the
requested maximum bit rate and the DCCC rate control threshold. When three rates
are selected these will the requested maximum bit rate, the rate closest to half the
requested maximum bit rate and the DCCC rate control threshold.
133
3. The new DCCC algorithm shall only adjust the data rate for UEs with BE
services in CELL_DCH RRC state.
The UE in CELL_DCH shall be reconfigured to CELL_FACH by the UE state
transition algorithm when the UE is in low activity state and there is no data to be
transmitted (i.e. DCCC does not play a role in this transition).
4. DL radio link quality evaluation is optimized.
On receiving a DL event Ea transmitted code power measurement report the DCCC
will reduce the configured rate to the DL full coverage data rate, but only if the
current bit rate is larger than the DL full coverage data rate. The event Fa is not
configured, which was used in the USR1 algorithm to evaluation link quality before
attempting a rate increase. To avoid the reconfiguration oscillation due to the
downlink power limitation, a penalty timer is used. Rate increases are prevented until
this timer has expired.
5. Radio Bearer (RB) reconfiguration
In USR2 RB reconfiguration is used for DCH rate changes in place of transport
channel (TrCH) reconfiguration. The result is that the RLC settings can be
reconfigured per rate, e.g. RLC window size.
Since CR#256, further changes have been made to the algorithm as per Req CCB
CR#370, which have been implemented in v1.3.0.0.7.0 and 1.3.0.0.8.0:
1. Initial UL/DL BE service rate selection DCCC
This was due for implementation in v1.3.0.0.7.0, but was delayed until 1.3.0.0.8.0.
The DCCC UL/DL initial bit rate of BE service (but, only if the DCCC_SWITCH is
enabled) has been changed to:
For the UL: min {UL full coverage rate, UL rate control threshold}
For the DL: min {DL full coverage rate, DL rate control threshold}
Rather than using the full coverage rate in both cases. The idea is to avoid a potential
initial downgrade to the DCCC rate control threshold rate if it is lower than the full
coverage rate due to lower data volume at beginning of a data transfer. Note; further
modifications have been made as a consequence of CR#494.
2. Rate reduction of higher rate BE service in handover region (O&M selectable)
The feature was implemented in 1.3.0.0.8.0. When the first 1A report is received, the
DL user rate is reduced to the DL full coverage rate and leg addition will be
attempted. Note; further modifications have been made as a consequence of CR#495.
3. Addition of protection for failed reconfigurations (v1.3.0.0.8.0)
If a certain number of rate increase reconfigurations fail within a defined period a
penalty time is started to inhibit further rate increase attempts by the DCCC.
Since then four more CRs have been accepted and at least one TI that has had
algorithm functional impact:
CR#428: Iub Congestion Control (v1.3.0.0.9.0)
134
CR#494: Further modification to the initial rate selection accounting for SHO
state, i.e. number of legs in the UEs active set (v1.3.0.0.10.0)
CR#495: SHO events trigger a DL reduction to the BeBitRateThd
(v1.3.0.0.10.0)
CR#505: TVM reports trigger a rate decrease if a certain number are received
within a monitor time (v1.3.0.0.10.0)
TI 1008: PS BE rate reduction to UlBeTraffNgtThs / DlBeTraffNgtThs when
CS request established in multi-RAB case (v1.3.0.0.15.0)
Please note that the impacts to the algorithm design as a result of the listed CRs are
covered in the following detail description; the numbers are just given for reference.
5.1.1 Algorithm control switches
These switches are enabled or disabled through the SET CORRM
DCCC_SWITCH
The DCCC_SWITCH allows the DCCC algorithm to be enabled or disabled via the
O&M through the SET CORRMALGOSWITCH. The DCCC algorithm controls the
rate assigned to BE users whilst in CELL_DCH RRC state based on TVM reports.
RATE_ADJ_BY_TCP_SWITCH
The RATE_ADJ_BY_TCP_SWITCH switch is used to indicate whether to adjust
the DL bandwidth according to the DL transmitted code power. If this switch is
enabled but the DCCC_SWITCH is not, DL bit rate reductions are triggered off code
power measurements only (no TVMs are used) and a separate mechanism is provided
for rate increases.
UE_STATE_TRANS_SWITCH
The UE_STATE_TRANS_SWITCH switch is used to enable or disable the UE state
switching function (CELL_DCH <-> CELL_FACH <-> CELL_PCH <->
URA_PCH). If this switch is disabled, RRC state transitioning is not possible even if
the DCCC_SWITCH is enabled;
BE_RATE_DOWN_BF_HO_SWITCH
The BE_RATE_DOWN_BF_HO_SWITCH switch is used to indicate whether to
reduce the DL bandwidth to the BeBitRateThd rate in response to SHO 1A event
report arrivals. If this switch is enabled but the DCCC_SWITCH is not, DL bit rate
reductions are triggered off SHO 1A event reports only (no TVMs are used) and a
separate mechanism is provided for rate increases.
5.1.2 Detailed Description
When a new PS call is established, the call admission control (CAC) algorithm will
assign it a dedicated (DCH/DCH) or common channel (RACH/FACH) depending on
the service bit rate. The UL/DL PS BE service will be set up in CELL_DCH when
either the requested rate (UL or DL) is higher than or equal to the corresponding
UL/DL O&M configurable threshold (UlPsTraffDecThs and DlPsTraffDecThs).
135
Otherwise, the call will be set up in CELL_FACH (note that in this case, the only way
to transition to CELL_DCH would be through the addition of a new RAB that
requires DCH/DCH.
5.1.2.1 Measurements
The DCCC and UE state switching algorithms rely on a number of different
measurements made at the RNC, Node-B and UE. In summary, once a call is
established the DCCC algorithm monitors the UL UE generated and the DL RNC
generated TVM reports, together with the DL Node-B generated transmitted code
power measurement reports and UE generated SHO 1A event reports to make
decisions on increasing or decreasing the configured bit rate (assuming all the relevant
switches are enabled).
UL monitoring
If the DCCC_SWITCH is enabled the RRC measurement control procedure will be
triggered each time a new TrCH is established carrying a BE service. The procedure is
used configure UE event triggered 4a and 4b TVM reports through sending of a RRC
MEASUREMENT CONTROL message, the main parameters of which are (O&M
configurable are indicated in italic, bold font):
- Periodical Reporting / Event Trigger Reporting Mode (Event Triggered),
- Measurement Report Transfer Mode (EventMRTrMode),
- Measurement Type (Traffic Volume Measurement),
- Measurement quantity (RLC buffer payload),
- TVM event identity (4a & 4b),
- Reporting Threshold (calculated from Event4AThd & Event4BThd),
- Time to trigger (TimetoTrigger4A & TimetoTrigger4B),
- Pending time after trigger (PendingTime4A & PendingTime4B),
Once configured, the UE will send a 4a TVM report whenever the TrCH traffic
volume (measured through RLC buffer occupancy) exceeds an absolute threshold and
a 4b TVM report whenever the TrCH traffic volume becomes smaller than a
predefined absolute threshold. The message parameters are configured for each RAB.
Therefore, if the parameters are different for the new RAB index after a rate change,
these are signalled to the UE through the sending of a new RRC MEASUREMENT
CONTROL message.
The DCCC does not perform any UL link quality checking. This is because UE itself
reduces its own rate if it has insufficient power to support the current rate. UEs MAC
is in charge of performing this control, as specified in TS 25.321, by placing each
TFC in the UL TFCS into one of three states (supported state, excess-power state and
blocked state). A TFC in blocked state will not be used by the UE. When it is in
excess-power state, the TFC may be removed from the valid set to maintaining the
QoS requirements. The estimated transmitted power requirements for the TFC (as per
TS 25.133) are considered in order to determine the state.
136
DL monitoring
If the DCCC_SWITCH is enabled the RNC will perform TVMs for the DL in the
same way they are performed by the UE for the UL (note that DL TVMs are not
specified in 3GPP). The RNC uses the same O&M configurable thresholds and
parameters that are used for the UL. The result is that the RNC generates the same
kind of TVM events for the DL as the UE does for the UL, i.e. 4a TVM report when
the DL TrCH Traffic Volume exceeds an absolute threshold and an event 4b TVM
report whenever the DL TrCH Traffic Volume becomes smaller than a pre-defined
absolute threshold.
If the BE_RATE_DOWN_BF_HO_SWITCH switch is enabled the DCCC will
trigger a rate decrease to the BeBitRateThd rate on reception of a UE generated SHO
1A event measurement, if the current rate is great than the BeBitRateThd rate. SHO
measurement reporting and configuring is covered in the handover control section of
this guide.
If the RATE_ADJ_BY_TCP_SWITCH switch is enabled the DCCC algorithm will
monitor the DL link quality for UEs in CELL_DCH state by means of Node-B
generated NBAP Transmitted Code Power measurements. For each UE with BE
services the RNC sets up one NBAP measurement for Transmitted Code Power
(Event E) for the best RL
1
to determine whether the link quality has degraded to an
unacceptable level (see Figure 5.1-13). If this is determined to be the case (report E,
event A received) the UEs DL DCH rate is reduced to the DL full coverage rate, if
the current rate is higher than this rate. The main parameters in the NBAP
DEDICATED MEASUREMENT INITIATION REQUEST message are:
- CHOICE Dedicated Measurement Object Type: RL Dedicated Measurement Type
(Transmitted Code Power),
- Measurement Filter Coefficient (TCPMRFilterCoef),
- Report Characteristics (Event E),
- Measurement Threshold 1 (using the relative threshold EventEaThd and the
formulas below),
- Measurement Threshold 2 (using the relative threshold EventEbThd and the
formulas below)
- Measurement Hysteresis Time (DlHystTimeForE) and
- Report Periodicity (TenMsecForE)
Threshold = MaxDlTxPower - EventExThd (SET DCCC in dBs) + PO3 (PilotPo in SET FRC)
MaxDlTxPower = PCPCICHPower (ADD PCPICH) + MaxCodePowerOffset (RLMaxDlPwr in SET
CELLRLPWR)
As part of a DCH rate change (RB reconfiguration) the minimum and maximum
power per code settings may be changed depending on the values configured for the
new RAB index, in which case the measurement trigger thresholds will also be
1
It is the 1d event that defines which cell is used for code power measurements (it is the best cell, i.e.
the cell with largest value of Ec/No or RSCP reported by the UE). If the best cell changes (indicated by
reception of a SHO 1D event report) the old measurement is terminated and a new one is started on
new best cell.
137
updated and communicated to the Node B (i.e. new measurement messages are sent to
the Node B after a reconfiguration).

Measured
entity
Time
Measurement Reports
T1 Measurement Hysteresis Time
T1
Report A
Event E
measurement
threshold 1 (=
threshold 2)

T1
Report B
Periodic
Reports
Figure 5.1-13 Reporting scheme for event E to determine DL channel conditions for DCCC

5.1.2.2 Multi-RAB support
In USR2 where multiple PS RABs are supported, TVMs are triggered on the
combined sum of bytes buffered on each BE logical channel. No new parameters have
been added to handle the multi-RAB case.
In the multi-RAB case the Event E thresholds will be the same and would be modified
in exactly the same way as would be the case if there were just one PS bearer. In
general, DCCC operation is the same in the multi-RAB case as it is in the single (1PS)
RAB case. The spreading factor is calculated by taking into account the TFCS that
must be supported.
Multi-RAB combinations supported in USR2:
1 CS
1 PS
2 CS
2 PS
2 CS + 1 PS
1 CS + 2 PS
In V1.3.0.0.15.0 onwards, a users PS BE configured rate is reduced to
UlBeTraffNgtThs / DlBeTraffNgtThs (SET FRC) when a CS request is established in
multi-RAB case.
138
5.1.2.3 Algorithm process
Two new parameters are introduced in USR2 for the UL and DL: full coverage rate
(UlFullCvrRate and DlFullCvrRate) and rate control threshold (UlDcccRateThd
and DlDcccRateThd).
If the requested rate is smaller than the rate control threshold, the DCCC will not
modify the DCH rate according to TVM reports. In addition, it is possible as a result
that DCCC will be applied in one direction only (e.g. in the UL direction, but not the
DL).
If both the UL and DL requested rates are below the UlPsTraffDecThs and
DlPsTraffDecThs respectively the UE will be assigned to CELL_FACH. If this is the
case then only TVM 4b reporting will be configured as the move to CELL_DCH will
not be possible. However, if at a later time an addition CS or PS RAB is established
the existing RAB will it be moved to a low rate DCH.
Initial Rate Selection
Up until release 1.3.0.0.7.0, the initial rate for the UL and DL is selected to be
UlFullCvrRate and DlFullCvrRate respectively if the requested rate is greater
than the full coverage rate and the DCCC_SWITCH is enabled; otherwise the
requested rate is selected.
For release 1.3.0.0.8.0 and 1.3.0.0.9.0, the initial rate for the UL and DL is
selected to be min{UlFullCvrRate, UlDcccRateThd} and
min{DlFullCvrRate, DlDcccRateThd} respectively if the requested rate is
greater than the full coverage rate and the DCCC_SWITCH is enabled;
otherwise the requested rate is selected.
From SW release 1.3.0.0.10.0 onwards:
If DCCC _SWITCH is enabled
o UL initial rate equals min {UlFullCvrRate,
UlRateThresForDCCC and UL RAB requested rate}
o If number of legs in the UEs active set is equal to 1
DL initial rate equals min {DlFullCvrRate,
DlRateThresForDCCC and DL RAB requested rate}
o Else
DL initial rate equals min {DlFullCvrRate,
DlRateThresForDCCC, BeBitRateThd and DL RAB
requested rate}
Else
139
o UL initial rate equals UL RAB requested rate
o If number of legs in the UEs active set equals 1
DL initial rate equals DL RAB requested rate
o Else
DL initial rate = min {BeBitRateThd and DL RAB requested
rate}
Available rates
The default is that there are two rates available to the DCCC when considering traffic
volume: the requested (maximum) rate and the rate control threshold. However, there
is also the possibility to select a three levels mechanism (as in USR1), controlled by a
switch (RateAdjLevel: this was introduced in release 1.3.0.0.7.0 but is not functional
until 1.3.0.0.8.0. In fact in 1.3.0.0.7.0, three rates are available regardless of the value
selected for the switch). In that case, the requested rate is the max rate, the rate control
rate is the minimum rate and the middle rate is the available rate closet to half the max
rate. The following description assumes the 2-level adjustment has been selected.
DCH rate change triggers
The following is a generic explanation for the DCCC algorithm process; see Figure
5.1-14 and Figure 5.1-15 for a summary of the DL and UL components of the
algorithm (where it is assumed all the algorithm switches are enabled). Note that with
respect to responding to TVM reports the algorithm is applied to both UL and DL in
an identical and independent way, so unless otherwise stated the description applies to
both directions:
When a TVM event 4b report is received for a particular user (implying that the
traffic volume becomes smaller than a threshold for a defined period of time) the
DL TVM 4b monitor timer is started (if it hasnt been already) for that user. The
length of which is specified by the 4bMoniTime using the SET DCCC
command. While the timer is running the number of 4b reports is recorded
(including the report that trigger the timer to start). Then when the timer expires if
the number of recorded 4b reports is greater than the monitor time divided by the
sum of the 4b time to trigger and 4b pending time {4bMoniTime /
TimetoTrigger4b + PendingTime4b} a rate reduction to the DL rate control is
triggered.. Note that if UE is in compressed mode, there will be no
reconfigurations due to TVMs.
When a TVM event 4a is received for a particular user (implying that the traffic
volume exceeds a threshold for a defined period of time), the rate will be
increased to the maximum rate. However, this rate increase is prevented if the UE
is in compressed mode or the E penalty timer has not expired or (applicable to the
DL only) the SHO penalty timer has not expired or (applicable to the DL only) if
140
the user is in SHO state. SHO state implies that the user has more than one leg in
their active set and whilst in this state the highest DL rate that they can be
configured to is the minimum of the BeBitRateThd and the DL requested rate.
For DL only:
On reception of a transmitted code power Event E report A (Ea)
measurement (indicating that the link quality has degraded): the channel
bandwidth is reduced to the full coverage rate; and the Ea penalty timer is
started (the timer length is set using the parameter: PenaltyTime in the
SET DCCC command). Whilst the timer is running the DCCC is prevented
from making rate increases. This is intended to avoid possible ping-pong
between rates as a result of successive traffic and code power measurement
reports. Note that code power measurements are only processed by the
DCCC if the RATE_ADJ_BY_DL_TCP_SWITCH is enabled.
On reception of a SHO 1A event report (indicating that the user has
entered a SHO region): the DL channel bandwidth is reduced to the
BeBitRateThd rate; leg addition will be attempted at this point and; the
SHO 1A penalty timer is started (the timer length is set using the
parameter: PenaltyTime in the SET DCCC command). The rate reduction
is intended to ensure link stability whilst in the handover region, as it had
been found that the rate reduction through an Ea report was not triggered
early enough to prevent link failure in such circumstances. Whilst the
timer is running the DCCC is prevented from making rate increases. Note
that SHO 1A events are only processed by the DCCC if the
BE_RATE_DOWN_BF_HO_SWITCH is enabled. Note that processing
of SHO 1A events by the DCCC algorithm was first available in release
1.3.0.0.8.0.
The Ea and SHO 1A penalty timers run independently and therefore can
both be running simultaneously. Note that if the DCCC_SWITCH is
disabled the users rate will be increased once the Ea and SHO penalty
timers have expired, otherwise rate increase attempts will only be made in
response to TVM 4a reports after the timers have expired..
Interaction with LCC
If congestion is detected, the LCC algorithm signals this to the DCCC algorithm and
rate increases are prevented (see LCC section for more information of how congestion
is handled).
Prevention of repeated reconfiguration attempts
New functionality is added in release 1.3.0.0.8.0, which prevents the DCCC from
making repeated rate increase attempts if the reconfigurations keep failing due to
lower layer errors. From discussion with HW the cause of the reconfiguration failures
appears to be Iub bandwidth limitation. Specifically if a certain number (FailTimeTh)
of rate increase reconfigurations fail within a defined period (MoniTimeLen) a
penalty time is started. Whilst the penalty timer is running rate increase attempts by
141
the DCCC are prevented. The time duration is set by the parameter
DcccUpPenaltyLen, using the SET DCCC command.
Figure 5.1-14 DL DCCC algorithm rate transition diagram
NB this data rate transition diagram does not include the restrictions applied
to rate increases. In the figure it is assumed that the DL full coverage rate is
smaller than the DL requested rate and that the DL full coverage rate equals
the BeBitRateThd.
Figure 5.1-15 DL DCCC algorithm rate transition diagram
NB in the figure it is assumed that the UL full coverage rate is smaller than
the UL requested rate.
5.1.2.4 Iub Congestion Control
From SW release 1.3.0.0.9.0 onwards (reference CR#428) a new Iub congestion
mechanism was introduced. This reduces the bandwidth allocated to a subset of BE
users in order to increase the available Iub bandwidth for new admissions when Iub
congestion is detected. This mechanism can be enabled or disabled through the
142
Requested
(maximum) rate
DL rate control
threshold
DL full
coverage rate
Ea OR SHO 1A
4a 4a
4b
4b: IF (rate control < full cov)
4a: IF (rate control < full cov)
Ea: IF (rate control > full cov)
Requested
(maximum) rate
UL rate control
threshold
UL full
coverage rate
4a 4a
4b
4b: IF (rate control < full cov)
IubCongCtrlSwitch parameter in the ADD NODEBCONGCTRL LMT command and
is described in more detail below:
At the RNC there is a transport layer module that monitors Iub bandwidth utilisation.
When the Iub bandwidth exceeds a predefined threshold (CongestCthd, set through
the CONGESTCTHD LMT command), this module signals to the DCCC that
congestion has been detected on the Iub. The module also signals when congestion
has passed, but based on a separate threshold (CongestRthd, set through the
CONGESTCTHD LMT command). The signals indicate the congestion status on
either the UL or DL or in both directions. On receiving the Iub congestion indication
signal the DCCC will reduce the UL and DL rate of the N best effort users with the
highest combined UL and DL rate to the UL and DL rate control threshold, where N is
the number configured by the parameter IubCgstCtrlNum. If there is congestion in
one direction only the DCCC will reduce the rate of the N highest rate users in that
direction only. In addition, on receiving the congestion signal the Iub congestion
control timer (IubCongCtrrlTimerLen) and the congestion control restore timer
(IubCongCtrlRestoreTime) is started (the latter of the two, only if the
DCCC_SWITCH is not enabled).
If the Iub congestion control timer expires, but Iub congestion has not passed (i.e. the
Iub congestion passed signal has not been received), the Iub congestion control timer
will be restarted and the N BE users with the next highest configured rates will have
their rates reduced to the rate control threshold. Again whether both UL and DL rate
are reduced depends on in which direction congestion is being experienced.
If the DCCC algorithm is not activated, once the Iub congestion control restore
timer expires the DCCC will restore the rate of the best effort users penalised during
Iub congestion, unless the Iub congestion status is not cleared, or if the Iub congestion
will occur again after restoring this BE rate (predicted by a transport layer module), in
which case the Iub congestion control restore timer will be restarted. However, if
the DCCC algorithm is activated, rate increases after the Iub congestion control
timer will be triggered in the usual manner through 4a TVM report arrivals.
5.1.3 RRC state switching algorithm
This subsection describes the algorithm used by RNC to perform RRC states switches.
For this algorithm to be operative, the UE_STATE_TRANS_SWITCH must be
enabled.
CELL_DCH <-> CELL_FACH
The transition from CELL_DCH to CELL_FACH is similar to the CELL_FACH to
CELL_PCH transition in the USR1 algorithm (except the parameters are
independently configured), i.e. it is based on user inactivity.
When UE is in CELL_DCH RRC state and the RNC receives an Event 4b TVM
report indicating zero traffic volume, the RNC starts a timer defined by
DtoFStateTransTimer. Before this timer expires, if the number of continuous TVM
reports whose value is zero exceeds certain value, then the RNC triggers a UE RRC
state change from CELL_DCH to CELL_FACH using a RB Reconfiguration
procedure so long as the trigger condition is met in both the UL and DL directions and
the UE has no other active bearers (note there is no admission control in the move
143
from CELL_DCH to CELL_FACH). The number of reports that need to be received
is calculated based on the (PendingTime4b + TriggerTime4b) of the current rate,
multiplied by StateTransZeroTraffRedundCoef (which takes a value from 0 to 1).
The reason to apply this coefficient is to account for the potential loss of TVM
reports. It should be noted that if the DCCC_SWITCH is enabled the transition to
CELL_FACH will only be considered if the current rate is configured to the rate
control threshold in the case that the requested (maximum) is greater than the rate
control threshold. The RLC parameters used in CELL_FACH are those that are
defined for the 8 kbit/s bearer, the values are made available to the UE via RB
reconfiguration message. TrCH parameters are made available to the UE via the BCH
system information element. The arrival of a TVM 4a report resets the timer. New 4a
and 4b measurement control messages are sent when moving from CELL_DCH to
CELL_FACH and when moving from CELL_FACH to CELL_DCH.
If a switch from CELL_DCH to CELL_FACH occurs and the UE is in SHO, then the
UE is requested to camp on the Best Cell in SRNC when it moves to CELL_FACH
(i.e. if best cell is under DRNC, the UE will be requested to camp on the best cell that
is under the SRNC). The current understanding is that this has been modified, such
that the best cell is now selected regardless of whether the best cell in under the
DRNC or SRNC. However, this is yet to be confirmed by Xx.
The transition from CELL_FACH to CELL_DCH is triggered by the arrival of a 4a
TVM report. Before triggering the transition CAC is consulted, if CAC refuses to
admit the call the user will remain in CELL_FACH. On moving to CELL_DCH the
UEs UL and DL DCH will be configured to the UL and DL rate control thresholds
respectively. The RLC parameters that will be used on the DCH after reconfiguration
will be the same as those specified for that DCH rate within the RAB-RB mapping
algorithm.
CELL_FACH <-> CELL_PCH
The transition from CELL_FACH to CELL_PCH is the same as the transition from
CELL_DCH to CELL_FACH except the FtoPStateTransTimer is used instead of the
DtoFStateTransTimer. In USR2 the transition is achieved by a RB Reconfiguration
(no need to wait for a Cell Update and use the Cell Update Confirm to do the
transition as in USR1).
The from CELL_PCH to CELL_FACH can occur for a number of reason, e.g. UE
needs to send a Cell Update or has data to transmit, or in response to a paging.
CELL_PCH -> URA_PCH
When the UE is in CELL_PCH, if the number of cell reselections over a period of
time (CellReSelectTimer) is greater than CellReSelectCounter, the UE will be
switched to URA_PCH. Note that the UE does not perform traffic volume
measurements while in CELL_PCH or URA_PCH.
The UE is moved back to CELL_FACH for a number of reasons including if traffic is
received while in URA_PCH state (i.e. same reasons as CELL_PCH case).
144
5.1.3.1 Relationship with PS Inactivity Timer algorithm
The algorithm is the same as it was in V1.2: see command ADD PSINACTTIMER.
In summary traffic volume is monitored at the PDCP layer, when no data has been
observed in a time period interval defined by the PS inactivity timer the PDCP layer
would request the RRC layer to release this Radio Access Bearer and hence the user
would enter idle state.
5.1.4 Related Data base Parameters
The following parameters are set using the RNC oriented SET DCCC command.
Note that some of them can also be set with the cell oriented ADD CELLDCCC, for
those, the cell parameters take always precedence, but the RNC parameters are used
when there are no specific parameters configured for a given cell, or if the data is
corrupted.
Parameter Name Range Description Comment
UlDcccRateThd
Physical value range:
8, 16, 32, 64, 128,
144, 256, 384.
Physical unit: kbps.
Minimum UL DCH rate that a BE UE will
be configured to based on low traffic
volume (4b report)
MML command:
SET DCCC
DlDcccRateThd
Physical value range:
8, 16, 32, 64, 128,
144, 256, 384.
Physical unit: kbps.
Minimum DL DCH rate that a BE UE will
be configured to based on low traffic
volume (4b report)
MML command:
SET DCCC
FtoPStateTrans
Timer
Value
range:
1~65535
.
Physical
unit:
seconds
Applicable only if the UE is in
CELL_FACH RRC state.
The timer is started on
reception of a 4b TVM report
with zero traffic volume. If the
number of zero 4b reports
received before the timer
expires is equal to or greater
than (FtoPstateTransTimer /
(TimetoTrigger4A
+PendingTime4A) *
StateTransZeroTraffReducdCo
ef) the UE is moved to
CELL_PCH state
MML
comm
and:
SET
DCCC
DtoFStateTrans
Timer
Value
range:
1~65535
.
Physical
unit:
seconds
Applicable only if the UE is in
CELL_DCH RRC state.
The timer is started on
reception of a 4b TVM report
with zero traffic volume. If the
number of zero 4b reports
received before the timer
expires is equal to or greater
than (DtoFstateTransTimer /
(TimetoTrigger4B
+PendingTime4B) *
StateTransZeroTraffReducdCo
ef) the UE is moved to
CELL_FACH state
MML
comm
and:
SET
DCCC
145
StateTransZeroT
raffRedundCoef
Value
range:
0~99.
Physical
unit: %.
Scaling factor applied to the
number of 4b reports that
should be received in the state
transition timer period, which
means that (1 -
StateTransZeroTraffReducdCo
ef) percent of the reports can
be lost and the UE will still be
moved to the next lowest RRC
state
MML
comm
and:
SET
DCCC
FtoDTVMthd
Physical
value
range: 8,
16, 32,
64, 128,
256,
512,
1024,
2k, 3k,
4k, 6k,
8k, 12k,
16k,
24k,
32k,
48k,
64k,
96k,
128k,
192k,
256k,
384k,
512k,
768k.
Physical
unit:
byte.
The parameter is used to define
the traffic volume
measurement threshold for
event 4a when the state
transition form FACH to DCH
will be triggered.
MML
comm
and:
SET
DCCC
FtoDTVMtimeT
oTrig
Physical
value
range: 0,
10, 20,
40, 60,
80, 100,
120,
160,
200,
240,
320,
640,
1280,
2560,
5000.
Physical
unit: ms.
The parameter is used to define
the time domain hysteresis
during which the criteria of
traffic volume must be fulfilled
before event 4a is reported in
CELL_FACH state. It is used
to prevent a temporary peak in
the observed traffic volume
causing a RRC state change
MML
comm
and:
SET
DCCC
CgstCoefAdjustT
imer
Value
range:
1~65535
.
Physical
unit: ms.
This parameter relates to the USR1
LCC algorithm which is not
supported
MML
command:
SET DCCC
146
RateLimitCoef
Value range:
0~100
Physical unit:
%.
This parameter relates to the
USR1 LCC algorithm which is
not supported
MML
comm
and:
SET
DCCC
EventEaThd
Value range: 0~111.
Physical value range:
0~55.5 dB with the
step size of 0.5.
Determines event E report a trigger
threshold
Threshold =
MaxDlTxPower
EventEaThd + PO3
PO3 is the power
offset for the pilot
bits of DPCCH.
MaxDlTxPwr is the
DPDCH (not the
DPCCH) power.
MML command:
SET DCCC
EventEbThd
Value range: 0~111.
Physical value range:
0~55.5 dB with the
step size of 0.5.
Determines event E report b trigger
threshold
Threshold =
MaxDlTxPower
EventEbThd +
PO3. MML
command: SET
DCCC
DlHystTimeForE
Value range: 1~6000.
Physical value range:
10~60000 ms with
the step size of 10.
Period event trigger threshold must be met
before event E report sent.
MML command:
ADD CELLDCCC,
SET DCCC
TCPMRFilterCoef
Value range: D0, D1,
D2, D3, D4, D5, D6,
D7, D8, D9, D11,
D13, D15, D17 and
D19.
Physical value range:
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,
9, 11, 13, 15, 17 and
19.
Physical unit: None.
Code power measurement filter coefficient MML command:
ADD CELLDCCC,
SET DCCC
CellReSelectTimer
Value range:
1~65535
Physical unit: s
This parameter is used to detect whether UE
is in the state of frequent cell reselection
(see below).
MML command:
SET DCCC
CellReSelectCounter
Value range:
1~65535
Physical unit: None.
When the number of cell reselections a UE
in CELL_PCH performs within the above
timer length exceeds this parameter value, it
can be considered that the UE is in the state
of frequent cell reselection and will be
moved to URA_PCH.
MML command:
SET DCCC
ChoiceRptUnitForE
Value range:
TEN_MSEC and
MIN.
Physical unit: None.
Report in milliseconds or minutes MML command:
ADD CELLDCCC,
SET DCCC
147
TenMsecForE
Value range: 1~6000.
Physical value range:
10~60000 with the
step size of 10.
Physical unit: ms
It defines the frequency at which the Node
B shall send measurement reports after
event E report A
MML command:
ADD CELLDCCC,
SET DCCC
MinForE
Value range: 1~60.
Physical unit: minute
Not used MML command:
ADD CELLDCCC,
SET DCCC
PenaltyTime
Value
range:
1~255.
Physica
l unit: s.
The penalty timer will be
started when DL code TX
power event Ea report is
received. The bit rate of
downlink will not be allowed
to increase until the timer
expires.
MML
comm
and:
ADD
CELL
DCCC
, SET
DCCC
UlFullCvrRate
Value
range:
D8,
D16,
D32,
D64,
D128,
D144,
D256,
D384.
Physical
value
range: 8,
16, 32,
64, 128,
144,
256,
384.
Physical
unit:
kbps
The uplink full coverage bit
rate of the cell. It is assumed
that this rate can be supported
over the whole cell area.
MML
comm
and:
ADD
CELL
DCCC
, SET
DCCC
DlFullCvrRate
Value
range:
D8,
D16,
D32,
D64,
D128,
D144,
D256,
D384.
Physical
value
range: 8,
16, 32,
64, 128,
144,
256,
384.
Physical
unit:
kbps
The downlink full coverage bit
rate of the cell. It is assumed
that this rate can be supported
over the whole cell area.
MML
comm
and:
ADD
CELL
DCCC
, SET
DCCC
148
RateAdjLevel
Value
range:
2_Rates,
3_Rates
Used to select whether 2 or 3
rates will be made available
when the DCCC_SWITCH is
enabled
MML
comm
and:
SET
DCCC
FailTimeTh
Value
range:
1~255.
Physical
unit:
None.
If this number of rate increase
attempts fail within the time
defined by the MoniTimeLen
the DcccUpPenaltyLen timer
is started.
MML
comm
and:
SET
DCCC
MoniTimeLen
Value
range:
1~65535
Physical
unit: s
Defines the period over which
rate increase failures are
monitored.
MML
comm
and:
SET
DCCC
DcccUpPenaltyL
en
Value
range:
1~65535
Physical
unit: s
Rate increases are prevented
whilst this timer is running
MML
comm
and:
SET
DCCC
IubCongCtrlRest
oreTime
Value range: 1~255
Physical
unit: s
If the DCCC algorithm switch
(DCCC_SWITCH) is OFF,
when the DCCC receives
indication of Iub congestion
the Iub congestion control
restore timer will start. Once
the timer expires, if congestion
has passed the data rate of the
BE users penalised whilst Iub
congestion was being
experienced will be restored.
MML
comm
and:
SET
DCCC
4bMoniTime
Value range: 1~255
Physical
unit: s
This parameter defines the
time in which the DL 4B
traffic volume measurement
reports are monitored. If DL
4B measurement reports are
received successively, RNC
will reduce the DL bandwidth.
MML
comm
and:
SET
DCCC
Dccc1aPenaltyTi
me
Value range: 1~255
Physical
unit: s
The penalty timer will be
started when rate is limited for
event 1a. The bit rate of
downlink will not be allowed
to increase until the timer
expires
MML
comm
and:
SET
DCCC
The following parameters are set using the ADD DCCCMC command, to configure
the measurement control related parameters. Those parameters are configured per
RAB.
149
Parameter Name Range Description Comments
RAB Index Value range: 0 ~31 Traffic parameter index
The following
parameters are set for
each RAB, so different or
the same parameters can
be used for different
RABs. They are all
applicable to both the
UL and DL
MML command: ADD
DCCCMC. Note that
when the DCCC algorithm
makes a rate change the
measurement thresholds,
etc. ARE changed.
Event4AThd Range: (8, 16, 32, 64,
128, 256, 512, 1024, 2K,
3K, 4K, 6K, 8K, 12K,
16K, 24K, 32K, 48K,
64K, 96K, 128K, 192K,
256K, 384K, 512K,
768K)
Physical unit: Bytes and
N Kbytes = N*1024
bytes
Event 4A trigger threshold MML command: ADD
DCCCMC
Event4BThd Range: (8, 16, 32, 64,
128, 256, 512, 1024, 2K,
3K, 4K, 6K, 8K, 12K,
16K, 24K, 32K, 48K,
64K, 96K, 128K, 192K,
256K, 384K, 512K,
768K)
Physical unit: Bytes and
N Kbytes = N*1024
bytes
Event 4B trigger threshold MML command: ADD
DCCCMC
TimetoTrigger4A Range: (0, 10, 20, 40, 60,
80, 100, 120, 160, 200,
240, 320, 640, 1280,
2560, 5000)
Unit: ms
It indicates the period of time between the
timing of event 4a detection and the timing
of sending Measurement Report (the
condition must be fulfilled during that time
to send the report).
MML command: ADD
DCCCMC
PendingTime4A Range: (250, 500, 1000,
2000, 4000, 8000,
16000)
Unit: ms
It indicates the period of time during which
it is forbidden to send any new
measurement reports for event 4a even if
the triggering condition is fulfilled.
MML command: ADD
DCCCMC
TimetoTrigger4B Enum (0, 10, 20, 40, 60,
80, 100, 120, 160, 200,
240, 320, 640, 1280,
2560, 5000)
Unit: ms
It indicates the period of time between the
timing of event 4b detection and the timing
of sending Measurement Report (the
condition must be fulfilled during that time
to send the report).
MML command: ADD
DCCCMC
150
PendingTime4B Enum (250, 500, 1000,
2000, 4000, 8000,
16000)
Unit: ms
It indicates the period of time during which
it is forbidden to send any new
measurement reports for event 4b even if
the triggering condition is fulfilled. It is
used to limit consecutive reports when one
traffic volume measurement report already
has been sent.
MML command: ADD
DCCCMC
The following parameters are set using the add cell oriented fundamental resource
configuration (FRC) ADD CELLFRC command:
Parameter Name Range Description Comment
UlPsTraffDecThs Range: D8,
D16
Unit: kbps
It indicates the rate decision threshold of the UL
PS background/interactive traffic to be set up on
the DCH. It is used when the UL bit rate is the
higher: if the UL bit rate is equal or higher than
this threshold, the call will be established on
DCH/DCH. Otherwise, the call is established on
RACH/FACH.
MML command:
ADD CELLFRC
DlPsTraffDecThs Range: D8, 16
Unit: kbps
As above, but for the DL MML command:
ADD CELLFRC
The maximum power per code levels can be configured through the ADD
CELLRLPWR:
Parameter Name Range Description Comment
RLMaxDlPwr
Range: (-350
~ 150),
Unit: 0.1dBm
Used to calculate the absolute threshold. One value is
configured for each service rate.
MML command: ADD
CELLRLPWR
The following parameters are configured through SET COIFTIMER command:
Parameter Name Range Description Comment
DcccWaitStateTime
rLen
32-bit
unsigned
integer
When DCCC software module decides to increase or
decrease a users rate, it sends the message to the RR
module and starts this timer. Before the timer expires,
RR module must inform the DCCC that this message
has been received.
MML command: SET
COIFTIMER
The following parameters are configured through SET CORRMALGOSWITCH
command (Set Connection Oriented Algorithm Switches):
151
Parameter Name Range Description Comment
ChSwitch
32-bit
unsigned int
1)
SIGNALLING_CONECTION_SETUP_SWITCH
When it is checked, the RRC connection will be set
up on common channels (RACH/FACH) for any RRC
connection establishment cause excluding originating
conversational call, terminating conversational call,
originating streaming call, terminating streaming call,
emergency call, originating high priority signalling,
terminating high priority signalling, and call re-
establishment. Otherwise, it will be set up on
dedicated channels.
MML command: SET
CORRMALGOSWITCH
ChSwitch
32-bit
unsigned int
13) DCCC_SWITCH
Used to indicate whether to adjust the bandwidth
according to TVM reports and enable modified initial
rate selection.
MML command: SET
CORRMALGOSWITCH
ChSwitch
32-bit
unsigned int
14) UE_STATE_TRANS_SWITCH
Used to indicate whether to support UE state
switching function (CELL_DCH / CELL_FACH /
CELL_PCH / URA_PCH);
MML command: SET
CORRMALGOSWITCH
ChSwitch
32-bit
unsigned int
15) RATE_ADJ_BY_TCP_SWITCH
Used to indicate whether to adjust the bandwidth
according to the DL transmitted code power.
MML command: SET
CORRMALGOSWITCH
ChSwitch
32-bit
unsigned int
16) BE_RATE_DOWN_BF_HO_SWITCH
Used to indicate whether to adjust the DL bandwidth
according to SHO 1A event reports.
MML command: SET
CORRMALGOSWITCH
The following parameters are configured through SET HOCOMM command:
Parameter Name Range Description Comment
BeBitRateThd
Value range:
D8, D16,
D32, D64,
D128, D144,
D256, D384
Physical
value range:
8k, 16k, 32k,
64k, 128k,
144k, 256k,
384k
Physical unit:
bit/s
The bit rate threshold used to determine whether to
perform soft handover for the Best Effort (BE)
service. When the maximum bit rate of the BE service
is lower than or equal to this threshold, the system
will perform soft handover for this user to guarantee
the service quality. If the maximum bit rate of the BE
service is higher than the threshold, the system will
perform intra-frequency hard handover for this user to
avoid the too great effect of soft handover on the
system capacity
Used by the DCCC, but
defined for the SHO
algorithm: see section
Error: Reference source
not found
5.1.5 Key Performance Indicators
KPI Name Description Comment
User DCCC Code For a particular code rate that the DCCC selects to support a See POAP SEA01-B10
152
Utilization Factor service, the Code Utilization Factor is an average measure of the
proportion of time (% of the duration of the test/call) that the
DCCC holds/maintains a particular code.
User DCCC Code
Loading Factor
For a particular code rate that the DCCC selects to support a
service, the Code Loading Factor is an average measure (across
the duration of the test/call) of how heavily loaded (efficiently) a
particular code rate is. At any instant the loading of a given code
rate is defined as the ratio of the number of transport blocks for the
active transport format to the number of transport blocks for the
maximum rate transport format (maximum for the particular code
rate).
See POAP SEA01-B10
User DCCC Code
Throughput (transmit
side)
Here throughput is defined as the average transmit data rate
(including bad blocks) achieved across the duration of the
test/call. This measure computes the average over time of the
instantaneous code (DCCC selected) and transport format (MAC
selected) specific transmitted data rate. Whilst throughput can be
defined at either the receiver (sometime referred to as goodput) or
the transmitter, in this context the transmit side has been selected
to give a fairer estimate of generated interference levels regardless
of BLER.
See POAP SEA01-B10
5.1.6 Optimization Guidelines
5.1.6.1 Scenario Descriptions
Radio environment parameters:
- 3-sector site layout, 1000 m site spacing.
- Propagation loss equation: 37.6 * log10(d) + 138.1 (dB) with d = distance in km.
- Shadow fading: Log normal, 8 dB standard deviation, exponentially de-correlated
with distance.
- PEDA fast fading simulated (PEDA model has taps: -0.509 dB, -9.747 dB, -23.309
dB).
- UEs mobility model is random walk, constant speed of 10 km/h.
- CPICH: 33 dBm
Traffic model:
- Traffic model: 48 kbyte files (web like traffic), 5 files (and hence 5 packet calls) per
session, 10 second reading time between files, 480 bytes per packet (100 packets per
file).
- During a packet call, packets are delivered to the RLC layer at the UEs requested
rate.
Uu Protocol layer definitions:
- RLC was run with the Huawei default LMT settings
- MAC.
- The rate available on the FACH was 32000 bits/s.
153
5.1.6.2 Parameters and Recommendation
Parameter Name Recommended
value
Source Comments
UlRateThresForDCCC
64 MML Online
help
file/Engineeri
ng Judgement
Same as default. In USR1 the minimum UL and DL
rate was 8 kbps. In testing it was found that for a DL
transfer the DCCC would configure the UL rate to the
minimum rate (due to low traffic volume), which then
delayed the TCP ACKs sent on the UL causing TCP to
back off. This had a detrimental impact on achieved
throughput. 64k is sufficiently large that TCP ACKs
should not be delayed. It should also be noted that IP
header compression isnt supported in USR1, further
delaying the TCP ACKs due to their 40 byte size,
which is reduced to a few bytes with header
compression, which is supported in USR2.
DlRateThresForDCCC
32 MML Online
help
file/Engineeri
ng Judgement
Same as default. On the DL there is only finite code
resource and therefore it is important that users with
little to transmit are configured to the lowest rate that
will support their requirements. For this reason it is
reasonable that the DlRateThresForDCCC is lower
than the value UlRateThresForDCCC.
FtoPStateTransTimer
180 MML Online
help
file/Engineeri
ng Judgement
Same as default. However, the Huawei default has
been reduced compared to USR1, where the
ZeroTraffTimer had a default value of 480 seconds.
Further analysis is required to determine the optimum
value, but this will be highly dependant on the selected
traffic model
DtoFStateTransTimer
In order of 5
seconds
Xx
Engineering
judgement.
The Huawei default (180 seconds) is very large and
would result in code resource being consumed by BE
users for long periods of time during reading times and
at the end of sessions. The USR1 default was 2.56
seconds, which is far more reasonable.
StateTransZeroTraffRedu
ndCoef
80 MML Online
help
file/Engineeri
ng Judgement
Same as default. The RLC mode that 4b reports are
sent in needs to be clarified, because if it is AM then it
seems unlikely that reports will be lost. However,
Huawei obviously feel this is an issue and therefore it
is not suggested that this value be modified.
FtoDTVMthd
1024 MML Online
help
file/Engineeri
ng Judgement
Same as default. Consistent with the 4a report
threshold whilst in CELL_DCH
FtoDTVMtimeToTrig
240 MML Online
help
file/Engineeri
ng Judgement
Same as default. Consistent with the 4a report
hysteresis time whilst in CELL_DCH
CgstCoefAdjustTimer
- This parameter relates to the USR1 LCC algorithm
which is not supported
RateLimitCoef
- This parameter relates to the USR1 LCC algorithm
which is not supported
154
EventEaThd
6 dB Xx
Simulation
results
(Optimisatio
n of DCCC
code power
related
parameters,
Steve Barrett,
GAR/RAN/03
/057, 17
th
Nov
2003)
In addition to the recommendations in the simulation
report, the Huawei default is 1dB which implies that
the long-term average power (measured over the
period defined by DlHystTtimeForE: default 640ms)
has to be within 25% (1dB) of the MPPC before a rate
decrease is invoked. It seems clear that for such a high
average power to be achieved a large proportion of the
slots during the hysteresis time would be hitting the
MPPC, thereby causing the BLER to exceed its target
level
EventEbThd
6 dB Xx
Simulation
results
See explanation above.
DlHystTimeForE
60, i.e. 600 ms Xx
Engineering
judgement.
Note the layer 3 filter output is only updated every 100
ms and therefore the it only makes sense for the
hysteresis time to be multiple of 10 (100ms).
TCPMRFilterCoef
D3 MML Online
help
file/Engineeri
ng Judgement
Same as default. Filter coefficient =2^(-k/2) and k is
the parameter passed over NBAP (3 based on the
default)
CellReSelectTimer
180 s MML Online
help
file/Engineeri
ng Judgement
Same as default. However, due to the influence of the
PS inactivity timer it is unlikely that transitions to
URA_PCH will be made
CellReSelectCounter
2 Simulations
results
(Parameter
setting for
switching
between
Common
Channel RRC
states, Steve
Barrett,
SEA/RAN/03
/104, 10
th
Dec
2003)
In the report the use of a 15 minute CellReselectTimer
and a CellReselectCounter of 6 is discussed. However,
to reduce RRC signalling overhead (URA updates will
occur less frequently than CELL updates) the
recommendation is to scale these two values to
increase the probability of the user being placed into
URA_PCH.
With the Huawei defaults (9) it seems unlikely that a
user will ever be paced in URA_PCH unless they are
moving along a line between 2 cells or else traversing
small cells exceptionally quickly!
ChoiceRptUnitForE
TEN_MSEC Engineering
judgement
TenMsecForE
480, i.e. 4800 ms MML Online
help
file/Engineeri
ng Judgement
Same as default. This parameter should not be of
importance because the code power reporting
parameters are reconfigured after a rate decrease
through a measurement control message.
PenaltyTime
60 MML Online
help file
60 seems too harsh. Further analysis is required to
determine the optimum value
155
UlFullCvrRate
64 MML Online
help
file/Engineeri
ng Judgement
Same as default. The value will selected will depend
on the particular network plan. 64 kbps seems a
reasonable value. However, it is likely the area
reliability will be lower than 12.2k voice due to the
lower spreading factor, which will not be wholly
compensated for by the less stringent BLER target (the
target is set using the ADD TYPRABOLPC)
DlFullCvrRate
64 MML Online
help
file/Engineeri
ng Judgement
Same as default. See comments above.
RateAdjLevel
3_Rat
es
E
n
g
i
n
e
e
ri
n
g
J
u
d
g
e
m
e
n
t
As part of CR 256 Xx insisted that 3 rates
be made available as is the case in USR1,
therefore the recommendation is to select
the 3 rate option
FailTimeTh 5
M
M
L
O
n
li
n
e
h
e
l
p
fi
l
e
Same as default.
MoniTimeLen 60
M
M
L
O
n
li
n
e
h
e
l
p
fi
l
e
Same as default.
156
DcccUpPenalt
yLen
300
M
M
L
O
n
li
n
e
h
e
l
p
fi
l
e
Same as default.
IubCongCtrlR
estoreTime
60
M
M
L
O
n
li
n
e
h
e
l
p
fi
l
e
Same as default.
4bMoniTime 30
M
M
L
O
n
li
n
e
h
e
l
p
fi
l
e
Same as default.
Dccc1aPenatly
Time
30
M
M
L
O
n
li
n
e
h
e
l
p
fi
l
e
Same as default.
157
If an Event E is responsible for a rate decrease then the purpose of the rate decrease
will be to resolve a link quality problem at the higher rate. It follows that relatively
more power should be available at the new lower rate than was available at the higher
rate (the reduction in the max power per code in going from the higher rate to the
lower rate should be less than the change in Ec/No requirement between the two
rates). At its simplest we might model the change in Ec/No as being directly
proportional to the change in data rate.
Mathematically then the restriction can be expressed as follows:
high MPPC
low MPPC
high
low
P
P
R
R
_
_
<
Where:
R
high
= The high data rate
R
low
= The low data rate
P
MPPC_high
= Max Power per code at the high data rate
P
MPPC_low
= Max power per code at the low data rate
It would seem reasonable that the difference between the two ratios in the equation
above should be at least 2dB (this would provide both some margin for the fact that
Ec/No will not be directly proportional to data rate, and will also provide a reasonable
link quality benefit by having reduced rate (2dB equates to 58% link quality benefit))
The MPPC values in the following table meet the criteria given above (i.e. the
requirement to achieve a 2 dB link quality improvement as a result of a rate decrease),
as shown in the last column of the second table.
Data rate (kbit/s) MPPC
8
0.75W
32
1.9 W
64
2.5 W
128
3.07 W
144
3.17 W
256
3.65 W
384
4 W
158
Current
rate,
kbps
New
rate,
kbps
Change in data
rate (dB)
Max power per code setting Relative link quality
improvement in
decreasing rate
384 64 64 / 384 = -7.78 dB 2.5 W (4 / 2.5 = 2.04 dB) 7.78 - 2.04 = 5.74 dB
256 64 64 / 256 = -6.02 dB 3.07 W (3.65 / 3.07 = 1.64 dB) 6.02 - 1.64 = 4.38 dB
144 64 64 / 144 = -3.52 dB 2.5 W (3.17 / 2.5 = 1.03 dB) 3.52 1.03 dB = 2.5 dB
128 64 64 / 128 = -3.01 dB 2.5 W (3.07 / 2.5 = 0.89 dB) 3.01 0.89 dB = 2.12 dB
Parameter Name Recommended
value
Source Comments
RLMaxDlPwr See table and
explanation
above.
Xx Simulation
results
Max power per code is typically set so that the value
associated with a lower data rate is less than or equal to
that available at a higher rate. In addition values should
be selected which are expected to achieve system power
stability (reduce occurrence of overload) whilst
maximising achieved coverage
Although the following parameters can be configured per RAB type, the engineering
judgement is that they be set the same regardless of the RB rate.
Parameter Name Recommend
values
Source Comments
Event4AThd 1K MML online help/
Xx Engineering
judgement
Same as default.
The value selected should be smaller than the RLC buffer
otherwise the report will never be triggered. Equally the
RLC buffer should be at least as large as the RLC
transmit window. The default RLC transmit-window size
at the lowest possible DCH rate of 8 kbps is 32 RLC
PDUs. With a 40 byte PDU size this give a RLC window
size of 1,280 bytes, which is still higher than the trigger
threshold. Therefore, in conclusion a trigger threshold of
1,024 is low enough that a 4a report can be triggered
regardless of the selected rate.
Another important observation from the study carried out
in [Simulation analysis of the DCCC and Transport
Channel switching algorithm, Walter Featherstone,
HM_RRM_SR_05a, 10
th
Mat 2004] is that TCP will
ramp up the number of packets it sends until the RLC
buffer reaches capacity, once this situation is reached
TVM 4a reports will be sent each time the
TimetoTrigger4A timer expires and therefore rate
increase attempts will be made periodically assuming the
file size is sufficiently large to reach this steady state
Event4BThd 64 MML online help. Same as default.
TimetoTrigger4A 240 ms MML online
help /Xx
Engineering
judgement
Same as default.
PendingTime4A 4000 ms MML online help. Same as default.
TimetoTrigger4B 2560 ms MML online
help /Xx
Engineering
judgement
Same as default.
It is reasonable to use 4b to detect end of packet call and
this value seems like a reasonable period to wait to
determine whether packet call has ended.
PendingTime4B 4000 ms MML online help. Same as default.
159
Parameter Name Xx
recommended
Source Comments
UlPsTraffDecThs D8 (8 kbps) MML online
help /Xx
Engineering
judgement
Same as default. For the UL code resource isnt an issue,
so connection via DCH is preferable. However, shouldnt
set UlPsTraffDecThs to a large value as this would
prevent a low data rate service request from being place
in CELL_FACH
DlPsTraffDecThs D8 (8 kbps) MML online
help /Xx
Engineering
judgement
Same as default. It is preferable to place users with low
data rate service requests into CELL_FACH to make
available a large proportion of the code tree available to
higher rate users.
Parameter Name Xx
recommended
Source Comments
DcccWaitStateTimerLen 50,000 MML online help.
Same as default.
Parameter Name Recommended value Source Comments
ChSwitch 1) SIGNALLING_CONNECTION_SETUP_SWITCH = 1
Xx
Engineering
judgement
On to enable full
functionality
ChSwitch 13) DCCC_SWITCH = 1
Xx
Engineering
judgement
On to enable full
functionality
ChSwitch 14) UE_STATE_TRANS_SWITCH = 1
Xx
Engineering
judgement
On to enable full
functionality
ChSwitch 15) RATE_ADJ_BY_TCP_SWITCH = 1
Xx
Engineering
judgement
On to enable full
functionality
ChSwitch 16) BE_RATE_DOWN_BF_HO_SWITCH = 0
Xx
Engineering
judgement
This switch could be
enabled if handover
problems were
observed. However,
it is felt that if the
transmitted code
power threshold is
set appropriately
then that trigger
would cause the rate
reduction at
approximately the
same point as the
arrival of the SHO
1A event report,
Parameter Name Xx
recommended
Source Comments
BeBitRateThd 64k
Xx Engineering
judgement
A rule of thumb is to set BeBitRateThd to the
maximum bit rate with guaranteed cell coverage, i.e.
the DlFullCvrRate
5.1.6.3 Expected KPI Value
KPI Name Expected value Comments
User DCCC Code
Utilisation Factor
TBD
160
User DCCC Code
Loading Factor
TBD
User DCCC Code
Throughput
(transmit side)
TBD
161
6 AMR Rate Control over Air Interface
6.1 AMR Rate Control normal operation (no TFO)
6.1.1 Algorithm Overview
The AMR speech codec consists of the multi-rate speech codec with eight source rates
from 4.75 kbit/s to 12.2 kbit/s. The AMR Rate Control is a connection oriented load
management algorithm that is responsible for detecting the need of the AMR mode
adaptation and for performing the required procedures to change the current AMR
mode to the newly selected AMR mode in the codecs at the UE or the transcoder. At
call establishment the AMR mode is symmetric
2
, but once the call is established, the
supported AMR mode adaptation can be asymmetric, which implies the possibility to
use different AMR modes in uplink and downlink during active speech call. The
decision of changing the current AMR mode for one of the codecs is made by the
RNC based on measurements received (UE Transmitted Power for the UL and
Transmitted Code Power for the DL).
The change between the AMR specified rates occurs in downlink, when the downlink
power exceeds an acceptable level, which implies a poor quality of the link. In that
case, reducing the AMR mode will reduce the power required to meet the SIR target
for that link, optimizing the radio resources. In uplink the corresponding change is
made when the reported UE transmitted power exceed the acceptable level. The
benefit of this is that the contribution of speech to the noise rise is minimized and
moreover, the uplink coverage area for speech can be extended.
This algorithm is also in charge of modifying the rate for the CS rate-controllable
streaming traffic (14.4, 28.8, 57.6 kbps) in the same way it is done for AMR traffic, so
it will not be treated separately, the following explanations apply to the CS rate-
controllable traffic too.
The AMRC algorithm can be enabled or disabled via O&M with the SET
CORRMALGOSWITCH command. The AMRC_SWITCH in ChSwitch is used to
modify the state enabled/disabled. The following explanation assumes the algorithm is
enabled (SET CORRMALGOSWITCH : CHSWITCH=AMRC_SWITCH-1;).
6.1.1.1 Detailed Description
The RAB parameters are defined during the RAB Assignment procedure initiated by
the CN to establish the RAB for AMR. The Radio Access Bearer (RAB) service will
be defined as a set of RAB sub-flows. The SRNC identifies each RAB sub-flow
combination it will support with a RAB sub-Flow Combination Indicator (RFCI). The
set of RAB sub-flows that will be supported by the UTRAN for the RAB in question
is called the RAB sub-Flow Combination Set (RFCS). The SRNC notifies the core
network of the RFCS and the associated set of RFCIs during the Iu user plane
2
For CS services, the RAB rate is always symmetric in UL and DL initially (i.e. at RAB
establishment).
162
initialisation process. The RFCI definition is given in order of increasing SDU sizes,
i.e. the first RFCI proposed in the list corresponds to the maximum bit rate allowed to
be used when starting the communication phase. When in the communication phase,
the frame transmission starts in downlink in the initial RFCI, this initial AMR rate can
be selected with the InitAmrMode parameter (note that testing of the algorithm shows
that this parameter does not work, i.e. the initial rate is always the maximum rate).
This will be valid until the RNC sends an Iu UP Rate Control frame when the AMRC
algorithm decides the DL AMR rate must be changed. During the IuUP rate control
process, RFCI0 is used to indicate the maximum bit rate allowed to be used.
The RNC is designed to offer at most a sub-set of 4 AMR rates unless UE TFCs
limitation prevents that. The AMR rate selection mechanism applied by the RNC to
construct a sub-set of 4 rates consists of picking up the lowest Guaranteed AMR
rate as well as the maximum bit rate, the other two rates are selected with a simple
algorithm to choose equally distant values (or Initial preferred AMR rate that can be
defined via MML if it is not GBR or maximum bit rate). If 4 or less rates are
requested by the CN then the RNC will/can only offer those requested rates. In case
the configured InitAmrRate is out of SDU Format Info, the Guaranteed Bit Rate will
be automatically selected by the RNC as initial rate.
Once the AMR call is successfully established, the AMRC initiates the measurements
needed for this algorithm:
- In the UL the AMRC will use two instances (measurement identities 5 and 12) of
UE internal measurements (UE Transmitted Power). Each of these measurements are
event triggered (events 6a and 6b) and they are configured by a RRC
MEASUREMENT CONTROL message. The main O&M configurable parameters in
this message are: Measurement Report Transfer Mode (UlReportMode), Filter
Coeficient (UlMeasFilterCoef), Time-to-trigger (UlTrigTime6a1, UlTrigTime6b1,
UlTrigTime6b2, UlTrigTime6a2), UE Transmitted Power Tx power threshold
(calculated using the MaxUlTxPower and O&M configurable relative thresholds:
UlThd6a1, UlThd6b1, UlThd6b2, UlThd6a2). After these events are configured in
the UE, the UE will send a measurement report 6A whenever the UE transmission
power becomes larger than the predefined threshold and a measurement report 6B
whenever the UE transmission power becomes less than a predefined threshold, as
explained in Figure 6.1-16.
- In the DL the AMRC will use periodic reports from the Node B for the Transmitted
Code Power on the best radio link
3
for each voice call. These periodic reports are
configured with a NBAP DEDICATED MEASUREMENT INITIATION REQUEST
message. The main O&M configurable parameters in this message are: Measurement
Filter Coefficient (DlMeasFilterCoef) and Report Periodicity
(DLMEASRPRTPERIOD). The RNC compares the periodic report values with
absolute thresholds, derived from a set of O&M configurable thresholds and the
maximum transmitted power (DlThDE1, DlThDE2, DlThDF1, DlThDF2,
RLMaxDlPower). Based on those comparisons, the RNC will decide on increasing
the AMR mode, reducing it or stop the adjustments. Note that the thresholds are
3
The best Radio Link is the RL on the best cell in the active set. Best cell is the cell with largest
value of Ec/No or RSCP reported by the UE.
163
defined in a similar way with the ones for NBAP event triggered reporting (see Figure
6.1-17).
The AMRC algorithm is applied independently to the UL and DL, therefore the
process in both directions will be explained separately.
6.1.1.2 Uplink AMR Control
When an event is received from a particular user, the AMRC will behave as follows:
If there is an event 6a1 received (implying that the UE transmitted power is
larger than a threshold), the AMRC reduces the UL AMR mode one level for
that particular user.
If there is an event 6b1 or 6a2 received, the AMRC will stop adjusting the UL
AMR.
If there is an event 6b2 received (implying that the UE transmitted power is
smaller than a threshold), the AMRC increases the UL AMR mode one level
for that particular user.
The modification (increase or reduction) of the UL AMR mode is done with a RRC
TRANSPORT FORMAT COMBINATION CONTROL message. This message is
used to change the sub-set of allowed uplink transport format combinations within the
transport format combination set. When this message is sent, the
UlModeChangeTimerlen timer is started. If no failure message is received when the
timer expires, it can be considered that the UL AMR speech rate adjustment
succeeded.
A second timer (UlAmrcTimerLen) is also started when the TRANSPORT FORMAT
COMBINATION CONTROL message is delivered to decide if a second adjustment is
needed. In case there is no event report by the time the timer expires (that means the
measured value is still at the same state as the value measured before the last UL
AMR mode adjustment), the RNC will consider that the AMR mode adjustment had
no effect, so a second adjustment is made.

Tx power threshold 6A1=
[MaxUlTxPower]-[UlTh6a1]
Tx power threshold 6B1 =
[MaxUlTxPower]-[UlTh6b1]
Tx power threshold 6A2 =
[MaxUlTxPower]-[UlTh6a2]
Tx power threshold 6B2 =
[MaxUlTxPower]-[UlTh6b2]
Reporting
event 6A
Reporting
event 6B
Reporting
event 6A
Reporting
event 6B
UE Tx power
Time
No
adjustment
Reduce UL
AMR mode
Increase
UL AMR
mode
Figure 6.1-16. AMRC operation in UL
Note that Taurus recommended value for UlTh6b1 is the same as of UlTh6a1 and
UlTh6b2 is the same as of UlTh6a2, which implies that there are only two effective
164
thresholds, one above which the UL AMR mode will be reduced and one below which
the UL AMR mode will be increased.
When UL AMR Mode is changed, AMRC will inform RNC MAC-d to modify the
BLER target value to BlerModeX corresponding to the current maximum rate mode
allowed to be used. This new BLER target value will be used for the UL OLPC.
6.1.1.3 Downlink AMR Control
When a periodic Transmitted Code Power report is received, the RNC performs a
conversion to be able to compare the received value (Transmitted Code Power
measured on pilot bits of DPCCH field) with the absolute thresholds (defined as the
average power of DL DPDCH). So, the RNC calculates the actual average power of
DL DPDCH according to the report value:
( ) { } 15 / 3 /
2 1
+
Data Data Data pilot DPCCH avg DPDCH
N N N PO P P
Note: In the above formula, PDPDCH-avg, PDPCCH-pilot, PO3 are absolute power value.
NData is the number of data bits that are available for the CCTrCH in a radio frame with a
specific TFC. NData1 and NData2 are the exact number of bits in the downlink DPCH fields
with a specific slot format.
Once the average DL DPDCH power is computed according to the formula above, it
will be compared with the thresholds. The absolute thresholds E1,E2,F1,F2 are
computed as follows:
ThresholdE1 = MaxDlTxPower DLThE1
ThresholdE2 = MaxDlTxPower DLThE2
ThresholdF1 = MaxDlTxPower DLThF1
ThresholdF2= MaxDlTxPower DLThF2
MaxDlTxPower = PCPCICHPower (ADD PCPICH) + MaxCodePowerOffset (RLMaxDlPwr in SET
CELLRLPWR)
If the measured value is higher than E1 threshold, the AMRC reduces the DL
AMR mode one level for that particular user. The AMRC will continue with
further adjustments, reducing the AMR mode level step by step upon reception
of the reports, until the measured value becomes smaller than E2, i.e. it is
considered that the AMR mode adjustment had effect.
If the measured value is smaller than F1 threshold, the AMRC increases the
DL AMR mode one level for that particular user. The AMRC will continue
with the adjustments, increasing the AMR mode level step by step, until the
measured value becomes larger than F2.
The modification (increase or reduction) of the DL AMR mode is done with a Iu UP
Rate Control frame sent to CN. This frame contains all the configured TFCIs with their
state (allowed/barred) in order to achieve the desired increase or reduction on the
AMR mode.
165

E1 =
[MaxDlTxPower] - [DlThE1]
E2 =
[MaxDlTxPower] - [DlThE2]

F2 =
[MaxDlTxPower] - [DlThF2]

F1 =
[MaxDlTxPower] - [DlThF1]

DL Tx code power
Time

Reduce DL
AMR mode
Increase
DL AMR
mode
[MaxDlTxPower]
Figure 6.1-17. AMRC-DL operation
Note that Taurus recommended value for DlThE1 is the same as of DlThE2 and
DlThF1 is the same as of DlThF2, which implies that there are only two effective
thresholds, one above which the DL AMR mode will be reduced and one below which
the DL AMR mode will be increased.
6.1.2 Related Data base Parameters
This table includes configurable parameters related to the AMRC algorithm. These
parameters are set by the MML command: Set AMRC Algorithm Parameters (SET
AMRC) on the RNC scope. There are some other MML commands related to the
AMRC algorithm (ADD CELLAMRC), that are cell oriented, but the parameters
these functions use are all included in the SET AMRC command and are therefore not
repeated. The parameters configured for a cell take precedence over the ones
configured for the whole RNC. Current recommendation is to configure these
parameters RNC-wide.
Parameter Name Range Description Comments
UlMeasFilterCoef Rang
e: D0, D1,
D2, D3,
D4, D5,
D6, D7,
D8, D9,
D11, D13,
D15, D17 ,
D19
Unit:
none
Step:
none
It defines the smooth
filtering coefficient for the
UL measured value.
Smooth filtering is used to
avoid random disturbance
in measurement reporting.
The greater the filter
coefficient is valued, the
smoother result is
produced and the less
random disturbance may
be caused. However, the
ability to respond to the
measured value change
will become less
3GPP: it corresponds
to Filter coefficient IE
in RRC
MEASUREMENT
CONTROL. MML
command: SET
AMRC
This parameter can be
also configured per
cell (ADD
CELLAMRC).
166
correspondingly
UlTrigTime6a1 Rang
e: D0, D10,
D20, D40,
D60, D80,
D100,
D120,
D160,
D200,
D240,
D320,
D640,
D1280,
D2560 ,
D5000
Unit:
ms
Step:
none
Time duration for which
the measured value keeps
fulfilling the 6a1
measurement condition
before the event 6a1 is
triggered at the UE. The
event 6a1 refers to the
event triggered when the
measured value is higher
than the UL 6a1 event
relative threshold. When
the event 6a1 is triggered,
the AMR speech rate
should be decreased. The
objective of this trigger
time is to eliminate any
sudden change of the
measured value in
measurement reporting.
The longer the trigger time
is, the better suppression
effect can be produced on
sudden change. However,
the ability to respond to
measured value change
will become less
correspondingly.
3GPP: It corresponds
to Time to trigger IE
for 6a event in RRC
MEASUREMENT
CONTROL. MML
command: SET
AMRC
This parameter can be
also configured per
cell (ADD
CELLAMRC).
UlTrigTime6b1 Rang
e: D0, D10,
D20, D40,
D60, D80,
D100,
D120,
D160,
D200,
D240,
D320,
D640,
D1280,
D2560,
D5000.
Physi
cal value
range: 0,
10, 20, 40,
60, 80, 100,
120, 160,
200, 240,
320, 640,
1280,
Time duration for
which the measured value
keeps fulfilling the 6b1
measurement condition
before the event 6b1 is
triggered at the UE. The
event 6b1 refers to the
event triggered when the
measured value is lower
than the UL 6b1 event
relative threshold. When
the event 6b1 is triggered,
it can be considered that
the AMR speech mode
decrease has effect. The
UL AMRC timer returns
to the normal state. The
objective of this
parameter is to eliminate
any sudden change of the
measured value in
measurement reporting.
The longer the trigger
3GPP: It
corresponds to Time
to trigger IE for 6b
event in RRC
MEASUREMENT
CONTROL. MML
command: SET
AMRC
This parameter
can be also configured
per cell (ADD
CELLAMRC).
167
2560 ,
5000.
Physi
cal unit: ms
Step:
none.
time is, the better
suppression effect can be
produced on sudden
change. However, the
ability to respond to
measured value change
will become less
correspondingly.
UlTrigTime6b2
Valu
e range:
D0, D10,
D20, D40,
D60, D80,
D100,
D120,
D160,
D200,
D240,
D320,
D640,
D1280,
D2560,
D5000.
Physi
cal value
range: 0,
10, 20, 40,
60, 80, 100,
120, 160,
200, 240,
320, 640,
1280, 2560,
5000.
Physi
cal unit: ms
Step:
none.
Time duration for
which the measured value
keeps fulfilling the 6b2
measurement condition
before the event 6b2 is
triggered. The event 6b2
refers to the event
triggered when the
measured value is lower
than the UL 6b2 event
relative threshold. When
the event 6b2 is triggered,
the AMR speech mode
should be increased. The
objective of this
parameter is to eliminate
any sudden change of the
measured value in
measurement reporting.
The longer the trigger
time is, the better
suppression effect can be
produced on sudden
change. However, the
ability to respond to
measured value change
will become less
correspondingly.
3GPP: It
corresponds to Time
to trigger IE for 6b
event in RRC
MEASUREMENT
CONTROL. MML
command: SET
AMRC
This parameter
can be also configured
per cell (ADD
CELLAMRC).
UlTrigTime6a2 Valu
e range:
D0, D10,
D20, D40,
D60, D80,
D100,
D120,
D160,
D200,
D240,
D320,
D640,
D1280,
D2560 and
D5000.
Time duration for
which the measured value
keeps fulfilling the 6a2
measurement condition
before the event 6a2 is
triggered. The event 6a2
refers to the event
triggered when the
measured value is higher
than the UL 6a2 event
relative threshold. When
the event 6a2 is triggered,
it can be considered that
the AMR speech rate
increase has had effect.
3GPP: It
corresponds to Time
to trigger IE for 6a
event in RRC
MEASUREMENT
CONTROL. MML
command: SET
AMRC
This parameter
can be also configured
per cell (ADD
CELLAMRC).
168
Physi
cal value
range: 0,
10, 20, 40,
60, 80, 100,
120, 160,
200, 240,
320, 640,
1280, 2560
and 5000.
Physi
cal unit: ms
Step:
none.
The UL AMRC timer
returns to the normal
state. The objective of this
parameter is to eliminate
any sudden change of the
measured value in
measurement reporting.
The longer the trigger
time is, the better
suppression effect can be
produced on sudden
change. However, the
ability to respond to
measured value change
will become less
correspondingly.
UlAmrcTimerlen
Valu
e range:
20~64000.
Physi
cal unit: ms
This timer is used
to trigger a second
adjustment over the UL
AMR mode. It defines the
duration of waiting for
response to the UL AMR
mode adjustment
command (TFCI Control).
The UL AMRC timer
starts when UL AMRC
mode adjustment is
initiated and stops when
next measurement report
is received. The UL
AMRC timer expires
when the measurement
report is not received.
That is, the measured
value is still at the same
state as the value
measured before the last
UL AMRC mode
adjustment. This indicates
that the AMRC mode
adjustment has no effect
and that a second AMRC
mode adjustment is
required. The longer
duration the UL AMRC
timer has, the less the
frequency of AMRC
mode adjustment is.
However, the ability to
respond to measured
value change will become
less correspondingly.
Not standard
timer. MML
command: SET
AMRC
This parameter
can be also configured
per cell (ADD
CELLAMRC).
UlReportMode Valu
e range:
AM , UM.
It indicates the
RLC mode to be used by
the UE to send the
3GPP: it
corresponds to
Measurement Report
169
Physi
cal unit:
None.
internal measurement
reports (AM or UM).
Transfer Mode IE in
RRC
MEASUREMENT
CONTROL. MML
command: SET
AMRC
UlThd6a1
Valu
e range:
0~83.
Physi
cal unit: dB
Measurement
report relative threshold
at which the event 6a1
is triggered. The event
6a1 refers to the event
triggered when the
measured value is
higher than the UL 6a1
event relative threshold.
When the event 6a1 is
triggered, AMRC will
decide to decrease the
AMR speech rate by
one level. What defined
via this parameter is a
kind of relative
threshold, and the
absolute threshold =
[MaxUlTxPower] -
[UlTh6a1]. The greater
this parameter is
valued, the lower the
absolute threshold is. In
this case, there are more
possibilities of
triggering the request
for AMR speech rate
decrease. Accordingly
the ARM speech rate is
more likely to be
decreased.
3GPP: This
value is used to
calculate the UE
Transmitted Power
Tx power threshold IE
in the RRC
MEASUREMENT
CONTROL. MML
command: SET AMRC
UlThd6b1 Valu
e range:
0~83.
Physi
cal unit: dB
Measurement
report relative threshold
at which the event 6b1
is triggered. The event
6b1 refers to the event
triggered when the
measured value is lower
than the UL 6b1 event
relative threshold.
When the event 6b1 is
triggered, AMRC will
stop adjusting the UL
AMR speech rate. What
3GPP: This
value is used to
calculate the UE
Transmitted Power
Tx power threshold IE
in the RRC
MEASUREMENT
CONTROL. MML
command: SET AMRC
170
defined via this
parameter is a kind of
relative threshold. The
absolute threshold =
[MaxUlTxPower] -
[UlTh6b1]. The greater
this parameter is
valued, the lower the
absolute threshold is. In
this case, there are
fewer possibilities of
reaching the value at
which the AMR speech
rate decrease can stop.
Accordingly the AMR
speech rate is more
likely to be decreased.
UlThd6b2
Valu
e range:
0~83.
Physi
cal unit: dB
Measurement
report relative threshold
at which the event 6b2
is triggered. The event
6b2 refers to the event
triggered when the
measured value is lower
than the UL 6b2 event
relative threshold.
When the event 6b2 is
triggered, AMRC will
decide to increase the
AMR speech rate by
one level. What defined
via this parameter is a
kind of relative
threshold. The absolute
threshold =
[MaxUlTxPower] -
[UlTh6b2]. The greater
this parameter is
valued, the lower the
absolute threshold is. In
this case, there are
fewer possibilities of
triggering the request
for AMR speech rate
increase. Accordingly
the ARM speech rate is
less likely to be
increased.
3GPP: This
value is used to
calculate the UE
Transmitted Power
Tx power threshold IE
in the RRC
MEASUREMENT
CONTROL. MML
command: SET AMRC
UlThd6a2 Valu
e range:
Measurement
report threshold at
3GPP: This
value is used to
171
0~83.
Physi
cal unit: dB
which the event 6a2 is
triggered. The event
6a2 refers to the event
triggered when the
measured value is
higher than the UL 6a2
event relative threshold.
When the event 6a2 is
triggered, AMRC will
stop adjusting the UL
AMR speech rate. What
defined via this
parameter is a kind of
relative threshold. The
absolute threshold =
[MaxUlTxPower] -
[UlTh6a2]. The greater
this parameter is
valued, the lower the
absolute threshold is. In
this case, there are more
possibilities of reaching
the value at which the
AMR speech rate
increase can stop.
Accordingly the ARM
speech rate is less likely
to be increased.
calculate the UE
Transmitted Power
Tx power threshold IE
in the RRC
MEASUREMENT
CONTROL. MML
command: SET AMRC
BlerForMode1 Valu
e range:
-63~0.
Physi
cal unit:
None
Target BLER value of
AMR speech mode 1, i.e.,
AMR speech of 4.75 kbps.
The value is calculated as:
10log(BLER).
The less the parameter
is valued, the better the
speech quality is.
However, more
transmit power is
required
correspondingly.
At physical channel
establishment, the UE
sets an initial downlink
target SIR value based
on the received IEs
"DCH quality target".
The IE "DCH quality
target" for a given
DCH shall be used by
the UE to set the target
SIR for the downlink
power control in case
quality target can be
set for this DCH, i.e.
CRC exists in all
transport formats in
172
downlink TFS for this
DCH. MML
command: SET
AMRC
BlerForMode2
Valu
e range:
-63~0.
Physi
cal unit: dB
Target BLER value of
AMR speech mode 2, i.e.,
AMR speech of 5.15 kbps.
The value is calculated as:
10log(BLER).
Same comment as
above.
BlerForMode3
Valu
e range:
-63~0.
Physi
cal unit: dB
Target BLER value of
AMR speech mode 3, i.e.,
AMR speech of 5.9 kbps.
The value is calculated as:
10log(BLER).
Same comment as
above.
BlerForMode4
Valu
e range:
-63~0.
Physi
cal unit: dB
Target BLER value of
AMR speech mode 4, i.e.,
AMR speech of 6.7 kbps.
The value is calculated as:
10log(BLER).
Same comment as
above.
BlerForMode5
Valu
e range:
-63~0.
Physi
cal unit: dB
Target BLER value of
AMR speech mode 5, i.e.,
AMR speech of 7.4 kbps.
The value is calculated as:
10log(BLER).
Same comment as
above.
BlerForMode6
Valu
e range:
-63~0.
Physi
cal unit:
None
Target BLER value of
AMR speech mode 6, i.e.,
AMR speech of 7.95 kbps.
The value is calculated as:
10log(BLER).
Same comment as
above.
BlerForMode7
Valu
e range:
-63~0.
Physi
cal unit: dB
Target BLER value of
AMR speech mode 7, i.e.,
AMR speech of 10.2 kbps.
The value is calculated as:
10log(BLER).
Same comment as
above.
BlerForMode8
Valu
e range:
-63~0.
Physi
cal unit: dB
Target BLER value of
AMR speech mode 8, i.e.,
AMR speech of 12.2 kbps.
The value is calculated as:
10log(BLER).
Same comment as
above.
UlModeChangeTim
erlen
Valu
e range:
0~64000
Physi
Internal Timer to control
the outcome of the RRC
Transport Format
Combination Control
procedure.
When deciding to
adjust the UL AMR
speech mode, AMRC
delivers the command
TFC Control and
173
cal unit: ms
initiates this timer. If
no failure message is
received when the
timer expires, it can be
considered that the UL
AMR speech rate
adjustment succeeded.
MML command: SET
AMRC
RpmUlReportMode
Valu
e range:
AM , UM.
Physi
cal unit:
None.
Mode used for periodical
report of transmit power
during UL transmit power
monitoring.
Not used because event
type is used.

DlMeasFilterCoef
Valu
e range:
D0, D1,
D2, D3,
D4, D5,
D6, D7,
D8, D9,
D11, D13,
D15, D17,
D19.
Physi
cal value
range: 0, 1,
2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
7, 8, 9, 11,
13, 15, 17 ,
19.
Physi
cal unit:
None.
It defines the smooth
filtering coefficient for
the DL measured value.
Smooth filtering is used
to avoid random
disturbance in
measurement reporting.
The greater the filter
coefficient is valued, the
smoother result is
produced and the less
random disturbance may
be caused. However, the
ability to respond to the
measured value change
will become less
correspondingly
3GPP: Measurement
Filter Coefficient IE in
NBAP DEDICATED
MEASUREMENT
INITIATION
REQUEST. MML
command: SET AMRC
This parameter can be
also configured per
cell (ADD
CELLAMRC)
DLMEASRPRTPE
RIOD
Valu
e range:
1~6000.
Physi
cal value
range: 10~
60000 with
the step size
of 10.
Physi
cal unit: ms
Time interval between DL
periodical measurement
reports. The DL
measurement report period
determines the time
interval between DL
measurement reports. The
longer the time interval is,
the less the frequency of
DL AMR speech rate
adjustment is.
3GPP: Report
Periodicity Value IE
(in ms) in the NBAP
DEDICATED
MEASUREMENT
INITIATION
REQUEST. MML
command: SET
AMRC
This parameter can be
also configured per
cell (ADD
CELLAMRC).
DlThDE1 Valu
e range:
0~560.
Threshold E1 of DL AMR
mode adjustment. When
the measured value is
Not Standard (internal
threshold)
174
Physi
cal value
range: 0~56
with the
step size of
0.1.
Physi
cal unit: dB
higher than the upper
threshold E1, AMRC will
decide to decrease the DL
AMR mode by one level.
What defined via this
parameter is a kind of
relative threshold. The
absolute threshold =
[MaxDlTxPower] -
[DlThE1].
The greater this
parameter is valued,
the lower the absolute
threshold is. In this
case, there are more
possibilities of
satisfying the request
for AMR mode
decrease. Accordingly
the ARM speech mode
is more likely to be
decreased. MML
command: SET
AMRC
DlThDE2
Valu
e range:
0~560.
Physi
cal value
range: 0~56
with the
step size of
0.1.
Physi
cal unit: dB
Threshold E2 of DL AMR
mode adjustment. When
the measured value is
lower than the upper
threshold E2, AMRC will
stop adjusting the DL
AMR mode. What defined
via this parameter is a kind
of relative threshold. The
absolute threshold =
[MaxDlTxPower] -
[DlThE2].
Not Standard (internal
threshold)
The greater this
parameter is valued,
the lower the absolute
threshold is. In this
case, there are fewer
possibilities of
satisfying the request
for AMR mode
decrease stop.
Accordingly the ARM
speech rate is more
likely to be decreased.
MML command: SET
AMRC
DlThDF1
Valu
e range:
0~560.
Physi
cal value
range: 0~56
with the
step size of
0.1.
Physi
cal unit: dB
Threshold F1 of DL AMR
mode adjustment. When
the measured value is
lower than the lower
threshold F1, AMRC will
decide to increase the DL
AMR mode by one level.
What defined via this
parameter is a kind of
relative threshold. The
absolute threshold =
[MaxDlTxPower] -
[DlThF1].
Not Standard (internal
threshold)
The greater this
parameter is valued,
the lower the absolute
threshold is. In this
case, there are fewer
possibilities of
satisfying the request
for AMR mode
increase. Accordingly
the ARM speech rate
is less likely to be
increased. MML
command: SET
AMRC
DlThDF2 Valu
e range:
0~560.
Physi
cal value
Threshold F2 of DL AMR
mode adjustment. For DL
measurement, period
report mode is used. When
the measured value is
Not Standard (internal
threshold)
The greater this
parameter is valued,
175
range: 0~56
with the
step size of
0.1.
Physi
cal unit: dB
higher than the lower
threshold F2, AMRC will
stop adjusting the DL
AMR mode. What defined
via this parameter is a kind
of relative threshold. The
absolute threshold =
[MaxDlTxPower] -
[DlThF2].
the lower the absolute
threshold is. In this
case, there are more
possibilities of
satisfying the request
for AMR speech mode
increase stop.
Accordingly the ARM
mode is less likely to
be increased. MML
command: SET
AMRC
InitAmrMode
Valu
e range:
1~8.
Physi
cal unit:
None.
Initial AMR mode. Mode
1 indicates the AMR
speech rate is of 4.75 kbps.
Mode 2 indicates the AMR
speech rate is of 5.15 kbps.
Mode 3 indicates the AMR
speech rate is of 5.9 kbps.
Mode 4 indicates the AMR
speech rate is of 6.7 kbps.
Mode 5 indicates the AMR
speech rate is of 7.4 kbps.
Mode 6 indicates the AMR
speech rate is of 7.95 kbps.
Mode 7 indicates the AMR
speech rate is of 10.2 kbps.
Mode 8 indicates the AMR
speech rate is of 12.2 kbps.
MML command: SET
AMRC
Note: testing of the
algorithm showed that
this parameter does not
work. It is being
investigated with
vendor.
INITCTRLLABLE
STREAMINGMOD
E
Valu
e range:
1~3.
Physi
cal unit:
None.
Initial controllable
streaming rate. Rate 1
indicates the controllable
streaming service is at the
rate of 14.4 kbps. Rate 2
indicates the controllable
streaming service is at the
rate of 28.8 kbps. Rate 3
indicates the controllable
streaming service is at the
rate of 57.6 kbps.

MML command: SET


AMRC
ChSwitch
32-
bit
unsigned
integer
Modify the connection
oriented algorithm
switches.
7) AMRC_SWITCH shall
be set to 1 for enabling
the AMRC algorithm
MML command: SET
CORRMALGOSWI
TCH
MaxUlTxPowerfor
Conv
Valu
e range: -50
~ 33.
Physi
Determine the maximum
UL transmit power for
speech service in a specific
cell. It is based on the UL
Configured by the
ADD CELLCAC
command.
176
cal unit:
dBm
coverage requirement of
the speech service
designed by the network
planning.
MaxUlTxPowerforS
tr
Valu
e range: -50
~ 33.
Physi
cal unit:
dBm
Determine the maximum
UL transmit power for
streaming service in a
specific cell. It is based on
the UL coverage
requirement of the
streaming service designed
by the network planning.
Configured by the
ADD CELLCAC
command.
MaxUlTxPowerforI
nt
Valu
e range: -50
~ 33.
Physi
cal unit:
dBm
Determine the maximum
UL transmit power for
interactive service in a
specific cell. It is based on
the UL coverage
requirement of the
interactive service
designed by the network
planning.
Configured by the
ADD CELLCAC
command.
MaxUlTxPowerfor
Bac
Valu
e range: -50
~ 33.
Physi
cal unit:
dBm
Determine the maximum
UL transmit power for
background service in a
specific cell. It is based on
the UL coverage
requirement of the
background service
designed by the network
planning.
Configured by the
ADD CELLCAC
command.
RLMaxDlPwr
range
-350~150),
unit:0.1dB
m
Used to calculate the
absolute threshold.
Configured by the
ADD CELLRLPWR
command. One value
is configured for each
service rate.
6.1.3 Key Performance Indicators
KPI Name Descriptions
DL Average Power
(Capacity) Gain of
the cell
The DL Average Power (Capacity improvement) Gain of a cell
is computed as the ratio of the average power transmitted by
the cell when AMR rate switching is disabled (all UEs at
12.2K AMR rate), and the average power transmitted by the
cell when AMR rate switching is enabled (UEs can assume
any of the 4 AMR rates).
UL Average Power
(Coverage) Gain of
the cell
The UL Average Power (Coverage) Gain of a cell is computed
as the ratio of the average power received at the cell when
AMR rate switching is disabled (all UEs at 12.2K AMR rate) ,
and the average power received at the cell when AMR rate
switching is enabled (UEs can assume any of the 4 AMR
177
rates). This KPI is related to the extension in UL coverage that
is one of the advantages of the algorithm
Dropped Call Rate
(DCR) Improvement
Difference in DCR KPI when AMRC is off and on. This KPI is
meaningful when it is measured under poor radio conditions,
e.g. at the cell edge.
Avarage Number of
UL AMRC Balanced
UEs
The average number of balanced AMR users KPI is expressed
by the following formula:
1
]
1

dB
N
K
N
K
k
k
UL UL
1 1
1
0
) (
Where:
K- is significant number of 10-seconds observation intervals
equal at least 120, and
number of balanced AMR UEs to the width of the range
between UE Transmitter Power Threshold for event 6B1 and
6A2 ratio defined as:
1
]
1


dB dBm P dBm P
UE
N
A Th B Th
P p P P i
i
k
UL
B Th ul A Th UL
1
] [ ] [
2 6 1 6
} : {
) ( 1 6 2 6
1 6B Th
P
- is the UE transmitted power threshold for event 6B1
equal to difference between MaxUlTxPower and AMRC
configuraqtion parameter value of ULTh6B1.
2 6A Th
P
- is the UE transmitted power threshold for event
6A2 equal to difference between MaxUlTxPower and AMRC
configuraqtion parameter value of ULTh6A2.
UL
P
- is a set of UE transmitting AMR UL traffic
ul
p
- is a value of the UEs UL transmitted power

- is norm operator
i
UE
- is a sum of AMR UEs in the cell, which UL
transmitted power level is in the range between
1 6B Th
P
and
2 6A Th
P
(AMRC doesnt adjust AMR rate)
The AMRC algorithm performs better when KPI values
increases.
Average Number of
DL AMRC Balanced
UEs
The average number of balanced AMR users KPI is expressed
by the following formula:
1
]
1

dB
N
K
N
K
k
k
DL DL
1 1
1
0
) (
Where:
K- is significant number of 10-seconds observation intervals
equal at least 120, and
number of balanced AMR users to the width of the range
178
between DL Transmitter Code Power Threshold for event E2
and F2 ratio defined as:
1
]
1


dB dBm P dBm P
UE
N
ThF ThE
P p P P j
j
k
DL
ThE dl ThF DL
1
] [ ] [
2 2
} : {
) ( 2 2
2 ThE
P
- is the DL transmitted code power threshold for
event E2 equal to difference between MaxDlTxPower (see
Opto Guide) and AMRC configuration parameter value of
DLThE2.
2 ThF
P
- is the DL transmitted code power threshold for
event F2 equal to difference between MaxDLTxPower (see
Opto Guide) and AMRC configuration parameter value of
DLThF2.
DL
P - is a set of UEs transmitting DL AMR traffic
dl
p
- is a value of the DL transmitted code power

- is norm operator
j
UE
- is a sum of AMR users in the cell, which DL
transmitted code power level is in the range between
2 ThE
P
and
2 ThF
P
(AMRC algorithm doesnt adjust AMR rate)
The AMRC algorithm performs better when KPI values
increases.
6.1.4 Optimization Guidelines
6.1.4.1 Scenario Descriptions
Refer to section 1.1.1: Standard Optimisation Scenario .
The recommendations compliant with RNC software release 13.0.0.8.0
6.1.4.2 Parameters and Recommendation
Parameter Name Recommende
d Value
Source
Comments
UlMeasFilterCoef
D10
Xx Simulations
Results
Smooth filtering
algorithm is used to
avoid random
disturbance in
measurement
reporting. The
smoothness is
dependent on the
measurement filter
coefficient. The
greater the filter
coefficient is valued,
the smoother result is
produced and the less
179
random disturbance
may be caused.
However, the ability
to respond to the
measured value
change will become
less correspondingly.
UlTrigTime6a1
D640
Xx Engineering
judgement.
To set the trigger
time is to eliminate
any sudden change
of the measured
value in
measurement
reporting. The
longer the trigger
time is, the better
suppression effect
can be produced on
sudden change.
However, the
ability to respond to
measured value
change will become
less
correspondingly.
UlTrigTime6b1 D640
Xx Engineering
judgement.
UlTrigTime6b2 D640
Xx Engineering
judgement.
UlTrigTime6a2 D640
Xx Engineering
judgement.
UlAmrcTimerlen 3000 ms
Xx Engineering
judgement
The longer duration the
UL AMRC timer has,
the less the frequency
of AMRC mode
adjustment is. However,
the ability to respond to
measured value change
will become less
correspondingly.
UlAmrcTimer &
UlAmrcTimerLen
should have same
default value
UlReportMode AM
Xx Engineering
judgement.
UlThd6a1 2
Xx Engineering
judgement.
UlThd6b1 2
Xx Engineering
judgement.
UlThd6b2 9 Xx Engineering
judgement.
It is recommended
that the upper
threshold should be 7
dB higher than the
180
lower so as to avoid
the unwanted speech
mode oscillation, i.e.,
repeated adjustment
over speech mode.
UlThd6a2 9
Xx Engineering
judgement
BlerForMode1 -19
Xxotrola Engineering
judgement.
Target BLER value
of AMR speech
mode 1, i.e., AMR
speech of 4.75
kbps. The less the
parameter is valued,
the better the
speech quality is.
However, more
transmit power is
required
correspondingly
BlerForMode2 -18
Xx Engineering
judgement.
BlerForMode3 -17
Xx Engineering
judgement.
BlerForMode4 -17
Xx Engineering
judgement.
BlerForMode5 -17
Xx Engineering
judgement.
BlerForMode6 -16
Xx Engineering
judgement
BlerForMode7 -16
Xx Engineering
judgement
BlerForMode8 -15
Xx Engineering
judgement
UlModeChangeTimerlen 1000 ms
Xx Engineering
judgement.
[UlModeChangeTi
mer] should be less
than
[UlAmrcTimer]
because the former
is for the time spent
on mode change
while the latter for
that spent on mode
change as well as
result produce.
RpmUlReportMode UM
Xx Engineering
judgement.
DlMeasFilterCoef
D4
Xx Simulations
Results
Defining the
smooth filtering
coefficient for the
DL measured value.
Smooth filtering
181
algorithm is used to
avoid random
disturbance in
measurement
reporting. The
smoothness is
dependent on the
measurement
filtering coefficient.
The greater the
filtering coefficient
is valued, the
smoother result is
produced and the
less random
disturbance may be
caused. However,
the ability to
respond to the
measured value
discontinuity will
become less
correspondingly
DLMEASRPRTPERIOD 480 (4800 ms)
Xx Engineering
judgement
The longer the time
interval is, the less
the frequency of
DL AMR speech
rate adjustment is.
DlThDE1 50 (5 dB)
Xx Engineering
judgement.
The greater this
parameter is valued,
the lower the
absolute threshold
is.
DlThDE2 50 (5 dB)
Xx Engineering
judgement.
The greater this
parameter is valued,
the lower the
absolute threshold
is.
DlThDF1 120 (12 dB)
Xx Engineering
judgement
The greater this
parameter is valued,
the lower the
absolute threshold
is.
DlThDF2 120 (12 dB)
Xx Engineering
judgement.
The greater this
parameter is valued,
the lower the
absolute threshold
is.
InitAmrMode 8 Xx Engineering
judgement.
It is recommended to
set this value to the
182
maximum rate.
INITCTRLLABLESTRE
AMINGMODE
3.
Xx Engineering
judgement
ChSwitch
AMRC_SWI
TCH set to
1
Xx Xx Engineering
judgement
Value for enabling
the algorithm.
MaxUlTxPowerforConv 21 dBm
Xx Engineering
judgement
It is based on the
UL coverage
requirement of the
speech service
designed by the
network planning.
MaxUlTxPowerforStr 24 dBm
Xx Engineering
judgement.
It is based on the
UL coverage
requirement of the
streaming service
designed by the
network planning.
MaxUlTxPowerforInt 24 dBm
Xx Engineering
judgement
It is based on the
UL coverage
requirement of the
interactive service
designed by the
network planning.
MaxUlTxPowerforBac 24 dBm
Xx Engineering
judgement
It is based on the
UL coverage
requirement of the
background service
designed by the
network planning.
RLMaxDlTxPower
For CS-
Domain
12.2K
Xx Engineering
judgement
This parameter should
fulfill the coverage
requirement of the
service, and the value is
the offset to the
[Primary CPICH
Power]. (The value is
set depending on
CS_Domain or
PS_Domain and
maximum bit rate.)
6.1.4.3 Expected KPI Value
KPI Name Expected KPI Values
DL Average Power
(Capacity) Gain of the
cell

> 0.4 dB
183
UL Average Power
(Capacity) Gain of the
cell
> 0.3 dB
Average Number of UL
AMRC Balanced UEs
TBD
Average Number of DL
AMRC Balanced UEs
TBD
Dropped Call Rate (DCR)
Improvement
TBD
6.1.4.3.1 DL AVERAGE POWER (CAPACITY) GAIN OF CELLS UNDER DIFFERENT LOADS
DL Average (Capacity) Gain of Cells - 4 AMR rates
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 66 71
Cells
G
a
i
n

(
d
B
)
Low Load
Medium Load
High Load
DL Average (Capacity) Gain of Cells - 2 AMR rates
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 66 71
Cells
G
a
i
n

(
d
B
)
Low Load
Medium Load
High Load
184
6.1.4.3.2 UL AVERAGE POWER (CAPACITY) GAIN OF CELLS UNDER DIFFERENT LOADS
UL Average (Coverage) Gain of Cells - 4 AMR
rates
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 66 71
Cells
G
a
i
n

(
d
B
)
Low Load
Medium Load
High Load
UL Average (Coverage) Gain of Cells - 2 AMR
rates
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 66 71
Cells
G
a
i
n

(
d
B
)
Low Load
Medium Load
High Load
Simulations results shown that:
- As a result of AMRC algorithm there is a DL Average Power (capacity) Gain of
0.1 dB at Low Load
0.2 dB at Medium Load
0.5 dB at High Load
Above observations are similar for both 2-AMR and 4-AMR rate experiments.
- As a result of AMRC algorithm there is a UL Average Power (Coverage) Gain of
0.1 dB at Low Load
0.2 dB at Medium Load
0.4 dB at High Load
Above observations are similar for both 2-AMR and 4-AMR rate experiment.
185
According to these simulation results, operator will achieve same capacity or
coverage gain by offering either option. However users may experience a noticeable
decrease in voice quality in a 2-AMR system whenever AMR rate switches as
compared to 4-AMR system.
186
7 RAB Reconfiguration and RAB/RB Mapping
7.1 RAB to RB Mapping Algorithm
7.1.1 Algorithm Overview
The RNC5000 RAB-to-RB algorithm function is to set up UTRAN radio bearers in
response to RAB setup or modification request from the core network. Refer to
TS23.413 for RAB Assignment procedure.
Several steps are taken to configure the radio bearer to meet the QoS of the requested
RAB.
1. Validate the RANAP IEs currently considered in the algorithm
2. Select the closest fit RLC/MAC/PHY attributes from the pre-configured RAB
that best meets the need of the requested RAB. Reconfiguring the attributes
dynamically may be performed to meet the UE capability if the performance
degradation is acceptable. Otherwise the RAB request is rejected.
3. Dynamically configure the TFCS, Slot Format & Spreading Factor, Power
Offset
The Core Network has access to 14 RAB attributes as listed in Table 7-19 by which to
characterize the nature of a particular service request.
Traffic class Conversati
onal class
Streaming
class
Interactive
class
Background
class
Maximum bitrate X X X X
Delivery order X X X X
Maximum SDU size X X X X
SDU format
information
X X
SDU error ratio
(BER)
X X X X
Residual bit error
ratio (BLER)
X X X X
Delivery of erroneous
SDUs
X X X X
Transfer delay X X
Guaranteed bit rate X X
Traffic handling
priority
X
Allocation/Retention
priority
X X X X
RAB Asymmetry
Indicator
X X X
Table 7-19: UMTS Radio Access Bearer Service Attributes defined for each bearer traffic class
Among above attributes, followings are not used in the algorithm:
Guaranteed Bit Rate
Max. SDU Size
187
Transfer Delay (per sub-flow)
Traffic Handling Priority (per sub-flow)
Allocation/Retention Priority
Residual Bit Error Ratio
SDU Error Ratio (except CS services with AM RLC)
The RAB-to-RB algorithm provides an efficient way to setup the radio bearer by
mapping the RAB service attributes to the RB parameters. For RNC5000 system, a
limited number (32 in R1, 36 in R2) of pre-configured RB parameter sets can be setup
in correspondence to a default RABs. These sets of configuration parameters define
the majority fundamental characteristics of the PDCP, RLC, MAC and PHY layer
attributes of a single radio bearer. In USR2 release, 30 out of 36 sets have been
internally defined by the RAB mapping algorithm. This allows user has the ability to
define another 4 unique sets of radio bearer configuration parameters using the
available MML commands. Many of these pre-configured parameters, such as power
offset or rate matching parameter, are re-configurable via MML.
Upon the reception of the RAB Assignment Request from the core network, the RAB-
to-RB algorithm analyses these RAB attributes and attempts to find, on the UL and
DL separately, which of the pre-configured sets of UTRAN radio bearer configuration
parameters most closely meets the core network service request requirements
In the case of symmetrical and unidirectional bearers, the set of UTRAN radio bearer
configuration parameters chosen for the UL will be the same as that chosen for the
DL.
Table 7-20 below lists in terms of their RNC internal set number, traffic class and
rate, the 30 different symmetrical /unidirectional UTRAN bearers that can be set-up
using a single set of these radio configuration parameters.
0 Conversational/CS/AMR
1-4 Conversational/CS, four bearers at rates of 64, 56, 32 and 28.8 kb/s
5 Streaming/CS at a rate of 57.6, 28.8, 14.4 kb/s
26, 27 Streaming/CS, 2 bearers at a rate of 64, and 0 kbps
6 Conversational/PS at a rate of 8 kb/s
7-8 Streaming/PS, two bearers at rates of 64 and 0 kb/s
29-33 Streaming/PS, 5 bearers at rates of 144, 128, 32, 16, and 8 kb/s
9-16 Interactive/PS, 8 bearers at rates of 384, 256, 144, 128, 64, 32 , 16 and
8 kb/s
17-24 Background/PS, 8 bearers at rates of 384, 256, 144, 128, 64, 32, 16
and 8 kb/s
Table 7-20 Default DB Configuration Sets
188
Of the 30 sets of UTRAN radio bearer configuration parameter supported by the
RNC, only those for the different rates of the Interactive/PS and Background/PS
bearers can be mixed on the UL and DL to create single service asymmetric rate radio
bearers.
In addition to being able to set up single service UTRAN radio bearers, the RNC5000
RAB-to-RB algorithm can set up radio bearers to support the specific combinations of
dedicated user (RB) and control services (SRB):
1. 1 PS RB service with (and without) SRB
2. 1 CS RB service with (and without) SRB
3. 1 PS RB + CS RB service with (and without) SRB
4. 2 CS
5. 2 PS
6. 2 CS + 1 PS
7. 1CS + 2 PS
7.1.1.1 Guaranteed Bit Rate
The algorithm validate the Guaranteed Bit Rate then configure the actual TFs and
TFCs based on the SDU Format Info.
7.1.1.2 SDU Error Ratio
The SDU Error Ratio IE is discarded for the PS RAB. But it may be used to select the
OLPC target BLER for a CS bearer with TM RLC. The CS TM RLC bearer is chosen
because there is 1 to 1 relationship between SDU and PDU such that direct mapping
of SDU error ratio to OLPC target BLER can be provided. Usage of SDU Error Ratio
is optional to the operator through MML command ADD TYPRABOLPC. A lower
and upper bound SDU error ratio UsduEr and LsduEr are also configurable for an
acceptance of requested SDU error ratio.
If the SDU Error Ratio is not used, the statically defined target BLER in the RAB
index mapping table is used. The parameter is defined in the TYPRABOLPC.
RAB Index
(CFGMML.txt
file)
CS DOMAIN RABs
(8 in total)
USR2 BLERtarget (%)
Without
SDU
Error
Ratio
With SDU
Error Ratio
0 12.2 kbps AMR / Speech AMR Map directly
the RANAP
SDU Error
Ratio IE to
BLER
1 64 kbps Conversational / Unknown 0.2
2 56 kbps Conversational / Unknown 0.2
3 32 kbps Conversational / Unknown 0.2
4 28.8 kbps Conversational / Unknown 0.2
5 57.6 kbps Streaming / Unknown 1
Table: The default value of BLERtarget for each CS-Domain RAB
189
RAB Index
(CFGMML.txt
file)
PS DOMAIN RABs
(24 in total)
USR2 BLERtarget (%)
6 8 kbps Conversational / Unknown 1
7 64 kbps Streaming / Unknown 1
8 0 kbps Streaming / Unknown 1
9 384 kbps Interactive / Unknown 10
10 256 kbps Interactive / Unknown 10
11 144 kbps Interactive / Unknown 10
12 128 kbps Interactive / Unknown 10
13 64 kbps Interactive / Unknown 10
14 32 kbps Interactive / Unknown 10
15 16 kbps Interactive / Unknown 10
16 8 kbps Interactive / Unknown 10
17 384 kbps Background / Unknown 10
18 256 kbps Background / Unknown 10
19 144 kbps Background / Unknown 10
20 128 kbps Background / Unknown 10
21 64 kbps Background / Unknown 10
22 32 kbps Background / Unknown 10
23 16 kbps Background / Unknown 10
24 8 kbps Background / Unknown 10
29 144 kbps Streaming / Unknown 5
30 128 kbps Streaming / Unknown 5
31 32 kbps Streaming / Unknown 5
32 16 kbps Streaming / Unknown 5
33 8 kbps Streaming / Unknown 5
Table: The default value of BLER target for each PS-Domain RAB
SRB Index
(CFGMML.txt
file)
SRBs
BLERtarget (%)
2 3.4 kbps 1
3 13.6 kbps 1
Table: The default value of BLERtarget for the SRBs
The selection of transport channel (DCH vs. FACH/RACH) for the PS service is done
by comparing the maximum rate requested to a Best Effort Service parameter. The
parameter can be configurable through
ADD CELLFRC UlPsTraffDecThs, DlPsTraffDecThs.
Default is set to 32 kbps.
7.1.1.3 UE Capability Checks
UE Capability checks performed by the RAB Mapping algorithm, drawn from
TS25.306.
UE radio access
capability parameter
Checked
by RNC?
YES/NO
RNC Hard
Limit or
Assumption
Re-
configurable to
meet UE
capability
YES/NO/-
Comment
UE radio access capability
PDCP
Capabilities
Support for RFC 2507 YES YES
Support for loss-less
SRNS relocation
YES YES
190
UE radio access
capability parameter
Checked
by RNC?
YES/NO
RNC Hard
Limit or
Assumption
Re-
configurable to
meet UE
capability
YES/NO/-
Comment
Maximum header
compression context
space
YES YES
RLC
Capabilities
Total RLC AM Buffer
Size
YES YES RLC buffer size is
negotiated between RNC
and UE, and the Rx/Tx
window size can be
dynamically configured.
Maximum Number if
AM entities
YES NO
Maximum RLC AM
window size
YES YES
DL Specific UE
MAC/PHY
Capabilities
Max. sum. of No. bits
of all TrBlks being
received at an arbitrary
time instant
YES YES When necessary halve TTI
of 256K bearer to meet
constraints of UE
Max. sum of number of
bits of all
convolutionally coded
transport blocks being
received at an arbitrary
time instant
YES NO
Maximum sum of
number of bits of all
turbo coded transport
blocks being received
at an arbitrary time
instant
YES NO
Maximum number of
simultaneous transport
channels
YES 6 NO
Maximum number of
simultaneous CCTRCH
NO NO
Maximum total number
of transport blocks
receive within TTIs that
end at same time
YES NO
Maximum number of
TFC
YES 64 for USR1
256 for USR2
YES This fix modifies the max.
number of AMR Rates from
4 (UEs TFCS > 32) to 2
(UEs TFCS <= 32).
Maximum number of
TF
YES YES
Support for turbo
decoding
YES NO
UL Specific UE
MAC/PHY
Capabilities
Max. sum. of No. bits
of all TrBlks being
received at an arbitrary
time instant
YES NO
Max. sum of number of
bits of all
convolutionally coded
transport blocks being
received at an arbitrary
time instant
YES NO
Maximum sum of
number of bits of all
turbo coded transport
blocks being received
at an arbitrary time
instant
YES NO
Maximum number of
simultaneous transport
channels
YES 6 NO
Maximum total number
of transport blocks
receive within TTIs that
end at same time
YES NO
191
UE radio access
capability parameter
Checked
by RNC?
YES/NO
RNC Hard
Limit or
Assumption
Re-
configurable to
meet UE
capability
YES/NO/-
Comment
Maximum number of
TFC
YES 256 YES
Maximum number of
TF
YES YES
Support for turbo
decoding
YES NO
Maximum number of
DPDCH bits
transmitted per 10ms
YES NO
Simultaneous reception
of SCCPCH and DPCH
NO NO
RF FDD
Capabilities
UE power class YES YES RNC can configure the
MAX uplink transmission
power according UE power
class.
Tx/Rx frequency
separation
NO NO
Multi-mode /
Multi-RAT
related
Capabilities
Support of GSM YES NO
Support of multi-carrier NO NO
Multi-mode capability NO NO
Security
Capabilities
Ciphering algorithm
capability- UEA0
YES N/A RNC support both of the
ciphering algorithm
Ciphering algorithm
capability- UEA1
YES N/A
Integrity protection
algorithm capability-
UIA1
YES N/A RNC support integrity
protection algorithm
UE positioning
related
Capabilities
Standalone location
method(s) supported
NO NO
OTDOA UE based
method supported
NO NO
Network Assisted GPS
support
YES YES
GPS reference time
capable
YES YES
Support for IPDL YES YES
Support for Rx-Tx time
difference type 2
YES YES
Support for UE
Positioning
measurement validity
in CELL_PCH and
URA_PCH RRC states
NO NO
UE
Measurements
Capabilities
Need for downlink
compressed mode
FDD measurements YES NO
TDD measurements NO NO
GSM measurements YES NO
Multi-carrier
measurement
NO NO
Need for uplink
compressed mode
FDD measurements YES NO
TDD measurements NO NO
GSM measurements YES NO
Multi-carrier
measurement
NO NO
General
Capabilities
Access stratum release
indicator
NO NO
UE radio access capability extension
Frequency band NO NO
RF capability FDD
extension
NO NO
Measurement capability
extension
NO NO
UE system specific capability
192
UE radio access
capability parameter
Checked
by RNC?
YES/NO
RNC Hard
Limit or
Assumption
Re-
configurable to
meet UE
capability
YES/NO/-
Comment
Inter-RAT UE radio
access capability
GSM YES NO
cdma2000 NO NO
7.1.1.3.1 TX/RX WINDOW SIZE SCALING
For the UE with insufficient memory, the RNC scale down the optimum window size
to fill the available UE RLC memory capability. The step down algorithm is executed
only if the network operator chose to do so (set by IgnoreRLCBufferSize). Otherwise,
the RAB request is rejected by the RNC. Two configurable parameters,
TxWindowSizeLimit and RxWindowSizeLimit, are used to set the lowest limit
acceptable by the RAB Mapping algorithm without severely impact the performance
of the RLC protocol.
7.1.1.3.2 MULTI-RAB REQUEST HANDLING

(1) If the request for multi-rabs originate from the SAME domain of CN (PS or
CS), then it is possible for the RNC to receive a SINGLE RANAP RAB assignment
message containing a request for multiple RABs (e.g. 2 CS bearers one of which is
AMR). In this scenario the whole RAB request is rejected, if either one of both of
the 2 RABs cannot be supported, then the whole RAB request is rejected. There is no
concept for this release of partial failure.

(2) If the request for multi-rabs originate from the DIFFERENT domain of CN (PS or
CS), then it is NOT possible for the RNC to receive a SINGLE RANAP RAB
assignment message containing a request for multiple mixed domain RABs (e.g. 1 PS
+ 1 CS = 1 BE + 1 AMR). In this scenario, it is possible that 1 RAB will be rejected
whilst the other is accepted, since each RAB request is treated separately.
7.1.1.3.3 TFCS TRIMMING ALGORITHM
Each UTRAN Radio Bearer whether it be a dedicated RB or SRB, has its own set of
valid Transport Formats, where each transport format represents a different approved
permutation of the number and size of transport blocks for the fixed TTI associated
with that bearer.
If both the UE and RNC have the capability to support the largest sized TFCS
derivable, then there is no need for a TFCS Trimming algorithm. However when
either the UE and/or RNC maximum TFCS size handling capability is exceeded then
a TFCS Trimming algorithm is required to prevent the multiplexed RAB request
from being rejected.
The RNC specific TFCS Trimming algorithm is described.
The largest TFCS set that the RNC can support (assuming the UE is also
capable) is 256 (64 in USR1).
If largest TFCS that the UE can support is lower than that which the RNC can
193
support, then the TFCS Trimming algorithm is designed to attempt to trim
down to the minimum common TFCS capability of both the RNC and UE.
The TFCS Trimming algorithm trims TFs from the source Best Effort (PS)
RAB only.
o TFs from the CS and SRB (if present) are protected.
For USR2, the LOGICAL CHANNEL of 2 Best Effort RABs (i.e. Interactive
or Background services) from PS domain, can be multiplexed onto one
transport channel at the MAC level before they reach the PHY layer. The
configurations of TFS is based on the greater rate of the 2 BE services. Two
separate RLC streams are maintained for each of the multiplexed BE PS
bearers.
Streaming or conversational services can not be multiplexed.
The TFCS Trimming algorithm is designed to NEVER to trim the following 3
rates of the Best Effort (PS) RAB:
o The MAXIMUM RATE TF
o The ZERO RATE TF
o The LOWEST NON-ZERO RATE TF
The TFCS Trimming algorithm applies a formula to determine what TFs to
remove from the source Best Effort PS RAB sub-set of un-protected TFs.
This formula (below) is designed to evenly distribute what TFs are removed.
Position_TFI = 2;
Stepsize = Total_TF_Num 3 / Allowed_TF_Num-3 1.
while(Position_TFI < Total_TF_Num --1)
{
TFI = Position_TFI
Mark the TF corresponding to TFI as reserved
Position_TFI = Position_TFI + Stepsize
}
Except of zero rate TF, the lowest non-zero rate TF, the maximum rate
TF and TFs marked with reserved, the other TFs shall be trimmed.
TFC Trimming Example
Table below shows an example of TFs for 3 different services that could possibly be
multiplexed by the RNC to an individual UE.
Service
Description
3.4 SRB
DL 144, Packet
Switched,
Interactive (RLC
AM)
DL 57.6, Circuit
Switched,
Streaming,
Unknown
194
Supported
Transport
Formats in terms
of:
No. of TrBlks
x
Size of TrBlks
TF0 0x148
TF1 1x148
TF0 0x336
TF1 1x336
TF2 2x336
TF3 4x336
TF4 8x336
TF5 9x336
TF0 0x576
TF1 1x576
TF4 4x576
TTI 40 ms 20 ms 40 ms
Table: Example of Transport Formats for SRB, DL144 (PS) RAB & DL57.6 (CS)
RAB
In a scenario where the RNC is attempting to serve a UE with a restricted TFCS
capability of 32, with the multiplex of RABs outlined in the example table above,
a. The total number of TF is N(SRB) x N(RAB1 service) x
N(RAB 2 service), i.e. 2x6x4=36, exceed the 32 limitation!
b. The SRB and the CS 57.6 cant be trimmed, therefore the
PS144 interactive is the candidate of trimmed service,
c. To trim from 36 to 32 TFs, the Allowed_TF_Num of
144kbps Interactive service should be 5 such that 2x5x3=30
< 32,
d. The Total_TF_Num of 144 interactive service = 6;
e. The Stepsize from the algorithm will be:
Stepsize = 6 3 / 5-31 = 2
The above algorithm would trim/remove the 4x336 TF from the DL PS 144 RAB
TFS.
7.1.1.3.3.1 AMR TFCS Construction
When setting up an AMR call, the CN will send to the UTRAN RNC via the RANAP
RAB request protocol, a list of AMR rates which it can or would like to support. The
size of this list of rates can range from 1 to 8 excluding the SID and 0 rates.
When Tandem Free Operation (TFO) is in operation, the RNC is obliged to support
all requested rates or decline/refuse the AMR RAB set-up request.
For USR1 release, when TFO is not in operation, the RNC is designed to offer at most
a sub-set of 4 AMR rates. The AMR rate selection mechanism applied by the RNC to
construct a sub-set of 4 rates is not as yet known, however it is assumed that it must
pick up the lowest Guaranteed AMR rate as well as the Initial preferred AMR
195
rate that can be defined via MML. If 4 or less rates are requested by the CN then the
RNC will/can only offer those requested rates.
For USR2 release, when TFO is not in operation, the RNC is designed to offer at
most a sub-set of 2 AMR rates (excluding the SID and zero rate). The number of
rates (and hence AMR TFCS) and choice of initial AMR rate selected depends on
the following factors which are currently under discussion. This section will be
updated once the solution is finalized.
TFO/TrFO operation status
o In general if TFO/TrFO is selected then the RNC is required to reject
the call request if not all the rates requested cannot be supported. (No
room for trimming rates)
UE Capabilities
o Should a UE not have the TFC capabilities then the new algorithm will
trim out AMR rates. Method of trimming not known.
7.1.1.3.3.2 UEs with TFCS Sizes Less Than or Equal To 32
Given that trimming of CS services is not possible for USR1, the RAB Mapping
algorithm has been modified to identify these limited TFCS (=<32) mobiles from their
initial AMR RAB request and offer them a maximum subset of 2 rather than 4 AMR
rates, regardless of if they require a single AMR RB or an AMR RB multiplexed with
a DATA RB.
7.1.1.4 Physical Channel Slot Format & Spreading Factor
7.1.1.4.1 DL SLOT FORMAT
For a given radio bearer configuration the RNC dynamically derives the slot format
that most efficiently (see Table 7-21: List of DL Slot Format Coded Bit Capacities)
accommodates the maximum number of radio bearer bits after multiplexing, coding
and rate matching is accounted for using Equation below.
From the complete range of non-compressed mode slot formats listed in Table 7-21,
only the following slot formats are actually available to account for:
Those spreading factors (512, 256, 128) for which a range of slot formats
exist, RNC has only made available those formats with 4 pilot bits per slot.
o In Table below forbidden slot formats have been shaded out.
BLIND RATE DETECTION is configurable via the MML command:
SET
CORRMALGOSWITCH:CHSWITCH=DOWNLINK_BLIND_DETECTION_SWITCH-0
o Slot Formats printed in RED are those that can be selected if Blind
Rate Detection is SELECTED.
o Slot Formats printed in underlined GREEN are those that can be
selected if Blind Rate Detection is NOT SELECTED.
o Slot Formats printed in bold BLUE are those that for which the choice
196
of Blind Rate Detection makes no difference (effectively 1 choice of
Slot Format per SF) to the number of bits dedicated to the various data
and control fields.
Slot
Format #i
Channel
Bit Rate
(kbps)
Channel
Symbol
Rate (ksps)
SF
Bits/
Slot
DPDCH
Bits/Slot
DPCCH
Bits/Slot
No. of DPDCH
Bits per 10ms
Radio Frame
NData1 NData2 NTPC NTFCI NPilot
0 15 7.5 512 10 0 4 2 0 4 60
1 15 7.5 512 10 0 2 2 2 4 30
2 30 15 256 20 2 14 2 0 2 240
3 30 15 256 20 2 12 2 2 2 210
4 30 15 256 20 2 12 2 0 4 210
5 30 15 256 20 2 10 2 2 4 180
6 30 15 256 20 2 8 2 0 8 150
7 30 15 256 20 2 6 2 2 8 120
8 60 30 128 40 6 28 2 0 4 510
9 60 30 128 40 6 26 2 2 4 480
10 60 30 128 40 6 24 2 0 8 450
11 60 30 128 40 6 22 2 2 8 420
12 120 60 64 80 12 48 4 8* 8 900
13 240 120 32 160 28 112 4 8* 8 2100
14 480 240 16 320 56 232 8 8* 16 4320
15 960 480 8 640 120 488 8 8* 16 9120
16 1920 960 4 1280 248 1000 8 8* 16 18720
Table 7-21: List of DL Slot Format Coded Bit Capacities
The following formula is applied by the RNC to calculate the maximum number of
radio bearer bits, N
rate_match_max
(after multiplexing, coding & rate matching) that need to
be accommodated by the selected slot format:
PL
RMA
RMA N
N
n
TrCH Num
n
n n m
match rate

} min{
_
1
,
max _ _
Equation 7-1
o N
rate_match_max

Total No. of Radio Bearer bits after multiplexing, coding & rate-matching
o Num_TrCH
Number of dedicated DL Transport Channels (including SRB)
o N
m,n
Number of Bits in TrCH n for Transport Format m before rate-matching.
Since the RNC only supports fixed transport channel multiplexing (at layer 1)
only the worst case transport format combination m
worst
needs to be considered.
Tables below provides a list of the N
m,n
for the 32 predefined Radio Bearers.
o RMA
n
Rate Matching Attribute for the n
th
TrCH.
This is the only parameter available that could possibly be deliberately used to
vary the extent if rate matching/puncturing that a particular TrCH experiences.
197
Table 7-22, Table 7-23, and Table 7-24 provides a list of the RMA
,n
for the 32
predefined Radio Bearers and Signalling Radio Bearers.
The UL & DL RMA for the same bearer are configurable separately using the
following MML commands:
MOD TYPRABSEMISTATICTF: ULRATEMATCHINGATTR=11,
DLRATEMATCHINGATTR=16;
o PL
Puncture Limit note that this is currently a single global parameter shared by all
TrCHs.
The DL & UL Puncture Limits are configurable via MML using the following
MML commands:
SET FRC: ULDPDCHPL=25, DLDPCHPL=25;
R
A
B
I
N
D
E
X
SERVICE
SEMI-STATIC
ATTRIBUTES
SEMI-STATIC
ATTRIBUTES
DERIVED ATTRIBUTES
AFTER L1 CODING
TTI CODING CRC
RMA
(UL
RMA
DL
RMA)
TRBL
K
SIZE
NO. OF
TRBLKS
PER TTI
NO. OF
CODED
BITS B4
RATE
MATCHIN
G PER TTI
NO. OF
CODED
BITS B4
RATE
MATCHING
PER 10MS
NO. OF
CODED BITS
B4 RATE
MATCHING
PER 10MS *
RMA
0
CS-CONV-
SPEECH-12.2
20 Cn_1/3 12
UL:185
DL:185
81 1
72336 20 CN_1/3 0
UL:176
DL:176
103 1
20 CN_1/2 0
UL:218
DL:218
60 1
1
CS-CONV-
UNKN-64
20 TURBO 16
UL:173
DL:173
640 0/2 3948 1974 341502
2
CS-CONV-
UNKN-56
20 TURBO 16
UL:177
DL:177
640 0/2 3948 1974 349398
3
CS-CONV-
UNKN-32
20 TURBO 16
UL:188
DL:188
640 0/1 1980 990 186120
4
CS-CONV-
UNKN-28.8
40 TURBO 16
UL:180
DL:180
576 0/1/2 3564 891 160380
5
CS-STREAM-
UNKN-57.6
40 TURBO 16
UL:145
DL:145
576 0/1/2/4 7116 1779 257955
Table 7-22 List of CS Bearer PHY Layer Characteristics
R
A
B
I
N
D
E
X
SERVICE
SEMI-STATIC
ATTRIBUTES
SEMI-STATIC
ATTRIBUTES
DERIVED ATTRIBUTES
AFTER L1 CODING
TTI CODING CRC
RMA
(UL
RMA
DL
RMA)
TRB
LK
SIZE
NO. OF
TRBLKS PER
TTI
NO.
OF
CODE
D BITS
B4
RATE
MATC
HING
PER
TTI
NO. OF
CODED
BITS B4
RATE
MATCHING
PER 10MS
NO. OF
CODED BITS
B4 RATE
MATCHING
PER 10MS *
RMA
6
PS-CONV-
UNKN-8
40 TURBO 16
UL:155
DL:155
336 0/1 1068 267 41385
7
PS-STREAM-
UNKN-64
20 TURBO 16
UL:150
DL:150
336 0/1/2/3/4 4236 2118 317700
8
PS-STREAM-
UNKN-0
20 TURBO 16
UL:150
DL:150
336 0 0 0 0
9
PS-INTER-
UNKN-384
10 TURBO 16
UL:165
DL:160
336 0/1/2/4/8/12 12684 12684
UL: 2092860
DL: 2029440
10 PS-INTER- 10 TURBO 16 UL:160 336 0/1/2/4/8 8460 8460 1353600
198
UNKN-256 DL:160
11
PS-INTER-
UNKN-144
20 TURBO 16
UL:148
DL:155
336 0/1/2/4/8/9 9516 4758
UL: 704184
DL: 737490
12
PS-INTER-
UNKN-128
20 TURBO 16
UL:155
DL:155
336 0/1/2/4/8 8460 4230 655650
13
PS-INTER-
UNKN-64
20 TURBO 16
UL:160
DL:155
336 0/1/2/3/4 4236 2118
UL: 338880
DL: 317700
14
PS-INTER-
UNKN-32
20 TURBO 16
UL:155
DL:155
336 0/1/2 2124 1062 164610
15
PS-INTER-
UNKN-16
20 TURBO 16
UL:155
DL:155
336 0/1 1068 534 82770
16
PS-INTER-
UNKN-8
40 TURBO 16
UL:155
DL:155
336 0/1 1068 267 41385
17
PS-BACK-
UNKN-384
10 TURBO 16
UL:160
DL:160
336 0/1/2/4/8/12 12684 12684 2029440
18
PS-BACK-
UNKN-256
10 TURBO 16
UL:155
DL:155
336 0/1/2/4/8 8460 8460 1311300
19
PS-BACK-
UNKN-144
20 TURBO 16
UL:145
DL:150
336 0/1/2/4/8/9 9516 4758
UL: 689910
DL: 713700
20
PS-BACK-
UNKN-128
20 TURBO 16
UL:150
DL:150
336 0/1/2/4/8 8460 4230 634500
21
PS-BACK-
UNKN-64
20 TURBO 16
UL:150
DL:150
336 0/1/2/3/4 4236 2118 317700
22
PS-BACK-
UNKN-32
20 TURBO 16
UL:150
DL:150
336 0/1/2 2124 1062 159300
23
PS-BACK-
UNKN-16
20 TURBO 16
UL:150
DL:150
336 0/1 1068 534 80100
24
PS-BACK-
UNKN-8
40 TURBO 16
UL:150
DL:150
336 0/1 1068 267 40050
NO RB DEFINED FOR RABINDEX == 25, 28
29
PS-STREAM-
UNKN-144
20 TURBO 16
UL:170
DL:170
336 0/1/4/9 9516 4758 808860
30
PS-STREAM-
UNKN-128
20 TURBO 16
UL:170
DL:170
656 0/1/2/4 8076 4038 686460
31
PS-STREAM-
UNKN-32
40 TURBO 16
UL:170
DL:170
656 0/1/2 4044 1011 171870
32
PS-STREAM-
UNKN-16
40 TURBO 16
UL:170
DL:170
656 0/1 2028 507 86190
33
PS-STREAM-
UNKN-8
40 TURBO 16
UL:170
DL:170
336 0/1 1068 267 45390
Table 7-23: List of PS Bearer PHY Layer Characteristics
R
A
B
I
N
D
E
X
SERVICE
SEMI-STATIC
ATTRIBUTES
SEMI-STATIC
ATTRIBUTES
DERIVED ATTRIBUTES
AFTER L1 CODING
TTI CODING CRC
RMA
(UL
RMA
DL
RMA)
TRB
LK
SIZE
NO. OF
TRBLKS
PER TTI
NO. OF
CODED
BITS B4
RATE
MATCHI
NG PER
TTI
NO. OF
CODED
BITS B4
RATE
MATCHING
PER 10MS
NO. OF
CODED BITS
B4 RATE
MATCHING
PER 10MS *
RMA
SRB SPECIFIC DETAILS SEPARATE INDEXING SCHEME
2 3.4 SRB 40
CONV-
1/3
16
UL:175
DL:180
148 0/1 516 129
22575
23220
3 13.6 SRB 10
CONV-
1/3
16
UL:180
DL:180
148 0/1 516 516 92880
Table 7-24: List of Signaling Radio Bearer PHY Layer Characteristics
199
7.1.1.4.2 UL DPDCH SPREADING FACTOR
In general the actual UL SF and PL are determined by UE itself using knowledge of
the slot format capacities (Table 7-25: UL DPDCH Spreading Factor Options),
however the RNC can and does specify to the UE the following 2 limiting parameters
for the maximum rate TFC:
Minimum UL SF
o This is hard-coded within the RNC.
o The UE choice of UL SF is generally obvious. However there are
certain circumstances (e.g. AMR) where it is not obvious. Note that
the spreading factor of the UL DPDCH that would be chosen by a UE
being served by Hauwei RNC with a 12.2 AMR and SRB call is 64.
o Appendix A lists a variety of bearers for which HW have provided
their hard-coded choices of minimum spreading factor.
Maximum Level of UL Puncturing
o This parameter is MML configurable via the SET FRC:
ULDPDCHPL=25; command.
Slot Format #i Channel Bit Rate
(kbps)
Channel Symbol
Rate (ksps)
SF Bits/
Frame
Bits/ Slot Ndata
0 15 15 256 150 10 10
1 30 30 128 300 20 20
2 60 60 64 600 40 40
3 120 120 32 1200 80 80
4 240 240 16 2400 160 160
5 480 480 8 4800 320 320
6 960 960 4 9600 640 640
Table 7-25: UL DPDCH Spreading Factor Options
7.1.1.4.3 UL DPCCH SLOT FORMAT
The UL DPCCH format is defined indirectly by the MML SET FRC: TFCIBIT=2,
FBIBIT=2; commands. Essentially there is a 1-to-1 mapping between the possible
settings of these DPCCH field parameters and the actual UL DPCCH slot format.
Thus by appropriate configuration of these parameters it should be possible to select
any of the standard non-compressed mode specific slot formats, given the following
conditions:
Since the RNC does not support closed loop transmit diversity, i.e. the SET
FRC FBIbit is always 0, the UL DPCCH formats actually supported is very
restricted.
Since the SET FRC parameter applies to ALL RABS supported by a RNC in
all cells, then ALL RABs regardless of the service type and rate they support,
will share the same UL DPCCH format.
200
Slot
Format
#i
Channel
Bit Rate
(kbps)
Channel
Symbol
Rate
(ksps)
SF Bits/
Frame
Bit
s/
Slo
t
Npilot NTPC NTFCI NFBI Transmitted
slots per radio
frame
0 15 15 256 150 10 6 2 2 0 15
0A 15 15 256 150 10 5 2 3 0 10-14
0B 15 15 256 150 10 4 2 4 0 8-9
1 15 15 256 150 10 8 2 0 0 8-15
2 15 15 256 150 10 5 2 2 1 15
2A 15 15 256 150 10 4 2 3 1 10-14
2B 15 15 256 150 10 3 2 4 1 8-9
3 15 15 256 150 10 7 2 0 1 8-15
4 15 15 256 150 10 6 2 0 2 8-15
5 15 15 256 150 10 5 1 2 2 15
5A 15 15 256 150 10 4 1 3 2 10-14
5B 15 15 256 150 10 3 1 4 2 8-9
Table 7-26: UL DPCCH Slot Formats (A & B options are for compressed mode)
The current default values for the UL TFCI and FBI are TFCIBIT = 2,FBIBIT = 0,
resulting in the default UL DPCCH slot format selected being Slot Format 0.
More information on the physical layer parameter setting can be found in:
http://compass.xx.com/doc/133459822/SEA4_Layer1_6.zip.
This document will be updated in the future to include the findings.
7.1.1.5 Slot Format Selection for Logical Channel Multiplexing
The slot format and TFS selected to support a pair of PS bearers (traffic classes
background and/or interactive) that have been logically multiplexed, is the format and
TFS that would be assigned to the single PS bearer of the pair with the highest bit
rate. For example if a 32 PS Background and 64 PS Interactive services were
logically multiplexed, the RNC would select the slot format and TFS suited to the
single 64 PS Interactive bearer.
7.1.1.6 RB Parameters Configuration
The RB parameters consist of a huge number of parameters. They can be predefined,
modified, or deleted for a specific RAB or SRB via various MML commands. The
Table 7-27 below provides a high level view on the grouping of parameters and the
action supported by MML command.
OPERATOR ACTION DESCRPTION
EXAMPLE
PARAMETERS
TYPRABBASIC ADD/LST/
ACT/RMV
Defines 4 major Radio
Bearer attributes
Typical Configuration
Switch
Used to ACTIVATE a
RAB after its been created
Traffic Class/Max.
Bit Rate/Source
Descriptor/CN
Switching.
201
TYPRABRLC ADD/MOD
/RMV
Defines all major RLC
parameters from RLC mode to
Buffer sizes
RLCMODE
MAXDAT
AMRLCDISCARD
MODE
TYPRABSEMISTATICT
F
ADD/MOD
/
RMV
Defines physical Layer
attributes such as
Coding/TTI/CRC
TTI
TYPRABDYNAMICTF
ADD/MOD
/
RMV
Defines on a per Transport
Format basis the size and number
of RLC blocks
RLCSIZE
ULTRAFFICCOMBPRO
HIBITED
ADD/LST/
RMV
Prohibit particular pairs of
RAB type combinations.
RABINDEX1
RABINDEX2
DLTRAFFICCOMBPRO
HIBITED
ADD/LST/
RMV
FRC
SET
Modify the FRC algorithm
parameters including SRB typical
parameter indexes, frame
processing priority parameters,
PDCP layer header compression
algorithm parameters, UL/DL
DPCH power control parameters,
logic channel priority parameters,
frame protocol time window
parameters, time slot format
parameters of physical
channels, P CPICH default
Ec/No, etc.
TpcPo
TfciPo
TfciBit
DCCCMC
ADD
Required for
Interactive/Background Traffic
Classes only.
TIMETOTRIGGER
4A
AMRC SET
Modify the RNC oriented
AMRC parameters, including
[UL report mode], [UL/DL event
relative thresholds], [Default
initial AMR mode], [TFO DL
mode change waiting timer] and
[AMR speech mode BLERs].
TYPRABOLPC SET Modify target BLER BLERQuality
Table 7-27 UMTS RB Parameters
The RNC5000 can store up to 16 signalling radio bearer specific sets of re-
configurable SRB parameters for the various protocol layers. Except indexed by
202
SrbIndex, the SRB uses a parallel set of commands as traffic RB - literally RAB is
substituted with SRB.
7.1.2 Related Data base Parameters
This table includes configurable parameters entered through the MML command
ADD TYPRABBASIC.
Parameter Range Descriptions
RabIndex 0,1,,35 Traffic parameter index
TrafficClass ENUM
(converstional/str
eaming/interactiv
e/background)
Traffic class
Ssd ENUM
(speech/unknown
)
Source description
MaxBitRate 0-16000000 bps Maximum rate
CNDomainID ENUM
(CD Domain/PS
Domain)
Core Network Switching modeCSPS
TypCfgSupport ENUM
(OFF/ON)
Typical Configuration Switch to activate automatic
loading of the other parameters that define this
standard bearer. The parameter should be turned off
during the testing and debugging.
This table includes configurable parameters entered through the MML command
ADD TYPRABRLC.
Parameter Range Descriptions
RabIndex 0,1,..31 Traffic parameter index
SubflowIndex (0,1,2) Traffic sub flow index
RlcMode ENUM
(AM,UM,TM)
RLC mode selection
RlcDiscardMode 1Timer based with
explicit signalling
2Timer based without
explicit signalling 3
Discard after Max_DAT
retransmission;
4No_discard.
RLC discards mode selection. This parameter
must be be configured for AM mode.
This parameter can select 1,3, 4 for AM mode
and can only select 2 or no selection for UM
and TM modes.
UlSegInd Boolean
0FALSE (off)
1TRUE (on).
Parameter indicates whether the uplink
Transparent Mode RLC SDU segmentation is
performed. This parameter is configured only
for the TM mode.
DlSegInd Boolean.
0FALSE (off)
1TRUE (on),
TRUE indicates that
segmentation is
performed.
The parameter indicates whether the downlink
Tr RLC segmented. This parameter is
configured only for the TM mode
203
ExplicitTimerMRW Enum
(5060708090
100120140160
180200300400
500 700900)
The parameter is configured only when sliding
receiving window timing (SDUDiscardMode)
indication is Timer based explicit. This
parameter must be configured for AM mode.
ExplicitTimerDisca
rd
Enum
(100250500750
10001250150017
50200025003000

35004000450050
00 7500)
The parameter is configured only when SDU
discarding timing (SDUDiscardMode)
indication is Timer based explicit. This
parameter must be configured for AM mode.
ExplicitMaxMRW Enum
(14681216
2432)
The parameter is configured only when MRW
command retransmission times
(SDUDiscardMode) indication is Timer
based explicit. This parameter must be
configured for AM mode.
NoExplicitTimerNo
ExpDiscard
Enum
(1020304050
60708090100)
It needs configuration only when no signaling
indication SDU discarding timing
SDUDiscardMode indication is Timer based
no explicit. This parameter can be configured
or not be configured for UM and TM modes
and no configuration is necessary for AM
mode.
MaxDAT Enum
(1234567
89101520
25 303540)
The parameter is configured only when PDU
retransmission times SDUDiscardMode
indication is Max DAT retransmissions. This
parameter must be configured for AM mode.
TimerMRW Enum
(5060708090
100120140160
180200300400
500 700900)
The parameter is configured only when sliding
receiving window timing SDUDiscardMode
indication is Max DAT retransmissions. This
parameter must be configured for AM mode.
MaxMRW Enum
(14681216
2432)
The parameter is configured only when MRW
command retransmission maximum times
SDUDiscardMode indication is set to Max
DAT retransmissions. This parameter must
be configured for AM mode.
NoDiscardMaxDAT Enum
(1234567
89101520
25 303540)
The parameter is configured only when PDU
retransmission times SDUDiscardMode
indication is No discard. This parameter must
configure for AM mode.
IgnoreRLCBufferSi
ze
BooleanBoolean
True ignore the UE
buffer constraint,
False do not ignore.
If set to true, will allow the window size to be
scaled down upto the lowest limit
(Tx/RxWindowSizeLimit) even if the UE
available RLC buffer is less than configured
window size. Otherwise, the RAB is rejected.
TxWindowSize Enum
(1816326412
825651276810
24153620472560
307235844095)
Transmission sliding window size. This
parameter must be configured for AM mode.
204
TxWindowSizeLimit Enum
(1816326412
825651276810
24153620472560
307235844095)
Lowest limit of transmission sliding window
size.
TimerRST Enum
(501001502002
503003504004
505005506007
008009001000)
Reset timer duration. This parameter must be
configured for AM mode.
MaxRST Enum
(14681216
2432)
Maximum reset times. This parameter must be
configured for AM mode.
InSequenceDelivery Boolean.
0FALSE1TRUE
TRUE indicates that RLC
shall preserve the order of
higher layer PDUs when
these are delivered.
FALSE indicates that
receiving RLC entity
could allow SDUs to be
delivered to the higher
layer in different order
than submitted to RLC
sub layer at the
transmission side.
Whether transmission in sequence. This
parameter must be configured for AM mode.
RxWindowSize Enum
(1,8,16,32,64,128,256,51
2,768,1024,1536,2047,25
60,3072,3584,4095).
Maximum number of
RLC PUs allowed to be
received.
Receiving sliding window size. RLC downlink
parameter. This parameter must be configured
for AM mode.
RxWindowSizeLimi
t
Enum
(1816326412
825651276810
24153620472560
307235844095)
Lowest limit of receiving sliding window size.
MissingPDUInd Boolean..
0FALSE (off),
1TRUE (on).
TRUE indicates that UE
should send a STATUS
report for each missing
PDU that is detected.
Downlink RLC state
information parameter
mandatory information.
Missing PDU Indicator. Protocol unit discards
indication. This parameter must be configured
for AM mode.
TimerStatusProhibi
t
Enum (10~550 by step of
10600~1000 by step of
50)
Polling prohibited timer
TimerEPC Enum
(5060708090
EPC timer
205
100120140160
180200300400
500700900)
TimerStatusPeriodi
c
Enum
(100200300400
50075010002000)
Timer polling interval time
PollingInfo 0: FALSE (no
configuration)
1: TRUE (configured)
Polling information configured indicator
LastTxPUPoll Boolean,
0: FALSE (off);
1: TRUE (on).
TRUE indicates the
polling PDU is sent when
the last PDU in the
transmission buffer is
transmitted.
Last transmission PDU polling.
LastReTxPUPoll Boolean,
0: FALSE (off);
1: TRUE (on).
TRUE indicates the
polling PDU is sent when
the last PDU in the RE-
transmission buffer is
transmitted.
Last retransmission polling PDU
TimerPollProhibit Enum(10~550 by step of
10600~1000 by step of
50)
Polling prohibited timer
TimerPoll Enum(10~550 by step of
10600~1000 by step of
50)
Retransmission polling timer
PollPU Enum(124816
3264128)
PDU polling frequency
PollSDU Enum(141664) Polling SDU
PollWindow Enum(50607080
85909599)
Polling window
TimerPollPeriodic Enum(100200300
4005007501000
2000)
Timer polling period
This table includes configurable parameters entered through the MML command
ADD TYPRABSEMISTATICTF.
Parameter Range Descriptions
RabIndex 0~31 Traffic parameter index
SubflowIndex 0~2 Traffic sub flow index
TTI Enum (10, 20, 40, 80) Transmission Timing Interval
One of setup messages IE in common transport
channel
ChCodingType Enum (No coding, Channel coding type
206
Convolutional, Turbo,).
CodingRate Enum (1/2, 1/3) Coding rate.
This parameter is configured only if Type of
channel coding (ChCodingType) is
"Convolutional" or "Turbo".
UlRateMatchingAttr 1..256 Up link Rate matching attribute
DlRateMatchingAttr 1..256 Down link Rate matching attribute
CRCsize Enum (0, 8, 12, 16, 24) CRC size
This table includes configurable parameters entered through the MML command
ADD TYPRABDYNTF.
Parameter Range Descriptions
RabIndex 0, 1, 2, ..31 Traffic parameter index
SubflowIndex 0, 1,2 Traffic sub flow index
TbNumber 0, 1, ..32 Transport block number
TbSize 0, 1, 2, ..4992 Transport block size
7.1.3 Key Performance Indicators
There are two types of KPI defined: System Optimization KPI, and Algorithm
Performance KPI.
System Optimization KPI is to indicate how system is optimized through the
parameters settings. To improve the system optimization, parameters can be modified
to improve the performance.
Algorithm Performance KPI is an indicator of how well is the algorithm performing.
To improve the performance, algorithm might be modified to reach the quality level.
7.1.3.1 System Optimization KPI
KPI Descriptions
PDU Delay Transfer Delay (TS23.107) quantity indicates,
the maximum delay for 95
th
percentile of the distribution of delay fro
all delivered SDUs during the lifetime of a beaer service, where delay
for an SDU is defined as the time from a request to transfer an SDU at
one SAP to its delivery at the other SAP.
To assess the performance of the RLC Acknowledge mode parameter
settings (e.g. Time to Discard/etc), a measure of this delay would be
very useful.
Note that the variance of this delay during the course of a call may
impact on the users perspective of performance especially for certain
streaming style services.
Tx Buffer Occupancy Average usage of TX buffer resources. This indicates the probability
of buffer overflow.
Tx Buffer blocked rate The average number of PDUs BLOCKED from entering the RLC transmit
buffer per packet call due to the buffer being full.
207
7.1.3.2 Algorithm Performance KPI
To measure the performance of RAB Mapping algorithm, the following KPIs should
be collected to measure the rejection rate of RAB request rate. Other than invalid
request, the major source of the rejection is from the UE compatibility as listed in
section 1.1.1.3 UE Capability Checks. A high RAB setup failure rate may suggest
therere large UE populations with limited capability on the market, therefore this
algorithm needs to be modified to accommodate more of such UEs until theyre
retired from the market.
KPI Descriptions
CS_RAB_setup_FAIL_UNSUP_CEL
L
Number of CS RABs unsuccessfully setup by RAB
assignment Request in each cell caused by non supported
UTRAN capabilities. Equals to
CS_RAB_setup_FAIL_UNSUP_CELL /
CS_RAB_REQ_setup_CONV + CS_RAB_REQ_setup_STR
PS_RAB_setup_FAIL_UNSUP_CEL
L
Number of PS RABs unsuccessfully setup by RAB
assignment Request in each cell caused by non supported
UTRAN capabilities. Equals to
PS_RAB_setup_FAIL_UNSUP_CELL /
(PS_RAB_REQ_setup_CONV + PS_RAB_REQ_setup_STR
+ PS_RAB_REQ_setup_INTER +
PS_RAB_REQ_setup_BKG
7.1.4 Optimization Guidelines
7.1.4.1 Scenario Descriptions
Refer to section 1.1.1: Standard Optimisation Scenario.
7.1.4.2 Parameters and Recommendation
7.1.4.2.1 AMR 12.2 KBPS
This table includes configurable parameter settings entered through the MML
command ADD/MOD TYPRAB for AMR 12.2 service. Recommendations for other
services are radio bearer dependent.
Parameter AMR 12.2 Comments
Recommended Value Source
RabIndex 0 Pre-defined
configuration
set
TrafficClass CONVERSATIONAL 3GPP
TS34.108 Ssd SPEECH
MaxBitRate 12200
CNDomainID CS Domain
TypCfgSupport ON MML
This table includes configurable parameter settings entered through MML command
ADD TYPRABRLC for AMR 12.2 service. Recommendations for other services are
radio bearer dependent.
208
Parameter AMR 12.2
Recommended Value Source
RabIndex 0 Pre-defined
configuration
set
SubflowIndex 0 1 2 TS34.108
MML/XX
TypicalBERdpcch 10 10 10
BERtarget1 10 10 10
BERtarget2 10 10 10
RlcMode TM TM TM
RlcDiscardMode Not Applicable.
UlSegInd FALSE FALSE FALSE TS34.108
DlSegInd FALSE FALSE FALSE TS34.108
ExplicitTimerMRW Not applicable for TM
RLC. ExplicitTimerDisca
rd
ExplicitMaxMRW
NoExplicitTimerNo
ExpDiscard
MaxDAT
TimerMRW
MaxMRW
NoDiscardMaxDAT
TxWindowSize
TxWindowSizeLimit
TimerRST
Ma
xRST
InSequenceDelivery
RxWindowSize
RxWindowSizeLimi
t
MissingPDUInd
TimerStatusProhibi
t
TimerEPC
TimerStatusPeriodi
c
PollingInfo
LastTxPUPoll
LastReTxPUPoll
TimerPollProhibit
TimerPoll
PollPU
PollSDU
PollWindow
TimerPollPeriodic
This table includes parameter settings entered through MML command ADD
TYPRABSEMISTATICTF for AMR 12.2 service. Recommendations for other
services are radio bearer dependent.
209
Parameter AMR 12.2 Comments
Recommended Value Source
RabIndex 0 Pre-
defined
configura
tion set
SubflowIndex 0 1 2 3GPP
TS34.108
.
TTI 20 20 20 3GPP
ChCodingType CC CC CC 3GPP
CodingRate 1/3 1/3 1/2 3GPP
UlRateMatchingAtt
r
185 176 218 MML/X
X
DlRateMatchingAtt
r
185 176 218 MML/X
X
CRCsize 12 0 0 3GPP
This table includes parameter settings entered through MML command ADD
TYPRABDYNAMICTF for AMR 12.2 service. Recommendations for other services
are radio bearer dependent.
Parameter
Name
AMR12.2
Comment
Recommended Value Source
RabIndex 0
Pre-defined
configuration set

SubflowIndex 0 1 2 3GPP
TS34.108
TbNumber 1,1,1,1,1 0,1,1,1,n/a
0,1,na,na,na,
na
TbSize
0,39,42,55,75
,81
103,53,63,84,
103
60,0,na,na,na
,na
7.1.4.2.2 64K INTERACTIVE DATA BEARER
This table includes configurable parameter settings entered through the MML
command ADD TYPRAB for 64K interactive service.
Parameter 64K Interactive Comments
Recommended Value Source
RabIndex 13 Pre-defined
configuration
set
TrafficClass Interactive 3GPP
TS34.108 Ssd Unknown
MaxBitRate 64000
CNDomainID PS Domain
TypCfgSupport ON MML
210
command
help
This table includes configurable parameter settings entered through MML command
ADD TYPRABRLC for 64K Interactive service.
Parameter 64K Interactive
Recommended Value Source
RabIndex 13
Pre-defined
configuration set
SubflowIndex 0
TS34.108
MML/XX
TypicalBERdpcch
790
BERtarget1 10
BERtarget2
10
RlcMode AM
RlcDiscardMode
No
Discard
MML
NoDiscardMaxDAT 7
MML/XX
TxWindowSize 256
MML/XX
TxWindowSizeLimit 128
Xx simulation
result
TimerRST 300
MML/XX
MaxRST 6
MML/XX
InSequenceDelivery TRUE
MML/XX
RxWindowSize 256
MML/XX
RxWindowSizeLimit 128
Xx simulation
result
MissingPDUInd FALSE
MML/XX
TimerStatusProhibit 300
Xx simulation /XX
TimerEPC NULL
MML/XX
TimerStatusPeriodic NULL
MML/XX
PollingInfo ON
MML/XX
LastTxPUPoll TRUE
MML/XX
LastReTxPUPoll TRUE
MML/XX
TimerPollProhibit 260
Xx
simulation/MML
TimerPoll NULL
MML/XX
PollPDU 1
Xx simulation
PollSDU NULL
MML/XX
PollWindow NULL
MML/XX
TimerPollPeriodic 300
MML/XX
This table includes parameter settings entered through MML command ADD/MOD
TYPRABSEMISTATICTF for 64K Interactive service.
Parameter 64K Interactive Comments
Recommended Value Source
RabIndex 13 Pre-
defined
211
configura
tion set
SubflowIndex 0 3GPP
TS34.108 TTI 20
ChCodingType TURB
O
CodingRate N/A
UlRateMatchingAtt
r
150
DlRateMatchingAtt
r
150
CRCsize 16
This table includes parameter settings entered through MML command ADD
TYPRABDYNAMICTF for 64K Interactive service.
Parameter
Name
64K Interactive
Comment
Recommended Value Source
RabIndex 13
Pre-defined
configuration set

SubflowIndex 0 3GPP
TS34.108. TbNumber 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
TbSize
336, 336,
336, 336, 336
7.1.4.2.3 TX/RX WINDOW SIZE RECOMMENDATIONS
Followings are the recommended value for the TxWindowSize, TxWindowsizeLimit,
RxWindowSize, RxWindowSizeLimit per Xx simulation result.
PS
AM Bearer
Hua
wei
Rab
Inde
x
Default Optimum Window
Sizes
Window Size Limits
RXWINDO
WSIZE
RXWINDO
WSIZE
RXWINDOWSIZE
LIMIT
RXWINDOWSIZELI
MIT
8 K BACK 23 32 32 16 16
32 K BACK 22 128 128 64 64
64 K BACK 21 256 256 128 128
128K BACK 20 512 512 256 256
144K BACK 19 512 512 256 256
256 K BACK 18 1024 1024 512 512
384 K BACK 17 512 512 256 256
8 K INTER 15 128 128 64 64
32 K INTER 14 128 128 64 64
64 K INTER 13 256 256 128 128
128 K INTER 12 512 512 128 128
144 K INTER 11 512 512 256 256
256 K INTER 10 1024 1024 512 512
384 K INTER 9 1536 1536 768 768
212
7.1.4.2.4 SIGNALLING RADIO BEARER
This table includes configurable parameter settings entered through MML command
ADD TYPSRBRLC for SRB.
Parameter SRB Recommended Value
3.4
kbps
13.6
kbps
Source
SRabIndex
2 3
Pre-defined
configuration set
LOCHINDEX 1 1
TS34.108
BLERQuality
-20
-20
MML/XX?????
David, do you
agree with this??
RlcMode AM AM
RlcDiscardMode
No
Discard
No
discard
MML/XX/3GPP
NoDiscardMaxDAT
15 15
MML/XX
however testing at
lab/field level
with alternative
values (especially
with lower values)
is strongly
recommended,
especially given
the 1% target
BLER operating
point being
recommended.
TxWindowSize 32 64
MML/XX
TimerRST
300
30
0
MML/XX
MaxRST
(hardcoded????)
1 1
MML/XX
InSequenceDelivery TRUE TRUE
XX
RxWindowSize
32
64
MML/XX
MissingPDUInd
TRUE
TRUE
MML/XX
TimerStatusProhibit
180
140
XX
TimerEPC
NULL
NULL
MML/XX
TimerStatusPeriodic
NULL
NULL
MML/XX
PollingInfo
ON
ON
MML/XX
LastTxPUPoll
TRUE
TRUE
MML/XX
LastReTxPUPoll
TRUE
TRUE
MML/XX
TimerPollProhibit NULL NULL
MML/XX
TimerPoll 250 200
XX
PollPDU 4 4
MML/XX
PollSDU 1 1
MML/XX
PollWindow NULL NULL
MML/XX
TimerPollPeriodic NULL NULL
MML/XX
213
This table includes parameter settings entered through MML command ADD/MOD
TYPSRABSEMISTATICTF for SRB.
Parameter SRB Recommended Value Comments
3.4 kbps 13.6 kbps Source
RabIndex 13
0
20
TURBO
N/A
150
16
Pre-
defined
configura
tion set
SubflowIndex 3GPP
TS34.108 TTI 40 10
ChCodingType 1/3
Convolutio
nal
1/3
Convolutio
nal
CodingRate
UlRateMatchingAtt
r
UL:180 UL:180
DlRateMatchingAtt
r
DL:180 DL:180
CRCsize 16 16
This table includes parameter settings entered through MML command ADD
TYPSRBDYNTF for SRB.
Parameter
Name
SRB Recommended Value
Comment
3.4kbps 13.6kbps Source
RabIndex 2 3
Pre-defined
configuration set

SubflowIndex 0
3GPP
TS34.108.
TbNumber 1
TbSize 148 148
MML/3GPP
TS34.108
7.1.4.3 Expected KPI Value
7.1.4.3.1 SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION KPIS
Simulation has been done for the Acknowledge Mode RLC settings with 2 radio
bearer types: Bi-directional 64 kbps and uni-directional. Of the set of 28 AM RLC
parameters available for radio bearer specific re-configuration the following 3 subsets
of parameters have been identified as having the most influence on overall RLC
performance:
RLC Buffer Window Size
Status Reporting Mechanisms
Reset Mechanisms
214
The report below summarize by varying the RLC Status Report Prohibit Timer
between 200 ms and 300 ms, and the target BLER, how the PDU delay, buffer
occupancy is affected.
KPI Expected KPI Values
PDU Delay See table below.
Tx Buffer Occupancy See table below.
Tx Buffer blocked rate 0

Bearer
Download Size
kbytes
1 packet call
per session
(background
traffic)
40/160 x 800
byte packets
per packet call
Operating
BLER
(artificially
fixed no
shadowing
simulated)
Mean PDU Delay for
Status Report Period:
%
Reduction
in Mean
Delay by
33% drop
in status
reporting
period
Mean Tx RLC
Buffer Occupancy
level of
(% of maximum) for
Status Report
period:
Reduction
in Mean
Occupancy
level by
33% drop
in status
reporting
period
Prohibit
Timer
300 ms
Prohibit
Timer
200ms
Prohibit
Timer
300 ms
Prohibit
Timer
200 ms
64
kbps
32
10% 0.7 0.58 17 40 33 7
5% 0.5 0.40 20 28 22 6
128
10% 1.4 1.25 11 76 71 5
5% 0.8 0.7 12 53 46 7
144
kbps
32
10% 0.55 0.40 27 33 25 8
5% 0.39 0.27 28 24 17 6
128
10% 0.80 0.70 12 59 50 9
5% 0.52 0.48 8 38 31 8
Table below list a number of options available to system optimizer with advantage
and disadvantage.
Techniques
available
Potential
Uses
Approximate
order of
magnitude
gains
Advantages Disadvantages
Do Nothing
Rely on higher
layer TCP to
lower source
traffic flow
Reduce
Maximum
RLC Buffer
requirements
n order to
meet either
UE
Limitation
and/or avoid
TCP
congestion
mechanisms
will adapt to
find a new
lower optimum
source traffic
data rate.
Simple
Suitable for
Background
services
with low
QoS
requirements
Effective data-
rate
(throughput)
reduced.
Transition
period to find
new source data
rate may be
long.
215
buffer
overflow in
traffic-
channel
scenario
Lower Radio
Bearer TrCH
BLER target
BLER Target
change of 10%
to 5% can
bring about a
25% drop in
mean buffer
occupancy
Magnitude
of gain
Simple one
parameter
change.
Improves
delay
performance
.
Overall
interference
level rises as a
consequence of
higher Eb/No
target per
bearer.
Currently one
BLER target
affects all users.
Increase
frequency of
status reporting
33% reduction
in period
between status
reports can
reduce buffer
requirements
by 5-10 %
Magnitude
of gain
Improves
delay
performance
Introduces
overheads
Affects reset
time-out
Lower number
of
Retransmissions
Simple
parameter
change
Affects reset
Limited gains
Loss in goodput
Table: Techniques to overcome/limit RLC window buffer overflow
7.1.4.3.2 ALGORITHM PERFORMANCE KPIS
KPI Expected KPI Values
CS_RAB_setup_FAIL_UNSUP_CEL
L
1%
PS_RAB_setup_FAIL_UNSUP_CEL
L
1%
7.1.4.3.3 KPI VALIDATION CONDITION
Scenario 1: Test PDU delay and RLC Buffer Occupancy -> Bring up 50% of load of
64K bearer calls for 15minutes. Collect the average PDU delay and RLC Buffer
Occupancy rate.
Scenario 2: Test Unsupported RAB setup failure rate -> With system RAB type fully
configured, make various call RAB calls in table listed below (3GPP34.108).
216
# Traffic class [15] SSD [15] Max. rate, kbps CS/PS
1 Conversational Speech UL:12.2 DL:12.2 CS
1a Conversational Speech
UL:(12.2 7.95 5.9
4.75) DL:(12.2 7.95
5.9 4.75)
CS
2 Conversational Speech UL:10.2 DL:10.2 CS
2a Conversational Speech
UL:(10.2, 6.7, 5.9,
4.75) DL:(10.2, 6.7,
5.9, 4.75)
CS
3 Conversational Speech UL:7.95 DL:7.95 CS
4 Conversational Speech UL:7.4 DL:7.4 CS
4a Conversational Speech
UL:(7.4, 6.7, 5.9,
4.75) DL:(7.4, 6.7,
5.9, 4.75)
CS
5 Conversational Speech UL:6.7 DL:6.7 CS
6 Conversational Speech UL:5.9 DL:5.9 CS
7 Conversational Speech UL:5.15 DL:5.15 CS
8 Conversational Speech UL:4.75 DL:4.75 CS
9 Conversational Unknown UL:28.8 DL:28.8 CS
10 Conversational Unknown UL:64 DL:64 CS
11 Conversational Unknown UL:32 DL:32 CS
12 Streaming Unknown UL:14.4 DL:14.4 CS
13 Streaming Unknown UL:28.8 DL:28.8 CS
14 Streaming Unknown UL:57.6 DL:57.6 CS
15 Void
15a Streaming Unknown UL:16 DL:64 PS
16 Void
17 Void
18 Void
19 Void
20 Interactive or Background N/A UL:32 DL:8 PS
20a Interactive or Background N/A UL:8 DL:8 PS
20b Interactive or Background N/A UL:16 DL:16 PS
20c Interactive or Background N/A UL:32 DL:32 PS
21 Void
22 Interactive or Background N/A UL:32 DL:64 PS
23 Interactive or Background N/A UL:64 DL:64 PS
24 Interactive or Background N/A UL:64 DL:128 PS
25 Interactive or Background N/A UL:128 DL:128 PS
26 Interactive or Background N/A UL:64 DL:384 PS
27 Interactive or Background N/A UL:128 DL:384 PS
28 Interactive or Background N/A UL:384 DL:384 PS
29 Interactive or Background N/A UL:64 DL:2048 PS
30 Interactive or Background N/A UL:128 DL:2048 PS
31 Void
32 Interactive or Background N/A UL:64 DL:256 PS
33 Interactive or Background N/A UL:0 DL:32 PS
34 Interactive or Background N/A UL:32 DL: 0 PS
35 Interactive or Background N/A UL:64 DL:144 PS
36 Interactive or Background N/A UL:144 DL:144 PS

217
8 Radio Admission Control
There are two CAC algorithms available per operators choice: Power Measurement
based call admission control (ALGORITHM_FIRST), and Equivalent Number of
Users call admission control (ALGORITHM_SECONDE). The ENU not only can be
used as a primary CAC algorithm but can also as a backup algorithm when the Power
Measurement algorithm is not performing due to faulty condition.
8.1 Measurement Based Call Admission Control Algorithm
8.1.1 Algorithm Overview
In WCDMA system, admission of a new call will increase the loading in both uplink
and downlink. In the uplink, the increase in the loading is indicated by the increase in
the total interference level (i.e., Received Total Wideband Power RTWP). In the
downlink, the increase in the loading is indicated by the increase of transmitted
power. The increase of loading in both uplink and downlink may cause the system
drop calls.
To guarantee the existing users transmission quality while maintaining coverage and
optimal radio resource utilization, admission control is used to manage the allocation
of radio resources using the DCH to the new call arrivals. The admission control is
carried out for the following types of call requests:
New call request
Soft handover request
Hard handover request
Existing call reconfiguration request
SRB Request on the DCH
The admission control algorithm covers the power based admission control for
dedicated transport channel. For dedicated transport channel, the admission control
process is divided into uplink admission control and downlink admission control,
which are carried out separately in the uplink first then downlink. Different priority
can be given for different service by setting up a higher threshold for the service
(UlConvThd vs. UlOtherThd) and Handover.
Note that the call admission control algorithm described in this section covers only the
power aspect of the overall call admission process. It does not cover code
management, ATM backhaul link capacity, CPU usage, common channel
FACH/RACH admission control. This power based CAC algorithm also interacts with
other algorithm such as DCCC, DRD, PUC, LCC, Inter-carrier Load Balancing
algorithms, and the Radio Resource Management (RRM). The final acceptance of the
call is performed by the RRM based on the result collected from other algorithms to
ensure all the UTRAN resources are used properly and efficiently.
8.1.1.1 Uplink Admission Control
1. Get data rate and Eb/N0 for the request service;
2. Get current RTWP and background noise to calculate current load factor;
3. Get UL common channels load factor;
4. Calculate the predicted load factor per trigger of the CAC;
218
5. Compare with the threshold;
6. If exceed reject the call;
7. Otherwise proceed to the downlink checking.
8.1.1.2 Downlink Admission Control
1) Get data rate and Eb/N0 of the request service;
2) Calculate the downlink transmitting power increment P for the request;
3) Get all the CIR of the current service, (Ec/N0)i;
4) Obtain the current downlink total transmitted power for the serving cell this
is the NBAP Tx carrier power measurement filtered with moving average
filter;
5) Calculate the predicted transmitting power percentage;
6) Compare to the threshold DlConvThd or DlOtherThd. If it exceeds the
threshold, call is rejected. Otherwise admit the call.
8.1.2 Trigger of Admission Request
8.1.2.1 New Call Request
The new call request is described as the 1
st
RAB request where the SRB was
established on the common channels FACH/RACH prior to the RAB request. Upon a
new call request, the CAC first execute the uplink admission control as above. If
uplink is accepted, then proceed to the downlink. If both accepted, then call is
admitted. The thresholds used for the new call are dependent on the requested service
type: UlConvThd, DlConvThd. UlOtherThd, DlOtherThd.
8.1.2.2 Admission Control for Reconfiguration
The admission control for the reconfiguration can be triggered by:
DCCC algorithm to change the data rate or transport channel,
A new RAB request where the SRB has already been established on the DCH
previously,
Multi-RAB request.
Upon request, the CAC calculates the exiting load factor, and the new load factor
based on the reconfigured RAB request. If the new load factor is less than the existing
load factor, accept the request. Otherwise the load factor is compared to the threshold
of the requested service.
1 .
8.1.2.3 Admission Control for Handover
For intra-frequency soft and hard handover, uplink admission control is not needed as
the noise from the UE has already been presented in the new cell. So, proceed to
downlink admission control of the new call request. The service specific threshold is
replaced with the handover threshold (i.e. DlHoThd).
For inter-frequency hard handover request, its estimated total uplink and downlink
load factors for the serving cell are obtained the same way as they are described in the
219
new call request section. The estimated total uplink load factor for the serving cell is
check against the uplink and downlink handover thresholds: UlHoThd and DlHoThd.
To give high priority to the handover requests, a higher admission threshold is used
for handover admission control.
8.1.2.4 Admission Control for Multi-RABs
The admission of Multi-RAB is handled depends on how the RABs are requested.
In the case of multiple RABs are included in one RAB Assignment Request,
the RNC estimates the total load factor by adding up all the load factors of the
requested RABs based on the service type and data rate. It then checks the
total load factor against the thresholds of each RAB per service type. The
RABs are admitted only if all the RABs can be accept by the CAC. Otherwise
all the RABs included in the request will be rejected.
In the case of multi-RAB call request through multiple RAB Assignment
Requests, the RNC handles the subsequent RAB request as a reconfiguration
case with the thresholds based on the service type.
8.1.2.5 Admission Control for the Signaling Radio Bearer on DCH
Admission of SRB established onto the DCH is handled based on the
Establishment Cause included in the RRC Connection Request message
received from UE.If the Cause is Emergency Call, the RNC CAC shall
admit the SRB.
If the cause is Registration or Detach, the RNC checks the uplink and
downlink Congestion Indicator for the cell. The SRB can be accepted only if
the cell is NOT under the congestion condition in both directions. The Uplink
and Downlink Congestion Indicator is a congestion condition set by the LCC
algorithm based on the upper bound of OLC thresholds: UlOLCThd and
DlOLCThd. The condition is clear when the load is blow the lower bound of
OLC thresholds: UlOLCRlsThd and DLOLCRlsThd. Refer to Radio Load
Control section of RARM SFRAS.
If the Cause is
o Originating Conversational call,
o Terminating Conversational Call,
o Inter-RAT cell re-selection,
o Inter-RAT cell change order,
the RNC admits the SRB based on the conversational thresholds: ULConvThd
and DlConvThd
If the Cause is
o Originating Streaming Call,
o Originating Interactive Call,
o Originating Background Call,
o Terminating Streaming Call,
o Terminating Interactive Call,
o Terminating Background Call,
o Call re-establishment,
220
the RNC admits the SRB based on the non-conversational thresholds:
ULOtherThd and DlOtherThd.
For all other Causes not covered above, i.e.
o Originating Subscribed traffic Call,
o Originating High Priority Signalling,
o Originating Low Priority Signalling,
o Terminating High Priority Signalling,
o Terminating Low Priority Signalling,
o Terminating - cause unknown.
The SRB is established onto the common channel therefore no CAC is
performed.
8.1.2.6 Admission Control for the DCCC
The call admission request initiated by the DCCC is treated as a reconfiguration
service described in the "Admission Control for the Reconfiguration". The threshold
used to compare with is conversational or non-conversational threshold based on the
type of service. If the reconfigured data rate is lower than the existing one, then the
call is admitted. If its higher, then the load factor is compared with the threshold of
the traffic type just like the new call to determine if the request can be granted. In the
case of reconfiguration is rejected by the CAC, the call will be continued with current
data rate.
Note in order for the DCCC algorithm to move a UE from FACH to DCH state, the
SRNC has to be co-located with CRNC such that an internal message can be sent
from DCCC to CAC algorithms to trigger the RB reconfiguration. Otherwise,
SRNS relocation has to occur prior to DCCC can assign DCH to the UE.
8.1.2.7 Admission Control for Emergency Call
During emergency call admission, the power/load factor and OVSF code usage are
checked. In case of power resource or OVSF resource check failure (i.e. due to system
overload) for an emergency call request, a priority and pre-emption mechanism will
kick in to release a selected non-emergency call. The priority and pre-emption
mechanism should select a UE, which has only one RAB if possible, and has the same
SF level as that required by the emergency call request. If the mechanism cannot find
a UE at that SF level, it should select another UE at the next SF level so that the
selected UE can be pre-empted to release radio resource for the emergency call
request. The selection and pre-emption is handled outside the CAC algorithm.
8.1.2.8 Admission Control for Direct Retry Decision (DRD)
Once an alternative-serving cell is selected for the direct retry, a new call request is
sent to the RNC which manages the cell. The CAC for the newly selected serving cell
will conduct a call admission control as the new call request and send the result to the
RR Management in the RNC for the final admission decision.
221
8.1.2.9 Admission Control for Inter-Carrier Load BalancingLDB
The LDB has a set of parameter and thresholds to select an UE to recommend hard
Andover to different carrier. CAC will be performed for the target cell when
requested.
8.1.2.10 Interactions with AMRC, , PUC
There is no CAC checking for the AMR Control, Potential User Control (PUC), and
Inter Carrier Load Balancing (LDB). However, the decision made by either CAC or
above algorithm could affect the other algorithm. Proper coordination is needed
between the two algorithm in order to achieve the desired performance.
8.1.2.11 Interactions with LCC
There 4 level of thresholds defined for the Load Congestion Control algorithm. The
first 2 lower level thresholds are meant to set a lower than the CAC threshold such
that itll activate/deactivate the 1
st
stage of basic congestion control called LDR. In
this stage, LCC use the DCCC, LDB, and AMRC algorithm to conduct cell wide
congestion control to a group of users. The other 2 higher level thresholds are meant
to set a higher than the CAC thresholds such that itll activate/deactivate the 2
nd
stage
of OverLoad congestion Control (OLC). In this stage, a fast rate reduction and
links/users release are used. During the recovery stage after congestion condition is
relived, the LCC increase the user data rate step by step to its normal rate. All actions
taken during LDR, OLC, and recovery stage are executed without checking with the
CAC.
8.1.2.12 Interactions with Radio Resource Management (RRM)
The RRM acts as central controller that checks the availability of various radio
resources listed below prior to accepting a call.
1) OVSF code resource
2) Iub bandwidth resource
3) CPU resource
4) Power resource checked by CAC module
A call is rejected by RRM unless all above resources are available.
8.1.3 Calculation of Load Factor
This section provides only a high level view of the Load Factor calculation. For detail,
refer to the Algorithm description - (USR2.) Call Admission Control Algorithm
authored by Hua xu.
8.1.3.1 Uplink Load Factor Equation
The uplink predicted total load factor, '
UL
, can be calculated as:
comm UL UL
L + +
'
Where

UL
is the uplink current total load factor. It can be calculated as:
total
N
UL
I
P
1
222
Where
o P
N
is the background noise. Its value may be constant or
variable if Auto-Adaptive Environment Noise Adjustment is
enabled.
o I
total
is the RTWP in the measurement report.
L is the load factor for the request. Calculation of L is dependent on
the trigger of the CAC, e.g. new call or inter-frequency hondover
request, SRB admission request, multi-RAB request.

comm
is the common channel load factor. It is currently a database
parameter that can be set using MML command.
For multiple call requests during one measurement reporting interval
the same RTWP value is used.
No method has been devised to solve the problem caused by set-up
latencies.
8.1.3.1.1 LOAD FACTOR FOR THE NEW SRB:
If the SRB is established on the DCH, the SRB is considered as a new call request.
The load factor for the SRB is:
( )
SRB c
N E
L
0
/
1
1
1
+

Where
The (Ec/N0)
SRB
is the Ec/N0 for the SRB request. It can be calculated
based on the following equation:
R
W N
E
v
N
E
b
c
0
0

Where:
o The Eb/N0 is obtained by looking up the reference BLER vs.
Eb/N0 curve for the 12.2k AMR CS Convolutional Coding and
the preset cell environment type. Then the Eb/NO is adjusted
for the 3.4k or 13.6k rate.
o A activity factor for the request, v, is hard coded as 1 in the
load factor calculation.
o R is the data rate of the SRB request.
8.1.3.1.2 LOAD FACTOR FOR THE 1
ST
RAB REQUEST WHERE SRB WAS PREVIOUSLY ESTABLISHED ON DCH:
SRB
c
comb
c
N
E
N
E
L

,
_

,
_

0 0
1
1
1
1
1
1
223
where
(Ec/N0)
SRB
is the Ec/N0 calculated for 3.4k or 13.6k SRB using the CS
CC as reference curve. Activity factor is hard coded to 1.
(Ec/N0)
comb
is Ec/N0 for the combined RB and SRB.
The combined activity factor is hard coded as 1.
8.1.3.1.3 LOAD FACTOR FOR THE NEW CALL AND INTER FREQUENCY HANDOVER:
If the SRB was previously established on the common channel, the RAB request is
treated as a new call.
( )
comb c
N E
L
0
/
1
1
1
+

Where
The (Ec/N0)
comb
is the Ec/N0 is a combined service of a SRB and traffic RAB(s)
requests. The v is the combined activity factor, which is hard coded as 1.
8.1.3.1.4 LOAD FACTOR FOR THE RECONFIGURATION:
The load factor for the multi-RAB is estimated similar to the reconfiguration request.
1
0
2
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
comb
c
comb
c
N
E
N
E
L

,
_

,
_

Where
(Ec/N0)
comb1
is the Ec/N0 for the existing RAB(s).
(Ec/N0)
comb2
is the Ec/N0 for the new multiple RAB service (combined the
request with the existing RAB(s).
8.1.3.1.5 LOAD FACTOR FOR MULTI-RABS:
The load factor for the multi-RAB is estimated similar to the reconfiguration
request.
1
0
2
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
comb
c
comb
c
N
E
N
E
L

,
_

,
_

Where
(Ec/N0)
comb1
is the Ec/N0 for the existing RAB(s).
224
(Ec/N0)
comb2
is the Ec/N0 for the new multiple RAB service (combined
the request with the existing RAB(s)).
8.1.3.2 Downlink Load Factor Equation
The downlink predicted total load factor is defined as

max
max_
'
) (
P
P P N P
comm
DL

+ +

Where
P
max_comm
is the total power configured for all the FACH channels.
is the DlCCHLoadFactor in the parameter database.
P(N) is the current filtered NBAP power measurements. The filter is a moving
average filter with window length specified by CACFilterWinLen parameter
in SET LDM command. Default CACFilterWinLen value is 3 measurement
reports intervals. This moving average filter is designed to counteract any
measurement errors or biases. There are reporting period and NodeB
measurement filter coefficient parameters that can be set as well.
For multiple call requests during one measurement interval the same value of
P(N) is used.
P is the downlink transmitting power increment due to the request. Depend
on the type of the request, the calculation of P is described in the following
several sections.
Note:
For the current realization no method is proposed to solve the problem arising
due to call set-up latencies.
No RACH/FACH information is used for DCH admission control.
In the current realization, the DSCH is not considered.
At present, other than the QoS class, no other entry of the QoS element (traffic
handling priority, etc.) is used in the admission control.
8.1.3.2.1 POWER INCREMENT FOR SRB
The SRB request is considered as a new call request. In USR1, the power increment,
P , is calculated using the maximum code power of AMR traffic.
In USR2, the power increment is calculated as follows.
( )
( ) ( )
1
]
1

) ( ) 1 (
) / _ (
/ _ / _ 1
/ _
0
1
0 0
0
N P
N E CPICH
P
N E DPCH N E DPCH
N E DPCH
P
SRB c
CPICH
N
j
SRB c j c
SRB c


where
225
(DPCH_Ec/N0)
SRB
is the DPCH Ec/N0 for the SRB service. It can be
calculated as:
) / _ ( / _ No Eb DPCH
W
R
v No Ec DPCH
where
o DPCH_Eb/N0 is obtained from the BLER vs. Eb/N0 curves per
cell environment type.
o The activity factor for the request, v, is hard coded as 1 in the
calculation to be conservative.
o R is the actual datarate, e.g. set to 3.7k for 3.4k SRB.
P(N) is the carrier transmit power for the total N active users and it is
obtained from the measurement report from Node B.
(CPICH_Ec/N0)
SRB
is the CPICH Ec/N0 value reported by the UE who
sent the SRB request
P
CPICH
is the CPICH power for the cell
is the orthogonal factor
8.1.3.2.2 POWER DELTA FOR NEW CALL AND HANDOVER
The power increment for a new call (no prior SRB established on DCH) and handoff
request can be calculated as:
( )
( )


1
]
1



N
j
comb c j c
comb c
CPICH
comb c
N E DPCH N E DPCH
N P
N E CPICH
P
N E DPCH
P
1
0 0
0
0
) / _ ( / _ 1
) ( ) 1 (
) / _ (
/ _

(DPCH_Ec/N0)
comb
is the DPCH Ec/N0 for the handover request,
which typically is a combined service of a 3.4k SRB and RB(s).
The combined activity factor is hard coded to 1 for handover request.
(DPCH_Ec/N0)
j
is the targeted combined DPCH Ec/N0 for jth user (j =
1, , N) in the cell.
P(N) is the carrier transmit power for the total N active users and it is
obtained from the measurement report from Node B.
(CPICH_Ec/N0)
SRB
is the CPICH Ec/N0 value reported by the UE who
sent the SRB request
P
CPICH
is the CPICH power for the cell
is the orthogonal factor
8.1.3.2.3 POWER INCREMENT FOR RE-CONFIGURATION
For USR1, the load factor for reconfigure request is based on the maximum code
power.
226
In USR2, for the reconfiguration request with increased (Ec/N0)
comb2
, the following
equation is used to estimate the power increment due to the reconfiguration:
( )
( ) ( )
2 0
1
0
1
1 0
2 0
/ _ / _ 1
) ( ) 1 (
) / _ (
/ _
comb c
N
comb j
j c
comb
comb c
CPICH
comb c
N E DPCH N E DPCH
P N P
N E CPICH
P
N E DPCH
P

,
_

Where
(DPCH_Ec/N0)
comb1
is the DPCH Ec/N0 before reconfiguration.
(DPCH_Ec/N0)
comb2
is the DPCH Ec/N0 for the service after the
reconfiguration.
(DPCH_Ec/N0)
j
is the DPCH Ec/N0 for the combined service of jth
user.
P(N) is the carrier transmit power for the total N active users and it is
obtained from the measurement report from Node B.
(CPICH_Ec/N0)
comb1
is the CPICH Ec/N0 value reported by the UE
who sent the reconfiguration request
P
CPICH
is the CPICH power for the cell
is the orthogonal factor
8.1.3.2.4 POWER INCREMENT FOR MULTI-RABS
For USR1 the load factor for multiple RAB request is based on the maximum code
power.
In USR2, for the multiple RAB request with increased (Ec/N0)
comb2
, the following
equation is used to estimate the power increment due to the multiple RAB request:
( )
( ) ( )
2 0
1
0
1
1 0
2 0
/ _ / _ 1
) ( ) 1 (
) / _ (
/ _
comb c
N
comb j
j c
comb
comb c
CPICH
comb c
N E DPCH N E DPCH
P N P
N E CPICH
P
N E DPCH
P

,
_

Where
(DPCH_Ec/N0)
comb1
is the DPCH Ec/N0 before reconfiguration.
(DPCH_Ec/N0)
comb2
is the DPCH Ec/N0 for the service after the
reconfiguration.
(DPCH_Ec/N0)
j
is the DPCH Ec/N0 for the combined service of jth
user.
P(N) is the carrier transmit power for the total N active users and it is
obtained from the measurement report from Node B.
(CPICH_Ec/N0)
comb1
is the CPICH Ec/N0 value is the default value set
in the parameter database.
P
CPICH
is the CPICH power for the cell
is the orthogonal factor
227
8.1.4 Background Noise
The background noise is generated from the environment ,independently from the
UEs. During the initial cell setup, the background noise is measured and is expected
to remain constant. However in the case of a site where temperature varies during the
day, the background noise may fluctuate so much that it needs to be re-adjusted
throughout the day . The Auto-adaptive Background Noise algorithm is designed to
update the background noise automatically when load on the cell is low.
The algorithm can be deactivated via ADD CELLCAC commands BGNSWITCH
parameter. The algorithm first calculates the load in turns of equivalent number of
users (See section 8.2). If the number of users is below a threshold (configurable via
command ADD CELLCACs BGNUSERNUMTHD parameter), the measured noise
is accepted.
The legacy background noise parameter remains, and is used if the Auto-adaptive
algorithm is switched off or if measurements are unavailable.
8.1.5 BLER vs. Eb/No Curves
The BLER vs. Eb/No curves can be modified via SET TRAFEBNO command.
Four different BLER Eb/No curves are referenced by the CAC for different services
and can be modified through the SET TRAFEBNO command:
CS Convolutional Coding use 12.2k AMR convolutional coding,
CS Turbo coding use 12.2k AMR turbo coding curve
PS Convolutional Coding use 144kbps data with convolutional coding
PS Turbo Coding use 144 kbps data with turbo coding
SRB use 12.2k AMR CC
8.1.6 Activity Factor
The activity factor is always set to 1 by the CAC for the new request, this includes
the 1
st
RAB request where SRB was established on the common channels,
inter-frequency hard handover,
SRB establishment on the DCH.
If DCH has already been assigned when a request is received, the CAC hard codes the
activity factor to 1 if the DCCC is activated. If DCCC is not activated, itll read it
from the configured parameter.
The activity factor (UlActFactorForxxxx, DlActFactorForxxxx) used in the USR2 is
defined as an application activity factor on the DPDCH as opposed to DPCH in
USR1. Its then converted to the activity factor for the whole DPCH of a single
service using the equation below. The voice activities should be set to 0.5 as opposed
to 0.67 in USR1.
Investigation: Is other non-conversational already set to DPDCH?
228
8.1.6.1 Calculation of Uplink Activity Factor
8.1.6.1.1 FOR SINGLE RAB:
2 2
2
,
2
d c
d DPDCHi i c
i
v
v


+
+

8.1.6.1.2 FOR MULTI-RAB:


2
,
2
,
2
,
2
,
comb d comb c
comb d
comb j
j
comb j
j j
comb c
comb
R
R v
v


+

8.1.6.2 Calculation of Downlink Activity Factor


8.1.6.2.1 FOR SINGLE RAB
data Pilot TPC TFCI
data DPDCH i Pilot TPC TFCI
i
N N PO N PO N PO
N v N PO N PO N PO
v
+ + +
+ + +

* 3 * 2 * 1
* 3 * 2 * 1
,
8.1.6.2.2 FOR MULTI-RAB

comb j
j
comb j
j j
DPDCH comb
R
R v
v
,

Where
v
j
is the activity factor of jth RAB, which is the default value set in the
database parameter except when the DCCC is switched on and the RAB is
data. In this case v
j
is set to 1.
Rj is the data rate for the jth RAB.
8.1.7 Cell Environment Type
Three types of Cell Environment are defined by the CAC algorithm: TU (Typical
Urban area), RA (Rural Area), and HT (Hilly Terrain area) as defined in the 25.943.
The Environment Type is configurable by the operator (CellEnvType) for a cell.
The Environment Type, in conjunction with coding mode (Convolution coding and
1/3 rate, Turbo coding, no coding) and service type, is used to select the
corresponding BLER vs. Eb/No curve.
8.2 Equivalent Number of User Call Admission Control Algorithm
Equivalent Number of User call admission control is a new algorithm introduced in
USR2. It uses the 12.2 AMR services with 100% activities, 1/3 Convolutional Coding
229
scheme, and 1% BLER as a reference service. The Eb/NO of the reference service is
read from the BLER vs. Eb/NO to derive the equivalent number of 12.2 AMR users
for a specific service type. The ENU is defined as:
ENU =
( )
( )
j c
ref c
N E
N E
0
0
/
1
1
/
1
1
+
+
This algorithm use the same power measurement based algorithm thresholds for the
uplink thresholds, i.e. UlHoThd, UlConvThd, UlOtherThd. However, the downlink
threshold is a new configurable parameter set by operator. The operator can choose a
different algorithm, ENU or measurement based, independently in the uplink or
downlink direction.
8.2.1 Uplink Load Factor
Uplink load factor is
( )
( )

+
+
j
j c
UL
N E
f
0
/
1
1
1
1
Where,
f is the interference factor of the neighboring cells on uplink, a database
parameter
Ec/N0 is the Ec/N0 for jth user
For equivalent number of users based admission, the pole capacity (max capacity with
respect of reference service for the carrier), PC, is calculated as:
( ) ( )

,
_

+
+

ref c
N E f
PC
0
/
1
1
1
1
where,

( ) ( )
3840000
12200
/ /
0 0

ref b ref c
N E N E
f is the interference factor of the neighboring cells on uplink. Configurable.
Then, the load factor at the threshold level can be calculated as:
Threshold_value*PC.
8.2.2 Downlink Load Factor
The ENU of different of different threshold is calculated as:
230
DLThreshold_value* downlink total equivalent number of users
8.3 Related Data base Parameters
The commands that have parameters that influence admission control are as follows:
SET ADMCTRL
ADD CELLCAC
MOD CELLCAC
SET LDM
SET CELLSETUP
MOD CELL
SET CELLRLPWR
There are no special restrictions in using these commands other than the natural one
of using the MOD commands after the ADD or SET command.
Following parameters are configurable on a per cell basis.
Parameter Name Range Descriptions
CellEnvType
Value range: TU,
RA, HT
Physical unit: None.
Cell environment type.
Identify the current cell environment. With the index
of the coding mode and cell environment type, we
can get the corresponding curve of BLER-Eb/Io. The
curves of BLER-Eb/Io with different coding modes
and cell environment types are different from each
other.
Refer to 3GPP 25.104 for CASEn mapping.
Configuration group: CELLCAC
OrthoFactor
Value range: 0 ~
1000.
Physical value range:
0~1;
Step: 0.001.
Physical unit: None.
Orthogonality factor.
It is used to predict carrier transmit power. Zero
represents that channels are completely orthogonal
and there is no interference between users in DL
load factor prediction.
Configuration group: CELLCAC
UlConvThd Value range: 0 ~
1000.
Physical value range:
0~1;
Step 0.001.
Physical unit: None.
Uplink load factor threshold for conversational
service.
For conversational service, this threshold is
compared to the estimated total UL load
factor to limit the conversational call.
The UlConvThd and UlOtherThd are used to control
the proportion and priority of conversational and
non-conversational calls admitted to the cell. To set
a higher priority for a speech call, this threshold
should be set higher than ULOtherThd.
Configuration group: CELLCAC
UlOtherThd Value range: 0 ~
1000.
Physical value range:
0~1;
Step 0.001.
Physical unit: None.
UL load factor threshold for other services.
For non-conversational service, this threshold is
compared to the estimated total UL load factor to
limit the non-conversational call admitted to the cell.
The UlConvThd and UlOtherThd are used to control
231
the proportion and priority of conversational and
non-conversational calls admitted to the cell.
Configuration group: CELLCAC
UlHoThd Value range: 0 ~
1000.
Physical value range:
0~1;
Step 0.001.
Physical unit: None.
UL handover load factor threshold.
For all types of handover admission request, this
threshold is compared to the estimated total UL load
factor to limit the handover call admitted to the cell.
This parameter is used to preserve resources for
handover to ensure handover performance.
Configuration group: CELLCAC
ULIntereFactor
Value range: 0 ~
200.
Physical value range:
0~2;
Step 0.001.
Physical unit: None.
Interference factor of neighbouring cells on uplink.
The ratio of uplink intercell interference to intracell
interference.
Given this parameter is known, the system
automatically calculate the equivalent number of
users corresponding to 100% capacity
DlConvThd Value range: 0 ~
100.
Physical value range:
0~1;
Step 0.01.
Physical unit: None.
DL load factor threshold for conversation service.
For conversational service, this threshold is
compared to the estimated total DL load factor to
limit the conversational call admitted to the cell.
The DlConvThd and DlOtherThd are used to control
the proportion and priority of conversational and
non-conversational calls admitted to the cell.
Configuration group: CELLCAC
DlOtherThd Value range: 0 ~
100.
Physical value range:
0~1;
Step 0.01.
Physical unit: None.
DL load factor threshold for other services.
For non-conversational service, this threshold is
compared to the estimated total DL load factor to
limit the non-conversational call admitted to the cell.
The DlConvThd and DlOtherThd are used to control
the proportion and priority of conversational and
non-conversational calls admitted to the cell.
Configuration group: CELLCAC
DlHoThd Value range: 0 ~
100.
Physical value range:
0~1;
Step 0.01.
Physical unit: None.
DL handover load factor threshold.
For intra-frequency soft handover call admission
request, this threshold is compared to the estimated
total DL load factor to limit the soft handover call
admitted to the cell.
This parameter is used to preserve resources for
handover to ensure handover performance.
Configuration group: CELLCAC
UlCCHLocdFactor Value range: 0 ~
1000.
Physical value range:
0~1;
Step 0.001.
Physical unit: None.
UL common channel load factor.
This is the total load factor reserved for the usage of
all the UL common channels. During call admission
control algorithm, it is added to the reported UL load
factor and the predicted additional load factor for
using the UL dedicated traffic channel to derive the
new total loading factor.
Configuration group: CELLCAC
232
DlCCHLoadRsrvCoeff Value range: 0 ~
100.
Physical value range:
0~1;
Step 0.01.
Physical unit: None.
DL common channel load reserved coefficient
The CAC is only used for dedicated channels, and
for common channels, some resource is reserved. In
DL, according to the current load factor and the
characteristics of the new call, the DL CAC
algorithm predicts the new traffic channels load
factor with the assumption of admitting the new
call, then plus with the premeditated common
channel DL load factor to get the predicted DL load
factor. Then compares it with DL admission
threshold. If it is not higher than the threshold, the
call is admitted; otherwise, rejected.
Configuration group: CELLCAC
DLTotalEqUserNum Value range: 0 ~
200.
Physical unit: None.
DL total equivalent number of users When using the
algorithm of equivalent number of users (algorithm
2), the equivalent number of users corresponding to
100% capacity in downlink
MaxUlTxPowerforCon
v
Value range: -50
~33.
Physical unit: dBm
Max UL transmission power for conversation
service.
The maximum UL transmit power for conversational
service in a specific cell. It is based on the UL
coverage requirement of the conversational service
designed by the network planning.
Configuration group: CELLCAC
MaxUlTxPowerforStr
Value range: -50 ~
33.
Physical unit: dBm
Max UL transmission power for streaming service.
This parameter is based on the UL coverage
requirement of the streaming service designed by the
network planning.
Configuration group: CELLCAC
MaxUlTxPowerforInt

Value range: -50 ~
33.
Physical unit: dBm.
Max UL transmission power for interactive service.
This parameter is based on the UL coverage
requirement of the interactive service designed by
the network planning.
Configuration group: CELLCAC
MaxUlTxPowerforBac
Value range: -50 ~
33.
Physical unit: dBm.

Max UL transmission power for background service.


This parameter is based on the UL coverage
requirement of the background service designed by
the network planning.
Configuration group: CELLCAC
BackgroundNoise
Value range: 0 ~
621.
Physical value range:
-112~ -50;
Step 0.1.
Physical unit: dBm
Background noise.
The background UL noise is based on a real value
measured in the field when no call is admitted.
Mapping of the Measured value and the parameter
are provided below.
Configuration group: CELLCAC
Actually measured value
BACKGROUND
NOISE
RTWP < -112.0 0
-112.0 < RTWP < -111.9 1
-111.9 < RTWP < -111.8 2
... ...
233
-50.2 < RTWP < -50.1 619
-50.1 < RTWP < -50.0 620
-50.0 < RTWP 621
MaxTxPower
Value range: 0~500.
Physical value range:
0~50 with the step
size of 0.1 dB.
Physical unit: dBm
Maximum Transmit Power of the Cell on the
downlink: This is the sum of the maximum power of
all downlink channels in a cell. All the load factor
calculations on the downlink are obtained by
normalizing the powers by this. Configured in
network planning.
Configuration group: ADD CELLSETUP
BGNSwitch
Value range: 0,1
Physical value range:
OFF, ON
Physical Value: None
Background Noise Switch
When the parameter is '0', the auto-adaptive
background noise update algorithm will be switched
off, otherwise, the algorithm will be switched on.
Configuration group: ADD CELLSETUP
BGNFilterCoeff
Value range:0~100
Physical value range:
0~1
Physical unit:None
Background Noise Filter Coefficient
The auto-adaptive background noise algorithm
uses an alpha fiter for filtering the measured
RTWP, this parameter determines the filter
coefficient. In order to overcome the sudden
interference, the filter coefficient should be
small.
Configuration group: ADD CELLSETUP
BGNAdjustTimeLen
Value range:1~60
Physical value range:
1~60 minutes
Physical unit:minute
Background Noise Update Continuance Time
Only when the measured background noise's
duration reaches this parameter, the ouput of the
auto-adaptive background noise update filter
could be regarded as effect background noise,
and replace the current value, at the same time,
the auto-adaptie status should be restarted;
otherwise, the output could not be regarded as
the effective background noise.
Configuration group: ADD CELLSETUP
BGNEqUserNumThd Value range:0~10
Physical value range:
0~10
Physical unit:None
Equivalent User Number Threshold for
Background Noise
When the Uplink equivelent user number is not
larger than this parameter, the RTWP could be
regarded as background noise, so the measured
RTWP could be input to the auto-adaptive
background noise update filter; otherwise, the
RTWP could not be regarded as background
noise, and should not be input to the filter, and
at the same time, the auto-adaptive status should
be reset.
234
Configuration group: ADD CELLSETUP
Following parameters are configurable on a per RNC basis.
Parameter Name Range Descriptions
UlActFactorforConv
Value range: 0 ~
100.
Physical value
range: 0~1;
Step 0.01.
Physical unit:
None.
UL activity factor of conversation service.
Data might be discontinuous transmitted because the
voice activation detection of conversation service and
source changes of data service. The activity factor is
defined as the percentage of data transmitting on the
DPDCH after channel is allocated. The activity factors
of the same transport channel might be different in UL
and DL
Configuration group: ADMCTRL
DlActFactorforConv
Value range: 0 ~
100.
Physical value
range: 0~1;
Step 0.01.
Physical unit:
None.
DL activity factor of conversation service.
Data might be discontinuous transmitted because the
voice activation detection of conversation service and
source changes of data service. The activity factor is
defined as the percentage of data transmitting on the
DPDCH after channel is allocated.
The activity factors of the same transport channel
might be different in UL and DL.
Configuration group: ADMCTRL
UlActFactorforStr
Value range: 0 ~
100.
Physical value
range: 0~1;
Step 0.01.
Physical unit:
None.
UL activity factor of streaming service.
Data might be discontinuous transmitted because the
voice activation detection of conversation service and
source changes of data service. The activity factor is
defined as the percentage of data transmitting on the
DPDCH after channel is allocated. The activity factors
of the same transport channel might be different in UL
and DL.
Configuration group: ADMCTRL
DlActFactorforStr
Value range: 0 ~
100.
Physical value
range: 0~1;
Step 0.01.
Physical unit:
None.
DL activity factor of streaming service.
Data might be discontinuous transmitted because the
voice activation detection of conversation service and
source changes of data service. The activity factor is
defined as the percentage of data transmitting on the
DPDCH after channel is allocated. The activity factors
of the same transport channel might be different in UL
and DL.
Configuration group: ADMCTRL
UlActFactorforInt
Value range: 0 ~
100.
Physical value
range: 0~1;
Step 0.01.
Physical unit:
None.
UL activity factor of interactive service.
Data might be discontinuous transmitted because the
voice activation detection of conversation service and
source changes of data service. The activity factor is
defined as the percentage of data transmitting on the
DPDCH after channel is allocated. The activity factors
of the same transport channel might be different in UL
and DL.
Configuration group: ADMCTRL
DlActFactorforInt Value range: 0 ~
100.
Physical value
range: 0~1;
DL activity factor of interactive service.
Data might be discontinuous transmitted because the
voice activation detection of conversation service and
source changes of data service. The activity factor is
235
Step 0.01.
Physical unit:
None.
defined as the percentage of data transmitting on the
DPDCH after channel is allocated. The activity factors
of the same transport channel might be different in UL
and DL.
Configuration group: ADMCTRL
UlActFactorforBac
Value range: 0 ~
100.
Physical value
range: 0~1;
Step 0.01.
Physical unit:
None.
UL activity factor of background service.
Data might be discontinuous transmitted because the
voice activation detection of conversation service and
source changes of data service. The activity factor is
defined as the percentage of data transmitting on the
DPDCH after channel is allocated. The activity factors
of the same transport channel might be different in UL
and DL.
Configuration group: ADMCTRL
DlActFactorforBac
Value range: 0 ~
100.
Physical value
range: 0~1;
Step 0.01.
Physical unit:
None.
DL activity factor of background service.
Data might be discontinuous transmitted because the
voice activation detection of conversation service and
source changes of data service. The activity factor is
defined as the percentage of data transmitting on the
DPDCH after channel is allocated. The activity factors
of the same transport channel might be different in UL
and DL
Configuration group: ADMCTRL
RlMaxDlPwr
Value range:
-350~150
Physical value
range: -35~15
Step: 0.1
Physical unit: dB
CPICH relative Maximum Transmitted code domain
Power on the downlink: This is different based upon
the traffic bit-rate and traffic domain - PS or CS. The
value is set using the most stringent BLER
requirement for the given bit-rate and traffic domain.
Command: ADD CELLRLPWR
CACFilterWinLen
Value
range:1~1023
Physical unit:
None. Counted in
terms of number of
measurement
reports
Measurement filter duration used in CAC: The power
and RWTP measurements made (and filtered) at the
NodeB are further averaged at the RNC using a
moving average filter. This parameter determines the
duration of the filter.
Configuration group: SET LDM
8.3.1 Key Performance Indicators
KPI Name Descriptions
CallBlockRateConvNewcall Call blocking rate for Conversational service
due to new call
CallBlockRateStreamingNewsession Call blocking rate for Streaming service due to
new call
CallBlockRateInteractiveNewsessio
n
Call blocking rate for Interactive service due to
new call
CallBlockRateConvHO Call blocking rate for Conversational service
due to HO
CallBlockRateStreamingHO Call blocking rate for Streaming service due to
236
HO
CallBlockRateInteractiveHO Call blocking rate for Interactive service due HO
CallBlockRateConvReconfig Call blocking rate for Conversational service
due to reconfiguration
CallBlockRateStreamingReconfig Call blocking rate for Streaming service due to
reconfiguration
CallBlockRateInteractiveReconfig Call blocking rate for Interactive service due
reconfiguration
CallDropRateCell Call drop rate per cell due to RF loss
LoadFactorCell Total traffic load factor on a cell. This is the
percentage of total maximum power.
MaxTrafficTotalCACEfficiency (1 - TotalBlockRateCell) * (1 -
CallDropRateCell) * LoadFactorCell
8.3.2 Optimization Guidelines
8.3.2.1 Scenario Descriptions
Refer to section 1.1.1: Standard Optimisation Scenario .
8.3.2.2 Parameters and Recommendation
Parameter Name Recommended
Value
Source Comments
CellEnvType CASE3 MML command help
OrthoFactor 400 MML command help
UlConvThd 750 MML command help

UlOtherThd 750 MML command help
DlConvThd 65 MML command help
DlOtherThd 65 MML command help
DlHoThd 80 MML command help
UlHoThd 85 MML command help
UlCCHLocdFactor 10* Engineer Judgement
DlCCHLoadFactor 10* Engineer Judgement
UlTotalKThd 32 Xx Simulation
DlTotalKThd 30 Xx Simulation
MaxUlTxPowerforCo
nv
21 or per planning
Engineer judgement
MaxUlTxPowerforStr 24 or Per planning Engineer judgement
MaxUlTxPowerforInt 24 or Per planning Engineer judgement
MaxUlTxPowerforBa
c
24 or Per planning
Engineer judgement
BackgroundNoise
80 (i.e. 104.1
dBm)
Xx Simulation
UlActFactorforConv 50 MML command help
DlActFactorforConv 50 MML command help
UlActFactorforStr 100 MML command help
DlActFactorforStr 100 MML command help CAI study had -104.1
237
dBm for Background
noise for link budget
calculations
UlActFactorforInt 10 MML command help
DlActFactorforInt 10 MML command help CAI Study
UlActFactorforBac 10
MML command help CAT Studay traffic
models for 32Kbps
voice model
DlActFactorforBac 10 MML command help
StdServiceUlEbI0 72 MML command help
StdServiceDlEbI0 84 MML command help
StdServiceRate 12200 MML command help
RlMaxDlPwr See Table below MML command help
MaxTxPower
430 (43 dBm,
20W)
MML command help
CACFilterWinLen 3 MML command help
BGNSwitch 0 (Off) MML command help
BGNFilterCoeff 5 (0.05) MML command help
BGNAdjustTimeLen 10 minutes MML command help
BGNEqUserNumThd 0 MML command help
Service RlMaxDlPwr(dB)
CS Domain: 12,200
AMR
-3
CS Domain: 28,000 -2
CS Domain: 32,000 -2
CS Domain: 56,000 0
CS Domain: 64,000 0
PS Domain: 0 -2
PS Domain: 8,000 -8
PS Domain: 32,000 -4
PS Domain: 64,000 -2
PS Domain: 144,000 0
PS Domain: 256,000 2
PS Domain: 384,000 4
Table: RlMaxDlPwr Recommended Setting
* None 0 load factors for common channel should be recommended based on a
research done by XxLab. Further investment should be done to finalize these
parameters.
8.3.2.3 Expected KPI Value
Listed below is the simulation result.
KPI Name Expected KPI Values
238
CallBlockRateConv
CAC algorithm performance per Conversational service:
Actual Simulated Average Erlang/Cell: 53.7944415 58.60 61.12470235
Arrival Rate (Calls/sec/cell) 53.3 60 66.7
DL Power 0.08% 1.11% 2.66%
Number of new call blocked 0.512% 1.274% 13.928%
Number of handover request
blocked 0.000% 1.083% 0.258%
UL Power
Number of new call blocked 0.000% 0.000% 0.091%
Number of handover request
blocked 0.000% 0.000% 0.000%
OVSF Code
Number of new call blocked 0.000% 0.012% 0.000%
Number of handover request
blocked 0.000% 0.014% 0.000%
CallBlockRateStrea
ming
CAC algorithm performance per Streaming service:
Actual Simulated Average
Sessions/Cell: 12.92 14.67 17.02 18.05
Arrival Rate
(Sessions/sec/Cell) 0.33 0.40 0.47 0.53
DL Power 0.026% 0.215% 1.454% 2.813%
Number of new
call blocked 0.00% 0.42% 3.39% 6.16%
Number of
handover request
blocked 0.042% 0.080% 0.021% 0.18%
UL Power
Number of new
call blocked 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.08%
Number of
handover request
blocked 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.02%
OVSFCode
Number of new
call blocked 1.22% 3.56% 7.14% 9.32%
Number of
handover request
blocked 1.67% 5.92% 11.17% 16.11%
CallBlockRateInter
active
Not available.
CallBlockRateBack
ground
Not available.
Expected KPI Test Result is listed below.
KPI Name Expected KPI Values
CallBlockRateConvNewcall 99%
CallBlockRateStreamingNewsession 99%
CallBlockRateInteractiveNewsessio
n
99%
239
CallBlockRateConvHO 99%
CallBlockRateStreamingHO 99%
CallBlockRateInteractiveHO 99%
CallBlockRateConvReconfig 99%
CallBlockRateStreamingReconfig 99%
CallBlockRateInteractiveReconfig 99%
CallDropRateCell 1%
LoadFactorCell 99%
MaxTrafficTotalCACEfficiency 97%
8.3.2.4 KPI Test Validation Condition
Single cell condition with no neighbor cell configured.
Test focus on New Call Radio Admission Control.
No traffic mixing.
Overload or Congestion control is off.
Call Admission threshold set to 100% (Admitting maximum calls)
Traffic activities for all calls are assumed to be 100%.
2 test scenarios: 12.2K AMR calls and 64K/64K interactive call.
First scenario is 31 64K/64K interactive PS calls. One call at a time until all calls are
brought up and stay for 30 minutes. The 32nd call will be rejected. Measure Call
Blocking rate, Call Drop Rate and Cell Load Factor.
Second scenario is 58 12.2K AMR CS calls. One call at a time until all calls are
brought up and stay for 30 minutes. The 59
th
call will be rejected. Measure Call
Blocking rate, Call Drop Rate and Cell Load Factor.
240
9 Congestion Control
9.1 Algorithm Overview
In order to guarantee system stability and to meet different service and quality
requirements, the congestion control algorithm can be used to reduce the data rate of
low-priority services and if necessary release some of high-priority services until the
system becomes stable. The functionality supported in USR2 is called Overload
Control (OLC). USR3 extends the functionality by adding a prior congestion control
stage called Load Reduction (LDR) that will not be addressed in this section.
Overload congestion operates independently in both, uplink and downlink. The trigger
is excessive cell load in any direction, which is measured by monitoring the RTWP
and TCP for UL and DL respectively. When a cell is detected to be overloaded, the
following actions are taken in order to reduce load.
Reduce the throughput of Best Effort (BE) interactive and background service.
Drop calls in a controlled fashion.
Fast BE service control is only applied in the downlink direction. The aim is to reduce
the load by reducing the data rate of low priority services (such as interactive and
background services). If this mechanism is unable to bring the cell out of the
congestion state, call dropping is started. In the uplink direction, call dropping stage is
started immediately after overload congestion is detected.
The step size for BE service rate reduction is based on the typical bit rate of BE
services supported in USR2, e.g. 32 kbps, 64kbps and 128kbps. The MAC layer
performs rate reduction by limiting the number of blocks allowed per TTI (i.e. TFC
selection) by a percentage given by the parameter RateLimitCoef. This is done
periodically (with a period given by CgstCoefAdjustTimer) until congestion
disappears, the rate is reduced to the minimum, or the maximum number of iterations
DlOlcActionCounter has been reached. Similarly, as soon as the system leaves
congestion, the data rate of BE services is increased in steps with a periodicity given
by CongestRecovTimer until the full transport format set is restored.
Rate reduction actions are applied simultaneously to a group of RABs (UEs) within
the cell under congestion for each OLC period (OLCActionTimerLength), being the
actual number (UL)DlOlcTFAdjRang an independent O&M parameter for each
direction. User (RAB) selection is performed based on traffic class,
allocation/retention priority and bit rate by computing a sorting metric that also
takes into account the number of times a given RAB has been selected to be degraded.
In this way, the operator can freely assign priorities to the RAB types, since the
weighting parameters for all factors are O&M configurable. However, note that the
allocation/retention priority IE is not supported in USR2, so a default value of 15 (no
priority) is used and so, in practice, selection is based on traffic class, data rate and
number of hits.
Selective call dropping is also applied to a group of UEs given by
DlOlcUserRelRang, with the same periodicity OLCActionTimerLength until
241
congestion disappears. For user selection, both criteria effective load relief and RAB
priority are taken into account.
The congestion control and dynamic channel configuration algorithms are related so
that DCCC is not allowed to increase the bandwidth of radio links when a congestion
situation has been detected by LCC. The LCC signals DCCC when congestion is
being experienced. This prevents the DCCC from making rate increases until the radio
link rate (i.e. number of blocks per TTI) has been restored to the rate before
congestion control was detected. Under normal circumstances the DCCC algorithm
performs rate reallocation of best effort services. This is called slow BE service
control.
9.1.1 Node B Measurements (Event-triggered or Periodic)
For the purpose of overload congestion control, the RNC configures the Node B to
perform either event E or periodic common measurements on cell transmit carrier
power in the downlink and received total wideband power in the uplink. Selection of
the measurement reporting method is performed by setting the attribute
(UL)DLTriggerMode, independently for uplink and downlink directions.
The OLC algorithm makes use of the load monitoring (LDM) functionality existing in
USR2 by which several algorithms (such as CAC, PUC and LDB) share a single
instance of NB measurement reports of Transmit Carrier Power in the DL and RTWP
in the UL in order to optimise Iub utilisation and NB processing load. In the current
implementation, the OLC algorithm will also use the LDM measurements when the
OLC measurement period is a multiple of the LDM measurement period (note that the
LMT provides different set of parameters for independent configuration), otherwise, a
new measurement instance will be initiated at the Node B.
9.1.1.1 Node B Event-triggered Measurement Reporting (not supported in USR2)
For event E configuration two different thresholds are defined, Measurement
Threshold 1 and Measurement Threshold 2, which result in the initiation of
Report A and Report B respectively. Reception of an event E (report A) triggers
actions to control congestion, whereas reception of an event E (report B) disables
congestion control algorithm.
242
T1
T1
Measured
entity
Time
Measurement
Threshold 1
Measurement
Threshold 2
T1 Measurement Hysteresis Time
T1
Report A Report B
Periodic
Reports
Report A Periodic
Report
Measurement Reports
Figure 9.1-18. Event E reporting with Hysteresis Time and Periodic Reporting
In the figure it can be seen that event E measurement reporting procedure (Report A)
is initiated always when the measured entity rises above the Measurement Threshold
1 and stays there for the Measurement Hysteresis Time (T1). If Report Periodicity
IE is provided Node B shall also initiate Measurement Reporting procedure
periodically. The periodic reporting continues although the measured entity falls
below the Measurement Threshold 1 and is terminated by the Report B.
When the Report A conditions have been met and the measured entity falls below the
Measurement Threshold 2 and stays there for the Measurement Hysteresis Time
(T1) the measurement reporting procedure (Report B) is initiated and the periodic
reporting is terminated.
The following parameters are provided in RNC V1.3 for the configuration of event E
reporting associated to congestion control algorithm.
Measurement Threshold 1: LCCMRThd1
Measurement Threshold 2: LCCMRThd2
Hysteresis Time: LCCMRHystTime
Report Periodicity: TenMsec or Min according to the setting of ChoiceRptUnit.
Also, a filtering function is applied Node B physical layer measurements before event
evaluation and reporting, according to the following formula.
n n n
M a F a F +
1
) 1 (
Where,
F
n
is the updated filtered measurement result.
F
n-1
is the old filtered measurement result
M
n
is the new measurement to be filtered.
a = 1/2
(k/2)
, where k is the IE Measurement Filter coefficient received in the
COMMON MEASUREMENT INITATION REQUEST message.
243
RNC V1.3 allows the provisioning of the filter coefficient for Node B event E
common measurements with the MML command SET LCC. The filter coefficient is
given by the attribute MeasFilterCoef.
9.1.1.2 Node B Periodic Measurement Reporting
In case NB periodic measurements are selected instead of event E measurements, the
same threshold levels are used, LCCMRThd1and LCCMRThd2. Comparison of the
reported transmit carrier power level with the triggering thresholds is then performed
at the RNC, being the end behaviour basically the same. On exceeding LCCMRThd1,
congestion control actions are started and not stopped until cell load has been relieved
below LCCMRThd2. Note that different thresholds can be set for uplink and
downlink with the MML command ADD CELLLCC.
Configuration of the NB reporting period is carried out with the parameters TenMsec
or Min according to the setting of ChoiceRptUnit. In addition, filtering of the NB
periodic measurements is applied at the RNC to avoid inappropriate triggering of the
LCC due to rapid fluctuations in the transmit carrier power level (similarly to what a
hysteresis value would do). The length of the sliding filtering function is set via the
parameter LCCFilterWinLen in the SET LCC.
9.1.2 Algorithm Implementation
RNC processing for the downlink overload congestion control algorithm can be
summarised in the following steps.
6. If the downlink OLC algorithm is enabled in the cell, the RNC requests the
initiation of event-triggered based or periodic Transmitted Carrier Power
measurements via NBAP signalling in the Node B, according to the setting of the
DLTriggerMode attribute.
7. When the transmit carrier power measurement from the Node B exceeds the
threshold given by DLLCCMRThd1, congestion control is then entered and fast
BE service control is started. This situation might be detected by either reception
of an event E Report A from the Node B or internal RNC threshold comparison.
Periodic reports will indicate the Transmit Carrier Power Level (cell loading).
8. During the overload state, DCCC is not allowed to perform up-reconfigurations in
the congested cell. Then one of the following actions: (i) fast BE service control
and (ii) call dropping, is performed for every OLCActionTimerLength period.
Fast BE service control is always attempted first, until the exit criteria is fulfilled.
9. When the RNC is under the fast BE service control, it performs the following for
every CgstCoefAdjustTimer period.
The RNC computes the priority of each BE RAB in the cell by using the
formula below. Then it selects the DlOlcTFAdjRang candidates with higher
P
RAB
value (low-priority RABs with higher data rates) for rate reduction.
hits hits ENU ENU class class RAB
W K W K W K P +
where,
KCLASS stands for the IE Service Class (range 0~5: CS conversational, PS
conversational, CS streaming, PS streaming, PS interactive, PS background)
244
KENU stands for the services Equivalent Number of Users which is used to evaluate
the bit rate and is computed by the Radio Admission Control algorithm
KHITS stands for the number of times a RAB has been selected to be degraded
WCLASS is the weihgt given to KCLASS
WENU is the weihgt given to KENU
WHITS is the weight given to KHITS.
Every CgstCoefAdjustTimer period, decrease the BE service data rate by one
step for all selected UEs in the cell. Every step, the number of blocks allowed
per TTI is reduced by a percentage given by RateLimitCoef.
Repeat the above until congestion finishes, BE data rate has been reduced to
the minimum allowed based on the TFs, or the maximum number of iterations
(DlOlcActionCounter) is reached.
10. During the selective dropping stage, the RNC selects DlOlcUserRelRang UEs to
be dropped based on the following rules:
Use the RAB priority formula above to sort candidates. Users with the highest
P
RAB
value are selected first.
Only UEs in 1-way handover are dropped; UEs in n-way handover (n>1) are
not dropped.
11. Repeat for every measurement report received from Node B.
12. When the cell transmit carrier power level decreases below the threshold level
given by DLLCCMRThd2, downlink congestion control is disabled. Again, two
different mechanisms are provided to detect that the cell has exit congestion,
reception of an event E Report B from the Node B, and internal RNC threshold
comparison.
13. Increase BE service data rates by one step in every CongestRecovTimer period,
until full transport format sets are restored and normal situation is resumed.
Similarly, RNC processing for uplink overload congestion control can be summarised
in the following steps.
1. If the uplink OLC algorithm is enabled in the cell, the RNC requests the initiation
of event-triggered based or periodic Received Total Wideband Power
measurements via NBAP signalling in the Node B, according to the setting of the
ULTriggerMode attribute.
2. When RTWP measurement from the Node B exceeds the threshold given by
ULLCCMRThd1, congestion control is then entered and call dropping is started.
This situation might be detected by either reception of an event E Report A
from the Node B or internal RNC threshold comparison. Periodic reports will
indicate the RTWP level as a measured of uplink cell load.
3. During the overload state, DCCC is not allowed to perform up-reconfigurations in
the congested cell.
4. During the selective dropping stage, every ULCActionTimerLength period, the
RNC selects UlOlcUserRelRang UEs to be dropped based on the following rules:
245
Use the RAB priority formula above to sort candidates. Users with the highest
P
RAB
value are selected first.
Only UEs in 1-way handover are dropped; UEs in n-way handover (n>1) are
not dropped.
5. Update cell overload status for every measurement report received from Node B.
6. When the cell RTWP level decreases below the threshold level given by
ULLCCMRThd2, uplink congestion control is disabled. Otherwise, repeat steps 4
and 5.
Note that in addition to the selective drop of users by the uplink OLC, there is another
mechanism to drop some calls when the cell is overloaded on the uplink. This is based
on the users whose SIRmeasurement > SIRtarget + normal range (default value is
3dB) which have high contributions to the noise rise. So once uplink overload is
detected, this kind of users will be released immediately, and these users will not be
counted in the UlOlcUserRelRang parameter because this case is infrequent.
9.2 Related DB parameters
Parameter Name Range Description
NBMSWITCH {ULLCC, DLLCC} Cell algorithm switch that allows to set
ON and OFF the uplink and downlink
LCC algorithm independently with the
command ADD CELLALGOSWITCH.
ULTriggerMode {PERIODIC,
EVENT}
Uplink LCC algorithm triggering mode
with regards to the NB measurements to
be used. This is set per RNC with the
command SET LCC.
DLTriggerMode {PERIODIC,
EVENT}
Downlink LCC algorithm triggering
mode with regards to the NB
measurements to be used. This is set per
RNC with the command SET LCC.
ULLCCMRThd1 0 to 1
Step: 0.01
Measurement threshold 1 (percentage of
total RTWP) that sets the uplink cell
congestion threshold. This is configured
per cell with the command ADD
CELLLCC.
DLLCCMRThd1 0 to 1
Step: 0.01
Measurement threshold 1 (percentage of
total TCP) that sets the downlink cell
congestion threshold. This is configured
per cell with the command ADD
CELLLCC.
ULLCCMRThd2 0 to 1
Step: 0.01
Measurement threshold 2 that sets the
cell load at which uplink congestion is
disabled. This is configured per cell with
the command ADD CELLLCC.
DLLCCMRThd2 0 to 1
Step: 0.01
Measurement threshold 2 that sets the
cell load at which downlink congestion is
disabled. This is configured per cell with
the command ADD CELLLCC.
ULLCCMRHystTime 10 to 60000 LCC measurement hysteresis time. It is
246
Unit: ms
Step: 10
used to avoid frequently trigger uplink
LCC because of pulse interference in
EVENT triggering mode. This is set per
RNC with the command SET LCC.
DLLCCMRHystTime 10 to 60000
Unit: ms
Step: 10
LCC measurement hysteresis time. It is
used to avoid frequently trigger downlink
LCC because of pulse interference in
EVENT triggering mode. This is set per
RNC with the command SET LCC.
ULLCCFilterWinLen 1 to 127 LCC sliding filter window length in
PERIODIC triggering mode (uplink).
This is set per RNC with the command
SET LCC.
ULLCCFilterWinLen 1 to 127 LCC sliding filter window length in
PERIODIC triggering mode (downlink).
This is set per RNC with the command
SET LCC.
OLCActionTimerLengt
h
100 to 60000
Unit: ms
Step: 10
Periodicity to perform OLC actions, in
both, uplink and downlink directions.
This is set per RNC with the command
SET LCC.
DLOLCActionCounter 0 to 100
Step: 1
Maximum number of iterations of fast
BE service control before downlink call
dropping is started. This is set per RNC
with the command SET LCC.
ULOLCUserRelRang 0 to 20
Step: 1
Number of users to be dropped in each
uplink OLC action. This is set per RNC
with the command SET LCC.
DLOLCUserRelRang 0 to 20
Step: 1
Number of users to be dropped in each
downlink OLC action. This is set per
RNC with the command SET LCC.
DLOLCTFAdjRang {1 to 10, ALL} Number of RABs affected by fast BE
service control in each downlink OLC
period. This is set per RNC with the
command SET LCC.
RateLimitCoef 0 to 100
Unit: %
Rate limit coefficient. This coefficient
indicates the how fast BE rate is
decreased under congestion. This is set
per RNC with the command SET DCCC.
CgstCoefAdjustTimer 1 to 65535
Unit: ms
Congestion rate limit coefficient adjust
timer. This is set per RNC with the
command SET DCCC.
CongestRecovTimer 1 to 65535
Unit: ms
Congestion recover timer for TF increase
one level. This is set per RNC with the
command SET DCCC.
ULMeasFilterCoef {0, 1, 2, 3,
4, 5, 6, 7, 8,
9, 11, 13, 15,
17, 19}
Coefficient for filtering of Node B uplink
common measurements. This is set per
RNC with the command SET LCC.
DLMeasFilterCoef {0, 1, 2, 3,
4, 5, 6, 7, 8,
9, 11, 13, 15,
17, 19}
Coefficient for filtering of Node B
downlink common measurements. This
is set per RNC with the command SET
LCC.
(UL/DL)ChoiceRptUnit {TEN_MSEC, Select period report unit. It indicates
247
MIN} whether physical unit is 10 msec or 1
minute.
(UL/DL)TenMsec 10 to 60000
Unit: ms
Common measurement report periodicity
when ChoiceRptUnit = TEN_MSEC
(UL/DL)Min 1 to 60
Unit: min
Common measurement report periodicity
when ChoiceRptUnit = MIN
9.3 Key Performance Indicators
KPI Description
OLC BE Throughput
Reduction
Total rate reduction carried out by fast BE service control to relief
cell overload congestion. This is computed as the difference
between the total BE throughput carried in the cell before and after
OLC has been triggered.
OLC Call Drop
Coefficient (UL/DL)
Percentage of calls that are dropped by OLC actions compared to
the total in the cell. This is computed separately for voice and data
calls.
OLC Efficiency
(UL/DL)
Average time required to exit cell congestion state after a constant
increase in cell load
OLC Effectiveness
(UL/DL)
Average impact of load reduction actions on the cell load, measured
as the reduction achieved in TCP/RTWP per action taken.
9.4 Optimisation Guidelines
Since USR1/USR2 Node B does not support event E Common Measurements, this
triggering mode will not work properly in USR2. The recommendation is then to use
PERIODIC triggering in USR2.
The following values for database parameters are initially suggested.
Parameter Name Recommended
Value
Source Comments
OLCActionTimerLengt
h
1 sec MML No data available
NBMSWITCH DLLCC Engineering
judgment
DLTriggerMode PERIODIC EVENT mode is not
supported in USR2
DLLCCMRThd1 TBD Above CAC threshold
DLLCCMRThd2 TBD Below CAC threshold
DLLCCMRHystTime 20 (200 ms) MML
DLLCCFilterWinLen 3 MML
DLMeasFilterCoef 0 Engineering
judgment
RateLimitCoef 50 % MML
CgstCoefAdjustTimer 120 ms MML
CongestRecovTimer 5000 ms MML
DLOLCActionCounter 1 MML No data available
DLOLCTFAdjRang 10 MML No data available
DLOLCUserRelRang 2 MML No data available
DLChoiceRptUnit TEN_MSEC Engineering
248
judgment
DLTenMsec 20 (200 ms) Engineering
judgment
DLMin None Engineering
judgment
ULTriggerMode
PERIODIC EVENT mode is not
supported in USR2
ULLCCMRThd1
TBD Above CAC threshold
ULLCCMRThd2 TBD Below CAC threshold
ULLCCMRHystTime 20 (200 ms) MML
ULLCCFilterWinLen 3 MML
ULMeasFilterCoef 0 Engineering
judgment
ULOLCUserRelRang 2 MML No data available
ULChoiceRptUnit TEN_MSEC Engineering
judgment
ULTenMsec 20 (200 ms) Engineering
judgment
ULMin None Engineering
judgment
249
10 Cell Selection / Re-Selection
10.1Algorithm Overview
This section describes the cell selection and reselection processes for a UE in idle
mode and RRC connected mode in the RNC5000. Cell reselection is supported for
intra-frequency, inter-frequency and inter-RAT GSM cells.
When a UE is switched on, the UE selects a public land mobile network (PLMN) and
looks for a suitable cell to provide available services, tunes to its control channel and
listens to broadcast messages. This choosing is known as camping on the cell and is
performed by the cell selection procedure. Then, the UE registers its presence, by
means of a NAS registration procedure, in the registration area of the chosen cell, if
necessary.
If the UE finds a more suitable cell, it reselects onto that cell and camps on it. This
procedure is known as cell reselection procedure. If the new cell is in a different
registration area, location registration is performed. The following sections explain
both procedures and the parameters involved.
10.1.1 Cell Selection Procedure
After selecting a PLMN, the UE attempts to find a suitable cell of that PLMN to camp
on. Once a cell has been selected, the UE tunes to its control channels for normal
service in order to be able to receive system information from the PLMN, receive
registration area information, and if registered, receive paging and notification
messages and be able to initiate call set-up for outgoing calls.
Suitable cells to camp on are those that provide normal service (not barred, not part of
a forbidden LA) for the PLMN and fulfil the cell selection criterion S described in
Section 10.1.1.1. For this, the UE has to measure the quality (in terms of CPICH
RSCP and CPICH Ec/No) of each potential cell. Selection of a particular cell from the
list of candidates is left to UE implementation, and although in theory the best cell
should be selected, in practice the first suitable cell is often selected in order to
provide service as soon as possible. Cell reselection will then ensure the best available
cell is chosen.
The UE may use one of the two search procedures for cell selection.
Initial Cell Selection. This procedure requires no prior knowledge of which RF
channels are UTRA carriers. The UE scans all RF channels in the UTRA band to
find a suitable cell for the selected PLMN in which system information can be
read. If the selected PLMN is found, the search of the rest of carriers may be
stopped and this cell may be selected.
Stored Information Cell Selection. This procedure requires stored information of
carrier frequencies and optionally also information on cell parameters, e.g.
scrambling codes, from previously received measurement control information
elements. After the UE has found one suitable cell for the selected PLMN the UE
250
may camp on it. If no suitable cell is found, the initial cell selection procedure is
started.
10.1.1.1 Cell Selection Criterion S
The cell selection criterion is based on two different measurement types:
A quality related measurement Q
qual
, in terms of CPICH Ec/No (dB).
A received signal strength measurement Q
lev
, in terms of CPICH RSCP (dBm).
The cell selection criterion S is fulfilled when,
S
lev
> 0 AND S
qual
> 0
Where,
S
qual
= Q
qual
Q
qual_min
S
lev
=Q
lev
Q
lev_min
- P
compensation
S
qual
and S
lev
are the cell selection quality and RX level values
Q
qual
and Q
lev
denote the measured cell quality and RX level, as defined above.
Q
qual_min
is the minimum required quality level in the cell in dB.
Q
lev_min
is the minimum required received signal strength from the cell in dBm.
P
compensation
is defined as max(UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH - P_MAX, 0), to account
for UE power limitations. Where UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH is the maximum
TX power level an UE may use when accessing the cell on RACH and P_MAX is
the maximum RF output power of the mobile.
The minimum quality and RX level thresholds for cell selection can be configured in
the RNC5000 on a per cell basis through the database parameters Qqualmin and
Qrxlevmin respectively by using the MMI command ADD CELLSELRESEL. This
information is sent to the UE in SIB3 (note that SIB4 is not currently supported).
10.1.2 UE Measurements
When camped normally, the UE shall read relevant system information messages,
monitor the PCH of the cell, perform the necessary measurements for cell reselection
and execute the cell reselection evaluation process as described in Section 10.1.3.
In USR2, measurements are taken on the serving cell and all intra-frequency, inter-
frequency FDD and inter-RAT GSM neighbouring cells broadcast on SIB11 (note that
SIB12 is not currently supported).
RF Measurements on the serving cell. The UE takes quality and RX level
measurements of the serving cell and evaluate the cell selection criterion S
periodically at least once every DRX cycle. The number of samples taken and
averaging is controlled by UE internal timers and counters (see 25.133).
251
RF Measurements of intra-frequency cells. Quality and RX level measurements
are also taken periodically on intra-frequency cells based on internal UE timers in
order to evaluate if a neighbour has become better than the serving cell. However,
UTRAN can control the triggering of such measurements through the optional
parameter S
intrasearch
. If this IE is not present in SIB3, intra-frequency measurements
are taken periodically. If this IE is present, measurements are only taken when the
quality of the serving cell goes below a given threshold (S
qual
<= S
intrasearch
). The
RNC5000 allows the configuration of both, the IE status and the threshold level
with the database parameters SintrasearchInd and Sintrasearch respectively.
RF Measurements of inter-frequency FDD cells. The UE shall take quality and
RX level measurements periodically on inter-frequency cells based on internal UE
timers in order to evaluate if a neighbour has become better than the serving cell.
However, UTRAN can control the triggering of such measurements through the
optional parameter S
intersearch
. If this IE is not present in SIB3, intra-frequency
measurements are taken periodically. If this IE is present, measurements are only
taken when the quality of the serving cell goes below a given threshold (S
qual
<=
S
intersearch
). The RNC5000 allows the configuration of both, the IE status and the
threshold level with the database parameters SintersearchInd and Sintersearch
respectively.
RF Measurements of inter-RAT GSM cells. The UE shall also measure
periodically the signal level of each GSM neighbour cell, according to internal UE
timers, and attempt to verify the BSIC. Again, UTRAN controls the triggering of
such measurements through the optional parameter S
searchRAT
. If this IE is not
present in SIB3, intra-frequency measurements are taken periodically. If this IE is
present, measurements are only taken when the quality of the serving cell goes
below a given threshold (S
qual
<= S
searchRAT
). The RNC5000 allows the configuration
of both, the IE status and the threshold level with the database parameters
SsearchratInd and Ssearchrat respectively.
The length of the DRX cycle is closely related to how often the UE measures the
neighbouring cells and evaluates the reselection criteria, and so it has a direct impact
on the minimum reselection time. This feature can be configured in the RNC5000
with the parameter DRXCycleLengthCoef for idle mode and DrxCycleLenCoef for
connected mode. However, cell reselection performance is very dependent on UE
implementation since only maximum time intervals are specified in 3GPP.
10.1.3 Cell Reselection Procedure in Idle Mode
Initially, the UE considers all neighbouring cells to the serving cell as given in the
system information messages as potential cells for reselection. However, only those
that fulfil the cell reselection criterion S presented in Section 10.1.3.1 below are
suitable. Then, the list of candidate cells is sorted according to the ranking criterion
given in Section 10.1.3.2 and the best cell is selected.
Evaluation of the S criterion and ranking is performed every time RF measurements
are taken on the serving or neighbouring cells but actual cell reselection only happens
in the following occasions:
252
Information on BCCH used for cell reselection evaluation has been modified.
The serving cell does not fulfil the cell selection criterion S.
An intra-frequency, inter-frequency or inter-RAT GSM cell has become better
ranked than the serving cell during a period of T
reselection
seconds.
In any case, cell reselection is only possible when a given cell has been the serving
cell for longer than 1 second.
The cell reselection timer value T
reselection
is also a configurable parameter in the
RNC5000 with the parameter Treselections in the ADD CELLSELRESEL command.
This information is sent to the UE on system information block type 3.
10.1.3.1 Cell Reselection Criterion S
The cell reselection criterion for inter-frequency, intra-frequency FDD cells is the
same as the S criterion described in 10.1.1.1. For inter-RAT GSM cells, the cell
reselection criterion is based on GSM carrier RSSI measurements and it is fulfilled
when,
S
rxlev
> 0 (for GSM cells)
Where,
S
rxlev
=Q
rxlev
Q
lev_min
- P
compensation
S
rxlev
is the cell selection RX level value (dB).
Q
rxlev
denotes the averaged received signal strength level (RSSI) of the GSM cell.
Q
lev_min
and P
compensation
as previously defined.
10.1.3.2 Ranking Criterion R
The cell ranking criterion used for inter-frequency, intra-frequency and inter-RAT cell
reselection process (when HSC is not used) is defined by:
R
s
= Q
meas,s
+ Qhyst
s
R
n
= Q
meas,n
Qoffset
s,n

Where,
R
s
is the cell reselection value for the serving cell (cell on which UE is camped).
R
n
is the cell reselection value for each one of the neighbours indicated in the
system information of the camped cell.
Q
meas,s
is the cell quality value from the camped cell.
Q
meas,n
is the cell quality value for a given neighbour.
Qoffset
s,n
is the Offset between the Q
meas,s
and Q
meas,n
applied in the ranking.
Qhyst
s
is the hysteresis value of the serving cell applied in the ranking.
253
The best-ranked cell is that with the highest R value. The UE performs a cell
reselection when a neighbour cell becomes better ranked that the serving cell, i.e.
Rn>Rs, for the duration of the T
reselection
timer.
As quality measure Q
meas
for the serving and neighbouring cells, the UE may use the
CPICH Ec/No or the CPICH RSCP. This is indicated in an information element in
SIB3 called Cell_selection_and_reselection_quality_measure broadcast on SIB3 and
can be set via the parameter QualMeas in the command ADD CELLSELRESEL.
The offset and hysteresis values Q
offset
and Q
hyst
are set in USR2 by the parameters
Qhyst2s (Qhyst1s) and Qoffset2sn (Qoffset1sn) depending on whether Ec/No (or
RSCP) is used as a quality measure. The hysteresis and offset values are broadcast on
system information block type 3 and type 11 respectively. However, Qhyst2s and
Qoffset2sn are optional IEs that take the default value of Qhyst1s and Qoffset1sn
(which are mandatory IE) when not present. When using CPICH Ec/No as a quality
measure for FDD cells, Qhyst2s and Qoffset2sn are the most relevant parameters. On
the other hand, carrier RSSI is the quality measure for GSM neighbours and so only
Qhyst1s and Qoffset1sn apply.
10.1.3.3 First Ranking of Cells
Firstly, the candidate cells are ranked according to the R criteria specified above,
deriving Q
meas,s
and Q
meas,n
and calculating the R
s
and R
n
values using CPICH RSCP for
UTRAN FDD cells and RSSI for GSM cells. The best-ranked cell is the cell with the
highest R-value. The offset and hysteresis values given by Qoffset1sn and Qhyst1s,
are used here.
If a GSM cell is ranked as the best cell during a time interval T
reselection
, the UE
performs cell reselection to that GSM cell. If an inter-frequency or intra-frequency
FDD cell is ranked as the best cell and the quality measure for cell reselection is set to
CPICH RSCP, the UE performs cell reselection to that FDD cell.
10.1.3.4 Second Ranking of Cells
If an FDD cell is ranked as the best cell and the quality measure for cell reselection is
set to CPICH Ec/No, the UE performs a second ranking of the FDD candidate cells
according to the R criteria specified above, but using the measurement quantity
CPICH Ec/No for deriving Q
meas,s
and Q
meas,n
and calculating the R
s
and R
s
values. The
offset and hysteresis values given by Qoffset2sn and Qhyst2s, are used now. Note that
the parameters are unique on a cell-to-neighbour cell relation basis.
If a UTRAN FDD cell is ranked as the best cell during a time interval T
reselection
, the UE
performs cell reselection to that FDD cell.
10.1.4 Cell Reselection in RRC Connected Mode
The cell reselection process in RRC connected mode is the same as the process
described for idle mode in Section 10.1.3. The difference lies in the length of the
DRX cycle, the performance requirements (maximum cell reselection delay), the
triggers and the RRC signalling associated (such as Cell Update and URA Update
procedures), which depend on the RRC state CELL_FACH, CELL_PCH or
254
URA_PCH, and are given in 3GPP 25.331. Also, since SIB4 and SIB12 are not
present in USR2, cell reselection parameters and neighbour lists cannot be set
differently for Idle and RRC connected mode.
10.2Related DB parameters
Parameter Name Range Description
Qqualmin
24 to 0
Unit: dB
Step: 1
Minimum CPICH Ec/No level required to
select a given cell. This is defined per cell with
the command ADD CELLSELRESEL.
Qrxlevmin
11525
Unit: dBm
Step: 2
Minimum CPICH RSCP level required to
select a given cell. This is defined per cell with
the command ADD CELLSELRESEL.
Treselections 0 to 31
Unit: sec
Step: 1
Reselection delay time. The UE reselects a new
cell, only if the cell reselection criteria are
fulfilled during this time interval. This is
defined per cell with the command ADD
CELLSELRESEL.
Qhyst1s 0 to 40
Unit: dB
Step: 2
Hysteresis value that is used by the UE to
compute the ranking of the serving cell for
reselection, when the quality measure is set to
CPICH RSCP or GSM carrier RSSI. It is set
per cell with the command ADD
CELLSELRESEL.
Qhyst2s 0 to 40
Unit: dB
Step: 2
Hysteresis value that is used by the UE to
compute the ranking of the serving cell for
reselection, when the quality measure is set to
CPICH Ec/No. If not configured, Qhyst1s is
used. This parameter is set per cell with the
command ADD CELLSELRESEL.
Qoffset1sn
50 to 50
Unit: dB
Step: 1
Cell offset used for CPICH RSCP or GSM
carrier RSSI during neighbour ranking for cell
reselection. The greater the offset, the less
probability of selecting the neighbouring cell.
The offset value is configured per neighbour
for all intra-frequency, inter-frequency and
inter-RAT cells, with the commands ADD
INTRAFREQCELL, ADD INTERFREQCELL
and ADD INTERRATNCELL.
Qoffset2sn
50 to 50
Unit: dB
Step: 1
Cell offset used for CPICH Ec/No during
neighbour ranking for cell reselection. The
greater the offset, the less the probability of
selecting a neighbour cell. The offset value is
configured per neighbour for all intra-
frequency and inter-frequency cells, with the
commands ADD INTRAFREQCELL, and
ADD INTERFREQCELL. If not configured,
Qoffset1sn is used.
SintrasearchInd TRUE/ FALSE Inter-freq cell reselection indicator. TRUE
indicates that the Sintraseach IE is configured
and present on SIB3. This is set per cell with
the command MOD CELLSELRESEL.
255
Sintrasearch
32 to 20
Unit: dB
Step: 2
Threshold for intra-frequency cell reselection.
When the CPICH Ec/No of the serving cell is
lower than the threshold plus Qqualmin, the
intra-freq cell reselection procedure is started.
This is defined per cell with the command
ADD CELLSELRESEL.
SintersearchInd TRUE/ FALSE Intra-freq cell reselection indicator. TRUE
indicates that the Sinterseach IE is configured
and present on SIB3. This is set per cell with
the command MOD CELLSELRESEL.
Sintersearch
32 to 20
Unit: dB
Step: 2
Threshold for inter-frequency cell reselection.
When the CPICH Ec/No of the serving cell is
lower than the threshold plus Qqualmin, the
inter-freq cell reselection procedure is started.
This is defined per cell with the command
ADD CELLSELRESEL.
SsearchratInd TRUE/ FALSE Inter-RAT cell reselection indicator. TRUE
indicates that the Sseachrat IE is configured
and present on SIB3. This is set per cell with
the command MOD CELLSELRESEL.
Ssearchrat
32 to 20
Unit: dB
Step: 2
Threshold for inter-RAT cell reselection. When
the CPICH Ec/No of the serving cell is lower
than the threshold plus Qqualmin, the intra-freq
cell reselection procedure is started. This is
defined per cell with the command ADD
CELLSELRESEL.
DRXCycleLengthCoe
f
6 to 9
(0.64 sec
to 5.12 sec)
CN domain specific DRX cycle length
coefficient broadcast on SIB1 and used by UEs
in Idle Mode. This is defined per CN with the
command ADD CNDOMAIN.
DrxCycleLenCoef 3 to 9
(0.08 sec
to 5.12 sec)
UTRAN specific DRX cycle length coefficient.
The DRX cycle used in Connected Mode is the
shorter of DRXCycleLengthCoef and
DrxCycleLenCoef. This is set per RNC with the
command SET FRC.
QualMeas {EcNo, RSCP} Cell selection and reselection quality measure,
broadcast on SIB3.
Note that most parameters related to cell reselection (broadcast on SIB3) are
configured with the LMT command ADD CELLSELRESEL on a per cell basis.
Neighbour relationships and related parameters are setup using the LMT commands
ADD INTRAFREQCELL, ADD INTERFREQCELL and ADD INTERRATNCELL,
respectively.
10.3Key Performance Indicators
KPI Descriptions
Idle Mode
CPICH Ec/No Received energy per chip of the CPICH divided by the power
density in the frequency band at the UE. The Ec/No is identical to
RSCP /RSSI
CPICH RSCP Received Signal Code Power, the received power on one code
256
measured on the primary CPICH
BCH BLER BCH BLER (Block Error Rate) is the percentage of transport
blocks (MAC PDUs) received by the UE Layer1 over the BCH
Channel whose CRC fails
RRC Connection Setup
Success Ratio
Ratio between the number of RRC CONNECTION SETUP
COMPLETE messages received by the UTRAN and the number
of RRC CONNECTION REQUEST messages sent by the UE
over the measurement period. Applies to IDLE mode only.
Mean Time Between
Cell Reselections
Average length of time between two successive cell reselections
performed by the UE
Service Outage Probability that the UE is not able to find a suitable cell to camp
on for normal service. This is when the received signal level or
quality is too low to successfully decode the SIBs on BCH.
Total Cell Reselection
Time
Average time to perform a cell reselection at the UE, from the
time a target cell becomes stronger than the serving cell to the
point when UE camps on the new cell. Calculated as average and
95%-tile value
RRC Connected Mode
BLER Percentage of transport blocks (MAC PDUs) received by the UE
Layer1 (DL BLER) or UTRAN L1 (UL BLER) whose CRC fails.
These values are calculated over the transport channel that carries
the user data information on the communication channel
UL/DL MAC SDU
Transfer Delay Jitter
Variation in the average delay in seconds required to transfer
MAC SDUs between the UE and UTRAN ends due to Cell
Update or URA Update procedures during cell reselection. Two
separate values will be considered for both uplink and downlink
paths
Cell Reselection Time
in Conn Mode
Average time to perform a cell reselection at the UE, from the
time a target cell becomes stronger than the serving cell to the
point when UE receives the Cell/URA Update Confirm message.
Calculated as average and 95%-tile value
In Idle mode, the main indicator of good cell reselection performance is a low
probability of service outage, i.e. whether the UE can find a cell to camp on and
access service (almost) at all times. For this to happen, the UE has to be able to
receive the CPICH with enough level and quality to successfully decode the SIBs as it
moves along the coverage area. This is where the BCH BLER indicator has to be
taken into account.
Ideally, the UE should select the best cell available, which is given by the cell with
the strongest CPICH RSCP (closely related to path loss) or CPICH EcIo (that also
depends on the cell load). However, selection of the strongest cell is not critical and
camping on a good cell is usually enough as long as the probability of RACH
access is kept high.
Finally, the time required to perform cell reselection is a good indicator of procedure
performance, that greatly depends on UE performance, which operators often look at.
For the purpose of testing, the total reselection time can be divided into (i) target
detection time and (ii) reselection execution time.
257
On the other hand, when the UE is in connected mode and transferring data on
RAC/FACH channels, the key indicators to consider are those related to the bearer
performance: BLER, delay, and throughput.
10.4Optimisation Guidelines
The following values for database parameters are suggested for USR2 from
simulations and lab/field tests performed for RNC500. Note that results derived for
RNC500 platform apply directly to USR2 since the cell reselection process is UE
driven. The only difference is that optional IEs Sintrasearch, Sintersearch and
Ssearchrat broadcast in SIB3 are now supported in USR2.
Parameter Name Recommended
Value
Source Comments
Qqualmin -11 dB Simulation
Qrxlevmin -115 dBm Simulation
Treselections 3 sec Simulation A lower value (1 sec) is
suggested from lab/field test
results to speed up the
reselection process.
Qhyst1s 2 dB MML
Qhyst2s 2 dB Simulation
Qoffset1sn 0 dB MML
Qoffset2sn 0 dB Simulation
DRXCycleLengthCoe
f
6 (0.64 sec) Simulation
DrxCycleLenCoef 8 (0.16 sec) MML
SintrasearchInd FALSE Engineering
judgment
Sintrasearch 6 dB MML Not used if SintraseachInd =
FALSE
SintersearchInd TRUE Engineering
judgment
Sintersearch 3dB Engineering
judgment
Threshold is relative to
Qqualmin. The value should be
increased if Qqualmin is
decreased.
SsearchratInd TRUE Engineering
judgment
Ssearchrat 3 dB Engineering
judgment
Threshold is relative to
Qqualmin. The value should be
increased if Qqualmin is
decreased.
QualMeas CPICH EcNo Engineering
judgment
The rationale behind these recommendations is presented below. The simulation
scenario described in Chapter 1 was modified to include shadowing and increase UE
mobility to 10 km/h, in order to obtain statistically more reliable sample size of cell
selection and reselection events.
258
The parameters Qqualmin and Qrxlevmin have to be chosen so that the outage
probability (i.e. probability that a UE is not able to find a suitable serving cell) is low.
Outage occurs when either the receive signal level is below UE sensitivity or when
the quality is too low to decode reliably the SIBs on BCH.
From link level simulations we can find that the required EcIo to decode the BCH
at 1% BLER is about 15 dB. Since the power of P-CCPCH is about 4 dB below
the power of the P-CPICH, the required EcIo on CPICH is about 11 dB.
In terms of minimum required RSCP, if we assume that the noise figure at the UE
is 9 dB, the thermal noise floor is about 99 dBm. Then, the required CPICH
RSCP is about 114 dBm.
For the values suggested above, simulation results from USS achieve almost zero
outage for 20% network load. However, outage increases significantly with
system load and so Qqualmin needs to be decreased accordingly. Note that due to
limitations in the simulation model, outage occurs when either the received signal
level or quality is too low on CPICH (not on BCH). In reality, the power offset of
the P-CCPCH, together with the minimum RSCP and EcIo thresholds, has an
important effect on the service outage.
The parameters Qhyst2s and Qoffset2sn represent a margin above the serving cells
EcIo, which candidate cells must exceed for reselection to occur. Hence both can be
studied together as a combined offset for optimisation purposes.
The rate of cell reselection is strongly affected by the choice of timer (Treselections)
and offset values. The rate reduces by approximately 80% between the two extreme
cases studied in the simulations: (i) 0 sec timer and 0 dB offset, and (ii) 10 sec timer
and 7 dB offset. However, there is little effect on the maximum path loss experienced.
The absolute values obtained are very dependent on the mobility model and cell
layout used in the simulations, but it is clear that longer reselection times and greater
offsets can be employed to minimise the signalling load while shorter times and
smaller offsets to minimise the BCH BLER.
Offset for serving cell (dB)
0 2 4 7
R
e
s
e
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

t
i
m
e
r

(
s
)
0 33.1 29.5 47.8 45.1 60.3 51.7 -
1 35.6 30.9 49.6 45.1 63.0 52.3 -
3 40.8 33.7 56.3 52.9 69.7 56.1 -
5 49.7 46.2 64.5 56.3 81.3 66.1 -
1
0
- - - 137.7 97.1
Table 28. Mean time (s) between cell reselections as a function of reselection timer and serving cell
EcIo offset values (source: [Sim2])
259
The cell reselection timer (Treselections) introduces a triggering delay before the
actual process of switching from the source cell to the target cell is initiated at the UE
(the target cell must remain better ranked for the duration of Treselections). Hence,
this increases the total reselection time as perceived by the user, and so has to be set
according to the mobility environment (UE speed). A value of Treselections =1 has
been suggested for lab and field trial tests. The drawback of too low reselection delay
is a ping-pong effect and triggering of false reselections due to short-time path loss
variations.
The DRX cycle length directly defines the periodicity of measurements done by the
UE and the minimum possible time required to perform reselection. It shall be set to
the minimum value of 6 i.e. 0.64 sec for UEs in Idle mode. This commands the UE to
perform measurements at least every 1.28 sec and to evaluate that the target cell has
become better ranked within 5.12 seconds. Similarly, for CELL_FACH connected
mode DrxCycleLenCoef shall be set to the minimum value of 8 (0.16 sec) for
optimum performance.
It is important to note that cell reselection performance depends greatly on UE
implementation and its capability to make often and accurate neighbour
measurements. Simulation models assume that the UE is capable of measuring
neighbour cells every 0.5 sec. However, there is only one searcher available for pilot
measurements and so only the energy from the strongest path can be recovered. This
is particularly significant in TU channels since only about 30% of the total power can
be recovered due to the multipath delay profile.
Optimisation carried out in the lab ([Field1]) has managed to reduced the cell
reselection time to 6.2 seconds (which was its main goal), by using very aggressive
database settings: Qhyst2s = Qoffset2sn = 0dB, Treselections = 1 sec,
DRXCycleLengthCoef = 6. Results show that the DRX cycle length parameter has the
greatest impact not only on the target detection time but also on the reselection
execution time.
260

Figure 19. Results from cell reselection performance test in the lab (source [Field1]).
261
11 Potential User Control
11.1Algorithm Overview
A cell with lower load is selected by modifying the cell reselection information
between frequencies in the system information blocks (SIBs) to make users initiate
calls in the cell with lower load as far as possible and the load distribution of cells
more even.
The cell load is defined in terms of Downlink total transmit power of the cell (the
NBAP Transmitted Carrier Power is the only measurement used by the PUC
algorithm to estimate the cell load.). The measurement is periodically reported from
NodeB (after applying the corresponding filtering, MeasFilterCoef) and averaged
within RNC (PUCFilterWinLen). The report periodicity is set using the parameter
TenMsecForDL/MinForDL according to the status of the flag
ChoiceRptUnitForDL.
An UE normally camps on the cell with strongest pilot. However this is always not
desirable, for example if the network load is not evenly distributed. If a neighbour cell
with strongest pilot is heavily loaded, then PUC conducts the UE to either stay with
the lightly loaded serving cell or perform reselection to a neighbour cell (another
frequency) that is lightly loaded. Similarly, if the serving cell is offering good power
but is heavily loaded, then under PUC an UE is addressed to perform reselection to a
neighbour cell with lesser load.
An UE get cell reselection information from the system information block
messages (SIB3/SIB11) broadcasted in the cell. The UE considers Sintersearch value
for deciding to start measuring new cells (new frequencies) and it uses Qoffset1
(corresponding to CPICH-RSCP Received Signal Code Power) and Qoffset2
( corresponding to CPICH Ec/No, Chip energy/total noise power density level) to
make reselection decision. Sysinterserach is an optional parameter in SIB3. Its values
range from -32 to 20 dB in increments of 2. All negative values are considered to be
0 by the UE. Qoffset1 and Qoffset2 are mandatory parameters in SIB11. They range
from -50 to 50 dB.
RNC upon determining the load level of cells (serving and neighbours) updates
Sintersearch, Qoffset1 and Qoffset2. Then, these cell selection information is
broadcasted in SIB3/SIB11 if there are changes from the previous broadcast.
The USR2 algo provides more flexibility as now parameters are now configurable per
cell instead of RNC. Depending upon the environments cells are supposed to cover
(urban, ) parameters to configure for cell should be different. It also tries to avoid
the ping-pong effect including two load thresholds (SpucLight and SpucHeavy)
instead of one. Finally, it includes three states instead of two. That allows to classify
the cells better from load perspective.
The algorithm steps are:
262
1) RNC receives the current DL Transmitted Carrier Power for all the cells
(periodic NBAP Transmitted Carrier Power measurement report from the
Node B) and stores them.
2) RNC checks PUC load levels for serving (core cell) and neighbour cells. It
compares the cell transmitted power with PUC load level thresholds and
hysteresis to decide if the cell should be marked as HEAVY, NORMAL or
LIGHT. The decision of cell load level is performed as described below:
*) If the original cell load level is NORMAL:
- If P(carrier transmit power) >= Spuc_heavy + H, assign load level to
HEAVY
- If P <= Spuc_light - H , assign load level to LIGHT
- Other conditions, leave load level unchanged
- If P >Spuc_heavy - H, leave
load level unchanged
- If P <= Spuc light H assign load level to LIGHT.
- Other conditions, assign load level to NORMAL.

- If P >=Spuc_heavy
+ H, assign load level to HEAVY
- If P < Spuc light + H, leave load level unchanged
- Other conditions, assign load level to NORMAL.
3) This information is then used to compute the three parameters Sintersearch,
Qoffset1 and Qoffset2 using the values of Sintersearch, Qoffset1 and
Qoffset2 provisioned in the database and the offset values (OffSinterLight,
OffSinterHeavy, OffQoffset1Light, OffQoffset2Light, OffQoffset1Heavy,
OffQoffset2Heavy). The following table shows how these quantities are
computed
Load level (Neighbour cell) LIGHT (Neighbour cell) NORMAL (Neighbour cell) HEAVY
(Core cell)
LIGHT
S'intersearch = Sintersearch
+ OffSinter_light
Q'offset1 = Qoffset1
Q'offset2 = Qoffset2
S'intersearch = Sintersearch
+ OffSinter_light
Q'offset1 = Qoffset1
Q'offset2 = Qoffset2
S'intersearch = Sintersearch
+ OffSinter_light
Q'offset1 = Qoffset1 +
OffQoffset1_heavy
Q'offset2 = Qoffset2 +
OffQoffset2_heavy
(Core cell)
NORMAL
S'intersearch = Sintersearch
Q'offset1 = Qoffset1
Q'offset2 = Qoffset2
S'intersearch = Sintersearch
Q'offset1 = Qoffset1
Q'offset2 = Qoffset2
S'intersearch = Sintersearch
Q'offset1 = Qoffset1 +
OffQoffset1_heavy
Q'offset2 = Qoffset2 +
OffQoffset2_heavy
(Core cell)
HEAVY
S'intersearch = Sintersearch
+OffSinter_heavy
Q'offset1 = Qoffset1
OffQoffset1_light
Q'offset2 = Qoffset2
OffQoffset1_light
S'intersearch = Sintersearch
+OffSinter_heavy
Q'offset1 = Qoffset1
OffQoffset1_light
Q'offset2 = Qoffset2
OffQoffset1_light
S'intersearch = Sintersearch
+ OffSinter_heavy
Q'offset1 = Qoffset1
Q'offset2 = Qoffset2
263
*) If the original cell load level is HEAVY:
*) If the original cell load level is LIGHT:
4) If some parameters have changed, update IE SIB3 & SIB1 with new
Sintersearch, Qoffset1 and Qoffset2 and schedule a new System Info Broadcast
message
5) Wait for a given waiting period (LdcPucPeriodTimerLen) and repeat above
steps (2 to 4)
The maximum number of inter-frequency neighbour cells is 32. The feature can be
controlled by O&M (activated or deactivated) and the switch is configured on a per
cell basis (NBMSwitch = PUC). MML commands for PUC algorithm are: SET PUC,
ADD/MOD CELLALGOSWITCH, SET LDM, SET CERRMTIMER.
If PUC algorithm is switched off, parameters ( Sintersearch, Qoffset1, Qoffset2) in
SIB3/SIB11 should be restored to the values in database.
11.2Related Data base Parameters
Parameter Range/Unit/Step Description Controlling
Command
SpucLight Range: 0 ~ 100
Unit: %
Step: 1
One of the PUC load
level threshold.. It is
used to decide whether
the cell load level is
"Light" or not. It is
denoted by percentage
(%) between the actual
transmit power of the
Node B and the
maximum allowed
transmit power.
This is OAM
configurable per cell.
MML commands:
ADD /MOD CELLPUC
SpucHeavy
Range: 0 ~ 100
Unit: %
Step: 1
One of the PUC load
level threshold.. It is
used to decide whether
the cell load level is
"Heavy" or not. It is
denoted by percentage
(%) between the actual
transmit power of the
Node B and the
maximum allowed
transmit power.
This is OAM
configurable per cell.
MML commands:
ADD /MOD CELLPUC
SpucHyst Range: 0 ~ 100
Unit: %
Step: 1
Load level Hysteresis. It
is used to avoid the
unnecessary ping-pong
of a cell between two
load levels due to tiny
load change. It is
denoted by percentage
(%) between the actual
transmit power of the BS
and the maximum
This is OAM configurable
per cell. MML commands:
ADD /MOD CELLPUC
264
allowed transmit power.
OffSinterLight Range: -10~10
Physical range:
-20~20
Unit: dB
Step: 1
Sintersearch offset 1. It
is the offset of
Sintersearch when
center cell load level is
"Light"(Note:
Sintersearch is used to
decide whether to start
the inter-frequency cell
reselection).
This is OAM configurable
per cell. MML commands:
ADD /MOD CELLPUC
OffSinterHeav
y
Range: -10~10
Physical range:
-20~20
Unit: dB
Step: 1
Sintersearch offset 2. It
is the offset of
Sintersearch when
center cell load level is
"Heavy"(Note:
Sintersearch is used to
decide whether to start
the inter-frequency cell
reselection).
This is OAM configurable
per cell. MML commands:
ADD /MOD CELLPUC
OffQoffset1Li
ght
Range: -10~10
Physical range:
-20~20
Unit: dB
Step: 1
Qoffset1 offset 1. The
offset of Qoffset1 when
center cell load is
lighter than that of
neighbore cell(Note:
Qoffset1 is used as a
priority to decide which
cell will be selected
while cell selecting or
reselecting).. It is used
for FDD cells in case the
quality measurement for
cell reselection is set to
CPICH RSCP.
This is OAM configurable
per cell. MML commands:
ADD /MOD CELLPUC
OffQoffset1H
eavy
Range: -10~10
Physical range:
-20~20
Unit: dB
Step: 1
Qoffset1 offset 2. The
offset of Qoffset1 when
center cell load is
heavier than that of
neighbore cell(Note:
Qoffset1 is used as a
priority to decide which
cell will be selected
while cell selecting or
reselecting). It is used
for FDD cells in case the
quality measurement for
cell reselection is set to
CPICH RSCP.
This is OAM configurable
per cell. MML commands:
ADD /MOD CELLPUC
OffQoffset2Li Range: -10~10 Qoffset2 offset 1.It is
This is OAM configurable
per cell. MML commands:
265
ght Physical range:
-20~20
Unit: dB
Step: 1
the offset of Qoffset2
when center cell load is
lighter than that of
neighbore cell(Note:
Qoffset2 is used as a
priority to decide which
cell will be selected
while cell selecting or
reselecting). It is used
for FDD cells in case the
quality measurement for
cell reselection is set to
CPICH Ec/No. The
bigger the value is, the
less probability UE
reselects to the
neighbouring cell from
the serving cell.
ADD /MOD CELLPUC
OffQoffset2H
eavy
Range: -10~10
Physical range:
-20~20
Unit: dB
Step: 1
Qoffset2 offset 2.It is
the offset of Qoffset2
when center cell load is
heavier than that of
neighbore cell(Note:
Qoffset2 is used as a
priority to decide which
cell will be selected
while cell selecting or
reselecting). It is used
for FDD cells in case the
quality measurement for
cell reselection is set to
CPICH Ec/No. The
bigger the value is, the
less probability UE
reselects to the
neighbouring cell from
the serving cell.
This is OAM configurable
per cell. MML commands:
ADD /MOD CELLPUC
LdcPucPeriod
TimerLen
Range: 6~86400
Unit: second
Step: 1
This is the timer for the
periodic execution of the
algorithm. The algorithm
is executed everytime that
this timer expires. After
expiring, the timer is
restarted again . PUC
adjustment period cannot
be smaller than twice of
the DL load measurement
report period.
This is OAM configurable
per RNC MML command:
SET CERRMTIMER
NBMSwitch Range:
0(NO)/1(YES)
Unit: None
NBMSwitch = PUC to
switch on/off the PUC
algorithm in the cell.
This is OAM configurable
per cell. MML command:
ADD/MOD
266
Step: None 0(no), 1 (yes). CELLALGOSWITCH
ChoiceRptUnit
ForDL
Range:
{TEN_MSEC,
MIN}
Select period report unit.
It indicates whether
physical unit is 10 msec
or 1 minute.
This is OAM
configurable per RNC
MML command: SET
LDM
TenMsecFor
Dl/MinForDl
Range: 1 to
6000/60
Physical range: 10
60000/60
Unit: ms/min
Step: 1
Common measurement
report periodicity when
ChoiceRptUnitForDL =
TEN_MSEC (10
milliseconds), MIN
(minutes)
This is OAM
configurable per RNC
MML command: SET
LDM
MeasFilterCoe
f Range: D0, D1,
D2, D3, D4, D5,
D6, D7, D8, D9,
D11, D13, D15,
D17, D19.
Physical range:
{0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
7, 8,
9, 11, 13, 15, 17,
19}
Unit: None
Coefficient for filtering
of Node B common
measurements. The
formula is:
n n n
M a F a F +
1
) 1 (
.
This is OAM
configurable per RNC
MML command: SET
LDM
PUCFilterWin
Len
Range: 1~1023
Unit: None
Step: 1
PUC filter window size.
To modify load
monitoring.
This is OAM configurable
per RNC MML command:
SET LDM
Note that ChoiceRptUnitForDL, TenMsecForDl/MinForDl and MeasFilterCoef
parameters (set using SET LDM command) are not specific for this algo but shared amongst
all the algos using the TCP NBAP measurement report. Minimum value depends on NEs
(Node B, RNC) performance.
11.3Key Performance Indicators
KPI Descriptions Units
EvenLoadMagni
tude
Even load magnitude indicador.
EvenLoadMagnitude = TCP_servCell min
(TCP_neighbourCells_i) each
LdcPucPeriodTimerLe.
Where:
TCP_servCell is the average of the TCP
measurements reports for the serving cell
received over LdcPucPeriodTimerLe period.
This value is the % of the max transmit power
for ServCell.
TCP_neighbourCells_i is the of the TCP
measurements reports for the neighboring cell
i received over LdcPucPeriodTimerLe
None (% of
the max
transmit
power)
267
period. This value is the % of the max
transmit power for neighbour cell i.
EvenLoadAdjust
ingPeriod_From
_Heavy
Even load adjusting period time from Heavy
status indicador
EvenLoadAdjustingPeriod_From_Heavy =
(TCP_servCell_report_#_No_Heavy
TCP_servCell_report_#_Heavy_prior_SIB_upd
ates ) * TenMsecForDL/MinForDL
Where:
TCP_servCell_report_#_No_Heavy is the
TCP report indicating that the serving cell is
not in Heavy state anymore (new state could
be NORMAL or LIGHT).
TCP_servCell_report_#_Heavy_prior_SIB_
updates is the TCP report indicating that the
serving cell is in HEAVY state prior to algo
execution and SIB updates.
ms or minutes
EvenLoadAdjust
ingPeriod_From
_Light
Even load adjusting period time from Light status
indicador
EvenLoadAdjustingPeriod_From_Light =
(TCP_servCell_report_#_No_Light
TCP_servCell_report_#_Light_prior_to_SIB_up
dates) * TenMsecForDL/MinForDL
Where:
TCP_servCell_report_#_No_Light is the
TCP report indicating that the serving cell is
not in Light state anymore (new state should
be NORMAL or HEAVY).
TCP_servCell_report_#_Light_prior_SIB_updat
es is the TCP report indicating that the serving
cell is in LIGHT state prior to algo execution and
SIB updates
ms or minutes
EvenLoadAdjust
ingPeriod_From
_Normal
EvenLoadAdjustingPeriod_From_Normal =
(TCP_servCell_report_#_No_Normal
TCP_servCell_report_#_Normal_prior_to_SIB_
updates) * TenMsecForDL/MinForDL
Where:
TCP_servCell_report_#_No_Normal is the
TCP report indicating that the serving cell is
ms or minutes
268
not in Normal state anymore (new could be
LIGHT or HEAVY).
TCP_servCell_report_#_Normal_prior_SIB_up
dates is the TCP report indicating that
11.4Optimization Guidelines
11.4.1 Parameters and Recommendation
Parameter Recommended
Value
Source Comments
SpucLight 45. Huawei MML
SpucHeavy
70 Huawei MML
SpucHyst 5 Huawei MML .
OffSinterLight
-2 Huawei MML
OffSinterHeavy 2 Huawei MML
OffQoffset1Light
-4 Huawei MML
OffQoffset2Light -4 Huawei MML
OffQoffset1Heavy
4 Huawei MML
OffQoffset2Heavy 4 Huawei MML
PUCFilterWinLen 20 Huawei MML
ChoiceRptUnitForDL TEN_MSEC Xx engineering
judgment
TenMsecForDl/MinF
orDl
20 (200 ms) Xx engineering
judgment
MeasFilterCoef 0 or 1 Huawei MML
PUC period 120 Huawei MML
11.5Expected KPI Value
KPI Expected KPI
Values
Comments
EvenLoadMagnitude
20
Dependant on SpucLight, SpucHeavy,
SpucHyst thresholds and on the
number and load status of neighbouring
cells
Testing Scenario could consist of:
269
3 cells (serving and 2 neighbours).
Cells in different states
(NORMAL,LIGHT, HEAVY). PUC
enable only in serving Cell. PUC
settings as recommended above
(recommended parameters table)
EvenLoadAdjustingPeri
od_From_Heavy
2 minutes Dependant on Intersearch and Qoffset1/2
offsets values.
Testing Scenario could consist of:
2 cells (serving and neighbours). Cells
in different states (NORMAL,LIGHT,
HEAVY). PUC enable only in serving
Cell. PUC settings as recommended
above (recommended parameters table)
EvenLoadAdjustingPeri
od_From_Light
2 minutes Dependant on Intersearch and Qoffset1/2
offsets values.
Testing Scenario could consist of:
2 cells (serving and neighbours). Cells
in different states (NORMAL,LIGHT,
HEAVY). PUC enable only in serving
Cell. PUC settings as recommended
above (recommended parameters table)
EvenLoadAdjustingPeri
od_From_Normal
2 minutes Dependant on Intersearch and Qoffset1/2
offsets values.
Testing Scenario could consist of:
2 cells (serving and neighbours). Cells
in different states (NORMAL,LIGHT,
HEAVY). PUC enable only in serving
Cell. PUC settings as recommended
above (recommended parameters table)
11.6Sensitivity Analysis
TBC
270
12 Cell Breathing
12.1Algorithm Overview
When the loads of intra-frequency cells are not even, the distribution of cell load is
balanced by automatic adjusting the cell coverage (CPICH power) to improve the
utilization of system resource i.e. cell breathing.
The cell breathing algorithm is aimed at balancing the loads within cells with the
same frequency. According to the load level in one cell, the module of the cell
breathing decides whether the load balance is needed. If the output is YES, the power
of the pilot channel is changed. If the load level exceeds one load threshold, the pilot
power is decreased. As a result, the number of UEs is handed over to lightly/heavy
loaded cell (the SHO area may vary). Some UEs in this cell with the high load may
leave the current cell and go into the neighbour cell. If the load level is below one
load threshold, the pilot power is increased. Some UEs in the neighbour high load
cell may go into this cell.
When the load of one cell is too heavy, it results in transmission loss and the quality
of communications is decreased for the users at the edge of the cell. At the same time,
neighbour cells could still have many available resources. When this happens, cell
breathing can be used to avoid this situation: the cell size will be reduced when the
cell is over-loaded and cell size will be increased when the cell is light-loaded by
adjusting the transmitted power of the pilot channel. The UE at the edge of the cell
will be switched to the neighbour cells when the cell is over-loaded and the UE at the
edge of neighbour cells will be switched to the cell when it is light-loaded. This
results more efficient use of the radio resources.
The algorithm steps are:
1) Obtain the current DL Transmitted Carrier Power (periodic NBAP
Transmitted Carrier Power measurement report from the Node B) for the cell
and store it.
2) Compare the transmitted power with cell breathing thresholds. If the
transmitted power is greater than the cell overloading threshold
(CellOverrunThd), go to 3). If the transmitted power is less than the cell
underloading threshold (CellUnderrunThd), go to 4).
3) If the transmitted power of pilot channel has already reached the minimum
value (MinPCPICHPower), go to 5), otherwise reduce the transmitted power
of downlink pilot channel by one step (PCPICHPowerPace) and go to 5).
4) If the transmitted power of pilot channel has already reached the maximum
value (MaxPCPICHPower), go to 6), otherwise increase the transmitted
power of downlink pilot channel by one step (PCPICHPowerPace) and go to
6).
5) Execute the NBAP Cell Reconfiguration procedure to set the new PCPICH
power value in the cell at the Node B.
6) Wait for a given waiting period (Intra_carrier_LDB_period) and repeat
above steps (2 to 6)
271
The cell load is defined in terms of Downlink total transmit power of the cell. The
periodic NBAP Transmitted Carrier Power is the only measurement used by the intra-
frequency load balance algorithm (cell breathing). The measurement is reported from
NodeB (after applying the corresponding filtering, MeasFilterCoef) and averaged
within RNC (LdBFilterWinLen). The report periodicity is set using the parameter
TenMsecForDL/MinForDL according to the status of the flag
ChoiceRptUnitForDL.
The feature can be controlled by O&M (activated or deactivated) and it is configured
on a per cell basis (NBMSwitch=INTRA_FREQUENCY_LDB).
The pilot power is modified by a fixed step size (PCPICHPowerPace) which is also
O&M configurable. Both he maximum and minimum pilot power
(MinPCPICHPower, MaxPCPICHPower) should guarantee the necessary coverage.
Upon changing CPICH power, the Node B will re-compute all common channel
powers (PSCH, SSCH, PCCPCH, SCCPCH, AICH, PICH) and dedicated channel
Max Power Per Code and Min Power Per Code values. Following a pilot power
change, the RNC also modify the information element containing CPICH power
which is broadcast on BCH.
12.2Related Data base Parameters
This table should include O&M configurable parameters only.
Parameter Range Description Controlling
Commands
CellOverru
nThd
Range: 0-
100
Physical
range: 0-
1
Unit:
None
Step: 1
Cell overloading threshold. If the
downlink load exceeds the threshold,
the algorithm can decrease the pilot
transmit power of the cell so as to
increase the whole system's capacity.
This is OAM
configurable per RNC.
MML command: SET
LDB
CellUnderr
unThd
Range:
0~100
Physical
range: 0-
1
Unit:
None
Step: 1
If the cell downlink load is lower than
the threshold, the algorithm can
increase the pilot transmit power of the
cell so as to share the load of other
cells. This is OAM configurable per
RNC.
This is OAM
configurable per RNC.
MML command: SET
LDB
PCPICHPo
wer
Range:
-100 ~
500
Physical
range: (-
10-50)
Unit:
Definitions for the transmit power of
the PCPICH in a cell. This parameter
should be set based on the actual system
environment such as cell coverage
(radius) and geographical environment.
To ensure coverage for a cell, the
downlink coverage should be
This is OAM
configurable per Cell.
MML command: ADD
PCPICH
272
dBm
Step:1
guaranteed as a premise. This parameter
should be set based on the precondition
that a certain proportion of soft
handover area is ensured with soft
handover requirement. If the maximum
transmit power of the PCPICH is
configured too big, the cell capacity will
be decreased because a lot of system
resources will be occupied and the
interference to the downlink service
channels will be increased.
MinPCPIC
HPower
Range:
-100 ~
500
Physical
range:
-10-50
Unit:
dBm
Step:1
Minimum transmit power of the
PCPICH in a cell. This parameter
should be set based on the actual system
environment such as cell coverage
(radius) and geographical environment.
If the maximum transmit power of the
PCPICH configured is too small, the
cell coverage will be affected. The
parameter should be set on the
precondition that a certain proportion of
soft handover area is ensured, or the
occurrence of coverage hole can be
prevented.
This is OAM
configurable per Cell.
MML command: MOD
PCPICHPWR, ADD
PCPICH
MaxPCPIC
HPower
Range:
-100 ~
500
Physical
range:
-10-50
Unit:
dBm
Step: 1
Maximum transmit power of the
PCPICH in a cell. This parameter
should be set based on the actual system
environment such as cell coverage
(radius) and geographical environment.
Supposing that a certain proportion of
soft handover area is ensured, it is of no
help to improve the downlink coverage
by raising PCPICH power.
This is OAM
configurable per Cell.
MML command: MOD
PCPICHPWR, ADD
PCPICH
LdcIntraF
reqLdbPer
iodTimerL
en
Range:1~
86400
Unit:
second
Step: 1
It is the intra frequency load balance
adjusting period. It is the elapsed time
before repeating the
increasing/decreasing pilot power
procedure (cell breathing algorithm). It
is per cell Intra-freq LDB adjustment
period cannot be smaller than twice of
the DL load measurement report period.
This is OAM
configurable per RNC.
MML command: SET
CERRMTIMER
PCPICHPo
werPace
Range:
0~100
Physical
range:
0-10
Unit: dB
Step: 1
Pilot power adjustment step. The pilot
power is modified (increased/decreased)
by this fixed step size until the
maximum or minimum transmitted
power pilot is reached.
This is OAM
configurable per RNC.
MML command: SET
LDB
NBMSwitc
h
Range:
0(NO)/1(
YES)
Unit:
INTRA_FREQUENCY_LDB [Intra-
freq LDB algorithm ]. The cell
breathing feature can be switched on
and off by this. 0 (no), 1(yes).
This is OAM
configurable per Cell.
MML command:
ADD/MOD
273
None
Step:
None
CELLALGOSWITC
H
ChoiceRpt
UnitForDL
Range:
{TEN_M
SEC,
MIN}
Select period report unit. It indicates
whether physical unit is 10 msec or 1
minute.
This is OAM
configurable per RNC.
MML command: SET
LDM
TenMsecFo
rDl/MinFor
Dl
Range: 1
to
6000/60
Physical
range: 10

60000/60
Unit:
ms/min
Step: 1
Common measurement report
periodicity when ChoiceRptUnitForDL
= TEN_MSEC (10 milliseconds), MIN
(minutes)
This is OAM
configurable per RNC.
MML command: SET
LDM
MeasFilter
Coef
Range:
D0, D1,
D2, D3,
D4, D5,
D6, D7,
D8, D9,
D11,
D13,
D15,
D17,
D19.
Physical
range: {0,
1, 2, 3, 4,
5, 6, 7, 8,
9, 11, 13,
15, 17,
19}
Unit:
None
Coefficient for filtering of Node B
common measurements. The formula
is:
n n n
M a F a F +
1
) 1 (
.
This is OAM
configurable per RNC.
MML command: SET
LDM
LdBFilterW
inLen
Range:1
~ 1023
Unit:
None
Step: 1
Size of LDB sliding filter window
length.
This is OAM
configurable per RNC.
MML command: SET
LDM
12.3Key Performance Indicators
KPI Description Units
EvenLoadMagnitude Even load magnitude indicador
EvenLoadMagnitude = TCP_Cell min
None
(% of
274
(TCP_neighbourCells_i) each
LdcIntraFreqLdPeriodTimerLe.
Where:
TCP_Cell is the average of the TCP
measurements reports for the cell
received over
LdcIntraFreqLdPeriodTimerLe period.
This value is the % of the max transmit
power for that cell.
TCP_neighbourCells_i is the of the TCP
measurements reports for the same
frequency neighboring cell i received
over LdcIntraFreqLdPeriodTimerLe
period. This value is the % of the max
transmit power for neighbor cell i.
the max
transmit
power)
Load_Balance_Metric Evenly balanced amongst a given cell and its
neighbours indicator
Load_Balance_Metric = Max(TCP_Cell,
Max(TCP_TCP_NeighbourCells_i)) - Min(TCP_Cell,
Min(TCP_TCP_NeighbourCells_i))
each LdcIntraFreqLdPeriodTimerLe.
Where:
TCP_Cell is the average of the TCP
measurements reports for the cell
received over
LdcIntraFreqLdPeriodTimerLe period.
This value is the % of the max transmit
power for that cell.
TCP_neighbourCells_i is the of the TCP
measurements reports for the same
frequency neighboring cell i received
over LdcIntraFreqLdPeriodTimerLe
period. This value is the % of the max
transmit power for neighbor cell i.
None
(% of the
max
transmit
power)
OverrunLoadAdjustingPeriod Overrun load adjusting period indicador:
OverrunLoadAdjustingPeriod =
(TCP_report_#_for_No_OverrunLoad
TCP_report_#_for_first_OverrrunLoad)
* TenMsecForDL/MinForDL
Where:
ms or
minutes
275
TCP_report_#_for_No_OverrunLoad is the
# of the TCP measurements report indicating
that the cell load is now under the
OverrunLoad threshold.
TCP_report_#_for_first_OverrrunLoad is
the # of the TCP measurements report
indicating that the cell load is starting to be
higher than the OverrunLoad threshold (Cell
Breathing algo starts to reduce the CPICH
power)
UnderrunLoadAdjustingPerio
d
Underrun load adjusting period indicador
UnderrunLoadAdjustingPeriod =
(TCP_report_#_for_No_UnderrunLoad

TCP_report_#_for_first_UnderrunLoad
) * TenMsecForDL/MinForDL
Where:
TCP_report_#_for_No_UnderrunLoad is
the # of the TCP measurements report
indicating that the cell load is now over the
UnderrunLoad threshold.
TCP_report_#_for_first_UnderrunLoad is
the # of the TCP measurements report
indicating that the cell load is starting to be
lower than the UnderrunLoad threshold (Cell
Breathing algo starts to increase the CPICH
power)
ms or
minutes
12.4Optimization Guidelines
12.4.1 Parameters and Recommendation
Parameter Name Recommended
Value
Source Comments
PCPICHPowerPace 3 Huawei MML
CellOverrunThd 90% of the
downlink CAC
threshold.
Huawei MML
CellUnderrunThd 10 lower than the
cell overloading
threshold
Huawei MML
276
ChoiceRptUnitForDL TEN_MSEC Xx
TenMsecForDl/MinF
orDl
20 (200 ms) Xx
MeasFilterCoef 0 Huawei MML
LdBFilterWinLen 20 Huawei MML
LdcIntraFreqLdbPeriod
TimerLen
1200 seconds RRM
engagement
MinPCPICHPower 300 (30 dBm) RRM
engagement
Refer to the
UTRAN Planning
Guide to obtain
the correct value
according to the
cell planning
results in order to
ensure thre
required coverage
(see
http://compass.x
x.com/go/98866
920).
MaxPCPICHPower 330 (33 dBm) RRM
engagement
PCPICHPower 330 (33 dBm) Huawei MML Refer to the
UTRAN Planning
Guide to obtain
the correct value
according to the
cell planning
results (see
http://compass.x
x.com/go/98866
920).
DL common channel power offsets recommended values are:
DL Common Channel Power Offset (dB)
PSCH -5
SSCH -5
PCCPCH -2
SCCPCH 1
AICH -12
PICH -3
DL dedicated channel maximum/minimum code power offsets recommended values
are:
Traffic (bps) Max Code
Power Offset
Min Code
Power Offset
277
(dB) (dB)
CS
12,200 AMR -3 -18
64,000 Transparent 0 -15
56,000 Transparent 0 -15
32,000 Transparent -2 -17
28,800 Transparent -2 -17
57,600 Rate Controllable Streaming -1 -16
PS
8,000 Speech -8 -23
64,000 Streamingunidirectional -2 -17
Streamingunidirectional -2 -17
384,000 BE 4 -11
256,000 BE 2 -13
144,000 BE 0 -15
128,000 BE 0 -15
64,000 BE -2 -17
32,000 BE -4 -19
8,000 BE -8 -23
Signalling
3.4k -8 -23
12.4.2 Expected KPI Value
KPI Expected
KPI Values
Comments
EvenLoadMagnitude
20
Dependant on Load thresholds:
CellOverrunThd, CellUnderrunThd,
CPICH parameters: MaxPCPICHPower,
MinPCPICHPower, PCPICHPowerPace
and on the number and load status of
neighbouring cells
Testing Scenario could consist of:
2 cells (serving and neighbour). Cells
with different loads (>20%). Cell
Breathing enable in serving Cell. Cell
Breathing settings as recommended
above (recommended parameters table)
Load_Balance_Metric 20
Dependant on Load thresholds:
CellOverrunThd, CellUnderrunThd,
CPICH parameters: MaxPCPICHPower,
MinPCPICHPower, PCPICHPowerPace
and on the number and load status of
neighbouring cells
Testing Scenario could consist of:
278
2 cells (serving and neighbour). Cells
with different loads (>20%). Cell
Breathing enable in serving Cell. Cell
Breathing settings as recommended
above (recommended parameters table)
OverrunLoadAdjustingPe
riod
2 minutes Dependant on LdcIntraFreqLdbPeriodTimerLen
and PCPICHPowerPace.
Testing Scenario could consist of:
2 cells (serving and neighbour). Serving
cell in OverrunLoad and neighbour cell
in UnderrunLoad. Cell Breathing enable
in serving Cell. Cell Breathing settings as
recommended above (recommended
parameters table)
UnderrunLoadAdjusting
Period
2 minutes Dependant on LdcIntraFreqLdbPeriodTimerLen
and PCPICHPowerPace.
.
Testing Scenario could consist of:
2 cells (serving and neighbour). Serving
cell in UnderrunLoad and neighbour cell
in OverrunLoad. Cell Breathing enable in
serving Cell. Cell Breathing settings as
recommended above (recommended
parameters table)
12.4.3 Sensitivity Analysis
No simulation results available yet.
Note that CPICHPower variation range (MaxPCPICHPower MinPCPICHPower) is
not very significant (only 3 dB, similar to the SHO gain).So not great impact on
evenly load distribution is really expected.
279
13 Inter-Carrier Load Balancing
In UMTS multi-carrier systems, the dynamic variation of the load on the different
carriers results, in time, with a carrier being heavy loaded and causing poor quality
and call dropping, while another being under-utilised. This leads to a degradation of
the overall network QoS.
USR2 implements a mechanism to balance the load between different carriers and so
maximise the utilisation of available radio resources. This is done by selectively
switching UEs from heavy loaded carriers to light loaded carriers through inter-
frequency hard handovers.
13.1Algorithm Overview
Inter-carrier load balancing is based on NBAP common measurements. In particular,
the Node B is requested to monitor and report periodically the Transmitted Carrier
Power level for all cells, as a measure of cell load. When a cell is detected to be
overloaded and another cell under-utilised, inter-frequency handover is triggered.
Note that this is a blind inter-frequency handover to a target same-area different-
frequency cell without prior RRC measurements on that cell. At the RNC, the
command ADD CONINTERFREQCELL is used to set the relationship between inter-
frequency neighbouring cells so that load balancing can be applied.
The following conditions must be satisfied for inter-frequency handover due to load
balancing to occur.
The maximum loading of all cells on a given carrier must be above certain
threshold. The threshold level is configured per cell in USR2 with the parameter
InterCarrierLoadAdjustThd, as a percentage of the total available downlink
transmission power for the cell.
The load imbalance between carriers must be larger than certain value. Imbalance
is computed as the difference between maximum loading on the originating carrier
cell and the minimum loading of the destination carrier cell. The minimum cell
load difference is set with the parameter InterCarrierLoadDiffThd, per cell.
Inter-frequency blind handover is intended to occur between cells with the same
coverage area (e.g. from sector#1_carrier#1 to sector#1_carrier#2). In USR1, this
mechanism was limited to cells of the same Node B, USR2 also supports load
balancing between cells of different Node Bs.
Selection of the UE to perform the hard handover is based on the calculation of a
normalised traffic factor (NTF) for all UEs that meet the constraints. The selected UE
cannot be in macro-diversity state, must have identical SRNC and DRNC and its
normalised traffic factor has to be less than the value set in the attribute
SelectCriterion of the SET LDB command. UEs are then ranked by their NTF in
descending order, and the UE with highest NTF is selected for hard handover to the
carrier with the minimum transmit carrier power level.
280
Wait LdcInterFreqLdbPeriodTimeLen
seconds
The whole process is repeated every LdcInterFreqLdbPeriodTimerLen seconds. In
any case, no more than MaxLoadHOTryTimes, handover attempts will be done for
any particular UE.
13.1.1 Node B Periodic Measurements
For the purpose of intra-frequency load balancing, the RNC configures the Node B to
perform periodic common measurements on the transmit carrier power of each cell
under the control of the Node B.
A filtering function is applied Node B physical layer measurements before reporting,
according to the following formula.
n n n
M a F a F +
1
) 1 (
Where,
F
n
is the updated filtered measurement result.
F
n-1
is the old filtered measurement result
M
n
is the new measurement to be filtered.
a = 1/2
(k/2)
, where k is the IE Measurement Filter coefficient received in the
COMMON MEASUREMENT INITATION REQUEST message.
USR2 allows the provisioning of the relevant parameters for load monitoring through
Node B common measurement with the MML command SET LDM. The filter
coefficient is given by the attribute MeasFilterCoef, the size of the sliding window by
LdBFilterWinLen and the report periodicity by the attributes TenMsecForDl or
MinForDl according to the status of the flag ChoiceRptUnitForDl. Note that in
USR2, the load monitoring functionality provides NB measurements to several
algorithms (CAC, PUC, LDB) with the minimum possible overhead and processing
load in both RNC and Node B.
13.1.2 Algorithm Implementation
Figure 13.1-20 shows the control flow for the inter-carrier load-balancing algorithm.
RNC processing for inter-carrier load balancing can be summarised in the following
steps.
7. The RNC requests the initiation of periodical based Transmitted Carrier Power
measurements via NBAP signalling for all carriers in a Node B.
8. When the RNC receives the periodical Transmitted Carrier Power measurements
from all the carriers in the Node B, it determines the maximum value and the
minimum value.
9. The RNC compares the maximum value with an inter-carrier load adjustment
threshold (InterCarrierLoadAdjustThd). If the maximum value is greater than the
inter-carrier load adjustment threshold, go to step 4. Otherwise, go to step 8.
10. The RNC calculates the difference between the maximum value and the minimum
value, and compares the difference with an inter-carrier load difference threshold
(InterCarrierLoadDiffThd). If the difference is greater than the inter-carrier load
difference threshold, go to step 5. Otherwise, go to step 8.
281
Wait LdcInterFreqLdbPeriodTimeLen
seconds
11. For the carrier that corresponds to the maximum value of the Transmitted Carrier
Power measurement, the RNC computes normalized traffic factor of all UEs.
12. Discard UEs in soft-handover state and whose normalised traffic factor exceeds
the selection threshold (SelectCriterion), rank all remaining UEs and select the
one with maximum normalized traffic factor from the list. If UE is suitable for
hard handover, go to step 7. If no suitable UE is found then go to step 8.
13. If UEs hard handover trial count has not reached MaxLoadHOTryTimes, trigger
hard-handover to move this UE to the carrier that corresponds to the minimum
value of the Transmitted Carrier Power measurement and go to step 6. Otherwise
remove the UE from candidate list and go to step 6.
14. Wait for the next load adjustment period (LdcInterFreqLdbPeriodTimerLen), and
repeats steps from 2 to 8.
Figure 13.1-20. Inter-carrier load balance algorithm flowchart
NORMALISED TRAFFIC FACTOR (NTF)
The calculation of the normalised traffic factor (NTF) for a given UE is carried out
with the following formula.
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
rer_Rate Std_DL_Bea _DL_EbNo Std or ivity_Fact Std_DL_Act
Rate DL_Bearer_ _DL_EbNo Required y_Factor DL_Activit
NTF

n n n
n
( ) m N n , , 2 , 1
Where,
DL_Activity_Factor(n) is the DL activity factor of the nth user;
282
Measure transmitted
carrier
powers, PTX(m), m=1,2,M
Determine PTX MAX and PTX MIN
from PTX(m), m=1,2,M
P
TX MAX > TLA
No
Yes
Compute NTF(n), n=1,2,N(mMAX
)
and rank in descending order
Discard UEsfrom the ordered list
if
NTF(n) > TSC, n=1,2,N(mMAX
)
Record index of carrier with
P
TX MAX (i.e.
m
MAX) and
P
TXMIN (i.e.
m
MIN
)
P
TX MAX
P
TX MIN > TLD
No
Yes
Select UE with highest
NTF
from ordered list
Wait T seconds
Initialise hard
-
handover
attempt counter, i = 0
i < N
A
Yes
No
Hard
-
handover selected UE
to
m
MIN carrier
Hard
-
handover
successful?
Yes
No
Increment
hard
-
handover attempt
counter by one, i++
Measure transmitted
carrier
powers, PTX(m), m=1,2,M
Determine PTX MAX and PTX MIN
from PTX(m), m=1,2,M
P
TXMAX
> InterCarrierLoadAdjustThd
No
Yes
Compute NTF(n), n=1,2,N(mMAX
)
and rank in descending order
Discard UEsfrom the ordered list
if
NTF(n) > TSC, n=1,2,N(mMAX
)
Record index of carrier with
P
TX MAX (i.e.
m
MAX) and
P
TXMIN (i.e.
m
MIN
)
P
TXMAX
-P
TXMIN
> InterCarrierLoadDiffThd
No
Yes
Select UE with highest
NTF
from ordered list
Wait LdcInterFreqLdbPeriodTimeLen
seconds
Initialise hard
-
handover
attempt counter, i = 0
i < MaxLoadHOTryTimes
Yes
No
Hard
-
handover selected UE
to
m
MIN carrier
Hard
-
handover
successful?
Yes
No
Increment
hard
-
handover attempt
counter by one, i++
DL_Bearer_Rate(n) is the DL bearer rate (Kbps) of the nth user;
Std_DL_Activity_Factor is the DL activity factor of the standard reference service
(default100%);
Std_DL_EbNo is the (linear) DL EbNo value of the standard reference service
(default 8.2 dB for TU environment);
Std_DL_Bearer_Rate is the DL bearer rate of the standard reference service
(default 12.2Kbps).
Note that the parameters used in the computation of NTF can be ser differently from
the default values by using the commands SET TRAFEBNO and SET ADMCTRL. In
particular,
The command SET TRAFEBNO can be used to defined a look-up table of
both UL and DL link-level curves for different code/cell-environment-type
combinations.
The UL and DL activity factors for all classes can be set through the command
SET ADMCTRL. Note that if the DCCC algorithm is enabled, the DL activity
factor for all interactive and background services is set to 1.0, otherwise the
DL activity factor is calculated based on the value specified via the SET
ADMCTRL command.
The standard reference service is no longer configurable but hard-coded in
USR2 to AMR 12.2 with activity factor=1. The Eb/N0 of the reference service
will be read by RNC automatically from the curves of BLER vs. Eb/N0
according to the cell environment type selected for AMR 12.2, 1% BLER, 1/3
CC coding scheme.
If a user has multiple RABs, a combined EbNo and activity factor values are
calculated using the methods outlined in the CAC section. This EbNo and
activity factor are then used to calculate a single NTF value.
The calculation for the NTF is the same as the calculation of the ENU
(equivalent number of users) performed by the (ALGORITHM_SECOND)
CAC algorithm.
13.2Related DB parameters
Parameter Name Range Description
NBMSWITCH {INTER_
FREQUENCY_
LDB}
Cell algorithm switch that
allows to set ON and OFF the
inter-carrier LDB algorithm
with the command ADD
CELLALGOSWITCH.
NBMSWITCH {LDM} Cell algorithm switch that
allows to set ON and OFF the
load monitoring algorithm with
the command ADD
CELLALGOSWITCH.
InterCarrierLoadAdjustThd 0 to 1
Step: 0.01
Cell load threshold of inter-
carrier load balancing hard
283
handover. This is configured per
cell with the command ADD
CELLLDB.
InterCarrierLoadDiffThd 0 to 1
Step: 0.01
Minimum carrier load
imbalance of inter-carrier load
balancing hard handover. This is
configured per cell with the
command ADD CELLLDB.
SelectCriterion 0 to 200
Step: 0.01
Normalized traffic factor for UE
selection. The UE with the
biggest normalized traffic factor
whose normalized traffic factor
is less than the given parameter
is used as inter-frequency hard
handover object.
MaxLoadHOTryTimes 0 to 80 Maximum load handover
attempts. This is set per cell
with the command ADD
CELLLDB
MeasFilterCoef {0, 1, 2, 3,
4, 5, 6, 7, 8,
9, 11, 13, 15,
17, 19}
Coefficient for filtering of Node
B common measurements. This
is set per RNC with the
command SET LDM.
LdBFilterWinLen 1 to 1023 Load monitoring sliding
window length. This is set per
RNC with the command SET
LDM.
ChoiceRptUnitForDl {TEN_MSEC,
MIN}
Select period report unit. It
indicates whether physical unit
is 10 msec or 1 minute.
TenMsecForDl 10 to 60000
Unit: ms
Common measurement report
periodicity when ChoiceRptUnit
= TEN_MSEC. Note that a
period lower that 100 ms is not
allowed by the NB.
MinForDl 1 to 60
Unit: min
Common measurement report
periodicity when ChoiceRptUnit
= MIN
LdcInterFreqLdbPeriodTimerLe
n
1 to 86400
Unit: sec
Adjustment period for the inter-
carrier load balancing algorithm.
This is configured per cell with
the command SET
CERRMTIMER.
Note that the inter-carrier load balancing algorithm can be enabled and disabled via
the ADD CELLALGOSWITCH command by setting to TRUE the flag called
INTER_FREQUENCY_LDB. The load monitoring function (LDM = TRUE) must
also be enabled for the cell.
13.3Key Performance Indicators
KPI Descriptions
LDB Blocking Decrease in the blocking probability for a given cell due to LDB
284
Probability gain actions compare to the normal situation, for the same offered traffic.
Carrier Load
Imbalance
Average load difference (in terms of TCP level) between inter-freq
cells candidate for load balancing, throughout the network.
LDB HHO Rate Number of incoming/outgoing inter-frequency hard handovers with
cause load balancing per unit time.
13.4Optimisation Guidelines
The following values for database parameters are suggested for USR2.
Parameter Name Recommended
Value
Source
Load Balancing
InterCarrierLoadAdjustThd 54 % MML
InterCarrierLoadDiffThd 10 % MML
SelectCriterion 5 MML
MaxLoadHOTryTimes 5 MML
LdcInterFreqLdbPeriodTimerLe
n
10 sec Engineering
judgment
Load
Monitoring
MeasFilterCoef 0 Engineering
judgment
LdBFilterWinLen 20 MML
ChoiceRptUnit TEN_MSEC Engineering
judgment
TenMsec 20 (200 ms) Engineering
judgment
Min None Engineering
judgment
285
14 Location Services
Location Services are considered as a network provided standardized services and
capabilities used for UE positioning, that enable the provision of location-based
applications in the UMTS networks. The mobile station identification together with its
most likely positioning information may be available to the user, network operator,
service provider, value added service providers and for PLMN internal operations and
applicable for i.e. emergency calls, charging, monitoring and optimisation of system
performance, innovative ways of mobility and traffic management, lawful
interception, enhanced call routing and many others (TS 22.071).
Form system architecture perspective location services may be regarded as UMTS
overlay structure, which provides E2E location capabilities by enabling access to
specific standardized services span over both network elements - CN and UTRAN, so
LCS involves interaction amongst Uu (TS 25.331), Iub (TS 25.433), Iu (TS 25.413),
and Iur (TS 23.423) interfaces procedures.
Unless mobile station is fully capable to Autonomous Self Location - needs no
interaction with network to estimate its position, then always network-assistant LCS
positioning is concern. Particularly, UTRAN facilitates determination of the location
of a mobile station (TS 25.305) by providing to mobiles different assistance
information, which either enables mobiles to calculate their own location in case of
UE-based positioning method type or aid mobile station to estimate the appropriate
radio ranging measurements in case of UE-assisted positioning method type.
The difference in positioning method types classification may be explained by
identification of the network element, which is responsible for estimation of the UE
location fix so called Position Calculation Function (PCF). If PCF is implemented at
the mobile and is it used to calculate the UE position (geographical coordinates with
timestamp) then system provides UE-based positioning method type. On the other
side if PCF is located at the UTRAN then UE-assisted positioning type is considered.
Xx UTRAN provided the basic CELL ID and UE-based AGPS positioning methods
without specific LCS signalling on the Iur interface.
14.1Cell ID Positioning Method
Cell ID is the cell coverage based positioning method providing coarse UE
location in UMTS mobile network. Particular UE location estimation is conducted
by indication of Cell Identity (CELL ID) mapped directly to geographical
coordinates (TS 23.032) associated with Node B serving cell or assigned Service
Area Identifier SAI (see TS 25.305 section 8). The Service Area Identifier may
include one or several cells.
Unfortunately, in practice this positioning method is very inaccurate since UE
location uncertainty is expanded by cell RF coverage area what is illustrated in the
following figure.
286
CELL ID
{LAT, LON}
CELL ID
{LAT, LON}
CELL ID
{LAT, LON}
CELL ID
{LAT, LON}
Node B
Node B
.
.
.
Figure: Uncertainty area for Cell ID for omni and 3-sector cell site configuration
In case of omni-directional cell site configuration, UE positioning report indicates
location of the cell site electrical centre of the site antenna system. For sectorized
cell site antenna configuration, UE positioning reports should indicate the location
of the geographical centre point of the cell coverage area. The difference between
assignments of cells identifiers to the different physical locations with regards to
Node B antenna configuration statistically minimizes positioning error between
real UE position and its fixed reported location.
Whenever Core Network CN requests UE location the co-located with SRNC
Service Mobile Location Center SMLC reports SAI or geographical coordinates
of serving cell depending on required from CN location report format
configuration. The CN may request the geographical coordinates or the SAI, or
both for the target UE. The Location Response message includes also LCS quality
estimate regarding achieved accuracy (see TS 25.413).
When the Location Request is received from the CN the SMLC checks the state of
the target UE. If the UE is in a state where the cell ID is available the target cell
ID is chosen as the basis for the UE Positioning. The simplified message flow is
shown in the following figure:
CN
RNC
SMLC
UE
LOCATION REPORT
(TS 25.413)
LOCATION
REPORTING
CONTROL
(TS 25.413)
Paging if UE is in Idle or
URA_PCH state
Figure: Basic message flow for Cell ID Based Method
In Idle Mode or URA_PCH, state where the cell ID is not available, the UE is
paged, so that SRNC can establish the cell with which the target UE is associated.
287
The CN may request the direct or event triggered UE positioning reporting. In the
direct method a single UE Location Report follows the location request signaled in the
Location Reporting Control message. The event triggered UE location report occurs
when CN requires from SRNC/SMLC reporting of UE positioning upon so called
Change of Service Area (COSA) result from moving UE among defined Service
Areas.
14.1.1 Related Data base Parameters
Tag 3GPP stand for Standard 3GPP parameter and label Xx stands for Xx
implementation specific parameter. The graphical representation of RNC 5000 LCS
configuration parameters are illustrated in the following figure:
N
Sector Coverage Area
ANTENNAORIENTATION
ANTENNAOPENING
MAXANTENNARANGE
E
90
o
S
180
o
W
270
o
Figure: LCS Parameters Cell Configuration
Parameter Name Range Descriptions Controlling
Command
CellID Value range:
0~268435455;
Step: 1
Cell identifier.
3GPP
ADD
SMLCCELL/
MOD
SMLCCELL
LatitudeDegree Value range: 0 ~ 90;
Step: 0.000001
Unit: degree
Cell geographical
latitude coordinate
Xx
ADD
SMLCCELL/
MOD
SMLCCELL
LongitudeDegree Value range:
-180 ~ 180;
Step: 0.000001
Unit degree
Cell geographical
longitude
coordinate
(Negative number
indicates West
Longitude and
positive East
Longitude
ADD
SMLCCELL/
MOD
SMLCCELL
288
Xx
ALTITUDEMETER Value range:
-10000~10000.
Step: 1
Unit meter

Cell antenna height. ADD


SMLCCELL/
MOD
SMLCCELL
MAXANTENNARANGE Value range: 0 ~ 100000;
Step: 1
Unit: meter
Cell coverage area
distance.
Xx
ADD
SMLCCELL/
MOD
SMLCCELL
ANTENNAORIENTATION Value range: 0~3600.
Physical value range:
0~360; step: 0.1.
Antenna main-lobe
azimuth
Xx
ADD
SMLCCELL/
MOD
SMLCCELL
ANTENNAOPENING Value range: 0 ~ 360;
Step: 0.1
Unit: Degree
Antenna main lobe
width
Xx
ADD
SMLCCELL/
MOD
SMLCCELL
CELLAVERAGEHEIGHT Value range: -10000~10000
Step: 1
Unit: m
Average height of
cell coverage area.
Xx
ADD
SMLCCELL/
MOD
SMLCCELL
CELLHEIGHTSTD Value range:
-10000~10000
Step: 1
Unit: meter
Standard deviation
of the cell coverage
area height.
Xx
ADD
SMLCCELL/
MOD
SMLCCELL
CELLENVIRONMENT Value range:
{NLOS_ENVIRONMEN
T,
LOS_ENVIRONMENT,
MIXED_ENVIRONMEN
T}
Indicator of the
most probable cell
propagation
environment non-
line of sight, (TU,
HT), line-of-sight
RA), mixed.
Xx
ADD
SMLCCELL/
MOD
SMLCCELL
TXCHANDELAY Value range: 0~65535
Step: 1
Unit: ns
OTDOA related
parameter Cell
transmission
channel delay,
defined as
transmission latency
introduced by the
WBX board of the
Node B (See
UTRAN SFRAS
LCS)
Xx
ADD
SMLCCELL/
MOD
SMLCCELL
RXTXCHANDELAY Value range: 0~65535
Step: 1
Unit: ns
OTDOA related
parameter cell
transceiver channel
delay, defined as
sum of transmission
and reception
ADD
SMLCCELL/
MOD
SMLCCELL
289
latency introduced
by WBX board of
the Node B (See
UTRAN SFRAS
LCS)
Xx
MASKREPEATEXIST Value range:
{NOREPEATER,
REPEATER}
Switch of Node B
rexxe head
Xx
ADD
SMLCCELL/
MOD
SMLCCELL
OTDOAACTIVATEFLAG Value range:
{INACTIVE, ACTIVE}
OTDOA
positioning method
switch
Xx
ADD
SMLCCELL/
MOD
SMLCCELL
AGPSACTIVATEFLAG Value range:
{INACTIVE, ACTIVE}
A-GPS (UE-
assisted and UE-
based) positioning
method switch
Xx
ADD
SMLCCELL/
MOD
SMLCCELL
REFCELLID Value range:
0~268435455;
Step: 1
LCS reference cell
identification used
for OTDOA and
DGPS??
Xx
ADD
SMLCNCELL
NCELLID Value range:
0~268435455;
Step: 1
Neighbour LCS cell
reference
identification used
for OTDOA and
DGPS??
3GPP
ADD
SMLCNCELL
14.1.2 Key Performance Indicators
KPI Descriptions
-- NA
14.1.3 Optimization Guidelines
The recommendations marked as MML come from LMT software release 13.0.0.8.0
290
Parameter Name Recommended
Value
Source Comments
CellID Cell Deployment
Planning
LatitudeDegree Cell Deployment
Planning
LongitudeDegree Cell Deployment
Planning
ALTITUDEMETER Cell Deployment
Planning
MAXANTENNARANGE Cell Deployment
Planning
ANTENNAORIENTATION Cell Deployment
Planning
ANTENNAOPENING Cell Deployment
Planning
CELLAVERAGEHEIGHT Cell Deployment
Planning
CELLHEIGHTSTD Cell Deployment
Planning
CELLENVIRONMENT Cell Deployment
Planning
TXCHANDELAY 0 MML Used for OTDOA and
Enhanced Cell ID
RXTXCHANDELAY 0 MML Used for OTDOA
and Enhanced Cell
ID
MASKREPEATEXIST NOREPEATER MML
OTDOAACTIVATEFLAG INACTIVE Judgement
AGPSACTIVATEFLAG ACTIVE Judgement
REFCELLID Cell Deployment
Planning
NCELLID Cell Deployment
Planning
14.1.3.1 Parameters and Recommendation
Assigment of cell sites geographical coordiantes, anthenna orientations, and coverage
areas depend of system deploymnet planning.

291
14.2Assisted GPS Positioning Method
The Assisted-GPS is a 3GPP-standardized type UE positioning mechanism utilizes
assistance navigation information of GPS - Global Satellite Positioning System.
The GPS is satellite navigation system consisting of the constellation of 24 active and
8 spare satellites orbit around the Earth in 6 circular planes at an altitude of
approximately 20,200 kilometers (12,600 miles) and 12-hour revolution period.
Each satellite constantly broadcasts the precise time signal according to their own
atomic clock, along with information including the orbital elements (GPS ephemeris)
of their own xxion, and approximates ephemerides information for up to 32 other
satellites (GPS almanac) as determined by 5 GPS system ground control stations. All
these data are used to aid in determination of the GPS receiver location and provide
accurate time reference clock source.
All satellites transmit their signal simultaneously on two different carrier frequencies
of 1575.42 MHz (band L1) and 1227.60 MHz (band L2) using CDMA medium access
with slow 50 b/s data transmission rate. The GPS receiver distinguishes signals from
different satellites by applying in demodulation the different sequences of pseudo
random spreading sequences assigned to the particular satellites. The L1 frequency
band contains a composite of two signals. They both are spread with respectively a
short sequence of 1.023 Mcps rate with the short 1 ms period (Coarse/Acquisition
Code) and long sequence of 10.23 Mcps rate with the long period of one week
(Precious Code). It is worth to mention that pseudo random sequence periods are
called in code epochs. The frequency of L2 band is modulated only with Precious
Code signal. The GPS system uses two separate bands L1 and L2 in order to reduce
ionosphere transmission delay result from radio waves refraction.
The satellites transmit GPS system navigation data structure in the form of repeated in
12.5-minute cycle superframe, which consists of 25 logical frames. Each frame
contains 1500 bits of data divided into 5 subframes (pages) transmitting 300 bits
during 6 seconds. The pages transmission timing is preciously correlated with UTC
time so frame synchronization process conducted by the GPS receiver provides
sufficient amount of data to estimate satellite time at the moment of transmission.
Additionally, subframe 1 data provides satellites clock corrections and satellite
positioning usefulness quality called GPS health.
Subframes 2 and 3 contain satellite ephemeris data that let to calculate a precise
satellite position at time of the transmission. Subfarme 4 and 5 contains 2 out of 25
pages of system almanac that provides approximate ephemerides, clock corrections,
and health all satellite, ionosphere and UTC time data. Almanac allows the GPS
receiver to select the best set of satellites and estimate their health.
The GPS receiver uses satellites as the reference navigational points. It decodes
simultaneously signals transmissions from multiple, visible in the sky satellites,
estimates distance to them called pseudoranges and finally, based on known
triangulation process, GPS receiver calculates its 3D position.
(Note: Position is a vector of 4 elements, which contains GPS receiver latitude,
longitude, altitude and time of the fix).
292
The GPS receiver calculates the distance to each of at least four satellites by the
estimating the difference between GPS receiver local time and the satellite
transmission time and finally, based on acquired ephemeris GPS receiver is capable to
fix its position with average accuracy of few meters/feet.
Naturally, GPS system may be used to provide high accuracy positioning services
in mobile cellular systems. To accomplish this UE has to be equipped with
embedded GPS engines capable receive satellite signals. Taking into account of
high mobility of end-users and frequent changes of indoor and outdoor
propagation environment it is very difficult and to ensure that UE will always
have a clear sky GPS satellite visibility and it can permanently keep track of GPS
signal transition to provide immediate position fix. In reality if UE lost tracking of
GPS signals in indoor environment, navigational GPS data becomes obsolete and
in consequence after regaining satellites visibility UEs GPS receiver would have
required in the worst case up 12.5 minutes to acquire all GPS system information
before positioning calculation. Obviously such a solution is not practical therefore
to shorten, so called, time-to-first-fix (TTFF) period, network infrastructure assists
UE providing needed GPS navigation data. The UEs GPS engine instead of
receiving data at the slow rate directly from satellite may receive them much faster
from the network.
To make this solution possible the RNC or rather SMLC (Service Mobile
Location Centre) integrated with RNC, is equipped with reference GPS receiver,
which permanently tracks all visible satellites signals, receives and updats GPS
navigational data, keep them ready to transmit to the GPS capable UEs in the
service area.
Standards distinguish UE-based and UE-assisted types of the A-GPS positioning
method. In case of UE-based method UE after receiving from the UTRAN GPS
assistance data estimates pseudoranges, calculates UE position and reports to the
RNC/SMLC its geographical position. The position calculation function is located
in the UE.
Contrary, in the UE-assisted type of A-GPS positioning method, UE after
acquiring GPS assistance data from the network, measures pseudoranges to the
visible satellites and reports them to the RNC/SMLC without solving UE
geographical position. The position calculation function is in this case located at
the RNC/SMLC, which is responsible for UE geographical position estimation.
In USR 2 the Xx UTRAN supports UE-based A-GPS position method. The
positioning method and its type is determined by UE capabilities, positioning
method licence configuration, SET SMLC positioning method configuration
selection command and it also may depend on RNC/SMLC location services
processing load.
Basic implementation diagram is illustrated in the following figure.
293
CN
RNC
SMLC
UE
LOCATION REPORT
(TS 25.413)
LOCATION
REPORTING
CONTROL
(TS 25.413)
GPS reference
receiver
MEASUREMENT
CONTROL
UE positioning measurement
TS 25.331
MEASUREMENT
REPORT
UE positioning Position Estimate
Info
TS 25.331
UE's GPS
engine
Figure: Basic message flow for UE-based A-GPS Positioning Method
The RNC/SMLS reference GPS receiver provides GPS assistance data to the UE
using RRC Measurement Control mechanism described in TS 25.331.
The A-GPS positioning method effectiveness highly depends on mobiles vendor -
particularly its GPS engine design and quality of assistance data provided to the
UE.
Time-To-First-Fix decreases significantly from about several minutes, assuming
discarding any internally stored in the UE GPS reference data which help in
previous position fix, down to 20-30 seconds if provided to the UE assistance data
have highly accurate estimates of the UE positioning GPS reference time is within
+/- 2 seconds measured at the UE antenna port and UE positioning GPS reference
position, which shouldnt differs more than 1-3 km form the physical, real UE
location.
The minimal network assistance information for UE AGPS positioning location
method depend on UE vendor solution but in general it should at least include the
following data:
1. UE positioning GPS reference time described in the UE positioning GPS
reference time IE defined in section 10.3.7.96 of TS 25.331 Reference time
should be accurate to +/- 2 seconds. The network should send time reference in a
short message to keep small transmission latency.
2. UE positioning GPS Reference position as it is described in the UE positioning
GPS reference UE position IE is defined in section 10.3.8.4c of TS 25.331
described as ellipsoid point with altitude and uncertainty ellipsoid according to the
Universal Geographical Area Description recommendation in the TS23.032. It is
important to set reference position confidence to non-zero value. Uncertainty
should be large enough to cover the area in which RNC provides assistance data.
3. Satellite navigation model described in the UE positioning GPS navigation
model IE defined in section 10.3.7.94 of TS 25.331. This information element
provides precise navigation data ephemerides and clock corrections. Network
should provide GPS navigation model for at least all satellites in the visible sky at
given time and area. However Xx UEs can effectively use data for all 32 satellites
294
if available. It is also recommended to break information on GPS navigation
model into multiple messages. Large massage of 2-3 second latency, what is
typical for navigation model of 12 satellites will cause dropped calls or handover
failures. Perfectly it would be to send 3 messages each including ephemeris and
clock correction data of 4 satellites, provide pause between messages to allow for
quick active set updates procedure.
4. Propagation Ionosphere model described in the UE positioning GPS ionospheric
model IE defined in section 10.3.7.92 of TS 25.331. It is enough to update these
data every 12 hours.
5. Satellites Real time integrity described in the UE positioning GPS real-time
integrity IE defined in the section 10.3.7.95 of TS 25.331. Assistance data
message should contain this information element when a satellite is deemed
unhealthy.
The UE uses UE positioning Position Estimate Info IE (see section 10.3.7.109
of TS 25.331) of RRC Measurement Report procedure to report to the
RNC/SMLC UEs geographical position according to Universal Geographical
Area Description format described in the TS23.032 out of the following selection:
Ellipsoid Point,
Ellipsoid point with uncertainty,
Circle,
Ellipsoid point with altitude,
Ellipsoid Arc.
Signalling, reporting and location triggering mechanisms between the core
network CN and the RNC/SMLC remains as it is described for CELL ID
positioning method.
14.2.1 Related Data base Parameters
Tag 3GPP stand for Standard 3GPP parameter and label Xx stands for Xx
implementation specific parameter. The graphical representation of RNC 5000 LCS
configuration parameters are illustrated in the following figure:
Parameter Name Range Descriptions Controlling
Command
GPSID
Value range:
0~65535;
Step: 1
The reference GPS
receiver ID
Xx
ADD
GPS/MOD
GPS
CFGT
Value range: {RNC,
NODEB}
Indication of either
RNC or Node B
reference GPS
ADD
GPS/MOD
GPS
295
receiver.
Xx
GPSPERIOD
Value range: 1~60;
Step: 1
Unit: minute
Reference receiver
GPS data reporting
period.
Xx
ADD
GPS/MOD
GPS
DGPSPERIOD
Value range: 1~60;
Step: 1
Unit: minute
Reference receiver
reporting period for
Differential GPS data
Xx
ADD
GPS/MOD
GPS
LATITUDE
Value range:-
9*10
7
~9*10
7
;
Step: 10
-6
degree
Unit: degree
The reference GPS
receivers antenna
latitude
Xx
ADD
GPS/MOD
GPS
LONGITUDE
Value range:
1.8*10
8
~1.8*10
8
;
Step: 10
-6
degree
Unit: degree
The reference GPS
receivers antenna
longitude
Xx
ADD
GPS/MOD
GPS
ALTITUDE
Value range-
10000~10000;
Step: 1
Unit: meter
The reference GPS
receivers antenna
altitude.
Xx
ADD
GPS/MOD
GPS
ACTT
Value range: {RNC
GPS, NODEB GPS,
NODEB DGPS}
Activation of the
Information Exchange
Procedure. Value
"RNC GPS" turns on
both: GPS and
Differential GPS.
Xx
ACT GPS
DEAT
Value range: {RNC
GPS, NODEB GPS,
NODEB DGPS}
Deactivation of the
information exchange
procedure. Value
"RNC GPS" turns on
both GPS and
Differential GPS.
Xx
DEA GPS
DELAY
Value range 0~60;
Step: 1
Unit: seconds
Reset the GPS
receiver with
specified delay.
Xx
RST RNCGPS
TYPEBLMUID
Value range: 0~1279 LMU type B
identifier N/A
ADD LMU
LATITUDEDEGREE
Value range:-
9*10
7
~9*10
7
;
Step: 10
-6
degree
The reference LMU
antenna latitude, N/A
ADD LMU
296
Unit: degree Xx
LONGITUDEDEGREE
Value range:
1.8*10
8
~1.8*10
8
;
Step: 10
-6
degree
Unit: degree
The reference LMU
antenna longitude,
N/A
Xx
ADD LMU
ALTITUDEMETER
Value range-
10000~10000;
Step: 1
Unit: meter
The reference LMU
antenna altitude, N/A.
Xx
ADD LMU
NODEBNAME
Value range 31
characters;
Node B identifier of
the collocated LMU
type B, N/A for Xx
UTRAN.
Xx
ADD LMU
STARTFLAG
Value range:
{INACTIVE,
ACTIVE}
UTRAN GPS frame
timing measurement
switch
Xx
ADD
CELLGPSFR
MTIMING
CellID
Value range:
0~268435455;
Step: 1
Deactivation of IPDL
for OTDOA
3GPP
DEA IPDL
SMLCAUDITTIMERLEN
Value range: 1~720;
Step: 1
Unit: minute
SMLC audit timer
Xx
SET SMLC
SHORTUPTIMERLEN
Value range-1~60;
Step: 1
Unit: sec
Short positioning
procedure timer
Xx
SET SMLC
LONGUPTIMERLEN
Value range-1~60;
Step: 1
Unit: sec
Long positioning
procedure timer
Xx
SET SMLC
UESTATTRANTIMERLEN
Value range-1~60;
Step: 1
Unit: sec
UE status transition
timer
Xx
SET SMLC
UPMEASRESENDTIMERLEN
Value range-1~6;
Step: 1
Unit: sec
Measurement
message sending
repetition timer
Xx
SET SMLC
CELLINFOQUERYTIMERLEN
Value range-1~6;
Step: 1
Unit: sec
Cell information
query timer
SET SMLC
DATARESPTIMERLEN
Value range-1~6;
Step: 1
Unit: sec
Assistance data
delivery response
timer
Xx
SET SMLC
WAITMEASRSLTCONS
Value range-1~6; Waiting measurement SET SMLC
297
Step: 1
Unit: sec
result timer offset
Xx
MAXRESENDNUM
Value range-0~8;
Step: 1
Max times of
resending
measurement control
message
Xx
SET SMLC
RTTMEASFILTERCOEFF
Value range: D0, D1,
D2, D3, D4, D5, D6,
D7, D8, D9, D11,
D13, D15, D17, D19.
Physical value range:
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,
9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19.
RTT measurement
filtering coefficient
Xx
SET SMLC
NOIPDLTDOAMEASPERIOD
Value range: D250,
D500, D1000, D2000,
D3000, D4000,
D6000, D8000,
D12000, D16000,
D20000, D24000,
D28000, D32000,
D64000.
Physical value range:
250, 500, 1000, 2000,
3000, 4000, 6000,
8000, 12000, 16000,
20000, 24000, 28000,
32000, 64000.
Unit: ms
OTDOA
measurement
reporting period
without IPDL in UE
assisted mode
Xx
SET SMLC
IPDLTDOAMEASSHORTPERIO
D
Value range: D250,
D500, D1000, D2000,
D3000, D4000,
D6000, D8000,
D12000, D16000,
D20000, D24000,
D28000, D32000,
D64000.
Physical value range:
250, 500, 1000, 2000,
3000, 4000, 6000,
8000, 12000, 16000,
20000, 24000, 28000,
32000, 64000.
Unit: ms
Short OTDOA
measurement
reporting period with
IPDL in UE assisted
mode.
Xx
SET SMLC
IPDLTDOAMEASLONGPERIO
D
Value range: D250,
D500, D1000, D2000,
D3000, D4000,
D6000, D8000,
D12000, D16000,
D20000, D24000,
D28000, D32000,
D64000.
Long OTDOA
measurement
reporting period with
IPDL in UE assisted
mode.
Xx
SET SMLC
298
Physical value range:
250, 500, 1000, 2000,
3000, 4000, 6000,
8000, 12000, 16000,
20000, 24000, 28000,
32000, 64000.
Unit: ms
CELLIDMEASPERIOD
Value range: D250,
D500, D1000, D2000,
D3000, D4000,
D6000, D8000,
D12000, D16000,
D20000, D24000,
D28000, D32000,
D64000.
Physical value range:
250, 500, 1000, 2000,
3000, 4000, 6000,
8000, 12000, 16000,
20000, 24000, 28000,
32000, 64000.
Unit: ms
Cell ID measurement
reporting period in
UE assisted mode.
Xx
SET SMLC
GPSMEASSHORTPERIOD
Value range: D250,
D500, D1000, D2000,
D3000, D4000,
D6000, D8000,
D12000, D16000,
D20000, D24000,
D28000, D32000,
D64000.
Physical value range:
250, 500, 1000, 2000,
3000, 4000, 6000,
8000, 12000, 16000,
20000, 24000, 28000,
32000, 64000.
Unit: ms
Short GPS
measurement
reporting period in
UE assisted mode.
Xx
SET SMLC
GPSMEASLONGPERIOD
Value range: D250,
D500, D1000, D2000,
D3000, D4000,
D6000, D8000,
D12000, D16000,
D20000, D24000,
D28000, D32000,
D64000.
Physical value range:
250, 500, 1000, 2000,
3000, 4000, 6000,
8000, 12000, 16000,
20000, 24000, 28000,
32000, 64000.
Unit: ms
Long A-GPS
measurement
reporting period in
UE assisted mode.
Xx
SET SMLC
UEBASEDMEASPERIOD
Value range: D250,
D500, D1000, D2000,
A-GPS measurement
reporting period in
SET SMLC
299
D3000, D4000,
D6000, D8000,
D12000, D16000,
D20000, D24000,
D28000, D32000,
D64000.
Physical value range:
250, 500, 1000, 2000,
3000, 4000, 6000,
8000, 12000, 16000,
20000, 24000, 28000,
32000, 64000.
Unit: ms
UE based mode.
Xx
EMPHERISSENDFLAG
Value range:
{NODELIVERY,
DELIVERY}
Activation of GPS
ephemeris sending in
UE assisted mode
Xx
SET SMLC
ALMANACSENDFLAG
Value range:
{NODELIVERY,
DELIVERY}
Activation of GPS
almanac sending in
UE assisted mode
Xx
SET SMLC
SMLCMETHOD
Value range:
{NONE,
CID,
ASS_ECID,
ASS_OTDOA,
ASS_AGPS,
BAS_AGPS,
ASS_AGPS_CID,
BAS_AGPS_CID,
GEN_AGPS_CID,
ASS_OTDOA_ECID,
ASS_AGPS_ECID,
ASS_AGPS_OTDOA
_ECID}
UE positioning
method type selection
NONE - No method,
CID - Basic CELLID,
ASS_ECID- Enhanced
CELLID,
ASS_OTDOA - UE
assisted OTDOA,
ASS_AGPS - UE
assisted AGPS,
BAS_AGPS -UE based
AGPS,
ASS_AGPS_CID - UE
assisted AGPS and basic
CELL ID,
BAS_AGPS_CID - UE
based AGPS and basic
CELL ID
GEN_AGPS_CID
-Generic AGPS and
basic CELL ID,
ASS_OTDOA_ECI
D-UE assisted
OTDOA and
enhanced CELL
ID,
SET SMLC
300
ASS_AGPS_ECID
- UE assisted
AGPS and
enhanced CELL
ID,
ASS_AGPS_OTD
OA_ECID - UE
assisted AGPS,
OTDOA and
enhanced CELL ID
Xx
14.2.2 Key Performance Indicators
KPI Descriptions
TTFF Time to first fix defined as time delay between location report
control message provided from the CN to the RNC/SMLC and the
position fix in the location report message received from the
RNC/SMLC for UE-based A-GPS positioning method, which
includes the first, after UE powering-on assuming discarding form
UE memory all GPS assistance data used in previous position fix.
14.2.3 Optimization Guidelines
The recommendations marked as MML come from LMT software release 13.0.0.8.0
Parameter Name Recommended
Value
Source Comments
CFGT
RNC Judgeme
nt
GPSPERIOD
1min MML
DGPSPERIOD
1min MML
ACTT
RNC GPS Judgeme
nt
STARTFLAG
INACTIVE Judgement
CellID
All Judgement Execute MML
command: DEA
IPDL cellID
SMLCAUDITTIMERLEN
720 min MML If SMLC appears
to be work
improperly than
decrees this timer
for debugging
purpose.
301
SHORTUPTIMERLEN
6 sec MML TBD
LONGUPTIMERLEN
12 sec MML TBD
UESTATTRANTIMERLEN
4 sec MML TBD
UPMEASRESENDTIMERLEN
1 sec MML TBD
CELLINFOQUERYTIMERLEN
1 sec MML TBD
DATARESPTIMERLEN
3 sec MML TBD
WAITMEASRSLTCONS
1 sec MML TBD
MAXRESENDNUM
2 MML TBD
RTTMEASFILTERCOEFF
NA Judgement CELL ID + RTT
Method not
supported
NOIPDLTDOAMEASPERIOD
NA Judgement OTDOA Method
not supported
IPDLTDOAMEASSHORTPERIOD
NA Judgement OTDOA Method
not supported
IPDLTDOAMEASLONGPERIOD
NA Judgement OTDOA Method
not supported
CELLIDMEASPERIOD
NA Judgement UE-assisted type
is not supported,
TBD
GPSMEASSHORTPERIOD
NA Judgement UE-assisted type
is not supported
GPSMEASLONGPERIOD
NA Judgement UE-assisted type
is not supported
UEBASEDMEASPERIOD
D4000/4 sec MML
EMPHERISSENDFLAG
NA Judgement UE-assisted type
is not supported
ALMANACSENDFLAG
NA Judgement UE-assisted type
is not supported
SMLCMETHOD
BAS_AGPS Judgement Supported
methods out of:
{NONE,
CID,
BAS_AGPS
BAS_AGPS_CI
D}
14.2.3.1 Parameters and Recommendation
KPI Expected KPI value
TTFF < 30 sec
302
15 DIRECT RETRY DECISION
15.1Algorithm Overview
The DRD algorithm is used when the UE fails to access a cell. In this case, the RNC
will allow the UE to try to access another cell based on the previous measurement
results, so as to improve the first connection success rate of UE The enhancements
performed in this algorithm in USR2 will improve the chances of re-directing the user
to heterogenous cells (different carrier) or (different system) & improve the chances
of accessibility into the RAN system
The DRD algorithm consists of two functionalities:
RRC Retry Decision;
Redirection;
Within the UTRAN, a UE can take on one of two connection modes: namely, RRC
connected mode and idle mode. When a UE wants to establish an RRC connection it
must first send an RRC CONNECTION SETUP REQUEST message to the UTRAN
(RNC). At this stage of the call set-up process, the objective of the RRC
CONNECTION REQUEST is to establish an SRB on a DCH. To invoke the DRD
algorithm, the UE should include a RACH measurement report (containing the
CPICH EcNo measurements of several neighbouring/candidate cells). This list of
candidate cells is then ranked in descending order, based on the EcNo measurements.
If the UE cannot establish an RRC connection with its preferred cell, the candidate list
is then sequentially examined in a top-down manner until a suitable cell is obtained. If
none of the cells in the list satisfy the criteria of the RRC Retry Decision
functionality, the UE fails in its attempt to establish an RRC connection and the
Redirection procedure is invoked.
The DRD algorithm has been presented to customers as a licenseable feature in
USR1, however the capabilities provided by the existing feature are fairly minor, as
follows: in case of failure of an RRC connection request (failure to set up a signalling
bearer), the algorithm instructs the UE to make the request to another cell of the same
frequency, based on the measurement report provided. Unfortunately, failure of an
RRC connection request is less likely that failure of RAB establishment, and in
addition access to another cell of the same frequency is arguably a weak capability,
since this is a weaker cell, and therefore soft handover to the original cell is likely to
be requested later (and possibly rejected). Overall, customer benefits of the USR1
feature are therefore limited.
In USR2, this capability has been redesigned to provide 2 separate mechanisms:
enhanced retry, redirection to another frequency. In enhanced retry, the list of retry
candidates now includes a cell colocated with the original cell, but of other-frequency.
This is also given priority in the list. As a result, the mechanism provides the
capability to do some load balancing across multiple carriers (if available), in
preference to use of other same frequency cells. In the redirection mechanism, the UE
303
is asked to scan on another frequency not tried before, improving the chances of
accessing the network on another frequency.
Overall therefore, these 2 combined mechanisms provide much greater chance of
success for RRC connection requests, particularly in the case of 2 carrier cells, and
these mechanisms constitute a useful step forward from USR1, increasing the CSSR
in loaded networks, and also point towards further related capabilities planned for
USR3.
15.1.1 4.2 RRC Retry Decision procedure
The RRC connection establishment process is performed through several
messages as indicated in Figures below.
New target Cell info
DRD
Algo
UE UTRAN
RRC CONNECTION REQUEST
RRC CONNECTION SETUP
RRC CONNECTION SETUP COMPLETE
Figure 2: UTRAN (RNC) accepts RRC connection (DRD algorithm has been able to select a suitable new target cell to
establish the RRC connection)

UE UTRAN
RRC CONNECTION REQUEST
RRC CONNECTION REJECT
DRD
algo
Figure 3: UTRAN (RNC) rejects RRC connection (DRD algorithm has failed to select a suitable new target cell to
establish the RRC connection)
When a UE wants to establish an RRC connection it must first send an RRC
CONNECTION SETUP REQUEST message to the UTRAN (RNC). As part of the
request, the UE can include a RACH measurement report (containing the CPICH
Ec/No measurements of several intra-frequency neighbouring cells). If the UE cannot
establish an RRC connection in its preferred cell (due to cell in congested state), the
DRD algorithm generates a candidate set of cells which are ranked in descending
order in accordance with the Ec/No measurement received. The so generated
candidate set is then sequentially examined in a top-down manner until a suitable cell
is obtained. If none of the cells in the DRD candidate set after a certain number of
304
retries has allowed the RRC connection establishment, the UE fails in its attempt to
establish an RRC connection.
There are two DRD triggering conditions first is when the cell is deemed by the
LCC (Load Congestion Control algorithm) to be under congestion; second is when the
RRC connection request (i.e. establishment of an SRB on a DCH) is rejected by the
RR entity. This last case could itself be the result of either code shortage or admission
rejection on power grounds (CAC algorithm). It is expected that the congestion
mechanism would actually be the most common trigger since it would be rare for an
SRB establishment to be blocked. In that respect, the DRD could be seen as an
extension of congestion control. When CAC is switched off or measurements are not
available the NTF (Normalized Traffic Factor) is used instead.
There are different states in which the UE can enter after the RRC connection
establishment process is completed. The "RRC State Indicator" IE in the RRC
CONNECTION SETUP message indicates the state the UE shall enter
(CELL_FACH, CELL_DCH). The RNC establishes RRC connection on uplink and
downlink DCHs when RRC connection establishment cause is originating
conversational call, terminating conversational call, originating streaming call,
terminating streaming call, emergency call, originating high priority signalling,
terminating high priority signalling, or call re-establishment. Otherwise RACH/FACH
connection is used.
For the scenario entering in CELL_DCH, the RNC delivers the new target Cell ID in
the RRC CONNECTION SETUP message in the Primary CPICH info IE (which
contains the primary scrambling code) in the Downlink information for each radio
link IE). RNC sends RRC CONNECTION SETUP in the CCCH of the original cell
(the one received as selected in the RRC CONNECTION REQUEST messages). The
UE will send the RRC CONNECTION SETUP COMPLETE message in DCCH
belonging to the new target cell.
The steps for the RRC Retry Decision procedure are:
1. If the RACH measurement report is included in the RRC CONNECTION
REQUEST message go to Step 2, otherwise go to Step 12.
2. On receiving the RACH measurement report, the RNC assigns a time stamp.
3. An initial RRC Candidate Set is formulated by ranking the UMTS cells included
in the RACH measurement report (in descending) in accordance with their
CPICH EcNo values. Note: the UMTS cell for which the initial RRC connection
failed is excluded from the RRC Candidate Set. However, if this cell supports
multiple carriers (having the same coverage area), these concentric inter-
frequency neighbour cells are given priority and placed at the top of the RRC
Candidate Set (even though measurements are not available for these concentric
inter-frequency neighbour cells).
4. Remove each UMTS cell from the UEs RRC Candidate Set whose CPICH EcNo
is less than the minimum allowable EcNo (MinSignalRequired).
5. Remove each UMTS cell from the UEs RRC Candidate Set whose controlling
RNC is different from that of the cell for which the initial RRC connection failed.
305
Note: the RRC Candidate Set size is limited to a maximum of DRMaxNumber
cells.
6. Select the first UMTS cell in the RRC Candidate Set as the new target cell.
7. Invoke the Radio Admission Control and OVSF Code Allocation Algorithms to examine,
respectively, the UL/DL cell loading and DL code availability at the new target UMTS
cell for supporting the SRB.
8. If the target UMTS cell has sufficient resources to support the SRB go to Step 10.
Otherwise, go to Step 9.
9. If all UMTS cells in the RRC Candidate Set have been examined, go to Step 11.
Otherwise select the next cell in the RRC Candidate Set as the target cell and go
to Step 7.
10. Send RRC CONNECTION SETUP to UE with the new target UMTS cell
information and exit the RRC Retry Decision Algorithm.
11. Invoke the Redirection Algorithm.
12. Send RRC CONNECTION REJECT to UE and exit the RRC Retry Decision
procedure.
Note: if an emergency call request is made, the RNC shall perform the Radio
Admission Control function to determine if the request can be accepted from a power
resource perspective. If the emergency call request passes the Radio Admission
Control checks, the RNC shall admit the emergency call. If the emergency call
request fails the Radio Admission Control checks (e.g., during periods of congestion),
the RNC shall admit the emergency call but the RNC shall pre-empt a non-emergency
call to release uplink and downlink power resource (i.e. RTWP and Transmitted
Carrier Power) such that the emergency call request would have passed the Radio
Admission Control checks.
15.1.2 4.3 Redirection procedure
The Redirection procedure is invoked when the initial RRC connection request fails.
Under these circumstances, the RNC responds to the UE with an RRC
CONNECTION REJECT message. Within this message, the Redirection IE is used to
redirect the UE to another UMTS frequency or other system (e.g. GSM). The
Redirection IE does not contain specific cell information. Instead, the RNC need only
indicate that the inter-frequency or inter-RAT cell reselection procedure should be
invoked at the UE. The Redirection Algorithm procedure consist of the following
steps:
1. Identify any available UMTS frequencies that have not already been
examined in the RRC Retry Decision procedure.
2. If N alternative UMTS frequencies are available select one of the
following:
i. If N=0, the RNC redirects the UE to GSM via the Redirection
IE within the RRC CONNECTION REJECT message and exit
the procedure.
ii. If N=1, the RNC redirects the UE to the alternative UMTS
frequency via the Redirection IE within the RRC
CONNECTION REJECT message and exit the procedure.
306
iii. If N>1, one of the alternative frequencies is chosen arbitrarily
and the RNC redirects the UE to the selected UMTS frequency
via the Redirection IE within the RRC CONNECTION
REJECT message and exit the procedure. Note: if one or more
UMTS cells included within the RACH measurement report has
a concentric inter-frequency neighbour whose carrier
frequency is identical to one of those identified within the
Redirection Algorithm, these frequencies are given priority in
the Redirection Algorithms (arbitrary) frequency selection
process.
15.2Related Data base Parameters
Parameters related to DRD algorithm are classified as RNC oriented and Cell
oriented. SET DRD command is used for setting the RNC oriented parameters while
ADD CELLDRD, MOD CELLDRD and RMV CELLDRD MML commands are
utilized for cell oriented ones. These parameters can be configured per cell.
Parameter Range/Unit/Step Description Comments
DRMaxNumber Range: 1 ~ 5
Unit: None
Step: 1
The maximum
allowed number
of reattempts
initiated by the
system after the
first access
failure
This is OAM
configurable per RNC.
MML command: SET
DRD. This is OAM
configurable per Cell.
MML command:
ADD/MOD/RMV
CELLDRD.
CsThreshold Range: -19~0
Unit: dB
Step: 1
Candidate set
absolute
threshold. When
the cell signal
quality exceeds
the threshold, the
cell will be put
into the DRD
candidate set.
When the UE
fails to access the
cell, the DRD
algorithm will
automatically
originate access
to another cell in
the candidate set.
This is OAM
configurable per RNC.
MML command: SET
DRD. This is OAM
configurable per Cell.
MML command:
ADD/MOD/RMV
CELLDRD.
MinSignalRequired Range: -19 ~ 0
Unit: dB
Step: 1
This parameter
defines the
minimum
allowable CPICH
EcNo that can be
This is OAM configurable
per RNC. MML
command: SET DRD.
This is OAM configurable
per Cell. MML command:
307
received by a
mobile for a given
cell to be
considered in the
DRD algorithm.
ADD/MOD/RMV
CELLDRD.
DRD_SWITCH Range:
0(NO)/1(YES)
Unit: None
Step: None
This parameter
switches on/off
the DRD
algorithm. 0(no),
1 (yes).
This is OAM configrable
per RNC. MML
command: SET
CORRMALGOSWITCH
command, HOSWITCH)
15.3Key Performance Indicators
KPI Descriptions
RRC Connection Setup
Success Ratio Due to
DRD
Ratio between the number of RRC CONNECTION SETUP
COMPLETE messages received by the UTRAN on a given cell
and the number of RRC CONNECTION REQUEST messages
sent by the UE over the measurement period which were on a
different source cell. This measures effectiveness of the RRC
Retry Decision procedure.
RRC Connection
Request/Reject Ratio
Ratio between the number of RRC CONNECTION REQUEST
messages received by the UTRAN and the number of RRC
CONNECTION REJECT messages sent to the UE by UTRAN
over the measurement period with the end result being subsequent
successful RRC Connection setup. This measures effectiveness of
the RRC Redirection Procedure. Note: This KPI may not be
entirely accurate as the RRC CONNECTION REQUESTS do not
have an IE that indicates that the RRC CONNECTION
REQUEST was due to an RRC CONNECTION REJECT with
Redirection IE, however it is expected that with DRD there would
be higher ratio of RRC CONNECTION REQUESTS to RRC
CONNECTION REJECT and subsequent successful RRC
Connection setups than without DRD.
15.4Optimization Guidelines
15.4.1 Parameters and Recommendation
The recommendations are based on a combination of Huawei default settings and
engineering judgment.
Parameter Recomme
nded
Value
Source Comment
DRMaxNumb
er
5 Xx engineering judgment By setting DRMaxNumber
to 5, then combined with
the initial access attempt,
each UE has a maximum of
6 attempts to establish an
RRC connection.
308
CsThreshold -19dB Xx engineering judgment Whilst reducing the
MinSignalRequired
increases the pilot visibility
at a given UE, the DRD
retry set size is actually
controlled by
DRMaxNumber. By setting
the MinSignalRequired and
DRMaxNumber to their
minimum and maximum,
respectively, we increase
the likelihood of a given UE
establishing an RRC
connection. According to
information that is currently
available, the UE is
sensitive enough to operate
well below an EcNo of
19dB (with the minimum
requirement being 20dB
MinSignalRe
quired
-19dB Xx engineering judgment Since cells are discarded
from the retry set if its DRD
metric is less than
CSThreshold then, by
setting this parameter to its
minimum value, we
increase the likelihood of
retaining cells within the
retry set. As a consequence,
we increase the likelihood
of a given UE establishing
an RRC connection
The above recommended parameter settings (in particular, DRMaxNumber,
MinSignalRequired and CSThreshold) are configured to maximise the likelihood of
a given UE establishing an RRC connection.
309
16 ATM CAC (Connection Admission Control)
16.1Algorithm Overview
The objective of Connection Admission Control (CAC) is to decide whether a new
ATM or AAL2 connection can be accepted meeting its QoS requirements and still
maintaining the QoS of the already established connections and if so what resources
should be allocated.
The concept of Equivalent Bandwidth (EB) is intuitively simple and flexible. It
estimates bandwidth required for each connection in Kbit/sec, e.g., a VP connection, a
VC connection, or an AAL type 2 connection. It originates from traditional circuit-
switched networks. It is used commonly in ATM networks. It is to adapt this concept
to AAL type 2. The intention with the equivalent bandwidth is to be able to sum-up
and to partition bandwidth as linear values in order to simplify the network
management.
Basic principles are the following:
An "equivalent bandwidth" needed to guarantee the QoS is derived from a
complex traffic contract at each connection set-up. This equivalent
bandwidth may be different at each multiplexing point. It may vary for a
given connection along its path.
Acceptance rules are linear of type Summation of EB < C (where C is the
multiplex capacity or the equivalent bandwidth of the connection in which
connections are multiplexed).
Connection Admission Control function is called at every AAL2 and ATM
connection request and at every AAL2 and ATM connection release. At
every connection request a new equivalent bandwidth is computed and
summed up using the correct rule. At every connection release, the equivalent
bandwidth is subtracted using the correct rule.
CAC is performed for static type ATM connections, i.e. connections set up
for control plane signaling connections like NBAP, RNSAP, RANAP.
CAC is performed for dynamic ATM connections, i.e. connections set up for
user plane traffic like AAL2 dynamic connections.
16.1.1 Algorithm for dynamic ATM connections
The algorithm steps are:
6) RNC receives request to establish an ATM connection. This could be in
response to MS initiated call setup via CN, e.g. RAB Assignment Request.
7) RNC quantifies the impact to transport bandwidth from incoming request
according to the formula ->
310
EB = Header CRC/FT+CFN+TFI+TB+QE+CRCI+spare+CRC+AAL2
HEAD)*8/TTI.
It is a total bit rate. RAB bit rate, RLC overhead and PDCP overhead is contained
in TB block. AAL2 HEAD need considering the AAL2 fragmentation. Just
normal mode is included in the calculation, it is because the resource is reserved
for the service whether the user transmits with the full speed or not.
Example for 12.2 AMR Voice:
12.2K Voice: Header CRC/FT<1 byte>+CFN<1 byte>+TFI<3
bytes>+TB<11+13+8bytes>+QE<1byte>+CRCI<1byte>+
spare<2bytes>+CRC<2bytes>+AAL2 HEAD<3bytes>/20ms = 46*8/0.02 =
18400bps(DL/UL throughput).
Example for 64 kbps DL/ 8 kbps UL interactive/background PS:
64K PS: Header CRC/FT<1 byte>+CFN<1 byte>+TFI<1 bytes>+TB<4*42
bytes>+QE<1byte>+CRCI<1byte>+spare<2bytes>+CRC<2bytes>+AAL2
HEAD<3*5bytes>/20ms = 192*8/0.02 = 76800bps (DL throughput)
8K PS: Header CRC/FT<1 byte>+CFN<1 byte>+TFI<1 bytes>+TB<1*42
bytes>+QE<1byte>+CRCI<1byte>+spare<2bytes>+CRC<2bytes>+AAL2
HEAD<3*5bytes>/40ms = 57*8/0.04 = 11400bp(UL throughput).
Following table displays calculated values for different RAB types.
RAB type Calculated Transport Throughput for
RAB (kbps)
12.2k 18.4
10.2 16.4
7.95 14
7.4 12.8
6.7 12.4
5.9 11.2
5.15 10.8
4.75 10.4
28.8(CS transparent) 33
32(CS transparent) 39.2
56(CS transparent) 63.35
64(CS transparent) 72.4
14.4(CS non-transparent) 17.4
28.8(CS non-transparent) 33
57.6(CS non-transparent) 63.6
64(CS non-transparent) 72.4
311
8K(PS) 11.4
16K(PS) 22.8
32(PS) 40.8
64(PS) 76.8
128(PS) 147.6
144(PS) 165.6
256(PS) 291.6
384(PS) 439.2
A new statistical multiplexing gain parameter for AAL2 related calls has been
introduced into RNC V1.2. The MML command to use is Set AAL FACTOR. This
parameter acts as a multiplier for the calculated value resulting in a final value, i.e.
EBAAL2 = AALFACTOR * Calculated_BW. For example, for an AALFACTOR of 0.7 and a
12.2 Kbps voice -> EBAAL2 = 0.7 * 18.4K = 12.88 Kbps of used transport resources.
8) The RNC checks whether the equivalent bandwidth of all AAL2 channels for
that VC according to ->


channels AAL2 all
2 VC VC AAL
EB K EB

Similarly for AAL5 channels,


channels AAL5 all
5 VC VC AAL
EB K EB
For the RNC, KVC is equivalent to 1. For other implementations this acts as an
additional operator configurable weight on the entire VC.
For each VC, the is determined according to ATM traffic contract parameters
according to the following table. The detail of how these ATM traffic parameters
are used is not known yet from Huawei.
ATM VC Type Applicable
Adaptation
Layers (AAL)
ATM Traffic
Parameters used in
calculation of EBVC
Effect on EBVC
CBR AAL2, AAL5 PCR Unknown
rtVBR, nrtVBR AAL2, AAL5 SCR, CDVT Unknown
UBR AAL5 PCR No effect, i.e.
no connection
on a UBR VC
will ever be
refused.
9) If the transport bandwidth check fails, e.g. for an AAL2 VC,
312
if

>
channels AAL2 all
2 VC VC AAL
EB K EB
holds true, then indication of failure is returned to
RRM and the call is failed.
16.2Related Data base Parameters
Parameter Range/Unit/Step Description Comments
RRC signal
factor
0-100 (indicates
percentage)
Adjustable bandwidth
factor for AAL2 RRC
connections.
This is OAM
configurable per RNC
MML command: SET
AALFACTOR
AMR speech
factor
0-100 (indicates
percentage)
Adjustable bandwidth
factor for AAL2 AMR
Voice connections, i.e.
RAB Traffic Class =
Conversational over
IuCS interface.
This is OAM
configurable per RNC
MML command: SET
AALFACTOR
CS data factor 0-100 (indicates
percentage)
Adjustable bandwidth
factor for AAL2 AMR
Voice connections, i.e.
RAB Traffic Class =
Streaming over IuCS
interface.
This is OAM
configurable per RNC
MML command: SET
AALFACTOR
PS data factor 0-100 (indicates
percentage)
Adjustable bandwidth
factor for AAL2 AMR
Voice connections, i.e.
RAB Traffic Class =
Streaming over IuCS
interface.
This is OAM
configurable per RNC
MML command: SET
AALFACTOR
16.3Key Performance Indicators
KPI Descriptions
EBSuccessfulAMRCallsAdmittedPVC This KPI measures the number of successful
AMR calls set up successfully. Using
appropriate tools see attached, the number of
AMR calls set up using SET AALFACTOR
should correspond closely with expected.
EBSuccessfulCSDataCallsAdmittedPVC This KPI measures the number of successful
AMR calls set up successfully. Using
appropriate tools see attached, the number of
CS Data calls set up using SET
AALFACTOR should correspond closely
with expected.
EBSuccessfulPSDataCallsAdmittedPVC This KPI measures the number of successful
AMR calls set up successfully. Using
appropriate tools see attached, the number of
PS Data calls set up using SET
AALFACTOR should correspond closely
with expected.
313
UL/DL Radio Access Bearer Throughput
Ratio
This is the ratio of throughput in high values
of AAL Factor to low values of AAL Factor
for same type of calls, e.g. ratio fo AMR
Speech Factor calls. A too optimistic usage of
AAL Factor will result in many calls being
admitted, however the effective throughput
will be reduced for a call with high value of
AAL Factor compared to same type of call
with low value of AAL Factor.
Note, the attached tool is used to calculate number of capacity of calls for different
RAB configurations. The actual calls observed setup can be compared to calculations
given by this tool measuring the effectiveness of the ATM CAC algorithm using the
SET AALFACTOR RNC LMT command.
Capacity_Limitations
_v0.4.xls
16.4Optimization Guidelines
16.4.1 Parameters and Recommendation
Parameter Recommended
Value
Source Comments
RRC signal
factor
50 Huawei LMT Default
Value.
This is OAM
configurable per RNC
MML command: SET
AALFACTOR
AMR speech
factor
70 Huawei LMT Default
Value.
This is OAM
configurable per RNC
MML command: SET
AALFACTOR
CS data factor 100 Huawei LMT Default
Value.
This is OAM
configurable per RNC
MML command: SET
AALFACTOR
PS data factor 100 Huawei LMT Default
Value.
This is OAM
configurable per RNC
MML command: SET
AALFACTOR
RRC signal factor: 70%
This parameter is used for AAL2 RRC signaling connections. 70% should be a
reasonable multiplexing gain for these dynamic signaling connections as for a large
part of a call, they will not be used.
AMR voice factor: 70%
This parameter is used for voice calls. 70% is a de-facto standard for estimating voice
activity for wireless calls.
314
CS data factor: 100%
This parameter is used for CS data activity. 100% is a safe factor but may be
optimized for less than that for efficiency. No meaningful simulations have been
done to derive a more optimum value.
PS data factor: 100%
This parameter is for PS data activity. 100% is very conservative. Other mechanisms
like DCCC are in place to get better efficiency for high speed packet however so the
call may end up not getting rated at the initial request (e.g. 384K background call
would end up getting DCCCed down to 64K) but in absence of DCCC, a better factor
can be applied.
315
17 SRNS Relocation
17.1Algorithm Overview
The relocation of SRNC is a UMTS functionality used to change the serving RNC
from one RNC to another RNC. This will move the CN connection point from source
RNC to target RNC when UE has all links under the target RNC. The relocation
procedure takes several stages from start to complete. The procedure includes:
1. Relocation Preparation: This procedure is to prepare relocation of SRNC and
to allow Relocation co-ordination in the target RNC.
2. Relocation resource allocation: This is to allocate resources from target RNC
for a relocation of SRNC.
3. Relocation detection: This procedure is to indicate by the RNC the detection
of SRNC relocation execution to the CN.
4. Relocation Completion: This procedure is to indicate by the target RNC the
completion of relocation of SRNC to the CN.
The figure below depicts the message sequence flow for successful relocation
procedure.


SRNC_Relocation_MSC
RelocationRequest
RelocationRequestAcknowledge
RelocationCommit
RelocationCommand
IuReleaseCommand
RelocationComplete
UTRANMobilityInformationConfirm
UTRANMobilityInformation
RelocationDetect
IuReleaseComplete
RelocationRequired
SOURCE_RNC TARGET_RNC CN UE
Active Set Update Complete
Active Set Update
316
The SRNC will not just start the relocation procedure when it deletes the last link on
the source RNC. The SRNC uses 2 criteria to decide if relocation procedure will be
needed. When either condition is true, the relocation procedure will be trigger by the
SRNC.
17.1.1 Relocation Triggered by Iur Delay
If RELOCATION_FOR_DELAY_OPTIMIZATION_SWITCH is turned ON and the
delay on the Iur exceeds the configured limit, the relocation procedure will be started.
When all RLs of a UE are under DRNC and the delay is longer than the configured
value, the relocation is triggered. This applies to QOS with delay constrain for
conversation and streaming classes. The time delay is configured by
SRNSRDELAYOFFSET parameter. When the SRNSRDELAYOFFSET+FP measured
delay > Max Transfer Delay of RAB Assignment Request, the relocation will be
triggered.
17.1.2 Relocation Triggered by Iur Traffic Occupancy
When SRNC IUR_TRANS_OPTIMIZE_TRANSFER_SWITCH is turned ON, the
SRNS relocation function for Iur resource optimisation is allowed. This type of
relocation is triggered by the Iur resource condition. When Congestion alarm is on : A
congestion alarm to the SRNS Relocation algorithm is raised when the measured AAL2
bandwidth percentage used of the total PCR is higher than the specified threshold i.e. Iur
user-plane traffic congestion and when Iur periodic timer has expired: This timer starts when
the congestion alarm is raised. The parameter SRNSRIURRESELECTTIMERLEN is
used for resource optimisation relocation select timer. When the resource threshold
requirement is met, the SRNC will start this timer. Upon timer expiry, the SRNC will
choose the first SRNSRMAXNUM users that met the relocation condition to perform
the relocation procedure.
Also in order to avoid the ping-pong effect on unnecessary relocation procedure, if the
relocation is successfully performed, the relocation procedure is not allowed to repeat
on the same UE again in the configured time interval. (SRNSREXPIRYTIME)
17.2Related DB parameters
Parameter Name Range Description
SrnsrExpiryTime 1255
Unit: sec
Step: 1
SRNS relocation expiry time. In order to
avoid ping-pong relocation, the user, if
successfully relocated, is not allowed to
relocate again in the specified time of the
parameter.
SrnsrDelayOffset 0400
Unit: mS
Step: 1
Estimated non-measurement delay offset..
SrnsrIurReselectTimerLen 1100
Unit: sec
Step: 1
The time interval between two SRNS
relocations based on Iur resource
optimization.
317
SrnsrMaxNum 1 to 200
Unit:
Step: 1
The maximum number of users in one
SRNSR. Since the relocation occupies a lot
of resources, the number of users to be
relocated at one time cannot be too large.
IurCchRelocTrigTimer 1 to 65535
Unit: sec
Step: 1
Relocation trigger timer after IURCCH.

Relocation_For_Delay_Opti
mization_Switch
1 or 0 When set to 1, SRNS relocation function for
delay optimization is allowed. Otherwise, it
is not allowed.
Iur_Trans_Optimize_transf
er_Switch
1 or 0 When it is set to 1, SRNS relocation
function for Iur resource optimization is
allowed.
HoRelocReqTmr 1 to 10000
Unit: ms
Step: 1
This is the timer for RNC to wait for
relocation request in forward handover
procedure.
RelocCmdTmr 1 to 20000
Unit: ms
Step: 1
A timer for RNC to wait for the relocation
command message in relocation procedure.
RelocIurRelCmdTmr 1 to 20000
Unit: ms
Step: 1
A timer for RNC to wait for the Iu release
command message in relocation procedure.
RelocDataFwdTmr 1 to 20000
Unit: ms
Step: 1

A timer used for data forwarding in


relocation procedure.
RelocAnotherTmr 1 to 10000
Unit: ms
Step: 1
A timer to RNC wait for another relocation
request in relocation procedure.
RelocCommitTmr 1 to 20000
Unit: ms
Step: 1
A timer to RNC wait for rnsap relocation
commit message in relocation procedure.
RelocMobileConfTmr 1 to 10000
Unit: ms
Step: 1
A timer for RNC to wait for mobile
information confirmation in relocation
procedure.
RelocPhyChRecfgTmr 1 to 10000
Unit: ms
Step: 1
A timer for RNC to wait for the response to
physical channel reconfiguration in
relocation procedure.
RelocCellUpdtCnfRspTmr 1 to 10000
Unit: ms
Step: 1
A timer to RNC wait for cell update
confirmation in relocation procedure.
RelocUtranHoCmpTmr 1 to 10000
Unit: ms
Step: 1
A timer for RNC to wait for inter-RAT
handover completion in relocation
procedure.
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RelocSrnsCnxtReqTmr 1 to 20000
Unit: ms
Step: 1
A timer for RNC to wait for the SRNS
forwarding context request in relocation
procedure.
RelocSrnsFwdCmdTmr 1 to 10000
Unit: ms
Step: 1
A timer to RNC wait for the SRNS
forwarding command in relocation
procedure.
RelocFailIuRelTmr 1 to 10000
Unit: ms
Step: 1
A timer to DRNC wait for Iu release
command in the failed relocation procedure.
Note that parameters related to Relocation are configured with the LMT command:
ADD NRNC, SET CORRMALGOSWITCH, SET SRNSR and SET STATETIMER.
17.3Key Performance Indicators
KPI Descriptions
SRELOC_PREP_STATIC The incremented when SRNC sending of
RANAP RELOCATION REQUIRED.
SRELOC_PREP_SUCC_STATIC The counter incremented when SRNC
receives RANAP RELOCATION
COMMAND.
SRELOC_PREP_SUCC_RATE_STATIC [SRELOC_PREP_SUCC_STATIC]/
[SRELOC_PREP_STATIC]
SRELOC_COMMIT_STATIC The counter incremented when SRNC
sends RNSAP RELOCATION COMMIT
message to DRNC during relocation
procedure.
SRELOC_COMMIT_SUCC_STATIC The counter incremented when SRNC
receives IU RELEASE COMMAND
messages from all domains during
relocation procedure.
SRELOC_COMMIT_SUCC_RATE_STATIC [SRELOC_COMMIT_SUCC_STATIC]/
[SRELOC_COMMIT_STATIC]
DRELOC_PREP_STATIC The counter incremented when DRNC
received RANAP RELOCATION
REQUEST message.
DRELOC_PREP_SUCC_STATIC The counter incremented when RANAP
RELOCATION REQUEST
ACKNOWLEDGE message is sent by
RNC. This measurement item is
performed in only one domain if there
are two CN connected Nodes.
DRELOC_PREP_SUCC_RATE_STATIC [DRELOC_PREP_SUCC_STATIC]/
[DRELOC_PREP_STATIC].
DRELOC_COMMIT_STATIC The counter incremented when RNSAP
RELOCATION COMMIT message is
received.
319
DRELOC_COMMIT_SUCC_STATIC The counter incremented when RANAP
RELOCATION COMPLETE message is
sent.
DRELOC_COMMIT_SUCC_RATE_STATIC [DRELOC_COMMIT_SUCC_STATIC]/
[DRELOC_COMMIT_STATIC].
SRELOC_PREP_RATE [SRELOC_PREP_STATIC]/
[Measured Time Interval]
DRELOC_PREP_RATE [DRELOC_PREP_STATIC]/
[Measured Time Interval]
17.4Optimisation Guidelines
The following values for database parameters are suggested for USR2 from lab/field
tests performed for RNC5000.
Parameter Name Recommended
Value
Source Comments
SrnsrExpiryTime 60 Lab Testing
SrnsrDelayOffset 40 Lab Testing
SrnsrIurReselectTimerLen 10 MML
SrnsrMaxNum 50 MML
IurCchRelocTrigTimer 60 MML
UpSrnsrStartThd 60 MML
UpSrnsrStopThd 50 MML
Relocation_For_Delay_Optimization_Switc
h
1 Lab Testing
Iur_Trans_Optimize_transfer_Switch 1 Lab Testing
HoRelocReqTmr 5000 MML
RelocCmdTmr 10000 MML
RelocIurRelCmdTmr 10000 MML
RelocDataFwdTmr 10000 MML
RelocAnotherTmr 5000 MML
RelocCommitTmr 10000 MML
RelocMobileConfTmr 5000 MML
RelocPhyChRecfgTmr 5000 MML
RelocCellUpdtCnfRspTmr 5000 MML
RelocUtranHoCmpTmr 10000 MML
RelocSrnsCnxtReqTmr 10000 MML
RelocSrnsFwdCmdTmr 5000 MML
RelocFailIuRelTmr 3000 MML
17.4.1.1 Expected KPI Value
KPI Name Expected KPI Values
320
SRELOC_PREP_STATIC 99%
SRELOC_PREP_SUCC_STATIC 99%
SRELOC_PREP_SUCC_RATE_STATIC 99%
SRELOC_COMMIT_STATIC 99%
SRELOC_COMMIT_SUCC_STATIC 99%
SRELOC_COMMIT_SUCC_RATE_STATIC 99%
DRELOC_PREP_STATIC 99%
DRELOC_PREP_SUCC_STATIC 99%
DRELOC_PREP_SUCC_RATE_STATIC 99%
DRELOC_COMMIT_STATIC 99%
DRELOC_COMMIT_SUCC_STATIC 99%
DRELOC_COMMIT_SUCC_RATE_STATI
C
99%
SRELOC_PREP_RATE 99%
DRELOC_PREP_RATE 99%
17.4.1.2 KPI Test Validation Condition
Two test scenarios:
1. Iur delay triggered test -> functional test to verify the trigger delay is
consistent with configuration.
2. Iur capacity triggered test. -> functional test to verify the capacity threshold
triggered is consistent with configuration.
321