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ISSN: 2241-1720

Registered in the International Catalogue -Publications Series in Paris VOLUME I SEPTEMBER 2012

The scientific journal for culture and education

Contact: mail@culturejournal.net EDITORIAL BOARD


Editor: Alexandros Argyriadis Members: Alexandros Argyriadis Agathi Argyriadis Christin Coumadorakis Alex babalis Alex Tsallos Kostas Efthimiopoulos Symeon Nikolidakis Steve Stand

INDEX
HE BIOGRAPHY OF PATRIARCH IGNATIOS

MAXIMIZATION OF PEDAGOGICAL ACADEMIES DURING METAXAS ERA

METAXA DICTATORSHIP POLICY ON PEDAGOGICAL ACADEMIES

E-LEARNING AND GREEK LANGUAGE AS SECOND OR FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING

RESEARCHING THE CULTURAL REACTION ON MENTAL ILL PATIENTS

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he biography of Patriarch Ignatios


Alexandros Argyriadis, PhD(C) University of Peloponnese SUMMARY This paper deals with the study of the life of Patriarch Ignatius as it is written by Nikitas David Paphlagon. The value of this biography is very strong since through the deep study of the unfolding historical aspects , offers a considerable wealth of information. It becomes obvious how important was the work of Patriarch Ignatius and how did he act in a particular period of the byzantine history. The text reveals the timeless phenomenon of corruption and competition for power in a context we know of Ignatius. But, in terms of content, his life has an increased interest from literary aspect too. It is impressive all this continuous rotation of different forms of speech as alternating between historiography, the praise reason, reproaches the libel and agiology. The authors lifelong study creates excitement to the reader and often suggests an artistic literary style in writing. KEY WORDS: Patriarch, Ignatios, Byzantium, History, biography

INTRODUCTION

Nikitas David Paphlagon Nikitas David Paphlagon is presented by latest research as the most productive writer of hagiographical texts. Through his unpublished work, he is appeared as an author who successfully cured almost all kinds of
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texts. He wrote especially theological and ethical texts, interpretive and historical epigrams, letters and philosophical writings in accordance with the principles of novel. The pazzle of his literary production complemented by dozen of projects with diverse content betraying the multilateral education and the fore as a genuine form of a 10th centurys author.1 The adjective 'Paphlagon which titles the works of Nikitas in manuscripts and hand, is used primarily to distinguish it from the homonymous authors of the same year as the winner or the Byzantine Magistros. It is also noteworthy that during the period that the term "Paphlagon" recruits derogatory content and showing a satirical style from several sources, shows no direct connection with dynastic episodes of this season, and with the advent of remote epics. In spite of the negative characterizations themselves Paphlagonians felt very proud of their ancestry. Apart from that, during this period many Paphlagonians pioneered the political scene as the Empress Theodora did. Although we have no direct information about the time of birth of Nikitas, we based the fact of the critical issue of Tetragamias period (906 / 7) to know that he was a student of Aretha of Caesarea and participated actively in events associated with it. Therefore, we assume that he was born in the decade between 880 and 890. Through extracts from various works one can derive a wealth of material and information on the same Nikita about his family village and his father who was named Andrew and was a priest in Paphlagonia . t is known that he had two brothers Peter and another whose name does not survive. Unnamed is also mentioned his mother in several texts and one uncle.1,2 The hagiographical work of Nikitas is characterized by linguistic reform and adoption of the principles of the Second Sophistic, but also theological and philosophical elements are accessible, too. The structure of projects is relatively commonplace, following the classical rhetorical praise. Initially, he commended in principle the call from Christ, composed in part of their curriculum with material drawn from the New Testament and the
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apocryphal acts. Different is the form of praise in witnesses and government followed closely by the oldest biographies and testimonies in his praise. Witnesses retain the elements of epic narrative with interactive parts interchangeable with the testimonies and the insertion of supernatural events. There have also been used scriptural passages and reasons as do the other works of Nikita, as can be evidenced in the works of the profound knowledge of Scripture. The use of sources in his works and critical approach, aimed at cleansing those texts which had crept into false stories or even universal rejection which are the main concern of Nikitas specific interventions that caused a complete perversion of ecclesiastical or historical truth .3

The life of Patriarch Ignatius With no other work is not so intimately connected the name of Nikita David Paflagon in contemporary, historical research especially as the life of the patriarch Ignatius, an extensive historical synthesis, he has attracted the interest of researchers because of the anti-fotian content, causing various crises and disputes and even its authenticity. Ignatius was Patriarch of Constantinople from 847-858 and from 867-877. He was a significant figure, associated with the cycles of the Zealots, he founded several monasteries and became known for his quarrel with Photius. Ignatius succeeded saint before his death after being around strong supporters who called him holy and miraculous.

Photios was also a Patriarch of Constantinople and a great historical personality of church, state and letters. He was canonized and his name until today discussed the historical and literary legacy.
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The biography of Patriarch Ignatius is an hagiographical text which moves between the classic praise and historiography, as has been observed, it is discernible intent of the author not only praised his life but to tarnish the memory of Photios with a view of attack those values attributed to his saint face. The biography of Patriarch Ignatius is the text from which Nikitas Paflagon is primarily known. There is a valuable text with a variety of hints and rich anti-fotian content. The attitude of the writer whom we are discussing said Jenkins, who according to the passage of life identified, concluded that after the changes that were made by the events of Tetragamias, Nikitas became very objective without supporting either Ignatius or Fotius. With projects like The life of Ignatius and libel testified on the life of Efthimios, attempting a frontal assault on almost everyone. Finding confirmations, a similar content of Doom on his letter to the Western bishops supports the idea that the winner was attacked by harsh words against the policies and of ecclesiastical princes of his time, as a whole.1,4

Through many hagiographical texts can be argued that it is actually an aggressive tendency of Nikitas. My opinion on this view is contrary to Jenkins because studying the Life of Ignatius, everyone understands that it is indeed hard on the offensive expressions, but only against those who believed vicious opponents of Christianity. It takes a clear position against the iconoclasts and what distinguishes it is the intense passion whether for praise or for reasons of aggressive feeling. To that view he does not give necessarily negative attributes. It is dominant in the text, the emphasis to the strong and free expression of the author on issues considered to cause injustice. This is perhaps what makes a unique style of Nikitas and gives to the biography of
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Ignatius strong literary connotations. The life of Ignatius was later used as a source of subsequent historical works. Hirsch pointed out this text as a possible source of the Diary of Michael Glykas, although the proposal has been recently challenged.

Even later, in the 17th century the life of the Patriarch Ignatius and Antifotian collection used routinely by Cardinal Baronius, who discovered several codes at the same time. He was to paraphrase the life and the vernacular language of the theologian latin-Cypriot Neophytos Rodinos pupil of Leontius Efstratiou. This paraphrased source code is kept in Borgianus gr.17 (L. VI 18) of the Vatican Library titled "Life martyrdom of saints our father Ignatius Archbishop of Constantinople Greek written by David Nikitas in Paphlagonia, and turned in the language sub aplin Neophytou Rodinion of Cyprus . The above items except the enhancement of the hagiographical work of Nikitas, support the case and confirmation of the translation style that distinguishes his project. Nikitas forms a dynamic way to new processes that characterize hagiology of that period.5 Recently an important article was published by Irina Tamarkina / Madison and the literary magazine Byzantinishe Zeitschrift 2006 for the life of the Patriarch Ignatius. This article discusses the exact date that Nikitas David Paphlagon, wrote the text with the life of Ignatius and also redefines the exact date of the action of Ignatius. This is a really comprehensive document that lists the number of special studies by further correlations with other writings and studies of specific actions by the same life. According to the article in one sense his life was written immediately after the death of Ignatius (877) somewhere in the last decades of the ninth century. This issue has divided two important scholars such as
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k.Papadopoulos-Kerameus and F. Dvornik.6 Jenkins being more accurate and closer to current affairs taking into account the life of Efthymios concludes that the life of Ignatius was written in 907 and the final version completed by 908-910.7 It is true that current studies and those that occurred in recent years have not given us more information than them quoted by Jenkins. He reaches his conclusions, except for the parallel study of Efthimios life, he is also dealt extensively with a letter of Aretha from Caesarea who knew that Mayor David strengthens the natal day of the biography after 906. The article of Tamarkina concludes that the life of Ignatius has been written after 906 and it is related to the questions of tetragamia. These studies approach the writing of life after simultaneous study of many texts of the time is ending the era of war between two factions that the first and second Filoignatians VS filofotians. According to these studies we come closer to the dates mentioned above for when just this valuable text was written. It has really occupied a very special this because the text of that life is full of historical and literary value. Therefore, considering the biography, the article can be placed between 886 and 901/902.8 The life of Patriarch Ignatius is a great source of information since it is literally a stream of historiographic and praising changes. Nikitas David Paphlagon begins the biography of Ignatius by a general introduction to the usefulness of the biographies and the preciousness of their speech.

There are very important reasons why he wrote the life of Ignatius while he seems accustomed to providing knowledge and not to punish the others, but to suggest that there are ambiguities, which lie probably by full transparency and truth. Nikitas David continues in his text, which is extremely comprehensive since all these recorded in less than a page on the origin and the family
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environment of Ignatios. Michail therefore called his father and mother to Prokopios village, his father was the son of a grand patrician Theofylaktos while Prokopios daughter of King Nikiforos. Taking power "tyrannikos epithemeno" Leo the Armenian and his family moved to the Ignatian Prigkipeious islands where installed.9 They had five children: Nikitas who later became a monk since renamed Ignatius and other four siblings Georgia, Theophano, and Theophylaktos Stafrakio. Then the text shows the dislike and resentment of Nikita Dadid vs. Leo who forced his family to Ignatius exilement. In the exile "each one of the islands according to their limit, and safely oppress guard, he removed their children and genital condemned son ruthless. Thus, making a fierce attack on Leo describing the crusty and not having a path of devotion, tenderness, beneficence and respect. Also typical is the transition from the author's description of the family tree of Ignatius to attack Lion and the expression of its position on the issue of sectarian icons. Nikitas featuring Leo the iconoclast and hateful serpent who corrupts the unreasoning truth. Just after this text translates into historiographical data and gives details on the succession of power and what took place and what was that towards the issue of icons. Interesting are the expressions of praise given by the life that Mayor David which touch several times exaggeration. It also highlights the dynamic and educational work in connection with the great contribution of the church life according to the text monasteries were multiplied the talent of teaching multiplyed the flock to be created instead of a single four and a rich monastery tradition. In the above description it is often remarkable a distinction between Orthodox and non Orthodox Church, derived from the iconoclastic tension prevailed.10 The text then is transformed back to praise and teaching of Ignatius gives
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light to the darkness. We see how much passion is attacking and how are these expressions he uses. There are details that make the distinction even more clear for the antipathy of the author and Ignatius against those who fight the "right. Interestingly, while doubling as the author of life is expressed aggressively representing Ignatius proceeds to an outright libel against Fotios. He partially evaluate the life we would say that this place is perhaps the most important throughout the text. Photios after crowding of Ignatius takes the patriarchal office. There are very violent as images are described in biography, but this recording is designed to transmit the historical truth and report a problem that took such proportions as to split the church. It is very important because it shows the description of the human instincts and passion that one may have to support his perceptions. Also the selfish humanity disposition to support these perceptions were revealed forgotten by the meaning of Christianity which suggests love and harmony. CONCLUSIONS Finally, the whole text summarizes the content of the hagiographical life, religious beliefs of the author, canonization, and the praises of Ignatius. It causes great interest the longitudinal phenomenon of corruption and competitive way of living. It is very important to say that after the major battles of Ignatius and Photius were able to reconcile. Indeed, according to Ethics and Religious Encyclopedia one fell on his knees another in order to reconcile and forget the ugly past of dislike. When Ignatius died Fotios reverted to the patriarchal throne and helped the beatification of his predecessor. Today, we know that they are both canonized and the memory of Ignatius is celebrated by the Orthodox Church on October 23.
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Bibliography 1. , . (1999). . , . 2. Patrologia J-P Migne, 105,.487-584 3. Tamara, Rice. (1972). . :. 4. . (1973). (). :. 5. Kazhdan, A. (2006). A History of Byzantine Literature. :E. 6. Tamarkina/Madison, . (2006). he date of the life of the patriarch Ignatius reconsidered. Byzantinishe Zeitschrift. . 615-630 7. . (2006). :. 8. Herbert Hunger. (1994). . :. 9. , . (2011). . : .

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MAXIMIZATION OF PEDAGOGICAL ACADEMIES DURING METAXAS ERA


Kalerante E., Lecturer, University of Western Macedonia, ekalerante@yahoo.gr

ABSTRACT In our work, we are going to examine the establishment and the role of the Pedagogical Academies along with a pedagogical training provision towards teachers. Aiming at the population literacy and the citizens participation in the economical and social mainstream of the country generates the necessity for a new educational system. A series of chronological periods are meant to be the cornerstone for this tremendous change. Thus, within the first period commencing in 1914 the government aims at the modification of all educational structures and their integration in a unified framework serving all social strata. The second period commencing in 1929 aims at the reduction of illiteracy connecting the notion of progress to the utilization of human force. In 1933, when the third period commences emphasis is placed on the establishment of Pedagogical Academies and the abolition of the Teacher Training Colleges conducive to the unified teacher training and the renewal of the educational content provided to the teachers. Besides, the Metaxa regime concentrates on the completion of high school attendance by providing a general education both at High Schools and Pedagogical Academies. The reinforcement of National Youth Groups seem to be of significant support in the realization of these changes since the teacher acquires a dominant political and educational role within the NYO sections. Key words: Teacher Training Colleges, Pedagogical Academies, educational content, teacher training. INTRODUCTION

Elementary and Intermediate Teachers different training was longitudinally connected to the teachers different role in both grades. The establishment of Teacher Training Colleges makes us notice, in the first place, that a basic general education is provided to teachers, accompanied by an embryonic pedagogical training1. The more Elementary school students are presented, the more the teacher training structure, with increased attendance years in the Teacher Training Colleges and the Curriculum
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See (indicatively) For the operation of the Pedagogical Academies and Teacher Training: A. Andreou, The Teacher Training Colleges and Teacher Training (1878-1991), doctoral dissertation, Thessaloniki 1990. Chr. Antoniou, The Greek Teacher Training (1828-2000) Athens (Ellinika Grammata) 2002.

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enrichment both with general and specialized education subjects, is changing. The perception that the Elementary school should operate as a self-sufficient popular school creates those prerequisites to re-examine the teachers role in training Basic Education students. The population literacy issue tied to the standpoint of the citizens participation in the economical and social mainstream of the country sets the new facts open to be investigated. What should be discussed, therefore, is what the teachers should be trained on as well as on which system needs and requirements this training should be adjusted.

We could, schematically, bind four periods in teacher training characterized by the tendency for unified training, choice criteria adoption, attendance years increase and a special training program formulation. It is about the periods: a) 1914-19242 b) 192919323 c) 1933-354 and d) 1936-40. The first period commences in 1914, in a disappointing climate perhaps, due to nonvoting of the Government bills of 19135, and the belief that a change in education under the modification of all its structures and their integration in a unified framework to serve all the social strata education is possible. The standpoint on the 6-year Elementary school and the issue of women education in public schools seems to conduce to changes in teacher training during a time period when the Basic Education is regarded as basic and not lower. Within these frameworks, the organization of Three-classes Teacher Training Colleges is suggested6. Thus, the issue of a unified
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We basically refer to the Venizelos Government work, mainly during 1914 (the first government lasted between 1910-1914), Th. Sofoulis Government (25/7/1924-7/10/1924) as well as A. Michalopoulos Government (7/10/1924-26/6/1925). During that period there were the following Ministers: I. Tsirimokos (31/5/1912-25/2/1915), Th. Vellianitis (25/7/1924-9/10/1924) and K. Spyridis (7/10/1924-9/3/1925). General information on political organization in: N. Svoronos, A Modern Greek History Review, Athens (Themelio) 1999. About Ministers of Education in: A. Dimaras, The Transformation that never happened, Athens (Ermis) 1988, 317. 3 It is about the Venizelos educational policy being in force from 4/7/1928-4/11/1932. During this th nd period Ministers of Education are: K. Gontikas (4 July 1928-2 January 1930), G. Papandreou (2/1/1930-26/5/1932) [A. Papanastasiou Government: P. Karapanos (26/5/1932-5/6/1932) and P. Petridis (5/6/1932-4/11/1932). 4 We mainly refer to the P. Tsaldaris Government educational policy (4/11/1932-16/1/1933 and 10/3/1933-10/10/1935). What is characteristic here is that in both periods Th. Tourkovasilis was the Minister of Education. 5 See for 1913 Government bills : D. Glinos, Collected works (editing by F. Iliou), vol. A-B, Athens (Themelio) 1983. 6 PD 1/3 September 1914 About establishing Teacher Training Colleges for both sexes to train Elementary Education teachers G.G. 247. A series of PDs will follow to regulate issues relevant to the subjects taught, the model elementary schools incorporation into some State Teacher Training

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teacher training is presented. It is also foreseen that the candidate teachers should have completed the nine-year course so that there is practically the potential to change the curriculum of the Teacher Training Colleges by reducing the general training subjects and replacing them with special subjects. In 1924, a course towards the organization of functional Teacher Training Colleges aiming at the teacher special training by increasing the attendance years into five or six7 and the simultaneous program readjustment by adding foreign languages and systematically elaborating on the modern language as well as training in economical domains to support and reinforce the Greek family economical programs seems to be completed. Even though Single-class Teacher Training Colleges operate during that era, they are substantially perceived as an emergency solution. Their gradual downsize will permit the unified, multi-year teacher training. The second period could be considered as the one to complement the work done by the previous one. Another Venizelos government re-examines the issue of organizing education and supports the standpoint for an overall education proposal covering all grades and aiming at the reduction of illiteracy connecting the notion of progress to the utilization of human force. It is estimated that the realization of this proposal will be achieved by increasing the attendance years in the Public Vocational Schools based on a 6-year basic education. Thus, through the reformation of 19298 a 9-year attendance is suggested, that is a 6-year Elementary school education and a complementary agricultural, commercial or household training in Schools of Practice. The common and unified for student 6-year Elementary school, the basis to complete the studies in the other grades as well as Schools of Practice, ought to change form, an issue tied to teacher training to meet the new educational system requirements. A 5year attendance at the Teacher Training Colleges is foreseen. The abolition of the

Colleges. The procedure of organizing Three-classes Teacher Training Colleges is legislatively completed in November 1914. See the relevant Legislation: Sifis Bouzakis, Chr. Tzikas, The Elementary and Kindergarten Teacher Training in Greece, Vol. A 1834-1933, Athens (Gutenberg) 1996, 416-453. 7 D. 2/14 October 1924 About establishing Teacher Training Colleges G.G. 259. Legislative regulations about the operation of 5-classes or 6-classes Colleges will be completed by the last Decree in 1927 about the specification of the curriculum in the fourth grade of the 5-classes Teacher Training College, Sifis Bouzakis, Chr. Tzikas, The Elementary and Kindergarten Teacher Training in Greece, pp. 582-619. For the distinction, especially, in 5-classes or 6-classes we underline that 5-classes Teacher Training Colleges are established only in Older Greece and Epirus where the system of Greek schools and the 4-classes High Schools is in force, Chr. Antoniou, p.76. 8 L. 4397/24-8-1929 About Basic Education G.G. 309.

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Single-class Teacher Training Colleges9 completes a course having commenced in 1914 for the creation of a uniform teacher training. This measure practically brings opportunities equality in learning for all students attending schools with teachers of the same qualifications. In particular, county elementary schools are strengthened and the conditions to increase attendance at the Elementary school as well as at other grades are created. Therefore, the teacher upgrading is pushed forward as a dominant standpoint tied to the general requirement of reforming education. The abolition of Single-class Teacher Training Colleges the course of [] the fast generation at least tolerable teachers10 is rounded up and the base to a more complete multi-year training under a unified program is set. The third period commences in 1933 under the Government of P. Tsaldaris and Minister of Education Th. Tourkovasilis11. The government intentions for an educational policy different from that of the Liberals are presented. The establishment of Pedagogical Academies and the abolition of the Teacher Training Colleges12 rounds up a course towards the unified teacher training and brings back the discussion over the educational content that should be provided to teachers. The choice of candidate teachers out from High School graduates theoretically incorporates one more course of schools, the Pedagogical Academies, into the Upper Grade. These choices should be combined to the new facts, the multitude of non-appointed teachers, giving the government the possibility to prepare teachers by setting terms to satisfy the more general educational aims. By the common scientist general training of all specialties in the Basic and Intermediate Education, a central control system of the provided knowledge along with language elaboration, that is purist Greek, is organized. The provision of general education in the 6-classes High School generates the need to process a program to promote special training in Pedagogical Academies.
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See about the abolition of Single-class Teacher Training Colleges Laws: L. 4358/16 August 1929 th About the abolition of Single-class Teacher Training Colleges G.G. 285 and L.4368/17 August 1929 About the modification of L. 3182 as it was modified by the subsequent laws about the Elementary Education Teacher Training Colleges G.G. 291. 10 See D. Glinos will refer to the issue of teacher intensive training in 1914 and will suggest the operation of Single-class Teacher Training Colleges in order to cease teachers of the Seminaries, assistant teachers and Committee teachers. D. Glinos, Collected work, pp. 165-182. 11 About Th. Tourkovasilis standpoints during this period in: Reveka Galanou Tourkovasili, Theodore Tourkovasilis, Athens (I. Sideris) 2000, 57-102. 12 th L. 5802/29 September 1933 About the establishment of Pedagogical Academies G.G. 286. The legislative procedure about the organization and operation of the Academies will be completed in th nd 1936 by the LD 4/28 July 1936 About 2 class student graduation from the Pedagogical Academies G.G. 305.

th

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METAXA DICTATORSHIP POLICY ON PEDAGOGICAL ACADEMIES

The Metaxa regime continues the policy of completing high school attendance by providing a general education at High School and a general one at the Pedagogical Academies. In 1937, in particular, by the first educational regulation13 during dictatorship it is foreseen that the candidate teachers should have completed a 4-year Elementary school attendance and an 8-year High school one. In 1939, the alteration in the educational system14 defines that candidate teachers will have completed a 6year High school attendance and a 2-year Senior High School attendance, apart from the 4-year Elementary school attendance. We observe that both reformations increase the overall teacher attendance years up to fourteen. Comparing to the former periods already mentioned, we realize that there is an increase in the overall teacher attendance years and their participation in a particularly demanding system of escalated examinations. The unified teacher training has been established and will not be under question by the dictatorship. Moreover, the unification serves the more general aims of supervising the particularly combative teacher field. At this period, under the specification of Academy as the only teacher educational institution, the abolition of equivalence, mainly of the Thessaloniki Girls Schools to the Pedagogical Academies15, seems to be pursued. Attendance years, the issue of the type of teacher training and their role in the educational system managed under special orderliness by the regime are the issues that seem to be open during this period. By EL. 953/193716, Pedagogical Academies are incorporated into the Upper Grade17, an issue of scaling Academies, posed in 1933, seems to be solved typically. The same
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EL.770/13 July 1937 About Intermediate Education Schools G.G. 263. th EL.1849/26 June 1939 About Intermediate Education Schools G.G. 300. 15 It is well-known that the Girls School graduates were placed in positions as teachers in the Macedonia communities. 16 th EL. 953/19 November 1937 About Pedagogical Academies G.G. 469. 17 See. A next stage could be considered that of establishing a unified choice system about Tertiary th Education based on the Academic Graduation Certificate. LD 4397/24 October 1964 About the Organization and Administration of the General (Basic and Intermediate Education) G.G. 182, art. 16. In particular, the choice based on the Academic Graduation Certificate is realized for the Upper Educational Institutions, the National Academy of Physical Education, the Pedagogical Academies, the th Upper Schools of House Economy and the Schools of Kindergarten teachers. PD 546/16 June 1965 About the manner of administering exams for the Academic Graduation Certificate and candidate

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law suggests the possibility to increase the attendance years from two to three18. We observe that a school different in terms of attendance years from the other ones, mainly the 4-year, is incorporated into the Upper grade. At the same time, the Pedagogical Academy becomes upper-graded during a period when the role of Basic Education in underestimated by the 4-year students Elementary school attendance before their entrance to the Intermediate Education. The Pedagogical Academies maximization conditions have not primarily been created. The new element interpreted as a result of maximizing the Academy is the provision of specialized knowledge by the University professors19 in some subjects as well as the issue of possible attendance year increase. Along with the Pedagogical Academies, the National Academy of Physical Education is maximized20. The maximizing of both institutions is tied to the particular role undertaken, as we will see, by teachers and physical educators in NYO (Youth National Organization), the stalemate education grade. After the abolition of the 6years Elementary school and the simultaneous abolition of the Schools of Practice, as a complementary education that is by the rejection of the Liberal education plan, dictatorship focuses on the organization of NYO21, as a political carrier of youth education as well as the unique source of lower strata children basic training22. As I. Metaxas mentions, the schools of Intermediate and Upper education receive only part and not the whole of the youth, thus, organization replaces school23.

choice for the upper educational institutions and the rest of the schools. Relevant legislation: S. Bouzakis, CH. Tzikas, K. Anthopoulos, Male and Female Elementary and Kindergarten teacher training in Greece, Vol. B Athens (Gutenberg) 2002, 242. 18 See. In 1964 the Pedagogical Academy becomes one of a 3-year attendance and could be th incorporated into the positions for the Pedagogical Academies of the period 1964-1967. LD 4397/24 October 1964, art.16. The 3-year attendance will be abolished in 1967 by the dictatorship that will th bring back the Academies of the Metaxa era operation form. EL. 129/25 September 1967 About the organization and administration of the General Education and other similar stipulations G.G. 163. 19 EL. 953/1937, art. 7. 20 th EL. 2057/4 November 1939 About the establishment of the National Academy of Physical Education G.G. 469. The same law abolishes the Gymnastics Academy. 21 th EL. 334/10 November 1936 About the establishment of NYO G.G. 499. 22 See (indicatively) NYO document, reg. nr. 17679 (FII-1/13), to the rank-holders of all male and female NYO formations through familiar Regional Administrations, Topic: About the content of education occupation. At the same time and due to the general subjects taught in NYO a special training incorporated in general domains such as agriculture, manufacturing and household is foreseen. P. Petridis, NYO, the Metaxa fascist youth, Thessaloniki (university studio press) 2000, 232264. 23 st th Speech during the 1 Conference of the National Youth Organization (5 January 1939) at: I. Metaxas, Oration and Thought, Athens (Govosti), part 8-17.

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Pedagogical Academies in 1933 and 1937 are defined those schools in which teachers are professionally educated24 and the subject course to be taught is defined so that the teachers meet the professional requirements. Therefore, by a law of both governments the teacher general training in the Pedagogical Academies is abolished since this field is estimated to be covered by the Intermediate Education and the issue of providing specialized knowledge is put forward. We observe that in the 1937 program, the regime, under K. Georgakopoulos25 as Minister of Education, adds special subjects to the general groups of subjects. Thus, Military Pre-training Teaching Exercises are added in Pedagogic. This theoretical part will be utilized in the subject of Physical Education which is reinforced by the subject of Organizing National Youth Groups26. Special teacher training will be defined by the government aims at the reinforcement of the NYO especially among the illiterate population of the county27. The Supreme Educational Council28 accepts the NYO Commissioner interventions in the subject organization of the Academies29. In particular, the utilization of the NYO educational coupons for the relevant subjects30 is suggested. Thus, special probing deeply into the subject of Adolescent Psychology is required, a fact estimated to be analyzed and utilized within the NYO formations, since the development of group operation communicative tactics is pursued. We notice that the NYO members ask for a cross-

24 25

See L. 5802/1933, art.1 and EL. 953/1937, art.1. K. Georgakopoulos (1890-1978) Legist and politician. He served as an undersecretary to the Premiers office in K. Demertzi government. He assumed the Ministry of Education on 6/8/1936 in which he stayed until November 1938. In 1948, he assumed the position of President of the Greek Red Cross. In 1953, he assumed the position of President of the SSI (State Scholarships Institution). In 1958, he served as a caretaker Prime Mininster. 26 See Programs of the two periods in: L. 5802/1933, art. 5 and EL. 953/1937, art.6. 27 In 1964, the issue of appropriate knowledge provided to the teachers will be re-examined and the teachers role in an open educational system is assessed, forcing both pedagogical training and familiarization with other disciplines in the framework of subject interdisciplinary approach. See th st (indicatively) PD. 247/26 March 1966 About the specification of the Pedagogical Academies 1 grade curriculum G.G.67. 28 The Supreme Educational Council along with the Ministry of Education Central Service defines the government program on education. Local issues and the dissemination of this policy are regulated by the Central Supervising Council, the Basic and Intermediate Education Supervising Councils, the school th Principals and the teacher Associations. EL. 767/5 July 1937 About Education Administration G.G. 255. 29 Ministry of Education Records (transcript KEEA/A25/1177) The Supreme Educational Council nd Minutes, Act 171, 2 October 1940. 30 (Indicative) The NYO books comprise of: 1) NYO handbook, 2) Youth songs and poems, 3) games books, 4) Youth practical occupations, 6) Camping guide, 7) sports and plays regulations, 8) special rd booklet editions of the Central Administration 3 Office publishing department.

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curricular increase of the teacher occupation hours with the NYO issues. Apart from the subject of organizing the National Youth Groups to be taught along with the subject of Physical Education in combination with the Military Exercises, the teaching of national pedagogical songs and more general practical exercises to assist the NYO work are foreseen. Besides, for a more complete training on subjects related to those of History and Religion, in the framework of promoting the 3rd Greek Civilization principles and the more general regime policy, teachers are foreseen to attend special subjects31 in the form of lectures. The teacher being the animating spirit of the NYO programs is pushed forward as the dominant person in the political and educational procedure as it is formed within the NYO sections. Especially after32 the Ministry of Education was assumed by Metaxas, it is obvious that state schools become hotbeds and hives of the National Youth Organization members33. It is underlined that the teacher should be appropriately trained according to the regime principles and checked for his political beliefs. The Civilians Education is considered a significant subject for his political training. It is about the subject of National Education and is deemed necessary to be taught by the school principal. The subject is incorporated within the domain of Public Law, Political Economy and Sociology Elements. At the same time along with the political training, a supervision and control system permitting the tracing of communists and their expulsion from school34 is applied within the school. It is a procedure that complements the one set for participation in the entrance exams in which a social beliefs certificate is foreseen35.

31

The teachers will be involved in the following special subjects: 1) History of Greece and the Balkan countries, 2) Geography of the same countries, 3) Greek Archeology and Tourism. EL. 953/1937, art.6. 32 th th I. Metaxas becomes Minister of Education (25 November 1938-29 January 1941) after K. Georgakopoulos Minister of Education resignation. Events relevant to the cause of Georgakopoulos resignation and his juxtaposition with Metaxas regarding the Archbishop selection in: G. Konidaris, Stages of Ecclesiastical Policy from Kapodistrias up today, Athens 1970. 33 See Circular 121/89444 About the teacher active contribution to the National Youth Association work in: P. Petridis, NYO: The Fascist Youth, p. 275. 34 (Indicative) In 1937, after the Pedagogical Academy Principal report, the student N.S. Kozanis was characterized a communist and was expelled from all Pedagogical Academies. Ministry of Education th Records (transcript KEEA/A15/1175) Supreme Education Council Minutes, act 10, 13 May 1937. 35 th See PD/13 September 1938 About the time of Pedagogical Academies entrance exams th administration, *+, art. 2 and EL. 2029/12 October 1939 About modifying and complementing stipulations about the teacher education and conditions organization *+, art. 25. Relevant legislation in: S. Bouzakis, CH. Tzikas, K. Anthopoulos, The male and female Elementary and Kindergarten teacher training in Greece, Vol. B, p. 175. We notice that the implementation of EL.

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Additionally, we observe that the regime is especially interested in the teacher training. In the formulation of the Pedagogical Academies program there seems to be collaboration between the SEC (Supreme Educational Council) and the NYO administration. The education provided should correspond to the NYO aims since teachers will serve the NYO formations without pay. Especially, after the organization of the National Youth36 Trainer School in which teachers will be educated, conditions are created so that the teachers comprise an intellectual elite diversified from the rest organization hierarchy. Female teachers are also activated in the operation of the NYO sections, obtaining a special guiding role in the NYO operation. Their activities both within the sections and the Household Transitional Schools practically liberate them from traditional single-dimensional roles. The Pedagogical Academies operation is in harmony with the operation of Kindergarten, National Physical Education and Household Schools in order to contribute to the NYO formation as a multi-collective, political and educational organization.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books
, . (1990). (18781991),. , . , . (2002). (1828-2000). : . , . (1973/74). : . 1821- 1894, : 1895-1967. . , . (2007), (1936-1940, . , , (19 .- 1953). , 422-437. , . (2011). . 1936-1940. . , . Gutenberg , . (1942). . , . , : ,8-17. , . & , . (1996). ,.1834-1933, :Gutenberg 416-453. , ., , . & , .(2002). , . : Gutenberg 242.
1075/11 February 1938 About social regime and citizen protection security measures G.G. 45 is foreseen. 36 th EL. 2008/9 October 1939 About the establishment of the NYO Trainer School G.G. 432.
th

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, . (1979). (1931-1973). , . & . (2000). , : University Studio Press 232-264. , . (1975). . , .(1966). 50 , . : ...

Laws
.4358/16-8-1929, , 285 .4368/17-8-1929, 3182 , 291. .4397/24-8-1929, , 309. .5802/1933,,.1 .5802/1933,,.5 .334/10-11-1936, , 499. /15/1175 , 10,13-5- 1937. .767/5-7-1937, ,.255. .770/13-07-1937, , 263. .953/19-11-1937, , 469. .953/1937,,.1. .953/1937,,.6. .953/1937,,. 7 953/1937,,.6. .1075/11-2-1938, , 45. /13-9-1938, ,*+ ,.2 .1849/26-6-1939, , 300 .2008/9-10-1939, , 432. . 2029/12-10-1939, *+,.25. .2057/ 4-11-1939, , 469. ,..17679(-1/13, 1939 , : 121/89444, 1939 . ( /25/1177) , 171,2-10-1940. Culture Journal Maximization of pedagogical acedemies during Metaxas 10 era

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4397/24-10-1964, ( ), .182,.16. 546/16-6-1965, .129/25-9-1967, ,.163. .247/26-3-1966, , .67.

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E-LEARNING AND GREEK LANGUAGE AS SECOND OR FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING

S. Nikolidakis, simosnikoli@yahoo.gr F.Anastasopoulou, fotinianast@hotmail.com

Abstract

Learning Greek as a second or foreign language has begun twenty years ago and has been gradually developing. Even until today, the teaching of Greek is based on the teacher-centered model . Within the context of the teaching procedure, a new teacher model who acts as a mediator in the learning procedure suggested. The teaching practices should be re-adapted on the basis of new co-formulated social changes ,so that the trainee re-conceptualizes the learning procedure and gets motivated about it .The trainers from around Europe were provided with individual projects based on their interests and abilities. As the trainers professed, the procedure was interesting and less painful than the formal learning. Key Words: e-learning, greek language as second or foreign language, new teacher model

1. Introduction Learning Greek as a second or foreign language for the Greek conditions has begun in the 90s and has been gradually developing, creating a fertile ground for discussion and development for the past seven years. The necessity for learning Greek has started from the rapid increase of the immigrant movement during the past twenty years and the increasing needs of the immigrants to be adapted, through language, to the culture and civilization of Greece. The necessity of assimilating the second generation of immigrants into the Greek social, educational, political, economical and cultural being has resulted into the need for continuous and thorough engagement with the teaching of Greek. Culture Journal - E-LEARNING AND GREEK LANGUAGE AS SECOND OR FOREIGN
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During the first years, the first generation of immigrants was not engaged in the cultivation of the linguistic culture due to the need for livelihood and immediate adaptation. The issue of education concerns mainly those immigrants who received academic education in their countries and did a relevant occupation. These groups deny the procedure of embodiment without language training and wish to be trained either formally or not formally.

Another group that presents significant research interest is the European citizens coming in Greece in order to learn the language. This population group, in its majority, has received academic education and wishes, not the fruitless language training, but the simultaneous study of the society, the civilization and the Greek history. Moreover, they are eager to accept teaching innovations, because they basically believe in combined learning and not in the traditional teacher-centered model. Here, the educational innovations such as e-learning, interactive learning and the interdisciplinary approach basically find a fertile ground. 2. A suggestion about taking advantage of e learning in teaching

2.1 Learning Greek with simultaneous use of the computer and distance teaching

Even until today, the teaching of Greek as second or foreign language is based on the teachercentered model and the trainees are confined to learning the language, whereas they are not able to cultivate the culture, civilization and generally their interests. Within the context of the teaching procedure, a new teacher model who acts as a mediator in the learning procedure is suggested. That is, the teacher and the trainer respectively, if we refer to the not formal learning, should find the appropriate teaching manner to attract his students and convince them about the need of adaptation to the formulated technological products and to the new challenges of the information society. Here, the teacher acquires a counseling aspect and supports the students individual research and investigation, boosting them to personal study, self assessment and continuous engagement with issues of their interests, but with simultaneous counseling action, so that the students understand the holistic aspect of the educational procedure and the social placement through language becomes for them the kick-off for a cultural adaptation to the social mainstream.

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The teaching practices should be re-adapted on the basis of new co-formulated social changes, so that the trainee re-conceptualizes the learning procedure and gets motivated about it. In particular, the teacher should act by counseling, criticizing, warning, suggesting alternative solutions, in order to be more effective in a technologically supported environment (Vosniadou, 2006:50-55).

The lack of specially designed software pushes us to re-assess the teaching pattern that should be adapted to the existing technological data, so that the learning procedure can be supported without technological deviations due to economical, cultural or social membership. Taking under consideration the above mentioned, it is understood that there is a need to use the Internet and particularly the social networks. Through these, educational platforms for the presentation of works as well as trainees practice and communication can be generated. A research conducted by a Belgian university in 2005 made obvious that the use of social networks (facebook, twitter) helped the students of Junior and Senior High Schools to adapt themselves to the school demands and motivated the weak students to take action in the participation procedure. These social sites acquired a form of educational interest and were transformed into educational platforms. The results of the research were encouraging because they reversed the notion of the social networks as means of entertainment and provided a teaching perspective through an educational platform, without specialized software. In these sites, in which only the trainees had access, they could exchange opinions, upload educational material, practice on the existing educational material, get informed about things in progress, attend the classes missed and get advise from their teachers. The teachers role was guiding and counseling, while both formal and not formal learning were combined. The positive results of evaluation open a new horizon of expectations for the Internet use and the Greek language learning.

As it has been made understood, learning Greek as a second or foreign language refers mainly to adults whose learning needs are diversified from those of the adolescent students and their learning program focuses, as it has already been mentioned, not only to the linguistic education, but in a broader sense to the culture, re-adapted on the basis of the trainees peculiarities. In adult education time limitation is a crucial issue. The trainees set time limits regarding both the time spent for learning and the time dedicated for language learning and their self education. Thus, it is made understood that special emphasis should be given in the manner of teaching administration and

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preparation, so that it is effective and reflects the trainees needs, without depriving the time for his / her activities.

It is necessary to mention that the trainers, mainly of the non-governmental organizations, are mainly volunteers, a situation which lurks dangers for the effectiveness of the programs or the nonstructured students education. In the context of not formal learning, these dangers are maximized and this is the point where the need for the teachers training and the better observation of the evolution in terms of bibliography focuses.

2.2 A research for taking advantage of the e-learning in learning Greek

2.2.1 Description of the procedure

Learning Greek to volunteers from around Europe was a challenge for our research team, given the fact that we could try and evaluate new teaching practices. The courses of Greek took place in the non-governmental establishment of K.A.N.E. Kalamata. The objective was teaching Greek to volunteers from France and Spain and their simultaneous preparation for the Greek language certification in the levels A1-A2 and B2-C1, according to the cognitive level of the trainees. For the learning procedure we used, apart from the traditional teaching practices, the Internet, the social networks and the distance exchange and assessment of assignments based on the principles of elearning. Thus, we created a kind of educational platform on the Internet where the trainees could upload their assignments, comment on their co-trainees ones and, in general, discuss issues of a broader educational interest or practice on exercises from the suggested websites. Besides, the platform included discussions of general interest, whereas our role as trainers was clearly counseling. The trainees obligation to write in Greek was the only presupposition, whereas they could correct their co-trainees publications.

2.2.2 Suggested projects and the course of the research

The trainees were provided with individual projects based on their interests and abilities. The pivotal philosophy of these activities was the choice of an item of their interest and the scrutiny of all the aspects of the issue, so that they indulge in it and acquire a critical ability. Being driven by Culture Journal - E-LEARNING AND GREEK LANGUAGE AS SECOND OR FOREIGN
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the texts and the teaching material, they chose the thematic unit on the basis of the suggested ones, aiming at the cohesion and relevance of the work in relation to the others.

The aim of these programs was to bring in contact the trainees with the culture and civilization of the welcoming country, in order to seek information on the Internet, to come in contact with the local people, to compose their own texts by writing in Greek, to understand the need of learning Greek, not only as a language of communication, but also as a carrier of civilization.

These works were presented on the Internet, where the co-trainees had the possibility to comment, criticize and re-assess. Thus, an interactive internet team was created, in which the trainees exchanged their preoccupations, thoughts, attitudes, stances, re-defined the text of their assignment and were motivated due to the continuous emulation climate and the willingness to discover knowledge. We observe that even the trainees with a low educational background or those that had no motive at all, were interested in the procedure, because they did not perceive it as a formal procedure but as something innovative, a procedure in which they participated and were offered not only knowledge but satisfaction, as well. That is, the learning procedure became meaningful and they tried to place themselves in it. The people with learning disabilities were not marginalized, whereas the continuous monitoring by the trainers prevented the generation of collaboration problems. The structure of the assignments allows us to suppose that the works were the result of a real and not a virtual study. This happens because the Internet use was not forbidden. We only suggested the use of bibliography from the Internet. Thus, the trainee encountered a multitude of bibliographical material which s/he evaluated and re-expressed his/her written works. The trainers role was almost exclusively guiding. The trainer gave advice to the trainees, helped them in the discovery of the material and guided the team giving reasons for comments and further study. The duration of the program was seven moths and included simultaneous preparation for the certification exams on the knowledge of the Greek language, resulting to the limitation of time used by the trainees for the projects. Given this fact we regard as positive the trainees effort to be introduced to the Greek culture, regardless of the time limitation and the difficulties that rose due to the first application of this enterprise.

2.2.3 Conclusions Culture Journal - E-LEARNING AND GREEK LANGUAGE AS SECOND OR FOREIGN
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Drawing conclusions is necessary after the completion of the investigation procedure. The trainees obtained multiple benefits as a result of the investigatory project, since their expressional and linguistic possibilities were improved significantly. They were also given the opportunity to acquaint the Greek culture in depth and introduce themselves with the linguistic culture being integrated in the framework of discovery learning which, under the current globalized terminology, presupposes the contact with the computer and the concurrent social networks operation. When dealing with such investigatory projects the major objective is the simultaneous linguistic skills development as well as the cultural tradition dissemination which sparks off the continuation of the investigation procedure and boosts future investigators to utilize new technologies data within the teaching framework. Through the research procedure the trainees understood the need for individual research and study whereas the value of the personal time for study and the necessity for collaboration, regarding the discovery of educational material, was obvious. As the trainees professed, the procedure was interesting and less painful than the formal learning. The interactive platform helped them exchange opinions and material with their co-trainees, while they simultaneously had the opportunity to exchange viewpoints and formulate new attitudes and stances for the not formal learning1.

Additionally, in the context of volunteer programs, in which they participated, they had the potential to come in contact with the Greek culture from many aspects and to take advantage of the knowledge obtained but even to come in contact with many Greeks and exchange opinions and perceptions, practicing this way their Greek in a satisfactory degree. Finally, the taking advantage of distance learning and the internet access helped them so that, even when they returned to their country, they kept contact with Greece, asked for their trainers advice and formed gradually a stable relation with the Greek culture. This systematic contact gives us the hope that a significant step towards lifelong learning and continuous individual self - education has been made. These are the aims that constitute the main concern of modern education and correspond to the needs of our era.

The suggested thematic units were based on the notes and texts taught. As in indication we cite the units: a) Trips: looking for Greece, b) Schools: legends and reality, c) Walking in my town: a short guide, d) Learn about me: experiences and presentation of the place of origin

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Culture Journal [VOLUME I ISSUE I Bibliography

, . (2003). . : , . ( 2006 ). Internet. : , . ( 2006 ). , & . : Cutenberg , . & , . & , . ( 2001 ). ( www ) . : , . ( 1995 ). . : , . ( 2006 ). Internet . : Hargreaves, A. ( 1992 ). Changing Teachers Changing Time : teachers work and culture in the postmodern age. London: Cassell Jonassen, D. Modeling with Technology : New Jersey : Pearson , . ( 1997 ). . : , . ( 1999 ). . : , . & , . (2007) . (. . & . ) . ( , ). : University Studio Press Kalerante, E. & Nikolidakis, S. & Georgopoulou ,E. (2010). New ICT learning and teaching tools in ancient Greek studies in : Motivation and beyond. University of Antwerp Kalerante, E. & Nikolidakis, S. & Georgopoulou ,E. (2010). The teaching of

Ancient Greek as a foreign language, for students of immigrant status, at the high Culture Journal - E-LEARNING AND GREEK LANGUAGE AS SECOND OR FOREIGN
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school and Lyceum educational levels in Using Corpora in Contrastive and translation studies. Edge Hill: Edge Hill Unuversity. , . ( 2007 ). . : , . ( 1981 ). . : , . ( 2005 ). . : , . ( 2003 ). . : , . ( 2004 ). . : Lee, T. ( 1999 ). . : , . (2000). - . : . , . ( 2007 ). . : Gutenberg Nikolidakis, S.& Babou (2011). Vocational schools students views and attitude towards the use af new technologies in the educational act in Enabling education and research with ICT. Ljubljana : ministry of education. Nikolidakis , S. & Georgopoulou, E. (2010). Philosophy and new technology in multicultural conditions in ICT and Lifelong learning in all Types of Education: Does this promote Cultural Diversity?. Kalamata: Kane Nikolidakis , S. & Georgopoulou, E. (2010). Philosophy and new technology in intercultural education in ICT and Lifelong learning in all Types of Education: Does this promote Cultural Diversity?. Kalamata: Kane , . & , . ( 2003 ). . : , . & , . & , . ( 2003 ). . : , . ( 2004 ). . : Culture Journal - E-LEARNING AND GREEK LANGUAGE AS SECOND OR FOREIGN
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Researching the cultural reaction on mental ill patients


Alexandros Argyriadis1, Agathi Argyriadi2 1.PhD(c), University of Peloponnese 2.PhD(c), University of Crete

ABSTRACT

AIM

The purpose of this study was the research of the existence or not of the social stigma against psychiatric patients.

METHOD

The study population was a sample of 3500 people from Greece (urban and suburban). For the survey was used a questionnaire of 29 questions, constructed by the researchers. The data were collected through personal interview by the researchers. For the statistical analysis was uesed the statistical program SPSS v.13 and tests Crosstabs x2 (chi-square) and Fishers' extract test. Finally, the normality of variables was tested with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test.

RESULTS

Young people are less informed on the separation of mental illness with mental retardation as well as for the age of onset of disease. As for the danger and violence of the mentally ill population rate of 14.2% from the province answered positively.Remarkable is the 12.9% of people who believe that what is provided for a mentally ill patient is the marginalization, with a
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statistically significant difference (p <0.002). As for renting a house to a mentally ill person rate of 52.4% is willing to contrast with the residents of provincial centers where are more apparent to rejection at a rate of 54.9 with a statistical difference of (p <0.002).

CONCLUSIONS

It is concluded that the mentally ill are deprived of opportunities and social support.This of course is not perceived by others who are mentally healthy, because nobody believes that these people often face serious problems not only with their relatives but also with those around them. The survey results gave the coordinates of a reality in modern Greece, where young people gradually overcome the obsessions of the past. Encouraging can be considered the results but the stigma of mental illness persists.The most important thing is that there is now more suitable situations to fight the stigma than in the past.

Key words: Psychiatry, stigma, social rejection, Greek population, psychology.

Responsible for correspondence: Alexandros Argyriadis Zagorion 19 K. Patissia Athens TK 10445 Tel 6977972381 e-mail: alexphd1@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION

Stigma is an innate disposition of society to the other, who differs from the others.Especially the psychiatric patient is facing through the centuries many multilevel rejection reactions. Such can be seen in a different space-time cultural context, level of education and many environmental factors. However,
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the mental health sciences evolved over the centuries and revise concepts and principles that was previously dominant. It is observed that the stigma against mental illness has fallen on and follows a similar decline as the years go. 1, 2.3 Due to incomplete research data on the issue of stigma, particularly in the Greek population, this research attempts to investigate discrimination and stigmatization reactions of the population and the results obtained are of great interest. Also, there is a great interest because of the affection of other methodological systems. The issue of stigma is prompted by a multidisciplinary study of a synthetic methodological research framework consisted of ethnographic research and fieldwork characteristics.

METHOD

The study population was a sample of 3500 people from Greece (urban and suburban). For the survey was used a questionnaire of 29 questions constructed by the researchers. The data was collected through personal interviews by the researchers.For the statistical analysis was used the statistical program SPSS v.13 and tests Crosstabs x2 (chi-square) and Fishers' extract test. The normality of variables was tested by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test.

RESULTS

The first question about the terms of the population as to the definition of mental illness, 77.3% of the sample aged 25-40 years responded that it is sickness of the soul in contrast with 22.7% aged 25 years who believe that it is mental retardation. (P <0.005).

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When asked at what age the mental illness occurs, 87% believe all ages and 13% aged 25-40 years believes that mental illness occurs at an early age.(P <0.002). Regarding the incidence of disease among both sexes 90.3% believe that appears in both. 5.9% claims that it is more common in men and 3.8% in women with a statistically significant difference. (P <0.001) When asked if mental illness is more common among residents of large cities or smaller urban districts the 93.8% supported the first and only 6.2% in the second. (P <0.005). At the question if the mentally ill can be cured, 73.5% aged 26-40 years believe that can be healed as opposed to 26.5% of the same age who answered no. (P <0.005) Is it, however, the mentally ill dangerous and violent in terms of the sample? It depends on the case answered the 78% irrespectively of educational level. 15% of residents from the province argues that mental illness can be dangerous and violent. The view is different to the residents of urban centers at a rate of 7%. (P <0.002) With regard to the fact whether the mentally ill must be marginalized, 87% answered negatively. Remarkable is the rate of 13% of provincial and urban centers who believes that marginalization should be provided for a mentally ill patient is the with a statistically significant difference (p <0,002). In a related question of whether drug addicted and alcoholics are mentally ill, 57% responded positively and the remaining 43% negatively. (p <0.001) Do the respondents agree with the mentally ill being in their workplace and in their social circle? Negative is the view of 74.9% of the sample while only 25.1% of them accepts them. (p <0.005) Regarding the question of allowing their child to associate with a child that his parent is mentally ill 64.6% aged 26-40 responded positively and 35.4% negatively. Similarly, residents of the province have responded positively to a rate of 64.8% and negatively 35,2% (p <0.005) Is there any excuse in the fact that the spouse applies for divorce because the other spouse is mentally ill? 60.8% regardless of educational level believes
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that there is, while a small percentage from the province 29.2% claims to the contrary (p <0.001). About whether there is a trend to "hide" a mental patient in their social circle, the overwhelming percentage of 85% from Athens claims that they would not do so, while 15% of the province has the opposite opinion . 52.4% aged over 40 years old will be renting their house without any problem at a mental patient while 47.6% could not take such an action. (p <0.001) In the question if a mentally ill person can study and if the mental illness is caused by excessive study, the majority is in favor of education and does not believe that this can cause any psychological problem. Generally, 94% of the sample does not take part in programs that support mentally ill patients, according to the sample of population.

DISCUSSION Despite the fact that the society in Greece is more receptive than ever to any change, unfortunately, presents negative attitudes to psychiatric patients. This study identifies the magnitude of rejection and stigma as it is shaped in large urban centers and in the region. The first question about what they believe that mental illness is, there is a clear confusion of concepts which may be a trigger for planning health education. The results show that young people are not informed enough and this could be seen as motivation of providing education programs. 1

When asked about the age of onset for the mental illness science suggests answers to the view that mental disease occurs more often in younger ages. 2 It is again evident that the younger age groups differ in relation to older people. Regarding to the incidence of disease among both sexes in 90.3% thought that occurs equally in both. Ethnographic studies of recent years eradicate gender inequality in each sector. One of these is health, which is understood as not to be discriminated. As a regard to gender, it must be said that epidemiological studies show twice the prevalence of major depression in
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women. any reviews want women to call upon the doctor more easily or to be more affected by a failed marriage, or widowhood.4, 5 When asked if mental illness is more common among residents of large urban cities results of recent surveys divided since the fast pace of urban centers and the constant stress contribute to the emergence of mental illness. In contrast, other studies show lack of stimulation in the region and drab atmosphere that contributes to the same. 5.6 The modern way of life in industrialized societies is positively associated with schizophrenia, but has not fully specified. 7,8 Probably other reasons are related to the transmission of viruses or because the patient lacks the protective effect of his family. 10 But, are the mentally ill dangerous and violent in terms of the sample? This view on cruelty differs between urban and suburban residents to only 7%. Important information received should be taken seriously in the new model of prevention as well as the process of deinstitutionalisation and the development of new data in the field of culture science and psychiatry.7 This is proved by previous studies which showed that people with mental illness are not more dangerous compared to the general population. 8People with schizophrenia have slightly increased indicators of violent behavior which usually occurs due to neglection of drug therapy and the lack of support and acceptance. For the fact whether the mentally ill must be marginalized, there is a remarkable 13% of provincial and urban centers who believes that for a mentally ill patient marginalization should be provided with statistically significant difference (p <0,002). The result describes the need for development of health education programs in the population. 52.4% aged over 40 will be renting their house without any problem to a mental patient while 47.6% could not take such an action. According to anthropological approaches presented continuously in modern literature has important practical acceptance and effective 11, 12.13. Questions whether a mentally ill can study or if the mental illness is caused by excessive study, the vast majority are in favor of education and patient
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support. In contrast, the vast absolute majority do not take part in volunteer programs that support mental patients. Perceptions about whether one can heal mental illness get the answer from science. It is not insignificant the 26.5% of the sample who believes that mental illness is not cured. It is commonly accepted that modern psychiatry has the scientific means for the effective treatment of mental disorders.

The marginalization is a totally negative component of mental health patient. The association of mental illness with violence and danger, fear and ignorance results in negative social reaction and deprive mental patients the opportunity to live in the society among us. Mental disorders can now be addressed more effectively outside the hospital. Optimistic views come from the percentages of respondents who believe to the social integration of mentally ill patients.

It is of great interest the relation between alcoholics and drug users with mental patients where answers appear confused. High rates were found both in Athens and in the province to agree with the view that these categories of people can be seen among the mentally ill, with rates of 56.3% and 58.5% (not statistically significant difference). The acceptance of a mental patient in the workplace and social environment found negative in terms of the sample after 74.9% did not receive the mental patient in his everyday life, while only 25.1% of them accept, demonstrating the isolation of these individuals and deprivation of opportunities. This reverses the previous answer, recent studies have shown that people with schizophrenia can work.15, 16,17 The work appears to contribute to their rehabilitation. Regarding the question whether to allow their child to make friends with a child whose parent is mentally ill there was found a good mood for socialization. Similarly, residents of the province have responded positively to a rate 64.8% and negatively 35.2%. The results reveal lack of information and humanitarian education.18, 19,20

Culture Journal | Researching the cultural reaction on mental ill patients

Culture Journal

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CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, it is easily understandable that the mentally ill are deprived of opportunities and social support. This of course is not perceived by others who are mentally healthy, because nobody believes that these people often face serious problems not only with their relatives but also with those around them. The survey results gave the coordinates of a reality in modern Greece, where young people gradually overcome the obsessions of the past. The results can be seen as encouraging, but the stigma of mental illness still persists. The most important thing is that there is now more suitable field to fight the stigma than in the past. Young people adopt most modern concepts and they stigmatize less the psychiatric patient.However, almost everyone believes that mental illness is a door that when opened will never close again. Scientists have a duty and moral responsibility to combat and eliminate the burden of so unpleasant feelings that the mentally ill chases. Stigma must be eliminated and therefore is required hard work to achieve this important goal.

Culture Journal | Researching the cultural reaction on mental ill patients