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MaLhemaLlcs

November 17, 2010


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modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov. modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.
1ab|e of Contents
Introduct|on ........................................................................................................................ 3
Mathemat|cs | Standards for Mathemat|ca| ract|ce .......................................................... 7
MaLhemaLlcs | klndergarLen .................................................................. Lrror! 8ookmark not def|ned.
MaLhemaLlcs | Crade 1 .......................................................................... Lrror! 8ookmark not def|ned.
MaLhemaLlcs | Crade 2 .......................................................................... Lrror! 8ookmark not def|ned.
MaLhemaLlcs | Crade 3 .......................................................................... Lrror! 8ookmark not def|ned.
MaLhemaLlcs | Crade 4 .......................................................................... Lrror! 8ookmark not def|ned.
MaLhemaLlcs | Crade 3 .......................................................................... Lrror! 8ookmark not def|ned.
MaLhemaLlcs | Crade 6 .......................................................................... Lrror! 8ookmark not def|ned.
MaLhemaLlcs | Crade 7 .......................................................................... Lrror! 8ookmark not def|ned.
MaLhemaLlcs | Crade 8 .......................................................................... Lrror! 8ookmark not def|ned.
MaLhemaLlcs SLandards for Plgh School ............................................................................................ 10
MaLhemaLlcs | Plgh School-number and CuanLlLy ......................................................................... 11
MaLhemaLlcs | Plgh School-Algebra ................................................................................................ 13
MaLhemaLlcs | Plgh School-luncLlons ............................................................................................. 20
MaLhemaLlcs | Plgh School-Modellng ............................................................................................. 23
MaLhemaLlcs | Plgh School-CeomeLry ............................................................................................ 27
MaLhemaLlcs | Plgh School- SLaLlsLlcs and robablllLy

................................................................. 33
G|ossary ............................................................................................................................. 38
Samp|e of Works Consu|ted ............................................................................................... 4S
Disclaimer: This document is up-to-date as of 11/17/2010. The language provided may not be Page 3 of 48
modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov. modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.
Introduct|on

lowa Core MaLhemaLlcs lncludes recommendaLlons for currlculum, lnsLrucLlon, and assessmenL, as well as sLandards for
maLhemaLlcal conLenL and maLhemaLlcal pracLlces. ln parLlcular, lowa Core MaLhemaLlcs ls bullL upon:

lowa Core's CharacLerlsLlcs of LffecLlve lnsLrucLlon
o 1eachlng for undersLandlng
o SLudenL-CenLered Classrooms
o 1eachlng for SLudenL ulfferences
o 8lgor and 8elevance
o AssessmenL for Learnlng
Common Core SLaLe SLandards for MaLhemaLlcs
o SLandards for MaLhemaLlcal racLlce
o SLandards for MaLhemaLlcal ConLenL

1o falLhfully lmplemenL lowa Core MaLhemaLlcs requlres Leachlng wlLh rlch maLhemaLlcal Lasks.

k|ch Mathemat|ca| 1asks
As sLaLed ln Common Core MaLhemaLlcs, MaLhemaLlcal undersLandlng and procedural sklll are equally lmporLanL, and boLh are
assessable uslng maLhemaLlcal Lasks of sufflclenL rlchness." (p. 3). 8y Leachlng Lhrough rlch maLhemaLlcal Lasks, sLudenLs develop
deep concepLual undersLandlng ooJ sklll proflclency. 8lch maLhemaLlcal Lasks lnvolve boLh:

1eachlng Lhrough roblem Solvlng wlLh roblem-8ased lnsLrucLlonal 1asks
uslng ulsLrlbuLed racLlce LhaL ls Meanlngful and urposeful

rob|em-8ased Instruct|ona| 1asks
roblem-based lnsLrucLlonal Lasks are aL Lhe hearL of Leachlng for undersLandlng. A world-class maLhemaLlcs currlculum should
be bullL around rlch lnsLrucLlonal Lasks focused on lmporLanL maLhemaLlcs.

roblem-based lnsLrucLlonal Lasks:
Pelp sLudenLs develop a deep undersLandlng of lmporLanL maLhemaLlcs
Lmphaslze connecLlons, across maLhemaLlcal conLenL areas, Lo oLher dlsclpllnes, and especlally Lo Lhe real world
Are accesslble yeL challenglng Lo all
Can be solved ln several ways
Lncourage sLudenL engagemenL and communlcaLlon
Lncourage Lhe use of connecLed mulLlple represenLaLlons
Lncourage approprlaLe use of lnLellecLual, physlcal, and Lechnologlcal Lools

D|str|buted ract|ce that |s Mean|ngfu| and urposefu|
racLlce ls essenLlal Lo learn maLhemaLlcs. Powever, Lo be effecLlve ln lmprovlng sLudenL achlevemenL, pracLlce musL be
meanlngful, purposeful, and dlsLrlbuLed.

Meanlngful urposeful ulsLrlbuLed racLlce:
Meanlngful: 8ullds on and exLends undersLandlng
urposeful: Llnks Lo currlculum goals and LargeLs an ldenLlfled need based on mulLlple daLa sources
ulsLrlbuLed: ConslsLs of shorL perlods of sysLemaLlc pracLlce dlsLrlbuLed over a long perlod of Llme


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modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov. modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.
1oward greater focus and coherence

Motbemotlcs expetleoces lo eotly cbllJbooJ settloqs sboolJ cooceottote oo (1) oombet (wblcb locloJes
wbole oombet, opetotloos, ooJ telotloos) ooJ (2) qeometty, spotlol telotloos, ooJ meosotemeot, wltb
mote motbemotlcs leotoloq tlme JevoteJ to oombet tboo to otbet toplcs. Motbemotlcol ptocess qools
sboolJ be loteqtoteJ lo tbese cooteot oteos.
- MaLhemaLlcs Learnlng ln Larly Chlldhood, naLlonal 8esearch Councll, 2009

1be composlte stooJotJs jof nooq kooq, koteo ooJ 5loqopote] bove o oombet of feototes tbot coo
lofotm oo lotetootloool beocbmotkloq ptocess fot tbe Jevelopmeot of k-6 motbemotlcs stooJotJs lo
tbe u.5. lltst, tbe composlte stooJotJs cooceottote tbe eotly leotoloq of motbemotlcs oo tbe oombet,
meosotemeot, ooJ qeometty sttooJs wltb less empbosls oo Joto ooolysls ooJ llttle exposote to
olqebto. 1be nooq kooq stooJotJs fot qtoJes 1-J Jevote opptoxlmotely bolf tbe totqeteJ tlme to
oombets ooJ olmost oll tbe tlme temololoq to qeometty ooJ meosotemeot.
- Clnsburg, Lelnwand and uecker, 2009

8ecoose tbe motbemotlcs coocepts lo ju.5.] textbooks ote ofteo weok, tbe pteseototloo becomes mote
mecboolcol tboo ls lJeol. we lookeJ ot botb ttoJltloool ooJ ooo-ttoJltloool textbooks oseJ lo tbe u5
ooJ foooJ tbls cooceptool weokoess lo botb.
- Clnsburg, eL al., 2003

1bete ote mooy woys to otqoolze cottlcolo. 1be cbolleoqe, oow totely met, ls to ovolJ tbose tbot
Jlstott motbemotlcs ooJ toto off stoJeots.
- SLeen., 2007

lor over a decade, research sLudles of maLhemaLlcs educaLlon ln hlgh-performlng counLrles have polnLed Lo Lhe concluslon LhaL
Lhe maLhemaLlcs currlculum ln Lhe unlLed SLaLes musL become subsLanLlally more focused and coherenL ln order Lo lmprove
maLhemaLlcs achlevemenL ln Lhls counLry. 1o dellver on Lhe promlse of common sLandards, Lhe sLandards musL address Lhe
problem of a currlculum LhaL ls "a mlle wlde and an lnch deep." 1hese SLandards are a subsLanLlal answer Lo LhaL challenge.

lL ls lmporLanL Lo recognlze LhaL fewer sLandards" are no subsLlLuLe for focused sLandards. Achlevlng "fewer sLandards" would
be easy Lo do by resorLlng Lo broad, general sLaLemenLs. lnsLead, Lhese SLandards alm for clarlLy and speclflclLy.

Assesslng Lhe coherence of a seL of sLandards ls more dlfflculL Lhan assesslng Lhelr focus. Wllllam SchmldL and 8lchard Pouang
(2002) have sald LhaL conLenL sLandards and currlcula are coherenL lf Lhey are:

ottlcoloteJ ovet tlme os o sepoeoce of toplcs ooJ petfotmooces tbot ote loqlcol ooJ teflect, wbete
opptoptlote, tbe sepoeotlol ot bletotcblcol ootote of tbe Jlsclpllooty cooteot ftom wblcb tbe sobject
mottet Jetlves. 1bot ls, wbot ooJ bow stoJeots ote tooqbt sboolJ teflect oot ooly tbe toplcs tbot foll
wltblo o cettolo ocoJemlc Jlsclplloe, !"# %&'( #)* +*, -.*%' tbot Jetetmloe bow koowleJqe ls
otqoolzeJ ooJ qeoetoteJ wltblo tbot Jlsclplloe. 1bls lmplles tbot to be cobeteot, o set of cooteot
stooJotJs most evolve ftom pottlcolots (e.q., tbe meooloq ooJ opetotloos of wbole oombets, locloJloq
slmple motb focts ooJ tootloe compototloool ptoceJotes ossocloteJ wltb wbole oombets ooJ
ftoctloos) to Jeepet sttoctotes lobeteot lo tbe Jlsclplloe. 1bese Jeepet sttoctotes tbeo setve os o meoos
fot coooectloq tbe pottlcolots (socb os oo ooJetstooJloq of tbe totloool oombet system ooJ lts
ptopettles). (empbosls oJJeJ)

1hese SLandards endeavor Lo follow such a deslgn, noL only by sLresslng concepLual undersLandlng of key ldeas, buL also by
conLlnually reLurnlng Lo organlzlng prlnclples such as place value or Lhe properLles of operaLlons Lo sLrucLure Lhose ldeas.

ln addlLlon, Lhe "sequence of Loplcs and performances" LhaL ls ouLllned ln a body of maLhemaLlcs sLandards musL also respecL
whaL ls known abouL how sLudenLs learn. As Confrey (2007) polnLs ouL, developlng "sequenced obsLacles and challenges for
sLudenL...absenL Lhe lnslghLs abouL meanlng LhaL derlve from careful sLudy of learnlng, would be unforLunaLe and unwlse." ln
recognlLlon of Lhls, Lhe developmenL of Lhese SLandards began wlLh research-based learnlng progresslons deLalllng whaL ls
known Loday abouL how sLudenLs' maLhemaLlcal knowledge, sklll, and undersLandlng develop over Llme.

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modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov. modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.
Understand|ng mathemat|cs
1hese SLandards deflne whaL sLudenLs should undersLand and be able Lo do ln Lhelr sLudy of maLhemaLlcs. Asklng a sLudenL Lo
undersLand someLhlng means asklng a Leacher Lo assess wheLher Lhe sLudenL has undersLood lL. 8uL whaL does maLhemaLlcal
undersLandlng look llke? Cne hallmark of maLhemaLlcal undersLandlng ls Lhe ablllLy Lo [usLlfy, ln a way approprlaLe Lo Lhe
sLudenL's maLhemaLlcal maLurlLy, why a parLlcular maLhemaLlcal sLaLemenL ls Lrue or where a maLhemaLlcal rule comes from.
1here ls a world of dlfference beLween a sLudenL who can summon a mnemonlc devlce Lo expand a producL such as (a + b)(x + y)
and a sLudenL who can explaln where Lhe mnemonlc comes from. 1he sLudenL who can explaln Lhe rule undersLands Lhe
maLhemaLlcs, and may have a beLLer chance Lo succeed aL a less famlllar Lask such as expandlng (a + b + c)(x + y). MaLhemaLlcal
undersLandlng and procedural sklll are equally lmporLanL, and boLh are assessable uslng maLhemaLlcal Lasks of sufflclenL
rlchness.

1he SLandards seL grade-speclflc sLandards buL do noL deflne Lhe lnLervenLlon meLhods or maLerlals necessary Lo supporL
sLudenLs who are well below or well above grade-level expecLaLlons. lL ls also beyond Lhe scope of Lhe SLandards Lo deflne Lhe
full range of supporLs approprlaLe for Lngllsh language learners and for sLudenLs wlLh speclal needs. AL Lhe same Llme, all
sLudenLs musL have Lhe opporLunlLy Lo learn and meeL Lhe same hlgh sLandards lf Lhey are Lo access Lhe knowledge and skllls
necessary ln Lhelr posL-school llves. 1he SLandards should be read as allowlng for Lhe wldesL posslble range of sLudenLs Lo
parLlclpaLe fully from Lhe ouLseL, along wlLh approprlaLe accommodaLlons Lo ensure maxlmum parLlclpaLlon of sLudenLs wlLh
speclal educaLlon needs. lor example, for sLudenLs wlLh dlsablllLles readlng should allow for use of 8rallle, screen reader
Lechnology, or oLher asslsLlve devlces, whlle wrlLlng should lnclude Lhe use of a scrlbe, compuLer, or speech-Lo-LexL Lechnology.
ln a slmllar veln, speaklng and llsLenlng should be lnLerpreLed broadly Lo lnclude slgn language. no seL of grade-speclflc sLandards
can fully reflecL Lhe greaL varleLy ln ablllLles, needs, learnlng raLes, and achlevemenL levels of sLudenLs ln any glven classroom.
Powever, Lhe SLandards do provlde clear slgnposLs along Lhe way Lo Lhe goal of college and career readlness for all sLudenLs.

1he SLandards begln on page 7 wlLh elghL SLandards for MaLhemaLlcal racLlce.

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modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov. modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.
now to read the grade |eve| standards

Standards deflne whaL sLudenLs should undersLand and be able Lo do.

C|usters are groups of relaLed sLandards. noLe LhaL sLandards from dlfferenL clusLers may someLlmes be closely relaLed, because
maLhemaLlcs ls a connecLed sub[ecL.

Doma|ns are larger groups of relaLed sLandards. SLandards from dlfferenL domalns may someLlmes be closely relaLed.



Number and Cperat|ons |n 8ase 1en 3.N81
Use p|ace va|ue understand|ng and propert|es of operat|ons to perform mu|t|-d|g|t ar|thmet|c.
1. use place value undersLandlng Lo round whole numbers Lo Lhe nearesL 10 or 100.
2. lluenLly add and subLracL wlLhln 1000 uslng sLraLegles and algorlLhms based on place
value, properLles of operaLlons, and/or Lhe relaLlonshlp beLween addlLlon and
subLracLlon.
3. MulLlply one-dlglL whole numbers by mulLlples of 10 ln Lhe range 10-90 (e.g., 9 80, 3
60) uslng sLraLegles based on place value and properLles of operaLlons.


1hese SLandards do noL dlcLaLe currlculum or Leachlng meLhods. lor example, [usL because Loplc A appears before Loplc 8 ln Lhe
sLandards for a glven grade, lL does noL necessarlly mean LhaL Loplc A musL be LaughL before Loplc 8. A Leacher mlghL
prefer Lo Leach Loplc 8 before Loplc A, or mlghL choose Lo hlghllghL connecLlons by Leachlng Loplc A and Loplc 8 aL Lhe same Llme.
Cr, a Leacher mlghL prefer Lo Leach a Loplc of hls or her own chooslng LhaL leads, as a byproducL, Lo sLudenLs reachlng Lhe
sLandards for Loplcs A and 8.

WhaL sLudenLs can learn aL any parLlcular grade level depends upon whaL Lhey have learned before. ldeally Lhen, each sLandard
ln Lhls documenL mlghL have been phrased ln Lhe form, "SLudenLs who already know ... should nexL come Lo learn ...." 8uL aL
presenL Lhls approach ls unreallsLlc-noL leasL because exlsLlng educaLlon research cannoL speclfy all such learnlng paLhways. Cf
necesslLy Lherefore, grade placemenLs for speclflc Loplcs have been made on Lhe basls of sLaLe and lnLernaLlonal comparlsons
and Lhe collecLlve experlence and collecLlve professlonal [udgmenL of educaLors, researchers and maLhemaLlclans. Cne promlse
of common sLaLe sLandards ls LhaL over Llme Lhey wlll allow research on learnlng progresslons Lo lnform and lmprove Lhe deslgn
of sLandards Lo a much greaLer exLenL Lhan ls posslble Loday. Learnlng opporLunlLles wlll conLlnue Lo vary across schools and
school sysLems, and educaLors should make every efforL Lo meeL Lhe needs of lndlvldual sLudenLs based on Lhelr currenL
undersLandlng.

1hese SLandards are noL lnLended Lo be new names for old ways of dolng buslness. 1hey are a call Lo Lake Lhe nexL sLep. lL ls Llme
for sLaLes Lo work LogeLher Lo bulld on lessons learned from Lwo decades of sLandards based reforms. lL ls Llme Lo recognlze LhaL
sLandards are noL [usL promlses Lo our chlldren, buL promlses we lnLend Lo keep.

Doma|n
C|uster
Standard
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modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov. modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.
Mathemat|cs | Standards for Mathemat|ca| ract|ce

1he SLandards for MaLhemaLlcal racLlce descrlbe varleLles of experLlse LhaL maLhemaLlcs educaLors aL all levels should seek Lo
develop ln Lhelr sLudenLs. 1hese pracLlces resL on lmporLanL "processes and proflclencles" wlLh longsLandlng lmporLance ln
maLhemaLlcs educaLlon. 1he flrsL of Lhese are Lhe nC1M process sLandards of problem solvlng, reasonlng and proof,
communlcaLlon, represenLaLlon, and connecLlons. 1he second are Lhe sLrands of maLhemaLlcal proflclency speclfled ln Lhe
naLlonal 8esearch Councll's reporL AJJloq lt up. adapLlve reasonlng, sLraLeglc compeLence, concepLual undersLandlng
(comprehenslon of maLhemaLlcal concepLs, operaLlons and relaLlons), procedural fluency (sklll ln carrylng ouL procedures
flexlbly, accuraLely, efflclenLly and approprlaLely), and producLlve dlsposlLlon (hablLual lncllnaLlon Lo see maLhemaLlcs as
senslble, useful, and worLhwhlle, coupled wlLh a bellef ln dlllgence and one's own efflcacy).

1. Make sense of prob|ems and persevere |n so|v|ng them.
MaLhemaLlcally proflclenL sLudenLs sLarL by explalnlng Lo Lhemselves Lhe meanlng of a problem and looklng for enLry
polnLs Lo lLs soluLlon. 1hey analyze glvens, consLralnLs, relaLlonshlps, and goals. 1hey make con[ecLures abouL Lhe form
and meanlng of Lhe soluLlon and plan a soluLlon paLhway raLher Lhan slmply [umplng lnLo a soluLlon aLLempL. 1hey
conslder analogous problems, and Lry speclal cases and slmpler forms of Lhe orlglnal problem ln order Lo galn lnslghL
lnLo lLs soluLlon. 1hey monlLor and evaluaLe Lhelr progress and change course lf necessary. Clder sLudenLs mlghL,
dependlng on Lhe conLexL of Lhe problem, Lransform algebralc expresslons or change Lhe vlewlng wlndow on Lhelr
graphlng calculaLor Lo geL Lhe lnformaLlon Lhey need. MaLhemaLlcally proflclenL sLudenLs can explaln correspondences
beLween equaLlons, verbal descrlpLlons, Lables, and graphs or draw dlagrams of lmporLanL feaLures and relaLlonshlps,
graph daLa, and search for regularlLy or Lrends. ?ounger sLudenLs mlghL rely on uslng concreLe ob[ecLs or plcLures Lo
help concepLuallze and solve a problem. MaLhemaLlcally proflclenL sLudenLs check Lhelr answers Lo problems uslng a
dlfferenL meLhod, and Lhey conLlnually ask Lhemselves, "uoes Lhls make sense?" 1hey can undersLand Lhe approaches of
oLhers Lo solvlng complex problems and ldenLlfy correspondences beLween dlfferenL approaches.

2. keason abstract|y and quant|tat|ve|y.
MaLhemaLlcally proflclenL sLudenLs make sense of quanLlLles and Lhelr relaLlonshlps ln problem slLuaLlons. 1hey brlng
Lwo complemenLary ablllLles Lo bear on problems lnvolvlng quanLlLaLlve relaLlonshlps: Lhe ablllLy Lo Jecootextoollze-Lo
absLracL a glven slLuaLlon and represenL lL symbollcally and manlpulaLe Lhe represenLlng symbols as lf Lhey have a llfe of
Lhelr own, wlLhouL necessarlly aLLendlng Lo Lhelr referenLs-and Lhe ablllLy Lo cootextoollze, Lo pause as needed durlng
Lhe manlpulaLlon process ln order Lo probe lnLo Lhe referenLs for Lhe symbols lnvolved. CuanLlLaLlve reasonlng enLalls
hablLs of creaLlng a coherenL represenLaLlon of Lhe problem aL hand, conslderlng Lhe unlLs lnvolved, aLLendlng Lo Lhe
meanlng of quanLlLles, noL [usL how Lo compuLe Lhem, and knowlng and flexlbly uslng dlfferenL properLles of operaLlons
and ob[ecLs.

3. Construct v|ab|e arguments and cr|t|que the reason|ng of others.
MaLhemaLlcally proflclenL sLudenLs undersLand and use sLaLed assumpLlons, deflnlLlons, and prevlously esLabllshed
resulLs ln consLrucLlng argumenLs. 1hey make con[ecLures and bulld a loglcal progresslon of sLaLemenLs Lo explore Lhe
LruLh of Lhelr con[ecLures. 1hey are able Lo analyze slLuaLlons by breaklng Lhem lnLo cases, and can recognlze and use
counLerexamples. 1hey [usLlfy Lhelr concluslons, communlcaLe Lhem Lo oLhers, and respond Lo Lhe argumenLs of oLhers.
1hey reason lnducLlvely abouL daLa, maklng plauslble argumenLs LhaL Lake lnLo accounL Lhe conLexL from whlch Lhe daLa
arose. MaLhemaLlcally proflclenL sLudenLs are also able Lo compare Lhe effecLlveness of Lwo plauslble argumenLs,
dlsLlngulsh correcL loglc or reasonlng from LhaL whlch ls flawed, and-lf Lhere ls a flaw ln an argumenL-explaln whaL lL
ls. LlemenLary sLudenLs can consLrucL argumenLs uslng concreLe referenLs such as ob[ecLs, drawlngs, dlagrams, and
acLlons. Such argumenLs can make sense and be correcL, even Lhough Lhey are noL generallzed or made formal unLll
laLer grades. LaLer, sLudenLs learn Lo deLermlne domalns Lo whlch an argumenL applles. SLudenLs aL all grades can llsLen
or read Lhe argumenLs of oLhers, declde wheLher Lhey make sense, and ask useful quesLlons Lo clarlfy or lmprove Lhe
argumenLs.
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modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov. modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.

4. Mode| w|th mathemat|cs.
MaLhemaLlcally proflclenL sLudenLs can apply Lhe maLhemaLlcs Lhey know Lo solve problems arlslng ln everyday llfe,
socleLy, and Lhe workplace. ln early grades, Lhls mlghL be as slmple as wrlLlng an addlLlon equaLlon Lo descrlbe a
slLuaLlon. ln mlddle grades, a sLudenL mlghL apply proporLlonal reasonlng Lo plan a school evenL or analyze a problem ln
Lhe communlLy. 8y hlgh school, a sLudenL mlghL use geomeLry Lo solve a deslgn problem or use a funcLlon Lo descrlbe
how one quanLlLy of lnLeresL depends on anoLher. MaLhemaLlcally proflclenL sLudenLs who can apply whaL Lhey know
are comforLable maklng assumpLlons and approxlmaLlons Lo slmpllfy a compllcaLed slLuaLlon, reallzlng LhaL Lhese may
need revlslon laLer. 1hey are able Lo ldenLlfy lmporLanL quanLlLles ln a pracLlcal slLuaLlon and map Lhelr relaLlonshlps
uslng such Lools as dlagrams, Lwo-way Lables, graphs, flowcharLs and formulas. 1hey can analyze Lhose relaLlonshlps
maLhemaLlcally Lo draw concluslons. 1hey rouLlnely lnLerpreL Lhelr maLhemaLlcal resulLs ln Lhe conLexL of Lhe slLuaLlon
and reflecL on wheLher Lhe resulLs make sense, posslbly lmprovlng Lhe model lf lL has noL served lLs purpose.

S. Use appropr|ate too|s strateg|ca||y.
MaLhemaLlcally proflclenL sLudenLs conslder Lhe avallable Lools when solvlng a maLhemaLlcal problem. 1hese Lools
mlghL lnclude pencll and paper, concreLe models, a ruler, a proLracLor, a calculaLor, a spreadsheeL, a compuLer algebra
sysLem, a sLaLlsLlcal package, or dynamlc geomeLry sofLware. roflclenL sLudenLs are sufflclenLly famlllar wlLh Lools
approprlaLe for Lhelr grade or course Lo make sound declslons abouL when each of Lhese Lools mlghL be helpful,
recognlzlng boLh Lhe lnslghL Lo be galned and Lhelr llmlLaLlons. lor example, maLhemaLlcally proflclenL hlgh school
sLudenLs analyze graphs of funcLlons and soluLlons generaLed uslng a graphlng calculaLor. 1hey deLecL posslble errors by
sLraLeglcally uslng esLlmaLlon and oLher maLhemaLlcal knowledge. When maklng maLhemaLlcal models, Lhey know LhaL
Lechnology can enable Lhem Lo vlsuallze Lhe resulLs of varylng assumpLlons, explore consequences, and compare
predlcLlons wlLh daLa. MaLhemaLlcally proflclenL sLudenLs aL varlous grade levels are able Lo ldenLlfy relevanL exLernal
maLhemaLlcal resources, such as dlglLal conLenL locaLed on a webslLe, and use Lhem Lo pose or solve problems. 1hey are
able Lo use Lechnologlcal Lools Lo explore and deepen Lhelr undersLandlng of concepLs.

6. Attend to prec|s|on.
MaLhemaLlcally proflclenL sLudenLs Lry Lo communlcaLe preclsely Lo oLhers. 1hey Lry Lo use clear deflnlLlons ln dlscusslon
wlLh oLhers and ln Lhelr own reasonlng. 1hey sLaLe Lhe meanlng of Lhe symbols Lhey choose, lncludlng uslng Lhe equal
slgn conslsLenLly and approprlaLely. 1hey are careful abouL speclfylng unlLs of measure, and labellng axes Lo clarlfy Lhe
correspondence wlLh quanLlLles ln a problem. 1hey calculaLe accuraLely and efflclenLly, express numerlcal answers wlLh
a degree of preclslon approprlaLe for Lhe problem conLexL. ln Lhe elemenLary grades, sLudenLs glve carefully formulaLed
explanaLlons Lo each oLher. 8y Lhe Llme Lhey reach hlgh school Lhey have learned Lo examlne clalms and make expllclL
use of deflnlLlons.

7. Look for and make use of structure.
MaLhemaLlcally proflclenL sLudenLs look closely Lo dlscern a paLLern or sLrucLure. ?oung sLudenLs, for example, mlghL
noLlce LhaL Lhree and seven more ls Lhe same amounL as seven and Lhree more, or Lhey may sorL a collecLlon of shapes
accordlng Lo how many sldes Lhe shapes have. LaLer, sLudenLs wlll see 7 8 equals Lhe well remembered 7 3 + 7 3, ln
preparaLlon for learnlng abouL Lhe dlsLrlbuLlve properLy. ln Lhe expresslon x
2
+ 9x + 14, older sLudenLs can see Lhe 14 as
2 7 and Lhe 9 as 2 + 7. 1hey recognlze Lhe slgnlflcance of an exlsLlng llne ln a geomeLrlc flgure and can use Lhe sLraLegy
of drawlng an auxlllary llne for solvlng problems. 1hey also can sLep back for an overvlew and shlfL perspecLlve. 1hey can
see compllcaLed Lhlngs, such as some algebralc expresslons, as slngle ob[ecLs or as belng composed of several ob[ecLs.
lor example, Lhey can see 3 - 3(x - y)
2
as 3 mlnus a poslLlve number Llmes a square and use LhaL Lo reallze LhaL lLs value
cannoL be more Lhan 3 for any real numbers x and y.

SLudenLs who look for paLLerns ln Lhelr envlronmenL expecL Lhlngs Lo make sense and develop a hablL of flndlng
relaLlonshlps and maklng predlcLlons. SLudenLs should lnvesLlgaLe paLLerns ln number, shape, daLa, change, and chance.
1hey should be glven opporLunlLles Lo learn how Lo represenL Lhose paLLerns numerlcally, geomeLrlcally and/or
algebralcally.

Disclaimer: This document is up-to-date as of 11/17/2010. The language provided may not be Page 9 of 48
modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov. modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.
8. Look for and express regu|ar|ty |n repeated reason|ng.
MaLhemaLlcally proflclenL sLudenLs noLlce lf calculaLlons are repeaLed, and look boLh for general meLhods and for
shorLcuLs. upper elemenLary sLudenLs mlghL noLlce when dlvldlng 23 by 11 LhaL Lhey are repeaLlng Lhe same
calculaLlons over and over agaln, and conclude Lhey have a repeaLlng declmal. 8y paylng aLLenLlon Lo Lhe calculaLlon of
slope as Lhey repeaLedly check wheLher polnLs are on Lhe llne Lhrough (1, 2) wlLh slope 3, mlddle school sLudenLs mlghL
absLracL Lhe equaLlon (y - 2)/(x - 1) = 3. noLlclng Lhe regularlLy ln Lhe way Lerms cancel when expandlng (x - 1)(x + 1), (x
- 1)(x
2
+ x + 1), and (x - 1)(x
3
+ x
2
+ x + 1) mlghL lead Lhem Lo Lhe general formula for Lhe sum of a geomeLrlc serles. As
Lhey work Lo solve a problem, maLhemaLlcally proflclenL sLudenLs malnLaln overslghL of Lhe process, whlle aLLendlng Lo
Lhe deLalls. 1hey conLlnually evaluaLe Lhe reasonableness of Lhelr lnLermedlaLe resulLs.

Connect|ng the Standards for Mathemat|ca| ract|ce to the Standards for Mathemat|ca| Content
1he SLandards for MaLhemaLlcal racLlce descrlbe ways ln whlch developlng sLudenL pracLlLloners of Lhe dlsclpllne of
maLhemaLlcs lncreaslngly oughL Lo engage wlLh Lhe sub[ecL maLLer as Lhey grow ln maLhemaLlcal maLurlLy and experLlse
LhroughouL Lhe elemenLary, mlddle and hlgh school years. ueslgners of currlcula, assessmenLs, and professlonal developmenL
should all aLLend Lo Lhe need Lo connecL Lhe maLhemaLlcal pracLlces Lo maLhemaLlcal conLenL ln maLhemaLlcs lnsLrucLlon.

1he SLandards for MaLhemaLlcal ConLenL are a balanced comblnaLlon of procedure and undersLandlng. LxpecLaLlons LhaL begln
wlLh Lhe word "undersLand" are ofLen especlally good opporLunlLles Lo connecL Lhe pracLlces Lo Lhe conLenL. SLudenLs who lack
undersLandlng of a Loplc may rely on procedures Loo heavlly. WlLhouL a flexlble base from whlch Lo work, Lhey may be less llkely
Lo conslder analogous problems, represenL problems coherenLly, [usLlfy concluslons, apply Lhe maLhemaLlcs Lo pracLlcal
slLuaLlons, use Lechnology mlndfully Lo work wlLh Lhe maLhemaLlcs, explaln Lhe maLhemaLlcs accuraLely Lo oLher sLudenLs, sLep
back for an overvlew, or devlaLe from a known procedure Lo flnd a shorLcuL. ln shorL, a lack of undersLandlng effecLlvely prevenLs
a sLudenL from engaglng ln Lhe maLhemaLlcal pracLlces.

ln Lhls respecL, Lhose conLenL sLandards whlch seL an expecLaLlon of undersLandlng are poLenLlal "polnLs of lnLersecLlon"
beLween Lhe SLandards for MaLhemaLlcal ConLenL and Lhe SLandards for MaLhemaLlcal racLlce. 1hese polnLs of lnLersecLlon are
lnLended Lo be welghLed Loward cenLral and generaLlve concepLs ln Lhe school maLhemaLlcs currlculum LhaL mosL merlL Lhe Llme,
resources, lnnovaLlve energles, and focus necessary Lo quallLaLlvely lmprove Lhe currlculum, lnsLrucLlon, assessmenL,
professlonal developmenL, and sLudenL achlevemenL ln maLhemaLlcs.

Disclaimer: This document is up-to-date as of 11/17/2010. The language provided may not be Page 10 of 48
modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.
Mathemat|cs Standards for n|gh Schoo|
1he hlgh school sLandards speclfy Lhe maLhemaLlcs LhaL all sLudenLs should sLudy ln order Lo be college and career ready.
AddlLlonal maLhemaLlcs LhaL sLudenLs should learn ln order Lo Lake advanced courses such as calculus, advanced sLaLlsLlcs, or
dlscreLe maLhemaLlcs ls lndlcaLed by (+), as ln Lhls example:

(+) 8epresenL complex numbers on Lhe complex plane ln recLangular and polar form (lncludlng real
and lmaglnary numbers).

All sLandards wlLhouL a (+) symbol should be ln Lhe common maLhemaLlcs currlculum for all college and career ready sLudenLs.
SLandards wlLh a (+) symbol may also appear ln courses lnLended for all sLudenLs.

1he hlgh school sLandards are llsLed ln concepLual caLegorles:
number and CuanLlLy
Algebra
luncLlons
Modellng
CeomeLry
SLaLlsLlcs and robablllLy

ConcepLual caLegorles porLray a coherenL vlew of hlgh school maLhemaLlcs, a sLudenL's work wlLh funcLlons, for example, crosses
a number of LradlLlonal course boundarles, poLenLlally up Lhrough and lncludlng calculus.

Modellng ls besL lnLerpreLed noL as a collecLlon of lsolaLed Loplcs buL ln relaLlon Lo oLher sLandards. Maklng maLhemaLlcal
models ls a SLandard for MaLhemaLlcal racLlce, and speclflc modellng sLandards appear LhroughouL Lhe hlgh school sLandards
lndlcaLed by a sLar symbol (

). 1he sLar symbol someLlmes appears on Lhe headlng for a group of sLandards, ln LhaL case, lL
should be undersLood Lo apply Lo all sLandards ln LhaL group.

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modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.
Mathemat|cs | n|gh Schoo|Number and uant|ty

Numbers and Number Systems. uurlng Lhe years from klndergarLen Lo elghLh grade, sLudenLs musL repeaLedly exLend Lhelr
concepLlon of number. AL flrsL, "number" means "counLlng number": 1, 2, 3... Soon afLer LhaL, 0 ls used Lo represenL "none" and
Lhe whole numbers are formed by Lhe counLlng numbers LogeLher wlLh zero. 1he nexL exLenslon ls fracLlons. AL flrsL, fracLlons are
barely numbers and Lled sLrongly Lo plcLorlal represenLaLlons. ?eL by Lhe Llme sLudenLs undersLand dlvlslon of fracLlons, Lhey
have a sLrong concepL of fracLlons as numbers and have connecLed Lhem, vla Lhelr declmal represenLaLlons, wlLh Lhe base-Len
sysLem used Lo represenL Lhe whole numbers. uurlng mlddle school, fracLlons are augmenLed by negaLlve fracLlons Lo form Lhe
raLlonal numbers. ln Crade 8, sLudenLs exLend Lhls sysLem once more, augmenLlng Lhe raLlonal numbers wlLh Lhe lrraLlonal
numbers Lo form Lhe real numbers. ln hlgh school, sLudenLs wlll be exposed Lo yeL anoLher exLenslon of number, when Lhe real
numbers are augmenLed by Lhe lmaglnary numbers Lo form Lhe complex numbers.

WlLh each exLenslon of number, Lhe meanlngs of addlLlon, subLracLlon, mulLlpllcaLlon, and dlvlslon are exLended. ln each new
number sysLem-lnLegers, raLlonal numbers, real numbers, and complex numbers-Lhe four operaLlons sLay Lhe same ln Lwo
lmporLanL ways: 1hey have Lhe commuLaLlve, assoclaLlve, and dlsLrlbuLlve properLles and Lhelr new meanlngs are conslsLenL wlLh
Lhelr prevlous meanlngs.

LxLendlng Lhe properLles of whole-number exponenLs leads Lo new and producLlve noLaLlon. lor example, properLles of whole-
number exponenLs suggesL LhaL (3
1/3
)
3
should be 3
(1/3)3
= 3
1
= 3 and LhaL 3
1/3
should be Lhe cube rooL of 3.

CalculaLors, spreadsheeLs, and compuLer algebra sysLems can provlde ways for sLudenLs Lo become beLLer acqualnLed wlLh Lhese
new number sysLems and Lhelr noLaLlon. 1hey can be used Lo generaLe daLa for numerlcal experlmenLs, Lo help undersLand Lhe
worklngs of maLrlx, vecLor, and complex number algebra, and Lo experlmenL wlLh non-lnLeger exponenLs.


uant|t|es. ln real world problems, Lhe answers are usually noL numbers buL quanLlLles: numbers wlLh unlLs, whlch lnvolves
measuremenL. ln Lhelr work ln measuremenL up Lhrough Crade 8, sLudenLs prlmarlly measure commonly used aLLrlbuLes such as
lengLh, area, and volume. ln hlgh school, sLudenLs encounLer a wlder varleLy of unlLs ln modellng, e.g., acceleraLlon, currency
converslons, derlved quanLlLles such as person-hours and heaLlng degree days, soclal sclence raLes such as per-caplLa lncome,
and raLes ln everyday llfe such as polnLs scored per game or baLLlng averages. 1hey also encounLer novel slLuaLlons ln whlch Lhey
Lhemselves musL concelve Lhe aLLrlbuLes of lnLeresL. lor example, Lo flnd a good measure of overall hlghway safeLy, Lhey mlghL
propose measures such as faLallLles per year, faLallLles per year per drlver, or faLallLles per vehlcle-mlle Lraveled. Such a
concepLual process ls someLlmes called quanLlflcaLlon. CuanLlflcaLlon ls lmporLanL for sclence, as when surface area suddenly
sLands ouL" as an lmporLanL varlable ln evaporaLlon. CuanLlflcaLlon ls also lmporLanL for companles, whlch musL concepLuallze
relevanL aLLrlbuLes and creaLe or choose sulLable measures for Lhem.

Disclaimer: This document is up-to-date as of 11/17/2010. The language provided may not be Page 12 of 48
modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.
Number and uant|ty Cverv|ew

1he 8eal number SysLem
LxLend Lhe properLles of exponenLs Lo raLlonal exponenLs
use properLles of raLlonal and lrraLlonal numbers.


CuanLlLles
8eason quanLlLaLlvely and use unlLs Lo solve problems
(lA) undersLand and apply Lhe maLhemaLlcs of voLlng.
(lA) undersLand and apply some baslc maLhemaLlcs of
lnformaLlon processlng and Lhe lnLerneL.


1he Complex number SysLem
erform arlLhmeLlc operaLlons wlLh complex numbers
8epresenL complex numbers and Lhelr operaLlons on
Lhe complex plane
use complex numbers ln polynomlal ldenLlLles and equaLlons


vecLor and MaLrlx CuanLlLles
8epresenL and model wlLh vecLor quanLlLles.
erform operaLlons on vecLors.
erform operaLlons on maLrlces and use
maLrlces ln appllcaLlons.


Mathemat|ca| ract|ces

1. Make sense of problems and
persevere ln solvlng Lhem.
2. 8eason absLracLly and quanLlLaLlvely.
3. ConsLrucL vlable argumenLs and
crlLlque Lhe reasonlng of oLhers.
4. Model wlLh maLhemaLlcs.
3. use approprlaLe Lools sLraLeglcally.
6. ALLend Lo preclslon.
7. Look for and make use of sLrucLure.
8. Look for and express regularlLy ln
repeaLed reasonlng.

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modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.

1he kea| Number System N-kN
Lxtend the propert|es of exponents to rat|ona| exponents.
Alg 7-2, 7-3,
7-4
1. Lxplaln how Lhe deflnlLlon of Lhe meanlng of raLlonal exponenLs follows from
exLendlng Lhe properLles of lnLeger exponenLs Lo Lhose values, allowlng for a
noLaLlon for radlcals ln Lerms of raLlonal exponenLs. lot exomple, we Jefloe 5
1/J
to
be Lhe cube rooL of 3 because we wanL (3
1/3
)
3
= 3
(1/3)3
Lo hold, so (3
1/3
)
3
musL equal
3. (N-kN.1.)

Alg 7-3 2. 8ewrlLe expresslons lnvolvlng radlcals and raLlonal exponenLs uslng Lhe properLles
of exponenLs. (N-kN.2.)

Use propert|es of rat|ona| and |rrat|ona| numbers.
Alg C8 1-6 3. Lxplaln why Lhe sum or producL of Lwo raLlonal numbers ls raLlonal, LhaL Lhe sum of
a raLlonal number and an lrraLlonal number ls lrraLlonal, and LhaL Lhe producL of a
nonzero raLlonal number and an lrraLlonal number ls lrraLlonal. (N-kN.3.)

uant|t|es

N-
keason quant|tat|ve|y and use un|ts to so|ve prob|ems.
Alg 2-3, 2-6,
2-7, 4-4, 3-7,
12-2, 12-4
Ceo 1 - 8
1. use unlLs as a way Lo undersLand problems and Lo gulde Lhe soluLlon of mulLl-sLep
problems, choose and lnLerpreL unlLs conslsLenLly ln formulas, choose and lnLerpreL
Lhe scale and Lhe orlgln ln graphs and daLa dlsplays. (N-.1.)

Alg 2-6, 3-3,
4-3, 3-2, 12-3
2. ueflne approprlaLe quanLlLles for Lhe purpose of descrlpLlve modellng. (N-.2.)
Alg 2-10, 6-4,
9-3, 9-6
3. Choose a level of accuracy approprlaLe Lo llmlLaLlons on measuremenL when
reporLlng quanLlLles. (N-.3.)

(IA) Understand and app|y the mathemat|cs of vot|ng.
lA.3.undersLand, analyze, apply, and evaluaLe some common voLlng and analysls
meLhods ln addlLlon Lo ma[orlLy and plurallLy, such as runoff, approval, Lhe so-
called lnsLanL-runoff voLlng (l8v) meLhod, Lhe 8orda meLhod and Lhe CondorceL
meLhod.

(IA) Understand and app|y some bas|c mathemat|cs of |nformat|on process|ng and the
Internet.

lA.4.(+) uescrlbe Lhe role of maLhemaLlcs ln lnformaLlon processlng, parLlcularly wlLh
respecL Lo Lhe lnLerneL.

lA.3.(+) undersLand and apply elemenLary seL Lheory and loglc as used ln slmple
lnLerneL searches.

lA. 6.(+) undersLand and apply baslc number Lheory, lncludlng modular arlLhmeLlc, for
example, as used ln keeplng lnformaLlon secure Lhrough publlc-key crypLography.

1he Comp|ex Number System N-CN
erform ar|thmet|c operat|ons w|th comp|ex numbers.
1. know Lhere ls a complex number l such LhaL l
2
= -1, and every complex number has
Lhe form o + bl wlLh o and b real. (N-CN.1.)
Alg ll 4-8
2. use Lhe relaLlon l
2
= -1 and Lhe commuLaLlve, assoclaLlve, and dlsLrlbuLlve
properLles Lo add, subLracL, and mulLlply complex numbers. (N-CN.2.)
Alg ll 4-8
3. (+) llnd Lhe con[ugaLe of a complex number, use con[ugaLes Lo flnd modull and
quoLlenLs of complex numbers. (N-CN.3.)

kepresent comp|ex numbers and the|r operat|ons on the comp|ex p|ane.
4. (+) 8epresenL complex numbers on Lhe complex plane ln recLangular and polar
form (lncludlng real and lmaglnary numbers), and explaln why Lhe recLangular and
polar forms of a glven complex number represenL Lhe same number. (N-CN.4.)

3. (+) 8epresenL addlLlon, subLracLlon, mulLlpllcaLlon, and con[ugaLlon of complex
numbers geomeLrlcally on Lhe complex plane, use properLles of Lhls represenLaLlon
for compuLaLlon. lot exomple, (-1 - vJ l)
J
= 8 becoose (-1 - vJ l) bos moJolos 2 ooJ
otqomeot 120. (N-CN.S.)
Alg ll 4-8
6. (+) CalculaLe Lhe dlsLance beLween numbers ln Lhe complex plane as Lhe modulus
of Lhe dlfference, and Lhe mldpolnL of a segmenL as Lhe average of Lhe numbers aL
lLs endpolnLs. (N-CN.6.)


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modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.
Use comp|ex numbers |n po|ynom|a| |dent|t|es and equat|ons.
7. Solve quadraLlc equaLlons wlLh real coefflclenLs LhaL have complex soluLlons. (N-
CN.7.)
Alg ll 4-8, 3-3,
3-6
8. (+) LxLend polynomlal ldenLlLles Lo Lhe complex numbers. lot exomple, tewtlte x
2
-
4 os (x - 2l)(x - 2l). (N-CN.8.)
Alg ll 4-8, 3-3,
3-6
9. (+) know Lhe lundamenLal 1heorem of Algebra, show LhaL lL ls Lrue for quadraLlc
polynomlals. (N-CN.9.)
Alg ll 3-6
Vector and Matr|x uant|t|es N-VM
kepresent and mode| w|th vector quant|t|es.
1. (+) 8ecognlze vecLor quanLlLles as havlng boLh magnlLude and dlrecLlon. 8epresenL
vecLor quanLlLles by dlrecLed llne segmenLs, and use approprlaLe symbols for
vecLors and Lhelr magnlLudes (e.g., /, |/|, ||/||, v). (N-VM.1.)
Alg ll 12-6
2. (+) llnd Lhe componenLs of a vecLor by subLracLlng Lhe coordlnaLes of an lnlLlal
polnL from Lhe coordlnaLes of a Lermlnal polnL. (N-VM.2.)
Alg ll 12-6
3. (+) Solve problems lnvolvlng veloclLy and oLher quanLlLles LhaL can be represenLed
by vecLors. (N-VM.3.)
Alg ll 12-6
erform operat|ons on vectors.
4. (+) Add and subLracL vecLors.
a. a. Add vecLors end-Lo-end, componenL-wlse, and by Lhe parallelogram
rule. undersLand LhaL Lhe magnlLude of a sum of Lwo vecLors ls Lyplcally
noL Lhe sum of Lhe magnlLudes.
b. b. Clven Lwo vecLors ln magnlLude and dlrecLlon form, deLermlne Lhe
magnlLude and dlrecLlon of Lhelr sum.
c. c. undersLand vecLor subLracLlon / 0 1 as / + (01), where 01 ls Lhe
addlLlve lnverse of 1, wlLh Lhe same magnlLude as w and polnLlng ln Lhe
opposlLe dlrecLlon. 8epresenL vecLor subLracLlon graphlcally by connecLlng
Lhe Llps ln Lhe approprlaLe order, and perform vecLor subLracLlon
componenL-wlse. (N-VM.4.)
Alg ll 12-6
3. (+) MulLlply a vecLor by a scalar.
a. 8epresenL scalar mulLlpllcaLlon graphlcally by scallng vecLors and posslbly
reverslng Lhelr dlrecLlon, perform scalar mulLlpllcaLlon componenL-wlse,
e.g., as c(v
x
, v
y
) = (cv
x
, cv
y
).
b. CompuLe Lhe magnlLude of a scalar mulLlple c/ uslng ||c/|| = |c|v.
CompuLe Lhe dlrecLlon of c/ knowlng LhaL when |c|v = 0, Lhe dlrecLlon of
c/ ls elLher along / (for c > 0) or agalnsL / (for c < 0). (N-VM.S.)
Alg ll 12-6
erform operat|ons on matr|ces and use matr|ces |n app||cat|ons.
6. (+) use maLrlces Lo represenL and manlpulaLe daLa, e.g., Lo represenL payoffs or
lncldence relaLlonshlps ln a neLwork. (N-VM.6.)
Alg ll 12-2, 12-
3
7. (+) MulLlply maLrlces by scalars Lo produce new maLrlces, e.g., as when all of Lhe
payoffs ln a game are doubled. (N-VM.7.)
Alg ll 12-2, 12-
3
8. (+) Add, subLracL, and mulLlply maLrlces of approprlaLe dlmenslons. (N-VM.8.) Alg ll 12-1, 12-
2, 12-4, 12-3
9. (+) undersLand LhaL, unllke mulLlpllcaLlon of numbers, maLrlx mulLlpllcaLlon for
square maLrlces ls noL a commuLaLlve operaLlon, buL sLlll saLlsfles Lhe assoclaLlve
and dlsLrlbuLlve properLles. (N-VM.9.)
Alg ll 12-2
10. (+) undersLand LhaL Lhe zero and ldenLlLy maLrlces play a role ln maLrlx addlLlon
and mulLlpllcaLlon slmllar Lo Lhe role of 0 and 1 ln Lhe real numbers. 1he
deLermlnanL of a square maLrlx ls nonzero lf and only lf Lhe maLrlx has a
mulLlpllcaLlve lnverse. (N-VM.10.)
Alg ll 12-1, 12-
3
11. (+) MulLlply a vecLor (regarded as a maLrlx wlLh one column) by a maLrlx of sulLable
dlmenslons Lo produce anoLher vecLor. Work wlLh maLrlces as LransformaLlons of
vecLors. (N-VM.11.)
Alg ll 12-6
12. (+) Work wlLh 2 2 maLrlces as LransformaLlons of Lhe plane, and lnLerpreL Lhe
absoluLe value of Lhe deLermlnanL ln Lerms of area. (N-VM.12.)
Alg ll 12-3, 12-
6

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Mathemat|cs | n|gh Schoo|A|gebra

Lxpress|ons. An expresslon ls a record of a compuLaLlon wlLh numbers, symbols LhaL represenL numbers, arlLhmeLlc operaLlons,
exponenLlaLlon, and, aL more advanced levels, Lhe operaLlon of evaluaLlng a funcLlon. ConvenLlons abouL Lhe use of parenLheses
and Lhe order of operaLlons assure LhaL each expresslon ls unamblguous. CreaLlng an expresslon LhaL descrlbes a compuLaLlon
lnvolvlng a general quanLlLy requlres Lhe ablllLy Lo express Lhe compuLaLlon ln general Lerms, absLracLlng from speclflc lnsLances.

8eadlng an expresslon wlLh comprehenslon lnvolves analysls of lLs underlylng sLrucLure. 1hls may suggesL a dlfferenL buL
equlvalenL way of wrlLlng Lhe expresslon LhaL exhlblLs some dlfferenL aspecL of lLs meanlng. lor example, p + 0.03p can be
lnLerpreLed as Lhe addlLlon of a 3 Lax Lo a prlce p. 8ewrlLlng p + 0.03p as 1.03p shows LhaL addlng a Lax ls Lhe same as
mulLlplylng Lhe prlce by a consLanL facLor.

Algebralc manlpulaLlons are governed by Lhe properLles of operaLlons and exponenLs, and Lhe convenLlons of algebralc noLaLlon.
AL Llmes, an expresslon ls Lhe resulL of applylng operaLlons Lo slmpler expresslons. lor example, p + 0.03p ls Lhe sum of Lhe
slmpler expresslons p and 0.03p. vlewlng an expresslon as Lhe resulL of operaLlon on slmpler expresslons can someLlmes clarlfy
lLs underlylng sLrucLure.

A spreadsheeL or a compuLer algebra sysLem (CAS) can be used Lo experlmenL wlLh algebralc expresslons, perform compllcaLed
algebralc manlpulaLlons, and undersLand how algebralc manlpulaLlons behave.


Lquat|ons and |nequa||t|es. An equaLlon ls a sLaLemenL of equallLy beLween Lwo expresslons, ofLen vlewed as a quesLlon asklng
for whlch values of Lhe varlables Lhe expresslons on elLher slde are ln facL equal. 1hese values are Lhe soluLlons Lo Lhe equaLlon.
An ldenLlLy, ln conLrasL, ls Lrue for all values of Lhe varlables, ldenLlLles are ofLen developed by rewrlLlng an expresslon ln an
equlvalenL form.

1he soluLlons of an equaLlon ln one varlable form a seL of numbers, Lhe soluLlons of an equaLlon ln Lwo varlables form a seL of
ordered palrs of numbers, whlch can be ploLLed ln Lhe coordlnaLe plane. 1wo or more equaLlons and/or lnequallLles form a
sysLem. A soluLlon for such a sysLem musL saLlsfy every equaLlon and lnequallLy ln Lhe sysLem.

An equaLlon can ofLen be solved by successlvely deduclng from lL one or more slmpler equaLlons. lor example, one can add Lhe
same consLanL Lo boLh sldes wlLhouL changlng Lhe soluLlons, buL squarlng boLh sldes mlghL lead Lo exLraneous soluLlons.
SLraLeglc compeLence ln solvlng lncludes looklng ahead for producLlve manlpulaLlons and anLlclpaLlng Lhe naLure and number of
soluLlons.

Some equaLlons have no soluLlons ln a glven number sysLem, buL have a soluLlon ln a larger sysLem. lor example, Lhe soluLlon of
x + 1 = 0 ls an lnLeger, noL a whole number, Lhe soluLlon of 2x + 1 = 0 ls a raLlonal number, noL an lnLeger, Lhe soluLlons of x
2
- 2 =
0 are real numbers, noL raLlonal numbers, and Lhe soluLlons of x
2
+ 2 = 0 are complex numbers, noL real numbers.

1he same soluLlon Lechnlques used Lo solve equaLlons can be used Lo rearrange formulas. lor example, Lhe formula for Lhe area
of a Lrapezold, A = ((b
1
+b
2
)/2)b, can be solved for b uslng Lhe same deducLlve process.

lnequallLles can be solved by reasonlng abouL Lhe properLles of lnequallLy. Many, buL noL all, of Lhe properLles of equallLy
conLlnue Lo hold for lnequallLles and can be useful ln solvlng Lhem.


Connect|ons to Iunct|ons and Mode||ng. Lxpresslons can deflne funcLlons, and equlvalenL expresslons deflne Lhe same funcLlon.
Asklng when Lwo funcLlons have Lhe same value for Lhe same lnpuL leads Lo an equaLlon, graphlng Lhe Lwo funcLlons allows for
flndlng approxlmaLe soluLlons of Lhe equaLlon. ConverLlng a verbal descrlpLlon Lo an equaLlon, lnequallLy, or sysLem of Lhese ls an
essenLlal sklll ln modellng.

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A|gebra Cverv|ew

Seelng SLrucLure ln Lxpresslons
lnLerpreL Lhe sLrucLure of expresslons
WrlLe expresslons ln equlvalenL forms Lo
solve problems


ArlLhmeLlc wlLh olynomlals and 8aLlonal
Lxpresslons
erform arlLhmeLlc operaLlons on polynomlals
undersLand Lhe relaLlonshlp beLween zeros and
facLors of polynomlals
use polynomlal ldenLlLles Lo solve problems
8ewrlLe raLlonal expresslons


CreaLlng LquaLlons
CreaLe equaLlons LhaL descrlbe numbers or relaLlonshlps


8easonlng wlLh LquaLlons and lnequallLles
undersLand solvlng equaLlons as a process of
reasonlng and explaln Lhe reasonlng
Solve equaLlons and lnequallLles ln one varlable
Solve sysLems of equaLlons
8epresenL and solve equaLlons and lnequallLles graphlcally


Mathemat|ca| ract|ces

1. Make sense of problems and
persevere ln solvlng Lhem.
2. 8eason absLracLly and quanLlLaLlvely.
3. ConsLrucL vlable argumenLs and
crlLlque Lhe reasonlng of oLhers.
4. Model wlLh maLhemaLlcs.
3. use approprlaLe Lools sLraLeglcally.
6. ALLend Lo preclslon.
7. Look for and make use of sLrucLure.
8. Look for and express regularlLy ln
repeaLed reasonlng.

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See|ng Structure |n Lxpress|ons A-SSL
Interpret the structure of express|ons
Alg 1-1, 1-2, 3-7,
4-3, 4-7, 3-3, 3-4,
3-3, 7-6, 7-7, 7-8,
8-7, 8-8, 9-1, 9-2,
9-3, 9-6
1. lnLerpreL expresslons LhaL represenL a quanLlLy ln Lerms of lLs conLexL.


a. lnLerpreL parLs of an expresslon, such as Lerms, facLors, and
coefflclenLs.
b. lnLerpreL compllcaLed expresslons by vlewlng one or more of Lhelr
parLs as a slngle enLlLy. lot exomple, lotetptet l(1-t)
o
os tbe ptoJoct of
l ooJ o foctot oot JepeoJloq oo l. (A-SSL.1.)
Alg ll 3-2, 8-4,
4-3, 3-1, 8-4,
1-6, 7-1, 7-2,
7-3, 8-4
Alg 3-3, 3-4, 3-3,
8-7, 8-8
2. use Lhe sLrucLure of an expresslon Lo ldenLlfy ways Lo rewrlLe lL. lot exomple,
see x
4
- y
4
os (x
2
)
2
- (y
2
)
2
, tbos tecoqolzloq lt os o Jlffeteoce of spootes tbot coo
be foctoteJ os (x
2
- y
2
)(x
2
- y
2
). (A-SSL.2.)
Alg ll 4-4, 3-3,
6-1, 6-2, 6-3,
8-4
Wr|te express|ons |n equ|va|ent forms to so|ve prob|ems
Alg 9-4, 9-3, 7-7 3. Choose and produce an equlvalenL form of an expresslon Lo reveal and explaln
properLles of Lhe quanLlLy represenLed by Lhe expresslon.


a. lacLor a quadraLlc expresslon Lo reveal Lhe zeros of Lhe funcLlon lL
deflnes.
b. CompleLe Lhe square ln a quadraLlc expresslon Lo reveal Lhe maxlmum
or mlnlmum value of Lhe funcLlon lL deflnes.
c. use Lhe properLles of exponenLs Lo Lransform expresslons for
exponenLlal funcLlons. lot exomple tbe exptessloo 1.15
t
coo be
tewtltteo os (1.15
1/12
)
12t
= 1.012
12t
to teveol tbe opptoxlmote epolvoleot
mootbly lotetest tote lf tbe oooool tote ls 15X. (A-SSL.3.)

4. uerlve Lhe formula for Lhe sum of a flnlLe geomeLrlc serles (when Lhe common
raLlo ls noL 1), and use Lhe formula Lo solve problems. lot exomple, colcolote
mottqoqe poymeots.

(A-SSL.4.)
Alg ll 9-3
Ar|thmet|c w|th o|ynom|a|s and kat|ona| Lxpress|ons A-Ak
erform ar|thmet|c operat|ons on po|ynom|a|s
Alg 8-1, 8-2, 8-3,
8-4
1. undersLand LhaL polynomlals form a sysLem analogous Lo Lhe lnLegers, namely,
Lhey are closed under Lhe operaLlons of addlLlon, subLracLlon, and
mulLlpllcaLlon, add, subLracL, and mulLlply polynomlals. (A-Ak.1.)
Alg ll 3-4
Understand the re|at|onsh|p between zeros and factors of po|ynom|a|s
2. know and apply Lhe 8emalnder 1heorem: lor a polynomlal p(x) and a number o,
Lhe remalnder on dlvlslon by x - o ls p(o), so p(o) = 0 lf and only lf (x - o) ls a
facLor of p(x). (A-Ak.2.)
Alg ll 3-4
Alg 9-3 3. ldenLlfy zeros of polynomlals when sulLable facLorlzaLlons are avallable, and use
Lhe zeros Lo consLrucL a rough graph of Lhe funcLlon deflned by Lhe polynomlal.
(A-Ak.3.)
Alg ll 4-3, 3-2,
3-6
Use po|ynom|a| |dent|t|es to so|ve prob|ems
4. rove polynomlal ldenLlLles and use Lhem Lo descrlbe numerlcal relaLlonshlps.
lot exomple, tbe polyoomlol lJeotlty (x
2
- y
2
)
2
= (x
2
- y
2
)
2
- (2xy)
2
coo be oseJ to
qeoetote lytboqoteoo ttlples. (A-Ak.4.)
Alg ll C8 3-3
3. (+) know and apply Lhe 8lnomlal 1heorem for Lhe expanslon of (x + y)
o
ln
powers of x and y for a poslLlve lnLeger o, where x and y are any numbers, wlLh
coefflclenLs deLermlned for example by ascal's 1rlangle.
1
(A-Ak.S.)
Alg ll 3-7
kewr|te rat|ona| express|ons
Alg 11-3 6. 8ewrlLe slmple raLlonal expresslons ln dlfferenL forms, wrlLe o(x)/b(x) ln Lhe
form p(x) + t(x)/b(x), where o(x), b(x), p(x), and t(x) are polynomlals wlLh Lhe
degree of t(x) less Lhan Lhe degree of b(x), uslng lnspecLlon, long dlvlslon, or, for
Lhe more compllcaLed examples, a compuLer algebra sysLem. (A-Ak.6.)
Alg ll 3-4, 8-6
Alg 11-2,
11-4
7. (+) undersLand LhaL raLlonal expresslons form a sysLem analogous Lo Lhe
raLlonal numbers, closed under addlLlon, subLracLlon, mulLlpllcaLlon, and
dlvlslon by a nonzero raLlonal expresslon, add, subLracL, mulLlply, and dlvlde
raLlonal expresslons. (A-Ak.7.)
Alg ll 8-3, 8-6

1
The Binomial Theorem can be proved by mathematical induction or by a combinatorial argument.
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Creat|ng Lquat|ons

A-CLD
Create equat|ons that descr|be numbers or re|at|onsh|ps
Alg 1-8, 2-1, 2-2,
2-3, 2-4, 2-3, 2-7,
2-8, 3-2, 3-3, 3-4,
3-6, 3-7, 3-8, 9-3,
9-4, 9-3, 9-6, 11-
3
1. CreaLe equaLlons and lnequallLles ln one varlable and use Lhem Lo solve
problems. locloJe epootloos otlsloq ftom lloeot ooJ pooJtotlc fooctloos, ooJ
slmple totloool ooJ expooeotlol fooctloos. (A-CLD.1.)
Alg ll 1-4, 1-6,
4-1,
4-3, 8-6
Alg 1-9, 4-3, 3-2,
3-3, 3-4, 3-3, 7-6,
7-7, 9-1, 9-2, 10-
3, 11-6, 11-7
2. CreaLe equaLlons ln Lwo or more varlables Lo represenL relaLlonshlps beLween
quanLlLles, graph equaLlons on coordlnaLe axes wlLh labels and scales. (A-
CLD.2.)
Alg ll 2-2, 2-3,
2-4, 2-3, 2-8,
3-1, 3-2, 4-2,
7-1, 7-2, 8-1,
8-2, 8-3
Alg 6-4, 6-3, 9-8 3. 8epresenL consLralnLs by equaLlons or lnequallLles, and by sysLems of equaLlons
and/or lnequallLles, and lnLerpreL soluLlons as vlable or nonvlable opLlons ln a
modellng conLexL. lot exomple, tepteseot loepoolltles Jesctlbloq oottltloool ooJ
cost coosttolots oo comblootloos of Jlffeteot fooJs. (A-CLD.3.)
Alg ll 3-1, 3-2,
3-3, 3-4, 4-9
Alg 2-3, 9-3 4. 8earrange formulas Lo hlghllghL a quanLlLy of lnLeresL, uslng Lhe same reasonlng
as ln solvlng equaLlons. lot exomple, teottooqe Obms low v = lk to blqbllqbt
teslstooce k.
(A-CLD.4.)
Alg ll 1-4, 6-3,
8-1
keason|ng w|th Lquat|ons and Inequa||t|es A-kLI
Understand so|v|ng equat|ons as a process of reason|ng and exp|a|n the reason|ng
Alg 2-2, 2-3, 2-4,
2-3, 9-3
1. Lxplaln each sLep ln solvlng a slmple equaLlon as followlng from Lhe equallLy of
numbers asserLed aL Lhe prevlous sLep, sLarLlng from Lhe assumpLlon LhaL Lhe
orlglnal equaLlon has a soluLlon. ConsLrucL a vlable argumenL Lo [usLlfy a
soluLlon meLhod. (A-kLI.1.)

Alg 10-4,
11-3
2. Solve slmple raLlonal and radlcal equaLlons ln one varlable, and glve examples
showlng how exLraneous soluLlons may arlse. (A-kLI.2.)
Alg ll 6-3, 8-6
So|ve equat|ons and |nequa||t|es |n one var|ab|e
Alg 2-1, 2-2, 2-3,
2-4, 2-3, 2-7, 2-8,
3-2, 3-3, 3-4, 3-3,
3-6
3. S
olve llnear equaLlons and lnequallLles ln one varlable, lncludlng
equaLlons wlLh coefflclenLs represenLed by leLLers. (A-kLI.3.)

4a. Alg 9-3, 9-6

4b. Alg 9-3, 9-4,
9-3, 9-6
4. Solve quadraLlc equaLlons ln one varlable.
a. use Lhe meLhod of compleLlng Lhe square Lo Lransform any quadraLlc
equaLlon ln x lnLo an equaLlon of Lhe form (x - p)
2
= p LhaL has Lhe
same soluLlons. uerlve Lhe quadraLlc formula from Lhls form.
b. Solve quadraLlc equaLlons by lnspecLlon (e.g., for x
2
= 49), Laklng square
rooLs, compleLlng Lhe square, Lhe quadraLlc formula and facLorlng, as
approprlaLe Lo Lhe lnlLlal form of Lhe equaLlon. 8ecognlze when Lhe
quadraLlc formula glves complex soluLlons and wrlLe Lhem as o bl for
real numbers o and b. (A-kLI.4.)

So|ve systems of equat|ons
Alg 6-3 3. rove LhaL, glven a sysLem of Lwo equaLlons ln Lwo varlables, replaclng one
equaLlon by Lhe sum of LhaL equaLlon and a mulLlple of Lhe oLher produces a
sysLem wlLh Lhe same soluLlons. (A-kLI.S.)
Alg ll 3-2
Alg 6-1, 6-2, 6-3,
6-4
6. Solve sysLems of llnear equaLlons exacLly and approxlmaLely (e.g., wlLh graphs),
focuslng on palrs of llnear equaLlons ln Lwo varlables. (A-kLI.6.)
Alg ll 3-1, 3-2,
3-3
Alg 9-8 7. Solve a slmple sysLem conslsLlng of a llnear equaLlon and a quadraLlc equaLlon
ln Lwo varlables algebralcally and graphlcally. lot exomple, floJ tbe polots of
lotetsectloo betweeo tbe lloe y = -Jx ooJ tbe cltcle x
2
- y
2
= J. (A-kLI.7.)
Alg ll 4-9
8. (+) 8epresenL a sysLem of llnear equaLlons as a slngle maLrlx equaLlon ln a
vecLor varlable. (A-kLI.8.)
Alg ll 3-6
9. (+) llnd Lhe lnverse of a maLrlx lf lL exlsLs and use lL Lo solve sysLems of llnear
equaLlons (uslng Lechnology for maLrlces of dlmenslon 3 3 or greaLer). (A-
kLI.9.)

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kepresent and so|ve equat|ons and |nequa||t|es graph|ca||y
Alg 1-9, 4-2, 4-3,
4-4
10. undersLand LhaL Lhe graph of an equaLlon ln Lwo varlables ls Lhe seL of all lLs
soluLlons ploLLed ln Lhe coordlnaLe plane, ofLen formlng a curve (whlch could be
a llne).
(A-kLI.10.)

Alg C8 4-4. C8 6-
1, 7-6, 9-8
11. Lxplaln why Lhe x-coordlnaLes of Lhe polnLs where Lhe graphs of Lhe equaLlons y
= f(x) and y = q(x) lnLersecL are Lhe soluLlons of Lhe equaLlon f(x) = q(x), flnd Lhe
soluLlons approxlmaLely, e.g., uslng Lechnology Lo graph Lhe funcLlons, make
Lables of values, or flnd successlve approxlmaLlons. lnclude cases where f(x)
and/or q(x) are llnear, polynomlal, raLlonal, absoluLe value, exponenLlal, and
logarlLhmlc funcLlons.


(A-kLI.11.)
Alg ll 3-1, 3-3,
8-6
Alg 6-3, 6-6 12. Craph Lhe soluLlons Lo a llnear lnequallLy ln Lwo varlables as a half-plane
(excludlng Lhe boundary ln Lhe case of a sLrlcL lnequallLy), and graph Lhe
soluLlon seL Lo a sysLem of llnear lnequallLles ln Lwo varlables as Lhe lnLersecLlon
of Lhe correspondlng half-planes. (A-kLI.12.)
Alg ll 3-3
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Mathemat|cs | n|gh Schoo|Iunct|ons

luncLlons descrlbe slLuaLlons where one quanLlLy deLermlnes anoLher. lor example, Lhe reLurn on $10,000 lnvesLed aL an
annuallzed percenLage raLe of 4.23 ls a funcLlon of Lhe lengLh of Llme Lhe money ls lnvesLed. 8ecause we conLlnually make
Lheorles abouL dependencles beLween quanLlLles ln naLure and socleLy, funcLlons are lmporLanL Lools ln Lhe consLrucLlon of
maLhemaLlcal models.

ln school maLhemaLlcs, funcLlons usually have numerlcal lnpuLs and ouLpuLs and are ofLen deflned by an algebralc expresslon.
lor example, Lhe Llme ln hours lL Lakes for a car Lo drlve 100 mlles ls a funcLlon of Lhe car's speed ln mlles per hour, v, Lhe rule
1(v) = 100/v expresses Lhls relaLlonshlp algebralcally and deflnes a funcLlon whose name ls 1.

1he seL of lnpuLs Lo a funcLlon ls called lLs domaln. We ofLen lnfer Lhe domaln Lo be all lnpuLs for whlch Lhe expresslon deflnlng a
funcLlon has a value, or for whlch Lhe funcLlon makes sense ln a glven conLexL.

A funcLlon can be descrlbed ln varlous ways, such as by a graph (e.g., Lhe Lrace of a selsmograph), by a verbal rule, as ln, "l'll glve
you a sLaLe, you glve me Lhe caplLal clLy," by an algebralc expresslon llke f(x) = o + bx, or by a recurslve rule. 1he graph of a
funcLlon ls ofLen a useful way of vlsuallzlng Lhe relaLlonshlp of Lhe funcLlon models, and manlpulaLlng a maLhemaLlcal expresslon
for a funcLlon can Lhrow llghL on Lhe funcLlon's properLles.

luncLlons presenLed as expresslons can model many lmporLanL phenomena. 1wo lmporLanL famllles of funcLlons characLerlzed
by laws of growLh are llnear funcLlons, whlch grow aL a consLanL raLe, and exponenLlal funcLlons, whlch grow aL a consLanL
percenL raLe. Llnear funcLlons wlLh a consLanL Lerm of zero descrlbe proporLlonal relaLlonshlps.

A graphlng uLlllLy or a compuLer algebra sysLem can be used Lo experlmenL wlLh properLles of Lhese funcLlons and Lhelr graphs
and Lo bulld compuLaLlonal models of funcLlons, lncludlng recurslvely deflned funcLlons.

Connect|ons to Lxpress|ons, Lquat|ons, Mode||ng, and Coord|nates.
ueLermlnlng an ouLpuL value for a parLlcular lnpuL lnvolves evaluaLlng an expresslon, flndlng lnpuLs LhaL yleld a glven ouLpuL
lnvolves solvlng an equaLlon. CuesLlons abouL when Lwo funcLlons have Lhe same value for Lhe same lnpuL lead Lo equaLlons,
whose soluLlons can be vlsuallzed from Lhe lnLersecLlon of Lhelr graphs. 8ecause funcLlons descrlbe relaLlonshlps beLween
quanLlLles, Lhey are frequenLly used ln modellng. SomeLlmes funcLlons are deflned by a recurslve process, whlch can be dlsplayed
effecLlvely uslng a spreadsheeL or oLher Lechnology.
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modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.
Iunct|ons Cverv|ew

lnLerpreLlng luncLlons
undersLand Lhe concepL of a funcLlon and use funcLlon
noLaLlon
lnLerpreL funcLlons LhaL arlse ln appllcaLlons ln Lerms
of Lhe conLexL
Analyze funcLlons uslng dlfferenL represenLaLlons


8ulldlng luncLlons
8ulld a funcLlon LhaL models a relaLlonshlp beLween
Lwo quanLlLles
8ulld new funcLlons from exlsLlng funcLlons


Llnear, CuadraLlc, and LxponenLlal Models
ConsLrucL and compare llnear, quadraLlc, and
exponenLlal models and solve problems
lnLerpreL expresslons for funcLlons ln Lerms of
Lhe slLuaLlon Lhey model


1rlgonomeLrlc luncLlons
LxLend Lhe domaln of LrlgonomeLrlc
funcLlons uslng Lhe unlL clrcle
Model perlodlc phenomena wlLh
LrlgonomeLrlc funcLlons
rove and apply LrlgonomeLrlc ldenLlLles


Mathemat|ca| ract|ces

1. Make sense of problems and
persevere ln solvlng Lhem.
2. 8eason absLracLly and quanLlLaLlvely.
3. ConsLrucL vlable argumenLs and
crlLlque Lhe reasonlng of oLhers.
4. Model wlLh maLhemaLlcs.
3. use approprlaLe Lools sLraLeglcally.
6. ALLend Lo preclslon.
7. Look for and make use of sLrucLure.
8. Look for and express regularlLy ln
repeaLed reasonlng.

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Interpret|ng Iunct|ons I-II
Understand the concept of a funct|on and use funct|on notat|on
Alg 4-6 1. undersLand LhaL a funcLlon from one seL (called Lhe domaln) Lo anoLher seL
(called Lhe range) asslgns Lo each elemenL of Lhe domaln exacLly one elemenL
of Lhe range. lf f ls a funcLlon and x ls an elemenL of lLs domaln, Lhen f(x)
denoLes Lhe ouLpuL of f correspondlng Lo Lhe lnpuL x. 1he graph of f ls Lhe
graph of Lhe equaLlon y = f(x). (I-II.1.)
Alg ll 2-2
Alg 4-6 2. use funcLlon noLaLlon, evaluaLe funcLlons for lnpuLs ln Lhelr domalns, and
lnLerpreL sLaLemenLs LhaL use funcLlon noLaLlon ln Lerms of a conLexL. (I-II.2.)

Alg 4-6, 7-8 3. 8ecognlze LhaL sequences are funcLlons, someLlmes deflned recurslvely, whose
domaln ls a subseL of Lhe lnLegers. lot exomple, tbe llboooccl sepoeoce ls
JefloeJ tecotslvely by f(0) = f(1) = 1, f(o-1) = f(o) - f(o-1) fot o > 1. (I-II.3.)
Alg ll 9-2, 9-3
Interpret funct|ons that ar|se |n app||cat|ons |n terms of the context
Alg 4-2, 4-3,
3-3, 3-4, 3-3,
7-6, 7-7, 9-1,
9-2, 9-7, 11-7
4. lor a funcLlon LhaL models a relaLlonshlp beLween Lwo quanLlLles, lnLerpreL key
feaLures of graphs and Lables ln Lerms of Lhe quanLlLles, and skeLch graphs
showlng key feaLures glven a verbal descrlpLlon of Lhe relaLlonshlp. key
feototes locloJe. lotetcepts, lotetvols wbete tbe fooctloo ls locteosloq,
Jecteosloq, posltlve, ot oeqotlve, telotlve moxlmoms ooJ mlolmoms,
symmettles, eoJ bebovlot, ooJ petloJlclty.

(I-II. 4.)
Alg ll 2-3, 2-3, 4-1,
4-2, 4-3,
3-1, 3-8, 13-1, 13-
4, 13-3
Alg 4-4, 7-6,
9-1, 11-6
3. 8elaLe Lhe domaln of a funcLlon Lo lLs graph and, where appllcable, Lo Lhe
quanLlLaLlve relaLlonshlp lL descrlbes. lot exomple, lf tbe fooctloo b(o) qlves tbe
oombet of petsoo-boots lt tokes to ossemble o eoqloes lo o foctoty, tbeo tbe
posltlve loteqets woolJ be oo opptoptlote Jomolo fot tbe fooctloo.

(I-II.S.)
Alg ll 4-3, 3-8
Alg 3-1,
C8 9-2
6. CalculaLe and lnLerpreL Lhe average raLe of change of a funcLlon (presenLed
symbollcally or as a Lable) over a speclfled lnLerval. LsLlmaLe Lhe raLe of change
from a graph.


(I-II.6.)
Alg ll 2-3, 4-1, 4-2,
3-8
Ana|yze funct|ons us|ng d|fferent representat|ons
7a. Alg 3-3,
3-4, 3-3, 9-1
7b. Alg 3-8,
9-1, 10-3
7e. Alg 7-6
7. Craph funcLlons expressed symbollcally and show key feaLures of Lhe graph, by
hand ln slmple cases and uslng Lechnology for more compllcaLed cases.


a. Craph llnear and quadraLlc funcLlons and show lnLercepLs, maxlma,
and mlnlma.
b. Craph square rooL, cube rooL, and plecewlse-deflned funcLlons,
lncludlng sLep funcLlons and absoluLe value funcLlons.
c. Craph polynomlal funcLlons, ldenLlfylng zeros when sulLable
facLorlzaLlons are avallable, and showlng end behavlor.
d. (+) Craph raLlonal funcLlons, ldenLlfylng zeros and asympLoLes when
sulLable facLorlzaLlons are avallable, and showlng end behavlor.
e. Craph exponenLlal and logarlLhmlc funcLlons, showlng lnLercepLs and
end behavlor, and LrlgonomeLrlc funcLlons, showlng perlod, mldllne,
and ampllLude. (I-II.7.)
7b. Alg ll 2-7, 2-8,
6-8

7c. Alg ll 3-1, 3-2,
3-9

7d. Alg ll
C8 8-2

7e. Alg ll 7-1, 7-2,
7-3, 13-4, 13-3,
13-6,
13-7, 13-8
8a. Alg 9-4,
9-3
8b. Alg 7-7
8. WrlLe a funcLlon deflned by an expresslon ln dlfferenL buL equlvalenL forms Lo
reveal and explaln dlfferenL properLles of Lhe funcLlon.
a. use Lhe process of facLorlng and compleLlng Lhe square ln a quadraLlc
funcLlon Lo show zeros, exLreme values, and symmeLry of Lhe graph,
and lnLerpreL Lhese ln Lerms of a conLexL.
b. use Lhe properLles of exponenLs Lo lnLerpreL expresslons for
exponenLlal funcLlons. lot exomple, lJeotlfy petceot tote of cbooqe lo
fooctloos socb os y = (1.02)
t
, y = (0.97)
t
, y = (1.01)
12t
, y = (1.2)
t/10
, ooJ
closslfy tbem os tepteseotloq expooeotlol qtowtb ot Jecoy. (I-II.8.)
Alg ll 2-4, 4-2, 3-9,
6-8, 7-2,
7-3
Alg 3-3, 7-6,
9-2
9. Compare properLles of Lwo funcLlons each represenLed ln a dlfferenL way
(algebralcally, graphlcally, numerlcally ln Lables, or by verbal descrlpLlons). lor
example, glven a graph of one quadraLlc funcLlon and an algebralc expresslon
for anoLher, say whlch has Lhe larger maxlmum. (I-II.9.)


Alg ll 2-4, 4-2, 3-9,
7-3
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8u||d|ng Iunct|ons I-8I
8u||d a funct|on that mode|s a re|at|onsh|p between two quant|t|es
1a. Alg 4-7,
3-3, 3-4, 3-3,
7-7, 9-2
1b. Alg 9-2
1. WrlLe a funcLlon LhaL descrlbes a relaLlonshlp beLween Lwo quanLlLles.


a. ueLermlne an expllclL expresslon, a recurslve process, or sLeps for
calculaLlon from a conLexL.
b. Comblne sLandard funcLlon Lypes uslng arlLhmeLlc operaLlons. lot
exomple, bollJ o fooctloo tbot moJels tbe tempetotote of o coolloq
boJy by oJJloq o coostoot fooctloo to o Jecoyloq expooeotlol, ooJ
telote tbese fooctloos to tbe moJel.
c. (+) Compose funcLlons. lot exomple, lf 1(y) ls tbe tempetotote lo tbe
otmospbete os o fooctloo of belqbt, ooJ b(t) ls tbe belqbt of o weotbet
bollooo os o fooctloo of tlme, tbeo 1(b(t)) ls tbe tempetotote ot tbe
locotloo of tbe weotbet bollooo os o fooctloo of tlme. (I-8I.1.)
1a. Alg ll 2-2, 2-3,
4-2, 3-2,
6-6, 7-2, 8-2,
8-3

1b. Alg ll 6-6, 7-2,
8-3


Alg 4-7, 7-8 2. WrlLe arlLhmeLlc and geomeLrlc sequences boLh recurslvely and wlLh an
expllclL formula, use Lhem Lo model slLuaLlons, and LranslaLe beLween Lhe Lwo
forms.

(I-8I.2.)

8u||d new funct|ons from ex|st|ng funct|ons
Alg 3-3, 3-4,
3-8, 7-7, 9-1,
9-2
3. ldenLlfy Lhe effecL on Lhe graph of replaclng f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x
+ k) for speclflc values of k (boLh poslLlve and negaLlve), flnd Lhe value of k
glven Lhe graphs. LxperlmenL wlLh cases and lllusLraLe an explanaLlon of Lhe
effecLs on Lhe graph uslng Lechnology. locloJe tecoqolzloq eveo ooJ oJJ
fooctloos ftom tbelt qtopbs ooJ olqebtolc exptessloos fot tbem. (I-8I.3.)
Alg ll 2-6, 2-7, 4-1,
3-9, 8-2
4a. Alg
C8 3-3


4. llnd lnverse funcLlons.
a. Solve an equaLlon of Lhe form f(x) = c for a slmple funcLlon f LhaL has
an lnverse and wrlLe an expresslon for Lhe lnverse. lot exomple, f(x)
=2 x
J
ot f(x) = (x-1)/(x-1) fot x = 1.
b. (+) verlfy by composlLlon LhaL one funcLlon ls Lhe lnverse of anoLher.
c. (+) 8ead values of an lnverse funcLlon from a graph or a Lable, glven
LhaL Lhe funcLlon has an lnverse.
d. (+) roduce an lnverLlble funcLlon from a non-lnverLlble funcLlon by
resLrlcLlng Lhe domaln. (I-8I.4.)
4a. Alg ll 6-7, 7-3

4c. Alg ll 6-7
3. (+) undersLand Lhe lnverse relaLlonshlp beLween exponenLs and logarlLhms
and use Lhls relaLlonshlp Lo solve problems lnvolvlng logarlLhms and
exponenLs. (I-8I.S.)
Alg ll Ch 7.
L|near, uadrat|c, and Lxponent|a| Mode|s

I-LL
Construct and compare ||near, quadrat|c, and exponent|a| mode|s and so|ve prob|ems
1a. Alg 9-7

1b. Alg 3-1

1c. Alg 7-7
1. ulsLlngulsh beLween slLuaLlons LhaL can be modeled wlLh llnear funcLlons and
wlLh exponenLlal funcLlons.
a. rove LhaL llnear funcLlons grow by equal dlfferences over equal
lnLervals, and LhaL exponenLlal funcLlons grow by equal facLors over
equal lnLervals.
b. 8ecognlze slLuaLlons ln whlch one quanLlLy changes aL a consLanL raLe
per unlL lnLerval relaLlve Lo anoLher.
c. 8ecognlze slLuaLlons ln whlch a quanLlLy grows or decays by a
consLanL percenL raLe per unlL lnLerval relaLlve Lo anoLher. (I-LL.1.)

Alg 4-7, 3-3,
3-4, 3-3, 7-6,
7-8, 9-7
2. ConsLrucL llnear and exponenLlal funcLlons, lncludlng arlLhmeLlc and geomeLrlc
sequences, glven a graph, a descrlpLlon of a relaLlonshlp, or Lwo lnpuL-ouLpuL
palrs (lnclude readlng Lhese from a Lable). (I-LL.2.)

Alg C8 9-2,
9-7
3. Cbserve uslng graphs and Lables LhaL a quanLlLy lncreaslng exponenLlally
evenLually exceeds a quanLlLy lncreaslng llnearly, quadraLlcally, or (more
generally) as a polynomlal funcLlon. (I-LL.3.)

4. lor exponenLlal models, express as a logarlLhm Lhe soluLlon Lo ab
cL
= J where
o, c, and J are numbers and Lhe base b ls 2, 10, or e, evaluaLe Lhe logarlLhm
uslng Lechnology. (I-LL.4.)
Alg ll 7-3, 7-6
Interpret express|ons for funct|ons |n terms of the s|tuat|on they mode|
Alg 3-3, 3-4,
3-3, 3-7, 7-7
3. lnLerpreL Lhe parameLers ln a llnear or exponenLlal funcLlon ln Lerms of a
conLexL. (I-LL.S.)

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1r|gonometr|c Iunct|ons I-1I
Lxtend the doma|n of tr|gonometr|c funct|ons us|ng the un|t c|rc|e
1. undersLand radlan measure of an angle as Lhe lengLh of Lhe arc on Lhe unlL
clrcle subLended by Lhe angle. (I-1I.1.)
Alg ll 13-3
2. Lxplaln how Lhe unlL clrcle ln Lhe coordlnaLe plane enables Lhe exLenslon of
LrlgonomeLrlc funcLlons Lo all real numbers, lnLerpreLed as radlan measures of
angles Lraversed counLerclockwlse around Lhe unlL clrcle. (I-1I.2.)
Alg ll 13-4,
13-3, 13-6
3. (+) use speclal Lrlangles Lo deLermlne geomeLrlcally Lhe values of slne, coslne,
LangenL for n/3, n/4 and n/6, and use Lhe unlL clrcle Lo express Lhe values of
slne, coslne, and LangenL for n-x, n+x, and 2n-x ln Lerms of Lhelr values for x,
where x ls any real number. (I-1I.3.)

4. (+) use Lhe unlL clrcle Lo explaln symmeLry (odd and even) and perlodlclLy of
LrlgonomeLrlc funcLlons. (I-1I.4.)

Mode| per|od|c phenomena w|th tr|gonometr|c funct|ons
3. Choose LrlgonomeLrlc funcLlons Lo model perlodlc phenomena wlLh speclfled
ampllLude, frequency, and mldllne.

(I-1I.S.)
Alg ll 13-4,
13-4, 13-6,
13-7
6. (+) undersLand LhaL resLrlcLlng a LrlgonomeLrlc funcLlon Lo a domaln on whlch
lL ls always lncreaslng or always decreaslng allows lLs lnverse Lo be
consLrucLed. (I-1I.6.)
Alg ll 14-2
7. (+) use lnverse funcLlons Lo solve LrlgonomeLrlc equaLlons LhaL arlse ln
modellng conLexLs, evaluaLe Lhe soluLlons uslng Lechnology, and lnLerpreL
Lhem ln Lerms of Lhe conLexL.

(I-1I.7.)
Alg ll 14-2
rove and app|y tr|gonometr|c |dent|t|es
8. rove Lhe yLhagorean ldenLlLy sln
2
(0) + cos
2
(0) = 1 and use lL Lo flnd sln(0),
cos(0), or Lan(0) glven sln(0), cos(0), or Lan(0) and Lhe quadranL of Lhe angle.
(I-1I.8.)
Alg ll 14-1
9. (+) rove Lhe addlLlon and subLracLlon formulas for slne, coslne, and LangenL
and use Lhem Lo solve problems. (I-1I.9.)
Alg ll 14-6,
14-7


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modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.

Mathemat|cs | n|gh Schoo|Mode||ng

Modellng llnks classroom maLhemaLlcs and sLaLlsLlcs Lo everyday llfe, work, and declslon-maklng. Modellng ls Lhe process of
chooslng and uslng approprlaLe maLhemaLlcs and sLaLlsLlcs Lo analyze emplrlcal slLuaLlons, Lo undersLand Lhem beLLer, and Lo
lmprove declslons. CuanLlLles and Lhelr relaLlonshlps ln physlcal, economlc, publlc pollcy, soclal, and everyday slLuaLlons can be
modeled uslng maLhemaLlcal and sLaLlsLlcal meLhods. When maklng maLhemaLlcal models, Lechnology ls valuable for varylng
assumpLlons, explorlng consequences, and comparlng predlcLlons wlLh daLa.

A model can be very slmple, such as wrlLlng LoLal cosL as a producL of unlL prlce and number boughL, or uslng a geomeLrlc shape
Lo descrlbe a physlcal ob[ecL llke a coln. Lven such slmple models lnvolve maklng cholces. lL ls up Lo us wheLher Lo model a coln
as a Lhree-dlmenslonal cyllnder, or wheLher a Lwo-dlmenslonal dlsk works well enough for our purposes. CLher slLuaLlons-
modellng a dellvery rouLe, a producLlon schedule, or a comparlson of loan amorLlzaLlons-need more elaboraLe models LhaL use
oLher Lools from Lhe maLhemaLlcal sclences. 8eal-world slLuaLlons are noL organlzed and labeled for analysls, formulaLlng
LracLable models, represenLlng such models, and analyzlng Lhem ls approprlaLely a creaLlve process. Llke every such process, Lhls
depends on acqulred experLlse as well as creaLlvlLy.

Some examples of such slLuaLlons mlghL lnclude:
LsLlmaLlng how much waLer and food ls needed for emergency rellef ln a devasLaLed clLy of 3 mllllon people, and how lL
mlghL be dlsLrlbuLed.
lannlng a Lable Lennls LournamenL for 7 players aL a club wlLh 4 Lables, where each player plays agalnsL each oLher
player.
ueslgnlng Lhe layouL of Lhe sLalls ln a school falr so as Lo ralse as much money as posslble.
Analyzlng sLopplng dlsLance for a car.
Modellng savlngs accounL balance, bacLerlal colony growLh, or lnvesLmenL growLh.
Lngaglng ln crlLlcal paLh analysls, e.g., applled Lo Lurnaround of an alrcrafL aL an alrporL.
Analyzlng rlsk ln slLuaLlons such as exLreme sporLs, pandemlcs, and Lerrorlsm.
8elaLlng populaLlon sLaLlsLlcs Lo lndlvldual predlcLlons.

ln slLuaLlons llke Lhese, Lhe models devlsed depend on a number of facLors: Pow preclse an answer do we wanL or need? WhaL
aspecLs of Lhe slLuaLlon do we mosL need Lo undersLand, conLrol, or opLlmlze? WhaL resources of Llme and Lools do we have?
1he range of models LhaL we can creaLe and analyze ls also consLralned by Lhe llmlLaLlons of our maLhemaLlcal, sLaLlsLlcal, and
Lechnlcal skllls, and our ablllLy Lo recognlze slgnlflcanL varlables and relaLlonshlps among Lhem. ulagrams of varlous klnds,
spreadsheeLs and oLher Lechnology, and algebra are powerful Lools for undersLandlng and solvlng problems drawn from dlfferenL
Lypes of real-world slLuaLlons.

Cne of Lhe lnslghLs provlded by maLhemaLlcal modellng ls LhaL essenLlally Lhe same maLhemaLlcal or sLaLlsLlcal sLrucLure can
someLlmes model seemlngly dlfferenL slLuaLlons. Models can also shed llghL on Lhe maLhemaLlcal sLrucLures Lhemselves, for
example, as when a model of bacLerlal growLh makes more vlvld Lhe exploslve growLh of Lhe exponenLlal funcLlon.

1he baslc modellng cycle ls summarlzed ln Lhe dlagram. lL lnvolves (1) ldenLlfylng varlables ln Lhe slLuaLlon and selecLlng Lhose
LhaL represenL essenLlal feaLures, (2) formulaLlng a model by creaLlng and selecLlng geomeLrlc, graphlcal, Labular, algebralc, or
sLaLlsLlcal represenLaLlons LhaL descrlbe relaLlonshlps beLween Lhe varlables, (3) analyzlng and performlng operaLlons on Lhese
relaLlonshlps Lo draw concluslons, (4) lnLerpreLlng Lhe resulLs of Lhe maLhemaLlcs ln Lerms of Lhe orlglnal slLuaLlon, (3) valldaLlng
Lhe concluslons by comparlng Lhem wlLh Lhe slLuaLlon, and Lhen elLher lmprovlng Lhe model or, lf lL ls accepLable, (6) reporLlng
on Lhe concluslons and Lhe reasonlng behlnd Lhem. Cholces, assumpLlons, and approxlmaLlons are presenL LhroughouL Lhls cycle.

ln descrlpLlve modellng, a model slmply
descrlbes Lhe phenomena or summarlzes
Lhem ln a compacL form. Craphs of
observaLlons are a famlllar descrlpLlve
model- for example, graphs of global
LemperaLure and aLmospherlc CC
2
over
Llme.

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modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.
AnalyLlc modellng seeks Lo explaln daLa on Lhe basls of deeper LheoreLlcal ldeas, albelL wlLh parameLers LhaL are emplrlcally
based, for example, exponenLlal growLh of bacLerlal colonles (unLll cuL-off mechanlsms such as polluLlon or sLarvaLlon lnLervene)
follows from a consLanL reproducLlon raLe. luncLlons are an lmporLanL Lool for analyzlng such problems.

Craphlng uLlllLles, spreadsheeLs, compuLer algebra sysLems, and dynamlc geomeLry sofLware are powerful Lools LhaL can be used
Lo model purely maLhemaLlcal phenomena (e.g., Lhe behavlor of polynomlals) as well as physlcal phenomena.

Mode||ng Standards MoJelloq ls best lotetpteteJ oot os o collectloo of lsoloteJ toplcs bot totbet lo telotloo to otbet stooJotJs.
Mokloq motbemotlcol moJels ls o 5tooJotJ fot Motbemotlcol ltoctlce, ooJ speclflc moJelloq stooJotJs oppeot tbtooqboot tbe
blqb scbool stooJotJs loJlcoteJ by o stot symbol (

).

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modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.

Mathemat|cs | n|gh Schoo|Geometry

An undersLandlng of Lhe aLLrlbuLes and relaLlonshlps of geomeLrlc ob[ecLs can be applled ln dlverse conLexLs-lnLerpreLlng a
schemaLlc drawlng, esLlmaLlng Lhe amounL of wood needed Lo frame a sloplng roof, renderlng compuLer graphlcs, or deslgnlng a
sewlng paLLern for Lhe mosL efflclenL use of maLerlal.

AlLhough Lhere are many Lypes of geomeLry, school maLhemaLlcs ls devoLed prlmarlly Lo plane Luclldean geomeLry, sLudled boLh
synLheLlcally (wlLhouL coordlnaLes) and analyLlcally (wlLh coordlnaLes). Luclldean geomeLry ls characLerlzed mosL lmporLanLly by
Lhe arallel osLulaLe, LhaL Lhrough a polnL noL on a glven llne Lhere ls exacLly one parallel llne. (Spherlcal geomeLry, ln conLrasL,
has no parallel llnes.)

uurlng hlgh school, sLudenLs begln Lo formallze Lhelr geomeLry experlences from elemenLary and mlddle school, uslng more
preclse deflnlLlons and developlng careful proofs. LaLer ln college some sLudenLs develop Luclldean and oLher geomeLrles
carefully from a small seL of axloms.

1he concepLs of congruence, slmllarlLy, and symmeLry can be undersLood from Lhe perspecLlve of geomeLrlc LransformaLlon.
lundamenLal are Lhe rlgld moLlons: LranslaLlons, roLaLlons, reflecLlons, and comblnaLlons of Lhese, all of whlch are here assumed
Lo preserve dlsLance and angles (and Lherefore shapes generally). 8eflecLlons and roLaLlons each explaln a parLlcular Lype of
symmeLry, and Lhe symmeLrles of an ob[ecL offer lnslghL lnLo lLs aLLrlbuLes-as when Lhe reflecLlve symmeLry of an lsosceles
Lrlangle assures LhaL lLs base angles are congruenL.

ln Lhe approach Laken here, Lwo geomeLrlc flgures are deflned Lo be congruenL lf Lhere ls a sequence of rlgld moLlons LhaL carrles
one onLo Lhe oLher. 1hls ls Lhe prlnclple of superposlLlon. lor Lrlangles, congruence means Lhe equallLy of all correspondlng palrs
of sldes and all correspondlng palrs of angles. uurlng Lhe mlddle grades, Lhrough experlences drawlng Lrlangles from glven
condlLlons, sLudenLs noLlce ways Lo speclfy enough measures ln a Lrlangle Lo ensure LhaL all Lrlangles drawn wlLh Lhose measures
are congruenL. Cnce Lhese Lrlangle congruence crlLerla (ASA, SAS, and SSS) are esLabllshed uslng rlgld moLlons, Lhey can be used
Lo prove Lheorems abouL Lrlangles, quadrllaLerals, and oLher geomeLrlc flgures.

SlmllarlLy LransformaLlons (rlgld moLlons followed by dllaLlons) deflne slmllarlLy ln Lhe same way LhaL rlgld moLlons deflne
congruence, Lhereby formallzlng Lhe slmllarlLy ldeas of "same shape" and "scale facLor" developed ln Lhe mlddle grades. 1hese
LransformaLlons lead Lo Lhe crlLerlon for Lrlangle slmllarlLy LhaL Lwo palrs of correspondlng angles are congruenL.

1he deflnlLlons of slne, coslne, and LangenL for acuLe angles are founded on rlghL Lrlangles and slmllarlLy, and, wlLh Lhe
yLhagorean 1heorem, are fundamenLal ln many real-world and LheoreLlcal slLuaLlons. 1he yLhagorean 1heorem ls generallzed
Lo non-rlghL Lrlangles by Lhe Law of Coslnes. 1ogeLher, Lhe Laws of Slnes and Coslnes embody Lhe Lrlangle congruence crlLerla for
Lhe cases where Lhree pleces of lnformaLlon sufflce Lo compleLely solve a Lrlangle. lurLhermore, Lhese laws yleld Lwo posslble
soluLlons ln Lhe amblguous case, lllusLraLlng LhaL Slde-Slde-Angle ls noL a congruence crlLerlon.

AnalyLlc geomeLry connecLs algebra and geomeLry, resulLlng ln powerful meLhods of analysls and problem solvlng. !usL as Lhe
number llne assoclaLes numbers wlLh locaLlons ln one dlmenslon, a palr of perpendlcular axes assoclaLes palrs of numbers wlLh
locaLlons ln Lwo dlmenslons. 1hls correspondence beLween numerlcal coordlnaLes and geomeLrlc polnLs allows meLhods from
algebra Lo be applled Lo geomeLry and vlce versa. 1he soluLlon seL of an equaLlon becomes a geomeLrlc curve, maklng
vlsuallzaLlon a Lool for dolng and undersLandlng algebra. CeomeLrlc shapes can be descrlbed by equaLlons, maklng algebralc
manlpulaLlon lnLo a Lool for geomeLrlc undersLandlng, modellng, and proof. CeomeLrlc LransformaLlons of Lhe graphs of
equaLlons correspond Lo algebralc changes ln Lhelr equaLlons.

uynamlc geomeLry envlronmenLs provlde sLudenLs wlLh experlmenLal and modellng Lools LhaL allow Lhem Lo lnvesLlgaLe
geomeLrlc phenomena ln much Lhe same way as compuLer algebra sysLems allow Lhem Lo experlmenL wlLh algebralc
phenomena.

Connect|ons to Lquat|ons. 1he correspondence beLween numerlcal coordlnaLes and geomeLrlc polnLs allows meLhods from
algebra Lo be applled Lo geomeLry and vlce versa. 1he soluLlon seL of an equaLlon becomes a geomeLrlc curve, maklng
vlsuallzaLlon a Lool for dolng and undersLandlng algebra. CeomeLrlc shapes can be descrlbed by equaLlons, maklng algebralc
manlpulaLlon lnLo a Lool for geomeLrlc undersLandlng, modellng, and proof.
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modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.
Geometry Cverv|ew

Congruence
LxperlmenL wlLh LransformaLlons ln Lhe plane
undersLand congruence ln Lerms of rlgld moLlons
rove geomeLrlc Lheorems
Make geomeLrlc consLrucLlons


SlmllarlLy, 8lghL 1rlangles, and 1rlgonomeLry
undersLand slmllarlLy ln Lerms of slmllarlLy
LransformaLlons
rove Lheorems lnvolvlng slmllarlLy
ueflne LrlgonomeLrlc raLlos and solve problems lnvolvlng
rlghL Lrlangles
Apply LrlgonomeLry Lo general Lrlangles


Clrcles
undersLand and apply Lheorems abouL clrcles
llnd arc lengLhs and areas of secLors of clrcles


Lxpresslng CeomeLrlc roperLles wlLh LquaLlons
1ranslaLe beLween Lhe geomeLrlc descrlpLlon and
Lhe equaLlon for a conlc secLlon
use coordlnaLes Lo prove slmple geomeLrlc Lheorems
algebralcally


CeomeLrlc MeasuremenL and ulmenslon
Lxplaln volume formulas and use Lhem Lo
solve problems
vlsuallze relaLlonshlps beLween Lwo-dlmenslonal
and Lhree-dlmenslonal ob[ecLs


Modellng wlLh CeomeLry
Apply geomeLrlc concepLs ln modellng slLuaLlons
(lA) use dlagrams conslsLlng of verLlces and edges (verLex-edge graphs) Lo model and solve problems relaLed Lo
neLworks.


Mathemat|ca| ract|ces

1. Make sense of problems and
persevere ln solvlng Lhem.
2. 8eason absLracLly and quanLlLaLlvely.
3. ConsLrucL vlable argumenLs and
crlLlque Lhe reasonlng of oLhers.
4. Model wlLh maLhemaLlcs.
3. use approprlaLe Lools sLraLeglcally.
6. ALLend Lo preclslon.
7. Look for and make use of sLrucLure.
8. Look for and express regularlLy ln
repeaLed reasonlng.

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Congruence G-CC
Lxper|ment w|th transformat|ons |n the p|ane
Ceo 1-2, 1-
3, 1-4, 1-6,
3-1, 10-6
1. know preclse deflnlLlons of angle, clrcle, perpendlcular llne, parallel llne,
and llne segmenL, based on Lhe undeflned noLlons of polnL, llne, dlsLance
along a llne, and dlsLance around a clrcular arc. (G-CC.1.)

Ceo, 9-1, 9-
2, 9-3, 9-4,
9-6
2. 8epresenL LransformaLlons ln Lhe plane uslng, e.g., Lransparencles and
geomeLry sofLware, descrlbe LransformaLlons as funcLlons LhaL Lake polnLs
ln Lhe plane as lnpuLs and glve oLher polnLs as ouLpuLs. Compare
LransformaLlons LhaL preserve dlsLance and angle Lo Lhose LhaL do noL (e.g.,
LranslaLlon versus horlzonLal sLreLch). (G-CC.2.)
Alg ll 12-3
Ceo C8 9 -
3
3. Clven a recLangle, parallelogram, Lrapezold, or regular polygon, descrlbe
Lhe roLaLlons and reflecLlons LhaL carry lL onLo lLself. (G-CC.3.)

Ceo 9-1, 9-
2, 9-3
4. uevelop deflnlLlons of roLaLlons, reflecLlons, and LranslaLlons ln Lerms of
angles, clrcles, perpendlcular llnes, parallel llnes, and llne segmenLs. (G-
CC.4.)
Alg ll 12-3
Ceo 9 - 1,
9-2, 9-3, 9-
4
3. Clven a geomeLrlc flgure and a roLaLlon, reflecLlon, or LranslaLlon, draw Lhe
Lransformed flgure uslng, e.g., graph paper, Lraclng paper, or geomeLry
sofLware. Speclfy a sequence of LransformaLlons LhaL wlll carry a glven
flgure onLo anoLher. (G-CC.S.)
Alg ll 12-3
Understand congruence |n terms of r|g|d mot|ons
Ceo 9 - 1,
9-2, 9-3, 9-
4, 9-3
6. use geomeLrlc descrlpLlons of rlgld moLlons Lo Lransform flgures and Lo
predlcL Lhe effecL of a glven rlgld moLlon on a glven flgure, glven Lwo
flgures, use Lhe deflnlLlon of congruence ln Lerms of rlgld moLlons Lo declde
lf Lhey are congruenL. (G-CC.6.)

Ceo 9-3 7. use Lhe deflnlLlon of congruence ln Lerms of rlgld moLlons Lo show LhaL Lwo
Lrlangles are congruenL lf and only lf correspondlng palrs of sldes and
correspondlng palrs of angles are congruenL. (G-CC.7.)

Ceo 9-3 8. Lxplaln how Lhe crlLerla for Lrlangle congruence (ASA, SAS, and SSS) follow
from Lhe deflnlLlon of congruence ln Lerms of rlgld moLlons. (G-CC.8.)

rove geometr|c theorems
Ceo 2 - 6,
3-2, 3-2
9. rove Lheorems abouL llnes and angles. 1beotems locloJe. vettlcol ooqles
ote cooqtoeot, wbeo o ttoosvetsol ctosses potollel lloes, oltetoote lotetlot
ooqles ote cooqtoeot ooJ cottespooJloq ooqles ote cooqtoeot, polots oo o
petpeoJlcolot blsectot of o lloe seqmeot ote exoctly tbose epolJlstoot ftom
tbe seqmeots eoJpolots. (G-CC.9.)

Ceo 3-3, 4-
3, 3-1, 3-4
10. rove Lheorems abouL Lrlangles. 1beotems locloJe. meosotes of lotetlot
ooqles of o ttlooqle som to 180, bose ooqles of lsosceles ttlooqles ote
cooqtoeot, tbe seqmeot jololoq mlJpolots of two slJes of o ttlooqle ls
potollel to tbe tbltJ slJe ooJ bolf tbe leoqtb, tbe meJloos of o ttlooqle meet
ot o polot. (G-CC.10.)

Ceo 6 - 2,
6-3, 6-4, 6-
3
11. rove Lheorems abouL parallelograms. 1beotems locloJe. opposlte slJes ote
cooqtoeot, opposlte ooqles ote cooqtoeot, tbe Jloqoools of o potolleloqtom
blsect eocb otbet, ooJ coovetsely, tectooqles ote potolleloqtoms wltb
cooqtoeot Jloqoools. (G-CC.11.)

Make geometr|c construct|ons
Ceo 1-6, 3-
2, 3-6, 4-4,
3-2
12. Make formal geomeLrlc consLrucLlons wlLh a varleLy of Lools and meLhods
(compass and sLralghLedge, sLrlng, reflecLlve devlces, paper foldlng,
dynamlc geomeLrlc sofLware, eLc.). copyloq o seqmeot, copyloq oo ooqle,
blsectloq o seqmeot, blsectloq oo ooqle, coosttoctloq petpeoJlcolot lloes,
locloJloq tbe petpeoJlcolot blsectot of o lloe seqmeot, ooJ coosttoctloq o
lloe potollel to o qlveo lloe tbtooqb o polot oot oo tbe lloe. (G-CC.12.)

Ceo 3-6, 4-
3, 10-3
13. ConsLrucL an equllaLeral Lrlangle, a square, and a regular hexagon lnscrlbed
ln a clrcle. (G-CC.13.)




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S|m||ar|ty, k|ght 1r|ang|es, and 1r|gonometry G-Sk1
Understand s|m||ar|ty |n terms of s|m||ar|ty transformat|ons
1a. Ceo C8 9 - 6
1b. Ceo 9 - 6
1. verlfy experlmenLally Lhe properLles of dllaLlons glven by a cenLer and a
scale facLor:
a. A dllaLlon Lakes a llne noL passlng Lhrough Lhe cenLer of Lhe
dllaLlon Lo a parallel llne, and leaves a llne passlng Lhrough Lhe
cenLer unchanged.
b. 1he dllaLlon of a llne segmenL ls longer or shorLer ln Lhe raLlo glven
by Lhe scale facLor. (G-Sk1.1.)

Ceo 9 - 7 2. Clven Lwo flgures, use Lhe deflnlLlon of slmllarlLy ln Lerms of slmllarlLy
LransformaLlons Lo declde lf Lhey are slmllar, explaln uslng slmllarlLy
LransformaLlons Lhe meanlng of slmllarlLy for Lrlangles as Lhe equallLy of all
correspondlng palrs of angles and Lhe proporLlonallLy of all correspondlng
palrs of sldes. (G-Sk1.2.)

Ceo 9 - 7 3. use Lhe properLles of slmllarlLy LransformaLlons Lo esLabllsh Lhe AA
crlLerlon for Lwo Lrlangles Lo be slmllar. (G-Sk1.3.)

rove theorems |nvo|v|ng s|m||ar|ty
Ceo 7 - 3, 8-1

4. rove Lheorems abouL Lrlangles. 1beotems locloJe. o lloe potollel to ooe
slJe of o ttlooqle JlvlJes tbe otbet two ptopottlooolly, ooJ coovetsely, tbe
lytboqoteoo 1beotem ptoveJ osloq ttlooqle slmllotlty. (G-Sk1.4.)

Ceo 4 - 2, 4-3,
4-4, 4-3, 4-6, 4-
7, 3-1, 3-2, 3-4,
6-1, 6-2, 6-3, 6-
4, 6-3, 6-6, 7-2,
7-3, 7-4
3. use congruence and slmllarlLy crlLerla for Lrlangles Lo solve problems and Lo
prove relaLlonshlps ln geomeLrlc flgures. (G-Sk1.S.)

Def|ne tr|gonometr|c rat|os and so|ve prob|ems |nvo|v|ng r|ght tr|ang|es
Alg 10-6
Ceo C8 8-3
6. undersLand LhaL by slmllarlLy, slde raLlos ln rlghL Lrlangles are properLles of
Lhe angles ln Lhe Lrlangle, leadlng Lo deflnlLlons of LrlgonomeLrlc raLlos for
acuLe angles. (G-Sk1.6.)
Alg ll 14-3
Ceo 8 -3

7. Lxplaln and use Lhe relaLlonshlp beLween Lhe slne and coslne of
complemenLary angles. (G-Sk1.7.)

Alg 10-1, 10-6
Ceo 8-1, 8-2, 8-
3, 8-4
8. use LrlgonomeLrlc raLlos and Lhe yLhagorean 1heorem Lo solve rlghL
Lrlangles ln applled problems.

(G-Sk1.8.)
Alg ll 14-3
App|y tr|gonometry to genera| tr|ang|es
Ceo 10 - 3 9. (+) uerlve Lhe formula A = 1/2 ob sln(c) for Lhe area of a Lrlangle by drawlng
an auxlllary llne from a verLex perpendlcular Lo Lhe opposlLe slde. (G-
Sk1.9.)
Alg ll 14-4
Ceo 8-3, 8-6 10. (+) rove Lhe Laws of Slnes and Coslnes and use Lhem Lo solve problems.
(G-Sk1.10.)
Alg ll 14-4, 14-3
Ceo 8-3, 8-6 11. (+) undersLand and apply Lhe Law of Slnes and Lhe Law of Coslnes Lo flnd
unknown measuremenLs ln rlghL and non-rlghL Lrlangles (e.g., surveylng
problems, resulLanL forces). (G-Sk1.11.)
Alg ll 14-4, 14-3
C|rc|es G-C
Understand and app|y theorems about c|rc|es
Ceo 10-6 1. rove LhaL all clrcles are slmllar. (G-C.1.)
Ceo 10-6, 12-2,
12-3
2. ldenLlfy and descrlbe relaLlonshlps among lnscrlbed angles, radll, and
chords. locloJe tbe telotloosblp betweeo ceottol, losctlbeJ, ooJ
cltcomsctlbeJ ooqles, losctlbeJ ooqles oo o Jlometet ote tlqbt ooqles, tbe
toJlos of o cltcle ls petpeoJlcolot to tbe tooqeot wbete tbe toJlos lotetsects
tbe cltcle. (G-C.2.)

Ceo 3-3, 12-3 3. ConsLrucL Lhe lnscrlbed and clrcumscrlbed clrcles of a Lrlangle, and prove
properLles of angles for a quadrllaLeral lnscrlbed ln a clrcle. (G-C.3.)

Ceo 12 - 3 4. (+) ConsLrucL a LangenL llne from a polnL ouLslde a glven clrcle Lo Lhe clrcle.
(G-C.4.)


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I|nd arc |engths and areas of sectors of c|rc|es
Ceo 10-6, 10-7 3. uerlve uslng slmllarlLy Lhe facL LhaL Lhe lengLh of Lhe arc lnLercepLed by an
angle ls proporLlonal Lo Lhe radlus, and deflne Lhe radlan measure of Lhe
angle as Lhe consLanL of proporLlonallLy, derlve Lhe formula for Lhe area of
a secLor. (G-C.S.)

Lxpress|ng Geometr|c ropert|es w|th Lquat|ons G-GL
1rans|ate between the geometr|c descr|pt|on and the equat|on for a con|c sect|on
Ceo 12 - 3 1. uerlve Lhe equaLlon of a clrcle of glven cenLer and radlus uslng Lhe
yLhagorean 1heorem, compleLe Lhe square Lo flnd Lhe cenLer and radlus of
a clrcle glven by an equaLlon. (G-GL.1.)
Alg ll 10-3, 10-6
Ceo C8 12 - 3 2. uerlve Lhe equaLlon of a parabola glven a focus and dlrecLrlx. (G-GL.2.) Alg ll 10-2, 10-6
3. (+) uerlve Lhe equaLlons of elllpses and hyperbolas glven Lhe focl, uslng Lhe
facL LhaL Lhe sum or dlfference of dlsLances from Lhe focl ls consLanL. (G-
GL.3.)
Alg ll 10-4, 10-3
Use coord|nates to prove s|mp|e geometr|c theorems a|gebra|ca||y
Ceo 6-9 4. use coordlnaLes Lo prove slmple geomeLrlc Lheorems algebralcally. lot
exomple, ptove ot Jlsptove tbot o flqote JefloeJ by foot qlveo polots lo tbe
cootJloote plooe ls o tectooqle, ptove ot Jlsptove tbot tbe polot (1, vJ) lles
oo tbe cltcle ceoteteJ ot tbe otlqlo ooJ cootololoq tbe polot (0, 2). (G-
GL.4.)

Alg 3-6
Ceo 3-8, 7-3,
7-4
3. rove Lhe slope crlLerla for parallel and perpendlcular llnes and use Lhem Lo
solve geomeLrlc problems (e.g., flnd Lhe equaLlon of a llne parallel or
perpendlcular Lo a glven llne LhaL passes Lhrough a glven polnL). (G-GL.S.)

Ceo 1-3, 1-7 6. llnd Lhe polnL on a dlrecLed llne segmenL beLween Lwo glven polnLs LhaL
parLlLlons Lhe segmenL ln a glven raLlo. (G-GL.6.)

Ceo 6-7, 10-1 7. use coordlnaLes Lo compuLe perlmeLers of polygons and areas of Lrlangles
and recLangles, e.g., uslng Lhe dlsLance formula.

(G-GL.7.)

Geometr|c Measurement and D|mens|on G-GMD
Lxp|a|n vo|ume formu|as and use them to so|ve prob|ems
Ceo C8 10-7,
11-4
1. Clve an lnformal argumenL for Lhe formulas for Lhe clrcumference of a
clrcle, area of a clrcle, volume of a cyllnder, pyramld, and cone. use
Jlssectloo otqomeots, covolletls ptloclple, ooJ lofotmol llmlt otqomeots.
(G-GMD.1.)

Ceo 11-4 2. (+) Clve an lnformal argumenL uslng Cavallerl's prlnclple for Lhe formulas
for Lhe volume of a sphere and oLher solld flgures. (G-GMD.2.)

Ceo 11-4, 11-3,
11-6
3. use volume formulas for cyllnders, pyramlds, cones, and spheres Lo solve
problems.

(G-GMD.3.)

V|sua||ze re|at|onsh|ps between two-d|mens|ona| and three-d|mens|ona| ob[ects
lA.7.loL polnLs ln Lhree-dlmenslons.
Ceo 11-1, 12 - 6 4. ldenLlfy Lhe shapes of Lwo-dlmenslonal cross-secLlons of Lhree-dlmenslonal
ob[ecLs, and ldenLlfy Lhree-dlmenslonal ob[ecLs generaLed by roLaLlons of
Lwo-dlmenslonal ob[ecLs. (G-GMD.4.)

Mode||ng w|th Geometry G-MG
App|y geometr|c concepts |n mode||ng s|tuat|ons
Ceo 8-3, 10-1,
10-2, 10-3, 11-
2, 11-3, 11-4,
11-3, 11-6, 11-7
1. use geomeLrlc shapes, Lhelr measures, and Lhelr properLles Lo descrlbe
ob[ecLs (e.g., modellng a Lree Lrunk or a human Lorso as a cyllnder).

(G-
MG.1.)

Ceo 11-7 2. Apply concepLs of denslLy based on area and volume ln modellng slLuaLlons
(e.g., persons per square mlle, 81us per cublc fooL).

(G-MG.2.)

Ceo 3-4 3. Apply geomeLrlc meLhods Lo solve deslgn problems (e.g., deslgnlng an
ob[ecL or sLrucLure Lo saLlsfy physlcal consLralnLs or mlnlmlze cosL, worklng
wlLh Lypographlc grld sysLems based on raLlos).

(G-MG.3.)





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modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.
(IA) Use d|agrams cons|st|ng of vert|ces and edges (vertex-edge graphs) to mode|
and so|ve prob|ems re|ated to networks.

lA.8.undersLand, analyze, evaluaLe, and apply verLex-edge graphs Lo model and
solve problems relaLed Lo paLhs, clrculLs, neLworks, and relaLlonshlps
among a flnlLe number of elemenLs, ln real-world and absLracL seLLlngs.



lA.9.Model and solve problems uslng aL leasL Lwo of Lhe followlng fundamenLal
graph Loplcs and models: Luler paLhs and clrculLs, PamllLon paLhs and
clrculLs, Lhe Lravellng salesman problem (1S), mlnlmum spannlng Lrees,
crlLlcal paLhs, verLex colorlng.



lA.10.Compare and conLrasL verLex-edge graph Loplcs and models ln Lerms of:


properLles
algorlLhms
opLlmlzaLlon
Lypes of problems LhaL can be solved



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modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.
Mathemat|cs | n|gh Schoo| Stat|st|cs and robab|||ty



ueclslons or predlcLlons are ofLen based on daLa-numbers ln conLexL. 1hese declslons or predlcLlons would be easy lf Lhe daLa
always senL a clear message, buL Lhe message ls ofLen obscured by varlablllLy. SLaLlsLlcs provldes Lools for descrlblng varlablllLy ln
daLa and for maklng lnformed declslons LhaL Lake lL lnLo accounL.

uaLa are gaLhered, dlsplayed, summarlzed, examlned, and lnLerpreLed Lo dlscover paLLerns and devlaLlons from paLLerns.
CuanLlLaLlve daLa can be descrlbed ln Lerms of key characLerlsLlcs: measures of shape, cenLer, and spread. 1he shape of a daLa
dlsLrlbuLlon mlghL be descrlbed as symmeLrlc, skewed, flaL, or bell shaped, and lL mlghL be summarlzed by a sLaLlsLlc measurlng
cenLer (such as mean or medlan) and a sLaLlsLlc measurlng spread (such as sLandard devlaLlon or lnLerquarLlle range). ulfferenL
dlsLrlbuLlons can be compared numerlcally uslng Lhese sLaLlsLlcs or compared vlsually uslng ploLs. knowledge of cenLer and
spread are noL enough Lo descrlbe a dlsLrlbuLlon. Whlch sLaLlsLlcs Lo compare, whlch ploLs Lo use, and whaL Lhe resulLs of a
comparlson mlghL mean, depend on Lhe quesLlon Lo be lnvesLlgaLed and Lhe real-llfe acLlons Lo be Laken.

8andomlzaLlon has Lwo lmporLanL uses ln drawlng sLaLlsLlcal concluslons. llrsL, collecLlng daLa from a random sample of a
populaLlon makes lL posslble Lo draw valld concluslons abouL Lhe whole populaLlon, Laklng varlablllLy lnLo accounL. Second,
randomly asslgnlng lndlvlduals Lo dlfferenL LreaLmenLs allows a falr comparlson of Lhe effecLlveness of Lhose LreaLmenLs. A
sLaLlsLlcally slgnlflcanL ouLcome ls one LhaL ls unllkely Lo be due Lo chance alone, and Lhls can be evaluaLed only under Lhe
condlLlon of randomness. 1he condlLlons under whlch daLa are collecLed are lmporLanL ln drawlng concluslons from Lhe daLa, ln
crlLlcally revlewlng uses of sLaLlsLlcs ln publlc medla and oLher reporLs, lL ls lmporLanL Lo conslder Lhe sLudy deslgn, how Lhe daLa
were gaLhered, and Lhe analyses employed as well as Lhe daLa summarles and Lhe concluslons drawn.

8andom processes can be descrlbed maLhemaLlcally by uslng a probablllLy model: a llsL or descrlpLlon of Lhe posslble ouLcomes
(Lhe sample space), each of whlch ls asslgned a probablllLy. ln slLuaLlons such as fllpplng a coln, rolllng a number cube, or drawlng
a card, lL mlghL be reasonable Lo assume varlous ouLcomes are equally llkely. ln a probablllLy model, sample polnLs represenL
ouLcomes and comblne Lo make up evenLs, probablllLles of evenLs can be compuLed by applylng Lhe AddlLlon and MulLlpllcaLlon
8ules. lnLerpreLlng Lhese probablllLles relles on an undersLandlng of lndependence and condlLlonal probablllLy, whlch can be
approached Lhrough Lhe analysls of Lwo-way Lables.

1echnology plays an lmporLanL role ln sLaLlsLlcs and probablllLy by maklng lL posslble Lo generaLe ploLs, regresslon funcLlons, and
correlaLlon coefflclenLs, and Lo slmulaLe many posslble ouLcomes ln a shorL amounL of Llme.

Connect|ons to Iunct|ons and Mode||ng. luncLlons may be used Lo descrlbe daLa, lf Lhe daLa suggesL a llnear relaLlonshlp, Lhe
relaLlonshlp can be modeled wlLh a regresslon llne, and lLs sLrengLh and dlrecLlon can be expressed Lhrough a correlaLlon
coefflclenL.

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modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.
Stat|st|cs and robab|||ty Cverv|ew

lnLerpreLlng CaLegorlcal and CuanLlLaLlve uaLa
Summarlze, represenL, and lnLerpreL daLa on a slngle counL or
measuremenL varlable
Summarlze, represenL, and lnLerpreL daLa on Lwo caLegorlcal
and quanLlLaLlve varlables
lnLerpreL llnear models


Maklng lnferences and !usLlfylng Concluslons
undersLand and evaluaLe random processes underlylng
sLaLlsLlcal experlmenLs
Make lnferences and [usLlfy concluslons from sample surveys,
experlmenLs and observaLlonal sLudles


CondlLlonal robablllLy and Lhe 8ules of robablllLy
undersLand lndependence and condlLlonal probablllLy
and use Lhem Lo lnLerpreL daLa
use Lhe rules of probablllLy Lo compuLe probablllLles of
compound evenLs ln a unlform probablllLy model


uslng robablllLy Lo Make ueclslons
CalculaLe expecLed values and use Lhem Lo solve
problems
use probablllLy Lo evaluaLe ouLcomes of declslons


Mathemat|ca| ract|ces

1. Make sense of problems and
persevere ln solvlng Lhem.
2. 8eason absLracLly and quanLlLaLlvely.
3. ConsLrucL vlable argumenLs and
crlLlque Lhe reasonlng of oLhers.
4. Model wlLh maLhemaLlcs.
3. use approprlaLe Lools sLraLeglcally.
6. ALLend Lo preclslon.
7. Look for and make use of sLrucLure.
8. Look for and express regularlLy ln
repeaLed reasonlng.

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modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.

Interpret|ng Categor|ca| and uant|tat|ve Data S-ID
Summar|ze, represent, and |nterpret data on a s|ng|e count or measurement var|ab|e
Alg 12-2,
12-4
1. 8epresenL daLa wlLh ploLs on Lhe real number llne (doL ploLs, hlsLograms, and box
ploLs). (S-ID.1.)

Alg 12-3
12-4
2. use sLaLlsLlcs approprlaLe Lo Lhe shape of Lhe daLa dlsLrlbuLlon Lo compare cenLer
(medlan, mean) and spread (lnLerquarLlle range, sLandard devlaLlon) of Lwo or more
dlfferenL daLa seLs. (S-ID.2.)
Alg ll 11-10
Alg 12-3 3. lnLerpreL dlfferences ln shape, cenLer, and spread ln Lhe conLexL of Lhe daLa seLs,
accounLlng for posslble effecLs of exLreme daLa polnLs (ouLllers). (S-ID.3.)

4. use Lhe mean and sLandard devlaLlon of a daLa seL Lo flL lL Lo a normal dlsLrlbuLlon and
Lo esLlmaLe populaLlon percenLages. 8ecognlze LhaL Lhere are daLa seLs for whlch such a
procedure ls noL approprlaLe. use calculaLors, spreadsheeLs, and Lables Lo esLlmaLe
areas under Lhe normal curve. (S-ID.4.)
Alg 11-1,
11-7
Summar|ze, represent, and |nterpret data on two categor|ca| and quant|tat|ve var|ab|es
Alg C8 12-3 3. Summarlze caLegorlcal daLa for Lwo caLegorles ln Lwo-way frequency Lables. lnLerpreL
relaLlve frequencles ln Lhe conLexL of Lhe daLa (lncludlng [olnL, marglnal, and condlLlonal
relaLlve frequencles). 8ecognlze posslble assoclaLlons and Lrends ln Lhe daLa. (S-ID.S.)

6a. Alg 3-7,
9-7

6b. Alg
C8 3-7,
C8 9-7

6c. Alg 3-7
6. 8epresenL daLa on Lwo quanLlLaLlve varlables on a scaLLer ploL, and descrlbe how Lhe
varlables are relaLed.
a. llL a funcLlon Lo Lhe daLa, use funcLlons flLLed Lo daLa Lo solve problems ln Lhe
conLexL of Lhe daLa. use qlveo fooctloos ot cboose o fooctloo soqqesteJ by tbe
cootext. mpboslze lloeot, pooJtotlc, ooJ expooeotlol moJels.
b. lnformally assess Lhe flL of a funcLlon by ploLLlng and analyzlng reslduals.
c. llL a llnear funcLlon for a scaLLer ploL LhaL suggesLs a llnear assoclaLlon. (S-
ID.6.)

Interpret ||near mode|s
Alg 3-7 7. lnLerpreL Lhe slope (raLe of change) and Lhe lnLercepL (consLanL Lerm) of a llnear model
ln Lhe conLexL of Lhe daLa. (S-ID.7.)

Alg 3-7 8. CompuLe (uslng Lechnology) and lnLerpreL Lhe correlaLlon coefflclenL of a llnear flL.
(S-ID.8.)

Alg 3-7 9. ulsLlngulsh beLween correlaLlon and causaLlon. (S-ID.9.)
Mak|ng Inferences and Iust|fy|ng Conc|us|ons S-IC
Understand and eva|uate random processes under|y|ng stat|st|ca| exper|ments
1. undersLand sLaLlsLlcs as a process for maklng lnferences abouL populaLlon parameLers
based on a random sample from LhaL populaLlon. (S-IC.1.)
Alg ll 11-8
2. ueclde lf a speclfled model ls conslsLenL wlLh resulLs from a glven daLa-generaLlng
process, e.g., uslng slmulaLlon. lot exomple, o moJel soys o splooloq colo folls beoJs op
wltb ptoboblllty 0.5. woolJ o tesolt of 5 tolls lo o tow coose yoo to poestloo tbe moJel?
(S-IC.2.)
Alg ll C8
11-3
Make |nferences and [ust|fy conc|us|ons from samp|e surveys, exper|ments, and observat|ona|
stud|es

Alg C8 12-3,
12-3
3. 8ecognlze Lhe purposes of and dlfferences among sample surveys, experlmenLs, and
observaLlonal sLudles, explaln how randomlzaLlon relaLes Lo each. (S-IC.3.)
Alg ll 11-8
4. use daLa from a sample survey Lo esLlmaLe a populaLlon mean or proporLlon, develop a
margln of error Lhrough Lhe use of slmulaLlon models for random sampllng. (S-IC.4.)
Alg ll 11-8
Alg C8 12-7 3. use daLa from a randomlzed experlmenL Lo compare Lwo LreaLmenLs, use slmulaLlons
Lo declde lf dlfferences beLween parameLers are slgnlflcanL. (S-IC.S.)
Alg ll C8
11-10
6. LvaluaLe reporLs based on daLa. (S-IC.6.) Alg ll 11-6
Cond|t|ona| robab|||ty and the ku|es of robab|||ty S-C
Understand |ndependence and cond|t|ona| probab|||ty and use them to |nterpret data
Alg 12-7
Ceo 13-1
1. uescrlbe evenLs as subseLs of a sample space (Lhe seL of ouLcomes) uslng characLerlsLlcs
(or caLegorles) of Lhe ouLcomes, or as unlons, lnLersecLlons, or complemenLs of oLher
evenLs ("or," "and," "noL") (S-C.1.)

Alg C8 12-9
Ceo 13-6
2. undersLand LhaL Lwo evenLs A and 8 are lndependenL lf Lhe probablllLy of A and 8
occurrlng LogeLher ls Lhe producL of Lhelr probablllLles, and use Lhls characLerlzaLlon Lo
deLermlne lf Lhey are lndependenL. (S-C.2.)
Alg ll 11-3
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modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.
Alg C8 12-9
Ceo 13-6
3. undersLand Lhe condlLlonal probablllLy of A glven 8 as l(A and 8)/l(8), and lnLerpreL
lndependence of A and 8 as saylng LhaL Lhe condlLlonal probablllLy of A glven 8 ls Lhe
same as Lhe probablllLy of A, and Lhe condlLlonal probablllLy of 8 glven A ls Lhe same as
Lhe probablllLy of 8. (S-C.3.)
Alg ll 11-4
Alg 12-7
Ceo 13-1,
13-2, 13-3
4. ConsLrucL and lnLerpreL Lwo-way frequency Lables of daLa when Lwo caLegorles are
assoclaLed wlLh each ob[ecL belng classlfled. use Lhe Lwo-way Lable as a sample space
Lo declde lf evenLs are lndependenL and Lo approxlmaLe condlLlonal probablllLles. lot
exomple, collect Joto ftom o tooJom somple of stoJeots lo yoot scbool oo tbelt fovotlte
sobject omooq motb, scleoce, ooJ oqllsb. stlmote tbe ptoboblllty tbot o tooJomly
selecteJ stoJeot ftom yoot scbool wlll fovot scleoce qlveo tbot tbe stoJeot ls lo teotb
qtoJe. uo tbe some fot otbet sobjects ooJ compote tbe tesolts. (S-C.4.)
Alg ll 11-4
Alg C8 12-9
Ceo 13-2,
13-6
3. 8ecognlze and explaln Lhe concepLs of condlLlonal probablllLy and lndependence ln
everyday language and everyday slLuaLlons. lot exomple, compote tbe cbooce of bovloq
looq coocet lf yoo ote o smoket wltb tbe cbooce of beloq o smoket lf yoo bove looq
coocet. (S-C.S.)
Alg ll 11-3,
11-4
Use the ru|es of probab|||ty to compute probab|||t|es of compound events |n a un|form
probab|||ty mode|

Ceo 13-6 6. llnd Lhe condlLlonal probablllLy of A glven 8 as Lhe fracLlon of 8's ouLcomes LhaL also
belong Lo A, and lnLerpreL Lhe answer ln Lerms of Lhe model. (S-C.6.)
Alg ll 11-4
Alg 12 - 8
Ceo 13-4
7. Apply Lhe AddlLlon 8ule, l(A or 8) = l(A) + l(8) - l(A and 8), and lnLerpreL Lhe answer ln
Lerms of Lhe model. (S-C.7.)
Alg ll 11-3
Ceo 13-4 8. (+) Apply Lhe general MulLlpllcaLlon 8ule ln a unlform probablllLy model, l(A and 8) =
l(A)l(8|A) = l(8)l(A|8), and lnLerpreL Lhe answer ln Lerms of Lhe model. (S-C.8.)
Alg ll 11-4
Alg 12-8
Ceo 13-4
9. (+) use permuLaLlons and comblnaLlons Lo compuLe probablllLles of compound evenLs
and solve problems. (S-C.9.)
Alg ll 11-1
Us|ng robab|||ty to Make Dec|s|ons S-MD
Ca|cu|ate expected va|ues and use them to so|ve prob|ems
1. (+) ueflne a random varlable for a quanLlLy of lnLeresL by asslgnlng a numerlcal value Lo
each evenL ln a sample space, graph Lhe correspondlng probablllLy dlsLrlbuLlon uslng
Lhe same graphlcal dlsplays as for daLa dlsLrlbuLlons. (S-MD.1.)

2. (+) CalculaLe Lhe expecLed value of a random varlable, lnLerpreL lL as Lhe mean of Lhe
probablllLy dlsLrlbuLlon. (S-MD.2.)

3. (+) uevelop a probablllLy dlsLrlbuLlon for a random varlable deflned for a sample space
ln whlch LheoreLlcal probablllLles can be calculaLed, flnd Lhe expecLed value. lot
exomple, floJ tbe tbeotetlcol ptoboblllty Jlsttlbotloo fot tbe oombet of cottect ooswets
obtoloeJ by qoessloq oo oll flve poestloos of o moltlple-cbolce test wbete eocb poestloo
bos foot cbolces, ooJ floJ tbe expecteJ qtoJe ooJet votloos qtoJloq scbemes. (S-MD.3.)

4. (+) uevelop a probablllLy dlsLrlbuLlon for a random varlable deflned for a sample space
ln whlch probablllLles are asslgned emplrlcally, flnd Lhe expecLed value. lot exomple,
floJ o cotteot Joto Jlsttlbotloo oo tbe oombet of 1v sets pet boosebolJ lo tbe uolteJ
5totes, ooJ colcolote tbe expecteJ oombet of sets pet boosebolJ. now mooy 1v sets
woolJ yoo expect to floJ lo 100 tooJomly selecteJ boosebolJs? (S-MD.4.)

Use probab|||ty to eva|uate outcomes of dec|s|ons
3. (+) Welgh Lhe posslble ouLcomes of a declslon by asslgnlng probablllLles Lo payoff values
and flndlng expecLed values.
a. llnd Lhe expecLed payoff for a game of chance. lot exomple, floJ tbe expecteJ
wlooloqs ftom o stote lottety tlcket ot o qome ot o fost-fooJ testootoot.
b. LvaluaLe and compare sLraLegles on Lhe basls of expecLed values. lot exomple,
compote o blqb-JeJoctlble vetsos o low-JeJoctlble ootomoblle losotooce pollcy
osloq votloos, bot teosoooble, cbooces of bovloq o mloot ot o mojot occlJeot.
(S-MD.S.)

Ceo 13-7 6. (+) use probablllLles Lo make falr declslons (e.g., drawlng by loLs, uslng a random
number generaLor). (S-MD.6.)
Alg ll 11-3
Ceo 13-7 7. Analyze declslons and sLraLegles uslng probablllLy concepLs (e.g., producL LesLlng,
medlcal LesLlng, pulllng a hockey goalle aL Lhe end of a game). (S-MD.7.)
Alg ll 11-3

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Note on courses and trans|t|ons

1he hlgh school porLlon of Lhe SLandards for MaLhemaLlcal ConLenL speclfles Lhe maLhemaLlcs all sLudenLs should sLudy for
college and career readlness. 1hese sLandards do noL mandaLe Lhe sequence of hlgh school courses. Powever, Lhe organlzaLlon
of hlgh school courses ls a crlLlcal componenL Lo lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe sLandards. 1o LhaL end, sample hlgh school paLhways for
maLhemaLlcs - ln boLh a LradlLlonal course sequence (Algebra l, CeomeLry, and Algebra ll) as well as an lnLegraLed course
sequence (MaLhemaLlcs 1, MaLhemaLlcs 2, MaLhemaLlcs 3) - wlll be made avallable shorLly afLer Lhe release of Lhe flnal Common
Core SLaLe SLandards. lL ls expecLed LhaL addlLlonal model paLhways based on Lhese sLandards wlll become avallable as well.

1he sLandards Lhemselves do noL dlcLaLe currlculum, pedagogy, or dellvery of conLenL. ln parLlcular, sLaLes may handle Lhe
LranslLlon Lo hlgh school ln dlfferenL ways. lor example, many sLudenLs ln Lhe u.S. Loday Lake Algebra l ln Lhe 8Lh grade, and ln
some sLaLes Lhls ls a requlremenL. 1he k-7 sLandards conLaln Lhe prerequlslLes Lo prepare sLudenLs for Algebra l by 8Lh grade, and
Lhe sLandards are deslgned Lo permlL sLaLes Lo conLlnue exlsLlng pollcles concernlng Algebra l ln 8Lh grade.

A second ma[or LranslLlon ls Lhe LranslLlon from hlgh school Lo posL-secondary educaLlon for college and careers. 1he evldence
concernlng college and career readlness shows clearly LhaL Lhe knowledge, skllls, and pracLlces lmporLanL for readlness lnclude a
greaL deal of maLhemaLlcs prlor Lo Lhe boundary deflned by (+) symbols ln Lhese sLandards. lndeed, some of Lhe hlghesL prlorlLy
conLenL for college and career readlness comes from Crades 6-8. 1hls body of maLerlal lncludes powerfully useful proflclencles
such as applylng raLlo reasonlng ln real-world and maLhemaLlcal problems, compuLlng fluenLly wlLh poslLlve and negaLlve
fracLlons and declmals, and solvlng real-world and maLhemaLlcal problems lnvolvlng angle measure, area, surface area, and
volume. 8ecause lmporLanL sLandards for college and career readlness are dlsLrlbuLed across grades and courses, sysLems for
evaluaLlng college and career readlness should reach as far back ln Lhe sLandards as Crades 6-8. lL ls lmporLanL Lo noLe as well
LhaL cuL scores or oLher lnformaLlon generaLed by assessmenL sysLems for college and career readlness should be developed ln
collaboraLlon wlLh represenLaLlves from hlgher educaLlon and workforce developmenL programs, and should be valldaLed by
subsequenL performance of sLudenLs ln college and Lhe workforce.

nC1L: 1he llnk llsLed below goes Lo Lhe Appendlx A: ueslgnlng Plgh School MaLhemaLlcs Courses 8ased on Lhe Common Core
SLaLe SLandards documenL LhaL ls parL of Lhe Common Core SLaLe SLandards for MaLhemaLlcs. Powever, Lhe documenL ls noL parL
of Lhe Common Core MaLhemaLlcs SLandards LhaL were adopLed by lowa's SLaLe 8oard of LducaLlon. 1he paLhways and courses
addressed ln Lhe documenL are models noL mandaLes.

hLLp://www.coresLandards.org/asseLs/CCSSl_MaLhemaLlcs_Appendlx_A.pdf


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modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.
G|ossary

Add|t|on and subtract|on w|th|n S, 10, 20, 100, or 1000. AddlLlon or subLracLlon of Lwo whole numbers wlLh whole number
answers, and wlLh sum or mlnuend ln Lhe range 0-3, 0-10, 0-20, or 0-100, respecLlvely. Lxample: 8 + 2 = 10 ls an addlLlon wlLhln
10, 14 - 3 = 9 ls a subLracLlon wlLhln 20, and 33 - 18 = 37 ls a subLracLlon wlLhln 100.

Add|t|ve |nverses. 1wo numbers whose sum ls 0 are addlLlve lnverses of one anoLher. Lxample: 3/4 and - 3/4 are addlLlve
lnverses of one anoLher because 3/4 + (- 3/4) = (- 3/4) + 3/4 = 0.

Assoc|at|ve property of add|t|on. See 1able 3 ln Lhls Clossary.

Assoc|at|ve property of mu|t|p||cat|on. See 1able 3 ln Lhls Clossary.

8|var|ate data. alrs of llnked numerlcal observaLlons. Lxample: a llsL of helghLs and welghLs for each player on a fooLball Leam.

8ox p|ot. A meLhod of vlsually dlsplaylng a dlsLrlbuLlon of daLa values by uslng Lhe medlan, quarLlles, and exLremes of Lhe daLa
seL. A box shows Lhe mlddle 30 of Lhe daLa.
1


Commutat|ve property. See 1able 3 ln Lhls Clossary.

Comp|ex fract|on. A fracLlon A/8 where A and/or 8 are fracLlons (8 nonzero).

Computat|on a|gor|thm. A seL of predeflned sLeps appllcable Lo a class of problems LhaL glves Lhe correcL resulL ln every case
when Lhe sLeps are carrled ouL correcLly. 5ee olso. compuLaLlon sLraLegy.

Computat|on strategy. urposeful manlpulaLlons LhaL may be chosen for speclflc problems, may noL have a flxed order, and may
be almed aL converLlng one problem lnLo anoLher. 5ee olso. compuLaLlon algorlLhm.

Congruent. 1wo plane or solld flgures are congruenL lf one can be obLalned from Lhe oLher by rlgld moLlon (a sequence of
roLaLlons, reflecLlons, and LranslaLlons).

Count|ng on. A sLraLegy for flndlng Lhe number of ob[ecLs ln a group wlLhouL havlng Lo counL every member of Lhe group. lor
example, lf a sLack of books ls known Lo have 8 books and 3 more books are added Lo Lhe Lop, lL ls noL necessary Lo counL Lhe
sLack all over agaln. Cne can flnd Lhe LoLal by coootloq oo-polnLlng Lo Lhe Lop book and saylng elghL," followlng Lhls wlLh nlne,
Len, eleven. 1here are eleven books now."

Dot p|ot. See: llne ploL.

D||at|on. A LransformaLlon LhaL moves each polnL along Lhe ray Lhrough Lhe polnL emanaLlng from a flxed cenLer, and mulLlplles
dlsLances from Lhe cenLer by a common scale facLor.

Lxpanded form. A mulLl-dlglL number ls expressed ln expanded form when lL ls wrlLLen as a sum of slngle-dlglL mulLlples of
powers of Len. lor example, 643 = 600 + 40 + 3.

Lxpected va|ue. lor a random varlable, Lhe welghLed average of lLs posslble values, wlLh welghLs glven by Lhelr respecLlve
probablllLles.


1
AdapLed from Wlsconsln ueparLmenL of ubllc lnsLrucLlon, hLLp://dpl.wl.gov/sLandards/maLhglos.hLml, accessed March 2,
2010.
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modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.
I|rst quart||e. lor a daLa seL wlLh medlan M, Lhe flrsL quarLlle ls Lhe medlan of Lhe daLa values less Lhan M. Lxample: lor Lhe daLa
seL [1, 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 14, 13, 22, 120}, Lhe flrsL quarLlle ls 6. 5ee olso. medlan, Lhlrd quarLlle, lnLerquarLlle range.
2


Iract|on. A number expresslble ln Lhe form o/b where o ls a whole number and b ls a poslLlve whole number. (1he word ftoctloo
ln Lhese sLandards always refers Lo a non-negaLlve number.) 5ee olso. raLlonal number.

Ident|ty property of 0. See 1able 3 ln Lhls Clossary.

Independent|y comb|ned probab|||ty mode|s. 1wo probablllLy models are sald Lo be comblned lndependenLly lf Lhe probablllLy
of each ordered palr ln Lhe comblned model equals Lhe producL of Lhe orlglnal probablllLles of Lhe Lwo lndlvldual ouLcomes ln Lhe
ordered palr.

Integer. A number expresslble ln Lhe form o or -o for some whole number a.

Interquart||e kange. A measure of varlaLlon ln a seL of numerlcal daLa, Lhe lnLerquarLlle range ls Lhe dlsLance beLween Lhe flrsL
and Lhlrd quarLlles of Lhe daLa seL. Lxample: lor Lhe daLa seL [1, 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 14, 13, 22, 120}, Lhe lnLerquarLlle range ls 13 - 6 =
9. 5ee olso. flrsL quarLlle, Lhlrd quarLlle.

L|ne p|ot. A meLhod of vlsually dlsplaylng a dlsLrlbuLlon of daLa values where each daLa value ls shown as a doL or mark above a
number llne. Also known as a doL ploL.
3


Mathemat|cs of Informat|on rocess|ng and the Internet (IA). 1he lnLerneL ls everywhere ln modern llfe. 1o be lnformed
consumers and clLlzens ln Lhe lnformaLlon-dense modern world permeaLed by Lhe lnLerneL, sLudenLs should have a baslc
maLhemaLlcal undersLandlng of some of Lhe lssues of lnformaLlon processlng on Lhe lnLerneL. lor example, when maklng an
onllne purchase, maLhemaLlcs ls used Lo help you flnd whaL you wanL, encrypL your credlL card number so LhaL you can safely
buy lL, send your order accuraLely Lo Lhe vendor, and, lf your order ls lmmedlaLely downloaded, as when purchaslng sofLware,
muslc, or vldeo, ensure LhaL your download occurs qulckly and error-free. LssenLlal Loplcs relaLed Lo Lhese aspecLs of lnformaLlon
processlng are baslc seL Lheory, loglc, and modular arlLhmeLlc. 1hese Loplcs are noL only fundamenLal Lo lnformaLlon processlng
on Lhe lnLerneL, buL Lhey are also lmporLanL maLhemaLlcal Loplcs ln Lhelr own rlghL wlLh appllcaLlons ln many oLher areas.

Mathemat|cs of Vot|ng (IA). 1he lnsLanL-runoff voLlng (l8v), Lhe 8orda meLhod (asslgnlng polnLs for preferences), and Lhe
CondorceL meLhod (ln whlch each palr of candldaLes ls run off head Lo head) are all forms of preferenLlal voLlng (rank accordlng
Lo your preferences, raLher Lhan [usL voLlng for your slngle favorlLe candldaLe).

Mean. A measure of cenLer ln a seL of numerlcal daLa, compuLed by addlng Lhe values ln a llsL and Lhen dlvldlng by Lhe number of
values ln Lhe llsL.
4
Lxample: lor Lhe daLa seL [1, 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 14, 13, 22, 120}, Lhe mean ls 21.

Mean abso|ute dev|at|on. A measure of varlaLlon ln a seL of numerlcal daLa, compuLed by addlng Lhe dlsLances beLween each
daLa value and Lhe mean, Lhen dlvldlng by Lhe number of daLa values. Lxample: lor Lhe daLa seL [2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 14, 13, 22,
120}, Lhe mean absoluLe devlaLlon ls 20.

Med|an. A measure of cenLer ln a seL of numerlcal daLa. 1he medlan of a llsL of values ls Lhe value appearlng aL Lhe cenLer of a
sorLed verslon of Lhe llsL-or Lhe mean of Lhe Lwo cenLral values, lf Lhe llsL conLalns an even number of values. Lxample: lor Lhe
daLa seL [2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 14, 13, 22, 90}, Lhe medlan ls 11.

M|d||ne. ln Lhe graph of a LrlgonomeLrlc funcLlon, Lhe horlzonLal llne halfway beLween lLs maxlmum and mlnlmum values.

Mu|t|p||cat|on and d|v|s|on w|th|n 100. MulLlpllcaLlon or dlvlslon of Lwo whole numbers wlLh whole number answers, and wlLh
producL or dlvldend ln Lhe range 0-100. Lxample: 72 - 8 = 9.


2
Many dlfferenL meLhods for compuLlng quarLlles are ln use. 1he meLhod deflned here ls someLlmes called Lhe Moore and
McCabe meLhod. See Langford, L., "CuarLlles ln LlemenLary SLaLlsLlcs," !ournal of SLaLlsLlcs LducaLlon volume 14, number 3
(2006).
3
AdapLed from Wlsconsln ueparLmenL of ubllc lnsLrucLlon, op. clt.
4
1o be more preclse, Lhls deflnes Lhe otltbmetlc meoo.
Disclaimer: This document is up-to-date as of 11/17/2010. The language provided may not be Page 40 of 48
modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.
Mu|t|p||cat|ve |nverses. 1wo numbers whose producL ls 1 are mulLlpllcaLlve lnverses of one anoLher. Lxample: 3/4 and 4/3 are
mulLlpllcaLlve lnverses of one anoLher because 3/4 4/3 = 4/3 3/4 = 1.

Number ||ne d|agram. A dlagram of Lhe number llne used Lo represenL numbers and supporL reasonlng abouL Lhem. ln a number
llne dlagram for measuremenL quanLlLles, Lhe lnLerval from 0 Lo 1 on Lhe dlagram represenLs Lhe unlL of measure for Lhe
quanLlLy.

ercent rate of change. A raLe of change expressed as a percenL. Lxample: lf a populaLlon grows from 30 Lo 33 ln a year, lL grows
by 3/30 = 10 per year.

robab|||ty d|str|but|on. 1he seL of posslble values of a random varlable wlLh a probablllLy asslgned Lo each.

ropert|es of operat|ons. See 1able 3 ln Lhls Clossary.

ropert|es of equa||ty. See 1able 4 ln Lhls Clossary.

ropert|es of |nequa||ty. See 1able 3 ln Lhls Clossary.

ropert|es of operat|ons. See 1able 3 ln Lhls Clossary.

robab|||ty. A number beLween 0 and 1 used Lo quanLlfy llkellhood for processes LhaL have uncerLaln ouLcomes (such as Losslng a
coln, selecLlng a person aL random from a group of people, Losslng a ball aL a LargeL, or LesLlng for a medlcal condlLlon).

robab|||ty mode|. A probablllLy model ls used Lo asslgn probablllLles Lo ouLcomes of a chance process by examlnlng Lhe naLure
of Lhe process. 1he seL of all ouLcomes ls called Lhe sample space, and Lhelr probablllLles sum Lo 1. See also: unlform probablllLy
model.

kandom var|ab|e. An asslgnmenL of a numerlcal value Lo each ouLcome ln a sample space.

kat|ona| express|on. A quoLlenL of Lwo polynomlals wlLh a non-zero denomlnaLor.

kat|ona| number. A number expresslble ln Lhe form o/b or - o/b for some fracLlon o/b. 1he raLlonal numbers lnclude Lhe
lnLegers.

kect|||near f|gure. A polygon all angles of whlch are rlghL angles.

k|g|d mot|on. A LransformaLlon of polnLs ln space conslsLlng of a sequence of one or more LranslaLlons, reflecLlons, and/or
roLaLlons. 8lgld moLlons are here assumed Lo preserve dlsLances and angle measures.

kepeat|ng dec|ma|. 1he declmal form of a raLlonal number. See also: LermlnaLlng declmal.

Samp|e space. ln a probablllLy model for a random process, a llsL of Lhe lndlvldual ouLcomes LhaL are Lo be consldered.

Scatter p|ot. A graph ln Lhe coordlnaLe plane represenLlng a seL of blvarlaLe daLa. lor example, Lhe helghLs and welghLs of a
group of people could be dlsplayed on a scaLLer ploL.
3


S|m||ar|ty transformat|on. A rlgld moLlon followed by a dllaLlon.

1ape d|agram. A drawlng LhaL looks llke a segmenL of Lape, used Lo lllusLraLe number relaLlonshlps. Also known as a sLrlp
dlagram, bar model, fracLlon sLrlp, or lengLh model.

1erm|nat|ng dec|ma|. A declmal ls called LermlnaLlng lf lLs repeaLlng dlglL ls 0.


3
AdapLed from Wlsconsln ueparLmenL of ubllc lnsLrucLlon, op. clt.
Disclaimer: This document is up-to-date as of 11/17/2010. The language provided may not be Page 41 of 48
modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.
1h|rd quart||e. lor a daLa seL wlLh medlan M, Lhe Lhlrd quarLlle ls Lhe medlan of Lhe daLa values greaLer Lhan M. Lxample: lor Lhe
daLa seL [2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 14, 13, 22, 120}, Lhe Lhlrd quarLlle ls 13. 5ee olso. medlan, flrsL quarLlle, lnLerquarLlle range.

1rans|t|v|ty pr|nc|p|e for |nd|rect measurement. lf Lhe lengLh of ob[ecL A ls greaLer Lhan Lhe lengLh of ob[ecL 8, and Lhe lengLh of
ob[ecL 8 ls greaLer Lhan Lhe lengLh of ob[ecL C, Lhen Lhe lengLh of ob[ecL A ls greaLer Lhan Lhe lengLh of ob[ecL C. 1hls prlnclple
applles Lo measuremenL of oLher quanLlLles as well.

Un|form probab|||ty mode|. A probablllLy model whlch asslgns equal probablllLy Lo all ouLcomes. 5ee olso. probablllLy model.

Vector. A quanLlLy wlLh magnlLude and dlrecLlon ln Lhe plane or ln space, deflned by an ordered palr or Lrlple of real numbers.

Vertex-Ldge Graphs (IA). verLex-edge graphs are dlagrams conslsLlng of verLlces (polnLs) and edges (llne segmenLs or arcs)
connecLlng some of Lhe verLlces. verLex-edge graphs are also someLlmes called neLworks, dlscreLe graphs, or flnlLe graphs. A
verLex-edge graph shows relaLlonshlps and connecLlons among ob[ecLs, such as ln a road neLwork, a LelecommunlcaLlons
neLwork, or a famlly Lree. WlLhln Lhe conLexL of school geomeLry, whlch ls fundamenLally Lhe sLudy of shape, verLex-edge graphs
represenL, ln a sense, Lhe slLuaLlon of no shape. 1haL ls, verLex-edge graphs are geomeLrlc models conslsLlng of verLlces and
edges ln whlch shape ls noL essenLlal, only Lhe connecLlons among verLlces are essenLlal. 1hese graphs are wldely used ln
buslness and lndusLry Lo solve problems abouL neLworks, paLhs, and relaLlonshlps among a flnlLe number of ob[ecLs - such as,
analyzlng a compuLer neLwork, opLlmlzlng Lhe rouLe used for snowplowlng, collecLlng garbage, or vlslLlng buslness cllenLs,
schedullng commlLLee meeLlngs Lo avold confllcLs, or plannlng a large consLrucLlon pro[ecL Lo flnlsh on Llme.

V|sua| fract|on mode|. A Lape dlagram, number llne dlagram, or area model.

Who|e numbers. 1he numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, ..
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modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.
1ab|e 1. Common addlLlon and subLracLlon slLuaLlons.
6


kesu|t Unknown Change Unknown Start Unknown
Add to
1wo bunnles saL on Lhe
grass. 1hree more bunnles
hopped Lhere. Pow many
bunnles are on Lhe grass
now?
2 + 3 = ?
1wo bunnles were slLLlng on
Lhe grass. Some more
bunnles hopped Lhere. 1hen
Lhere were flve bunnles.
Pow many bunnles hopped
over Lo Lhe flrsL Lwo?
2 + ? = 3
Some bunnles were slLLlng
on Lhe grass. 1hree more
bunnles hopped Lhere. 1hen
Lhere were flve bunnles.
Pow many bunnles were on
Lhe grass before?
? + 3 = 3
1ake from
llve apples were on Lhe
Lable. l aLe Lwo apples. Pow
many apples are on Lhe
Lable now?
3 - 2 = ?
llve apples were on Lhe
Lable. l aLe some apples.
1hen Lhere were Lhree
apples. Pow many apples
dld l eaL?
3 - ? = 3
Some apples were on Lhe
Lable. l aLe Lwo apples. 1hen
Lhere were Lhree apples.
Pow many apples were on
Lhe Lable before?
? - 2 = 3
1ota| Unknown Addend Unknown 8oth Addends Unknown
1

ut 1ogether]
1ake Apart
2

1hree red apples and Lwo
green apples are on Lhe
Lable. Pow many apples are
on Lhe Lable?
3 + 2 = ?
llve apples are on Lhe Lable.
1hree are red and Lhe resL
are green. Pow many apples
are green?
3 + ? = 3, 3 - 3 = ?
Crandma has flve flowers.
Pow many can she puL ln
her red vase and how many
ln her blue vase?
3 = 0 + 3, 3 = 3 + 0
3 = 1 + 4, 3 = 4 + 1
3 = 2 + 3, 3 = 3 + 2
D|fference Unknown 8|gger Unknown Sma||er Unknown
Compare
3

("Pow many more?"
verslon): Lucy has Lwo
apples. !ulle has flve apples.
Pow many more apples does
!ulle have Lhan Lucy?

("Pow many fewer?"
verslon): Lucy has Lwo
apples. !ulle has flve apples.
Pow many fewer apples
does Lucy have Lhan !ulle?
2 + ? = 3, 3 - 2 = ?
(verslon wlLh "more"): !ulle
has Lhree more apples Lhan
Lucy. Lucy has Lwo apples.
Pow many apples does !ulle
have?

(verslon wlLh "fewer"): Lucy
has 3 fewer apples Lhan
!ulle. Lucy has Lwo apples.
Pow many apples does !ulle
have?
2 + 3 = ?, 3 + 2 = ?
(verslon wlLh "more"): !ulle
has Lhree more apples Lhan
Lucy. !ulle has flve apples.
Pow many apples does Lucy
have?

(verslon wlLh "fewer"): Lucy
has 3 fewer apples Lhan
!ulle. !ulle has flve apples.
Pow many apples does Lucy
have?
3 - 3 = ?, ? + 3 = 3
1
1hese Lake aparL slLuaLlons can be used Lo show all Lhe decomposlLlons of a glven number. 1he assoclaLed equaLlons,
whlch have Lhe LoLal on Lhe lefL of Lhe equal slgn, help chlldren undersLand LhaL Lhe = slgn does noL always mean makes or
resulLs ln buL always does mean ls Lhe same number as.
2
LlLher addend can be unknown, so Lhere are Lhree varlaLlons of Lhese problem slLuaLlons. 8oLh Addends unknown ls a
producLlve exLenslon of Lhls baslc slLuaLlon, especlally for small numbers less Lhan or equal Lo 10.
3
lor Lhe 8lgger unknown or Smaller unknown slLuaLlons, one verslon dlrecLs Lhe correcL operaLlon (Lhe verslon uslng more
for Lhe blgger unknown and uslng less for Lhe smaller unknown). 1he oLher verslons are more dlfflculL.



6
AdapLed from 8ox 2-4 of MaLhemaLlcs Learnlng ln Larly Chlldhood, naLlonal 8esearch Councll (2009, pp. 32, 33).
Disclaimer: This document is up-to-date as of 11/17/2010. The language provided may not be Page 43 of 48
modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.
1ab|e 2. Common mulLlpllcaLlon and dlvlslon slLuaLlons.
7



Unknown roduct Group S|ze Unknown
("now many |n each group?"
D|v|s|on)
Number of Groups Unknown
("now many groups?" D|v|s|on)
3 6 = ? 3 ? = 18, and 18 3 = ? ? 6 = 18, and 18 6 = ?
Lqua|
Groups
1here are 3 bags wlLh 6
plums ln each bag. Pow
many plums are Lhere ln all?

MeasuremenL example. ?ou
need 3 lengLhs of sLrlng,
each 6 lnches long. Pow
much sLrlng wlll you need
alLogeLher?
lf 18 plums are shared equally
lnLo 3 bags, Lhen how many
plums wlll be ln each bag?

MeasuremenL example. ?ou
have 18 lnches of sLrlng, whlch
you wlll cuL lnLo 3 equal pleces.
Pow long wlll each plece of
sLrlng be?
lf 18 plums are Lo be packed 6 Lo a
bag, Lhen how many bags are
needed?

MeasuremenL example. ?ou have
18 lnches of sLrlng, whlch you wlll
cuL lnLo pleces LhaL are 6 lnches
long. Pow many pleces of sLrlng
wlll you have?
Arrays,
4

Area
S

1here are 3 rows of apples
wlLh 6 apples ln each row.
Pow many apples are Lhere?

Area example. WhaL ls Lhe
area of a 3 cm by 6 cm
recLangle?
lf 18 apples are arranged lnLo 3
equal rows, how many apples
wlll be ln each row?

Area example. A recLangle has
area 18 square cenLlmeLers. lf
one slde ls 3 cm long, how long
ls a slde nexL Lo lL?
lf 18 apples are arranged lnLo
equal rows of 6 apples, how many
rows wlll Lhere be?

Area example. A recLangle has
area 18 square cenLlmeLers. lf one
slde ls 6 cm long, how long
ls a slde nexL Lo lL?
Compare
A blue haL cosLs $6. A red
haL blue haL. Pow much
does Lhe red haL cosL?

MeasuremenL example. A
rubber band ls 6 cm long.
Pow long wlll Lhe rubber
band be when lL ls sLreLched
Lo be 3 Llmes as long?
A red haL cosLs $18 and LhaL ls
3 Llmes as much as a blue haL
cosLs. Pow much does a blue
haL cosL?

MeasuremenL example. A
rubber band ls sLreLched Lo be
18 cm long and LhaL ls 3 Llmes
as long as lL was aL flrsL. Pow
long was Lhe rubber band aL
flrsL?
A red haL cosLs $18 and a blue haL
cosLs $6. Pow many Llmes as much
does Lhe red haL cosL as Lhe blue
haL?

MeasuremenL example. A rubber
band was 6 cm long aL flrsL. now lL
ls sLreLched Lo be 18 cm long. Pow
many Llmes as long ls Lhe rubber
band now as lL was aL flrsL?
General a b = ? a ? = p, and p - a = ? ? b = p, and p - b = ?
4
1he language ln Lhe array examples shows Lhe easlesL form of array problems. A harder form ls Lo use Lhe Lerms
rows and columns: 1he apples ln Lhe grocery wlndow are ln 3 rows and 6 columns. Pow many apples are ln
Lhere? 8oLh forms are valuable.
3
Area lnvolves arrays of squares LhaL have been pushed LogeLher so LhaL Lhere are no gaps or overlaps, so array
problems lnclude Lhese especlally lmporLanL measuremenL slLuaLlons.


7
1he flrsL examples ln each cell are examples of dlscreLe Lhlngs. 1hese are easler for sLudenLs and should be glven before Lhe
measuremenL examples.
Disclaimer: This document is up-to-date as of 11/17/2010. The language provided may not be Page 44 of 48
modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.
1ab|e 3. 1he properLles of operaLlons. Pere a, b and c sLand for arblLrary numbers ln a glven number sysLem. 1he properLles of
operaLlons apply Lo Lhe raLlonal number sysLem, Lhe real number sysLem, and Lhe complex number sysLem.

Assoclotlve ptopetty of oJJltloo (o - b) - c = o - (b - c)
commototlve ptopetty of oJJltloo o - b = b - o
AJJltlve lJeotlty ptopetty of 0 o - 0 = 0 - o = o
xlsteoce of oJJltlve lovetses lot evety o tbete exlsts -o so tbot o - (-o) = (-o) - o = 0.
Assoclotlve ptopetty of moltlpllcotloo (o b) c = o (b c)
commototlve ptopetty of moltlpllcotloo o b = b o
Moltlpllcotlve lJeotlty ptopetty of 1 o 1 = 1 o = o
xlsteoce of moltlpllcotlve lovetses lot evety o = 0 tbete exlsts 1/o so tbot o 1/o = 1/o o = 1.
ulsttlbotlve ptopetty of moltlpllcotloo ovet oJJltloo o (b - c) = o b - o c


1ab|e 4. 1he properLles of equallLy. Pere a, b and c sLand for arblLrary numbers ln Lhe raLlonal, real, or complex number sysLems.

keflexlve ptopetty of epoollty o = o
5ymmettlc ptopetty of epoollty lf o = b, tbeo b = o.
1toosltlve ptopetty of epoollty lf o = b ooJ b = c, tbeo o = c.
AJJltloo ptopetty of epoollty lf o = b, tbeo o - c = b - c.
5obttoctloo ptopetty of epoollty lf o = b, tbeo o - c = b - c.
Moltlpllcotloo ptopetty of epoollty lf o = b, tbeo o c = b c.
ulvlsloo ptopetty of epoollty lf o = b ooJ c = 0, tbeo o - c = b - c.
5obstltotloo ptopetty of epoollty lf o = b, tbeo b moy be sobstltoteJ fot o
lo ooy exptessloo cootololoq o.


1ab|e S. 1he properLles of lnequallLy. Pere a, b and c sLand for arblLrary numbers ln Lhe raLlonal or real number sysLems.

xoctly ooe of tbe followloq ls ttoe. o < b, o = b, o > b.
lf o > b ooJ b > c tbeo o > c.
lf o > b, tbeo b < o.
lf o > b, tbeo -o < -b.
lf o > b, tbeo o c > b c.
lf o > b ooJ c > 0, tbeo o c > b c.
lf o > b ooJ c < 0, tbeo o c < b c.
lf o > b ooJ c > 0, tbeo o - c > b - c.
lf o > b ooJ c < 0, tbeo o - c < b - c.

Disclaimer: This document is up-to-date as of 11/17/2010. The language provided may not be Page 45 of 48
modified in any way. The most current Iowa Core can be found at www.corecurriculum.iowa.gov.
Samp|e of Works Consu|ted


LxlsLlng sLaLe sLandards documenLs.

8esearch summarles and brlefs provlded
Lo Lhe Worklng Croup by
researchers.

naLlonal AssessmenL Covernlng 8oard,
Motbemotlcs ltomewotk fot tbe
2009 Notloool Assessmeot of
Jocotloool ltoqtess. u.S.
ueparLmenL of LducaLlon, 2008.

nAL valldlLy SLudles anel, valldlLy
SLudy of Lhe nAL MaLhemaLlcs
AssessmenL: Crades 4 and 8. uaro eL
al., 2007.

MaLhemaLlcs documenLs from: AlberLa,
Canada, 8elglum, Chlna, Chlnese
1alpel, uenmark, Lngland, llnland,
Pong kong, lndla, lreland, !apan,
korea, new ealand, Slngapore,
vlcLorla (8rlLlsh Columbla).

Addlng lL up: Pelplng Chlldren Learn
MaLhemaLlcs. naLlonal 8esearch
Councll, MaLhemaLlcs Learnlng SLudy
CommlLLee, 2001.

8enchmarklng for Success: Lnsurlng u.S.
SLudenLs 8ecelve a World- Class
LducaLlon. naLlonal Covernors
AssoclaLlon, Councll of Chlef SLaLe
School Cfflcers, and Achleve, lnc.,
2008.

ctosstooJs lo Motbemotlcs (1993) and
8eyooJ ctosstooJs (2006). Amerlcan
MaLhemaLlcal AssoclaLlon of 1wo-
?ear Colleges (AMA1?C).

cottlcolom locol lolots fot
ltekloJetqotteo tbtooqb CtoJe 8
Motbemotlcs. A Ooest fot cobeteoce.
naLlonal Councll of 1eachers of
MaLhemaLlcs, 2006.

locos lo nlqb 5cbool Motbemotlcs.
keosooloq ooJ 5eose Mokloq.
naLlonal Councll of 1eachers of
MaLhemaLlcs. 8esLon, vA: nC1M.

loooJotloos fot 5occess. 1be llool kepott
of tbe Notloool Motbemotlcs
AJvlsoty looel. u.S. ueparLmenL of
LducaLlon: WashlngLon, uC, 2008.

ColJelloes fot Assessmeot ooJ
losttoctloo lo 5totlstlcs Jocotloo
(CAl5) kepott. A ltek-12 cottlcolom
ltomewotk.

now leople leoto. 8tolo, MloJ,
xpetleoce, ooJ 5cbool. 8ransford,
!.u., 8rown, A.L., and Cocklng, 8.8.,
eds. CommlLLee on uevelopmenLs ln
Lhe Sclence of Learnlng, Commlsslon
on 8ehavloral and Soclal Sclences
and LducaLlon, naLlonal 8esearch
Councll, 1999.

Motbemotlcs ooJ uemoctocy, 1be cose
fot Ooootltotlve lltetocy, SLeen, L.A.
(ed.). naLlonal Councll on LducaLlon
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Motbemotlcs leotoloq lo otly
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