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Volume 1, Issue 4, November December 2012 ISSN 2278-6856

Vol ume 1 , I ssue 4 November - December 2 0 1 2 Page 3 5

Abstract: This thesis introduces a new fast method for the

calculation of exponential B-splines sample at regular

intervals. As another approach, this paper presents an

exponential B-spline interpolation kernel using simple

mathematics based on Fourier approximation. A high signal

to noise ratio can be achieved because exponential B-spline

parameters can be set depending on the signal characteristics.

The analysis of these interpolated kernels shows they have

better performance in high and low frequency components as

compared to other conventional nearest neighbor, linear,

spline based methods. This new method is fast and it also

considered polynomial spline as special case. This algorithm

is based on a combination of FIR and IIR filters which

enables a fast decomposition and reconstruction of a signal.

For different values of the exponential parameter the

approximation function is obtained. In this thesis we have

tried to get the interpolation function which uses the

symmetric exponential functions of 4th order. When complex

values are selected for the parameters of the exponentials,

complex trigonometric functions are obtained. We are

considering the real part of these functions which is used for

interpolation of real signals corresponding to different

exponential parameter that leads to less band limited signals

when they are compared with polynomial B-spline

counterparts. These characteristics were verified with 1-D

and 2-D examples. We are also going through all the

interpolation methods which are already in use.

KEY WORDS: E-spline, Exponential B-spline,

Interpolation, medical imaging, X-rays.

1. INTRODUCTION

The problem of constructing a continuously defined

function from given discrete data is unavoidable

whenever one wishes to manipulate the data in a way that

requires information not included explicitly in the data.

In this age of digitization, it is not difficult to find

examples of applications where this problem occurs. the

relatively easiest and in many applications often most

desired approach to solve the problem is interpolation

where an approximating function is constructed in such a

way as to agree perfectly with he usually unknown

original functions at the given measurement points. In

view of its increasing relevance, it is only natural that the

subject of interpolation is receiving more and more

attention these days. Image expansion is required in

many facets of image processing. To generate precise

maps of the earths surface, cartographers, must expand

small regions of satellite image data. In medical imaging,

computerized tomography slices and X-rays may need to

be zoomed to search for anomalies. Reconnaissance

photographs must be expanded accurately to show hidden

details of weapons manufacturing plants and landing

strips. With common methods of image expansion the

distinguishing objects of such original images tend to be

smoothed over. This decreases the usefulness of the

expanded image in showing precise details.

The B-spline functions because of its close resemblance

with the sinc function were being started to use

prominently as an interpolation function. The term

spline is used to refer to a wide class of piecewise

polynomial function jointed at certain continuity points

called as knots. Until now, in the spline family,

extensive research is being done for polynomial spline

[Uns99a]. However, the exponential splines are more

general representation of these polynomial splines

[Dah87a]. In the present work, the continuous

exponential function is derived at equally spaced knots

using truncated power functions and for the formulation

of the exponential interpolated kernel this approximation

function is convolved with Fourier approximation of

the sampled exponential E-spline function [Leh99a]. The

calculation of polynomial B-splines is a particular case,

when the parameters of the exponents are set to be zero.

The exponential B-spline interpolation function is

derived for symmetric case taking different

exponential parameter in consideration.

A great variety of methods with confusing naming can be

found in the literature of 1970s and 1980s. B-splines

sometimes are referred to as cubic splines while cubic

interpolation is also known as cubic convolution, high

resolution spline interpolation and bi-cubic spline

interpolation. In 1983, parker, Kenyon and troxel

published the first paper entitled comparison of

interpolation methods followed by a similar study

presented by Mealand in 1988. However, previous work

of Hou and Andrews, as well as that of keys also compare

global and local interpolation methods. In more recent

papers, not only hardware implementations for linear

interpolation and fast algorithm and fast algorithms for

B-spline interpolation or special geometric transforms

have been published. However smoothing effects are most

bothersome if large magnifications are required. In

addition, shape based and objects based methods have

been established in medicine for slice interpolation of

three dimensional (3-D) data sets. In 1996, Apperdorn

presented a new approach to the interpolation of sampled

data. His interpolated functions are generated from a

Image Enhancement Method using E-spline

Ram Bichar Singh

1

, Anurag Jain

2

and Manoj Lipton

3

1

M.Tech Student, Radha Raman Institute of Technology & Science, Bhopal, India

2,3

Department of Computer Science, Radha Raman Institute of Technology & Science, Bhopal, India

I nt ernat i onal Journal of E mergi ng Trends & Technol ogy i n Comput er Sci ence (I JE TTCS)

Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com

Volume 1, Issue 4, November December 2012 ISSN 2278-6856

Vol ume 1 , I ssue 4 November - December 2 0 1 2 Page 3 6

linear sum of a Gaussian function and their even

derivatives. Our work presents a comprehensive survey of

existing expansion methods.

Here, we propose E-spline method for image expansion

and compare to other methods such as Linear and cubic

spline. Many techniques currently exist for interpolation

and expansion. Commonly used methods are linear and

cubic spline expansion smooths the image data in

discontinuous regions, producing a large image which

appears rather blurry. Image interpolation has many

applications in computer vision. It is the first two basic

re-sampling steps and transforms a discrete matrix into a

continuous image. Subsequent sampling of this

intermediate result produces the resample discrete image.

Image expansion methods have occupied a peculiar

position in medical image processing. They are required

for image generation as well as image post processing. In

computer tomography or magnetic resonance imaging,

Image reconstruction requires interpolation to

approximate the discrete functions to be back projected

for inverse. The goal of this study was not to determine

overall best method but to present a comprehensive

catalogue of interpolation methods using E-spline, to

define general properties and requirements of E-spline

techniques.

Exponential spline plays a fundamental role in classical

system theory. During the past decade there has been

number of articles devoted to the use of polynomial

splines in image expansion. E-splines are a natural

extension of B-splines and have very similar properties.

B-splines are just a special case of E-splines (with

parameter alpha=0) these spline based algorithms have

been found to be quite advantageous for image processing

and medical imaging, especially in the context of high

quality interpolation where it has been demonstrated that

they yield the best cost quality tradeoff among all linear

techniques. The interest in these techniques grew after it

was shown that most classical spline fitting problems on a

uniform grid could be solved efficiently using recursive

digital filtering techniques. In continuous time signal and

system theory are the exponentials which plays a pivotal

role having made this observation and motivated by the

search for a unification between the continuous and

discrete time approaches to signal processing we decided

to undertake the task to find the parameter for image

expansion using Exponential splines. These splines, as

their name suggests are made up of exponential segments

that are connected together in smooth fashion. They form

a natural extension of the polynomial splines and have

been characterized mathematically in relatively general

terms. Even though there have not been many

computational applications of E-splines, we believe that

image expansion is one of the attractive and decent

applications of E-splines. The kinds of splines that are

most appropriate for signal processing are the cardinal

ones which are defined on uniform grid. It is proposed by

Michael Unser and Thierry Blu in their latest paper on E-

splines. Mathematically, this corresponds to the simplest

possible setup, which goes back to the pioneering work of

Schoenberg on polynomial splines in 1946. Since then,

there have been many theoretical advances and the

methods of spline construction have been extended for

non uniform grids and many other types of non

polynomial basis functions. The good news is that the

choice of a uniform grid leads to important

simplifications.

In the present study, we concern ourselves with matters

related to the computation of exponential splines. Our

primary goal is to develop new tension parameters

selection algorithms that expanded the image. It must be

emphasized that the lack heretofore of viable tension

parameter selection schemes has greatly diminished the

practical utility of exponential splines.

2. B-SPLINE APPROXIMATION

Basis splines (B-splines) are one of the most commonly

used family of spline functions. It can be derived by

several self convolution of a so called basis function.

Actually, the linear interpolant kernel can be considered

as the result of convolving the rectangular nearest

neighbor kernel so it is given as:

(1)

Therefore, Uniform B-splines can be obtained by

multifold convolution of rect functions:

(2)

We obtained the quadratic B-spline for N=3 which in

fact, equal the previously mentioned quadratic

approximation. Now, we obtain cubic B-spline for N=4

and is given as

:

(3)

The figure is shown below:

Fig 2.0.1 Kernel of cubic B-spline approximation

Note that the B-spline kernel fails to occupy the null

positions of the sinc function h4 (-1) =h4 (1) =1/6. And

I nt ernat i onal Journal of E mergi ng Trends & Technol ogy i n Comput er Sci ence (I JE TTCS)

Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com

Volume 1, Issue 4, November December 2012 ISSN 2278-6856

Vol ume 1 , I ssue 4 November - December 2 0 1 2 Page 3 7

therefore, the B-spline Kernel is actually not an

interpolation but rather than an approximation kernel.

2.1 Exponential B-spline Interpolation

To create an Interpolating B-spline kernel, the B-spline

approximation is applied to a different set of samples t

(k). Since the B-spline kernel is symmetrical and

separable, the reconstruction (1) yields

=

k

k x h k t x s ) ( ) ( ) (

(4)

With h=h4, as defined in (8). Note that the general case

(8) reduces to (1) if the samples are taken directly from

the image data: t (k) =s (k). Here, the t (k) must be

derived from the images sample points s (k) in such a

way that the resulting curve interpolates the discrete

image. From (8) and (7) we obtain

(5)

Which, ignoring edge effects, results in a set of

equations to solve

(6)

Labeling, the three Matrices above as S, C, and T

respectively. The coefficients in T may be evaluated by

multiplying the known data points S with the inverse of

the tri-diagonal matrix C.

(7)

In all other methods, the coefficients used for convolution

with the interpolation kernel are taken to be the data

samples themselves. Because the coefficients for B-spline

interpolation are determined by solving a tri-diagonal

matrix system, the resulting kernel Spline

h

(x).

For its simplification the interpolated image s(x) and the

data samples s (k) now are called u and v respectively.

From (10) we obtain v=t*c and in the frequency domain

(8)

Inversion of (8) yields

(9)

(10)

Hence (5) can be written as u=t*h4=v* Spline

h

(x) and

with (8) we finally obtain

(11)

The figure is shown below:

Fig 2.1.2(a) B-spline Fig 2.1.2(b) B-spline interpolated image

interpolation kernel

The interpolation kernel is symmetric, passes through the

integer points. Fig. 4 shows the interpolation kernel for

only [0,3], moreover the kernel is symmetric around x=0.

The Fourier domain response of the interpolation

kernel is shown in Fig. 4 for different values of

exponential parameters. As the value of alpha is changed

the filter response deviates from the ideal low pass

filter. However, the interpolation kernel is band limited

passing the high frequency components near the cut-off

frequency, which can be used to preserve the edge

information in the images. With the increase in value

of the transaction part of the filter decreases the

magnitude of the low frequency and increases the

number and magnitude of the high frequency

components.

Taking Fourier series approximation

(12)

(13)

(14)

Taking back in the spatial domain

Hence final equation:

(15)

) ) 2 cos( ( ) ( ) (

1

0

=

+ =

n

n

f a a f V f T

}

=

T

df f G

T

a

0

0

) (

1

}

=

T

n

df f f G

T

a

0

) 2 cos( ) (

1

=

+ + + =

1

0

))) ( ) ( ( ) (

2

( * ) ( ) (

n

n

n x n x a x

a

x v x t

=

+ + + =

1

0

))) ( ) ( ( ) (

2

( * ) ( ) (

n

n Espline

n x n x a x

a

x x h

I nt ernat i onal Journal of E mergi ng Trends & Technol ogy i n Comput er Sci ence (I JE TTCS)

Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com

Volume 1, Issue 4, November December 2012 ISSN 2278-6856

Vol ume 1 , I ssue 4 November - December 2 0 1 2 Page 3 8

(16)

(a) (b)

Fig 2.1.3 (a) Fourier domain magnitude plot and, (b) log

plot of Exponential B-spline for (, ,-, - ) with

different values of .

Table2.1.1The percentage energy distribution in

exponential B-spline interpolation kernel for different

after truncation.

Expone

ntial

parame

Energy

distributed

between -3 to 3

Energy

distributed

between -2

0 0.999800 0.998423

1 0.999941 0.998964

2 0.999991 0.999711

3 1.000000 0.999961

4 1.000000 0.999997

The energy distribution in exponential B-spline

interpolation kernel is minimum for lower value of

exponential parameter. As the value of these

parameter increases, energy decreases in both

between -2 to 2 and -3 to 3 which is shown in

Table1.

Fig. 2.4 plots the sum of sampled interpolation

kernel from equation (9) as a function of

displacement d. The summation is done after

truncating the kernel from -3 to 3. It is clear that

for alpha closer to 1.2, the sum of sampled

interpolated kernels is closer to 1, hence the value

close to 1.2 give better interpolation. This can be

verified with PSNR given in table 2.

Fig 2.1.4 Sum of sampled interpolation kernels as a

function of the displacement for different .

2.2 Cubic Interpolation:

Cubic polynomials are frequently used because of theory

ability to fit C2-continuous. Also, the B-spline

approximate h

4

as defined in (8) are constructed

piecewise from cubic polynomials. Of course, cubic

polynomials also can be used to approximate the sinc

function.

Two point Interpolation: in the case of cubic interpolation

with two points, a symmetric kernel can be defined with

(17)

The parameters A to D can be determined by applying the

following boundary conditions:

0 , 0 ) (

0 , 1 ) (

; ), ( ) (

; ), ( ) (

1

' '

0

= = -

= = -

= -

= -

+

+

k k h

k k h

continuity c k h k h

continuity c k h k h

(18)

For N=2, those boundary conditions yield four equations

for the four parameters resulting in;

(19)

It should be pointed out that, by definition, the above

cubic function is a DC-constant interpolator. The

resulting curves are similar to those obtained by linear

interpolation, but the pieces fit C1-continuously in the

spatial domain. Here, only DC-constant interpolators

have been derived in this subsection. The figure is shown

below:

Fig 2.2.5 Cubic interpolation=4

2.3 Gaussian Interpolation:

Appledorn has recently introduced a new approach to the

generation of interpolation kernels. The objective was to

exploit the characteristics of the Gaussian function in

both the spatial and the frequency domain. In particular,

the Gaussian function is recurrent with respect to

operations such as derivation and Fourier transform.

Hence, Appledorn published a scheme to develop simple

interpolation kernels that are both locally compact in the

signal space and almost band limited in the frequency

domain and in, addition are easy to manipulate

analytically.

Consequently, we will denote the Mth partial derivative

of the unit area Gaussian function

I nt ernat i onal Journal of E mergi ng Trends & Technol ogy i n Comput er Sci ence (I JE TTCS)

Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com

Volume 1, Issue 4, November December 2012 ISSN 2278-6856

Vol ume 1 , I ssue 4 November - December 2 0 1 2 Page 3 9

; with zero mean and

variance as :

(20)

Hence, we obtain

(21)

Then, the Mthorder Gaussian interpolation kernel is

given by

(22)

The weighting factors alpha and the variance are

determined from the following constraints:

- The Gaussian kernels should equal the ideal

interpolator, at least for x=0

- The Fourier transforms of the

Gaussian kernels should equal those of the ideal

interpolator, at least for

Furthermore, should be flat as possible

without any slope or curvature for

(23)

Note that the first and the second constraints cover only

one part of the interpolation condition (4) and the DC-

constant respectively. The latter constraint is imposed to

approximate the pass band characteristics of the ideal low

pass filter and therefore to minimize the corruption of the

images Fourier spectrum by the interpolation.

3. E -SPLINES

3.1 E-splines and its computations:

Exponential spline plays a fundamental role in classical

system theory. During the past decade there has been

number of articles devoted to the use of polynomial

splines in image expansion. E-splines are a natural

extension of B-splines and have very similar properties.

B-splines are just a special case of E-splines (with

parameter alpha=0) these spline based algorithms have

been found to be quite advantageous for image processing

and medical imaging, especially in the context of high

quality interpolation where it has been demonstrated that

they yield the best cost quality tradeoff among all linear

techniques. The interest in these techniques grew after it

was shown that most classical spline fitting problems on a

uniform grid could be solved efficiently using recursive

digital filtering techniques. In continuous time signal and

system theory are the exponentials which plays a pivotal

role having made this observation and motivated by the

search for a unification between the continuous and

discrete time approaches to signal processing we decided

to undertake the task to find the parameter for image

expansion using Exponential splines. These splines, as

their name suggests are made up of exponential segments

that are connected together in smooth fashion. They form

a natural extension of the polynomial splines and have

been characterized mathematically in relatively general

terms. Even though there have not been many

computational applications of E-splines, we believe that

image expansion is one of the attractive and decent

applications of E-splines. The kinds of splines that are

most appropriate for signal processing are the cardinal

ones which are defined on uniform grid. It is proposed by

Michael Unser and Thierry Blu in their latest paper on E-

splines. Mathematically, this corresponds to the simplest

possible setup, which goes back to the pioneering work of

Schoenberg on polynomial splines in 1946. Since then,

there have been many theoretical advances and the

methods of spline construction have been extended for

non uniform grids and many other types of non

polynomial basis functions. The good news is that the

choice of a uniform grid leads to important

simplifications.

In the present study, we concern ourselves with matters

related to the computation of exponential splines. Our

primary goal is to develop new tension parameters

selection algorithms that expanded the image. It must be

emphasized that the lack heretofore of viable tension

parameter selection schemes has greatly diminished the

practical utility of exponential splines.

3.2 Review of Theory:

A family of continuous piecewise basic spline functions

can be obtained by multifold convolution of functions

(24)

Where denotes the convolution integral operation.

These weights are defined in the

domain ] 2 / 1 , 2 / 1 [ e x , and being 0 otherwise for the

case of the centered basic splines and the

domain ] 1 , 0 [ x for the shifted ones. But in the case of

I nt ernat i onal Journal of E mergi ng Trends & Technol ogy i n Comput er Sci ence (I JE TTCS)

Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com

Volume 1, Issue 4, November December 2012 ISSN 2278-6856

Vol ume 1 , I ssue 4 November - December 2 0 1 2 Page 4 0

polynomial B-splines, (.)

i

w is a rectangular function

of height 1. In order to obtain the exponential B-splines,

the weights will be exponential functions

) exp( ) (

1

x x w

i

i i

w

with

C

i

being the

parameter of the exponential function and

C

w

i

1

a

normalization factor. So, by defining the

vector T

r

) .., .......... (

,

1

also be expressed as:

(25)

Where the single and multiple discrete difference

functions are given by

(26)

Respectively, with

] [k

denoting the Kroneneckers

delta function. Also,

(.)

truncated power or exponential cone spline. The later can

be defined by

(27)

And then recursively calculated by

(28)

**Convention of sign: here =

In linear case for n=2 we have

T

) (

2 , 1 2

=

and from

above equation

(29)

(30)

And the truncated exponential can be simplified as

(31)

And therefore,

(32)

Hence,

(33)

(34)

3.3 Calculation of E-spline Basis Function:

A general solution of exponential spline function of order

n=4 is given below where the factors are defined as:

(35)

(36)

Here, we are considering for the symmetric case. By

putting the value of alpha1= , alpha2= , alpha3=-

, alpha4=- . The basis function which we get after

varying the value of alpha is given Table 1.

Table 3.2 Piecewise function for the E-spline

approximation of order n=4

Table 3.3.2

We see the asymmetrical behavior of spline approximat-

ion function from the above table and figure for different

order and are shown below:

Fig 3.3..6 (a) Nth order E-spline Fig 3.3.6 (b): Approximation

with varying with from function graph varying value

2 to 4 alpha

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The graph for varying alpha in symmetric case is shown

above in fig 3.3(b)

3.4 E-spline Interpolation:

To create an interpolating E-spline kernel, the E-spline

kernel approximation is applied to a different set of

examples. Since we are dealing with symmetric E-spline

kernel the reconstruction yields:

=

k

k x h k t x s ) ( ) ( ) (

(37)

Here, h is approximation kernel which is discussed

above. The general case of given equation is reduces to

following equation

=

k l

D

l y k x h l k s y x s ) , ( ) , ( ) , (

2

(38)

If the samples are taken directly from the image data:

( ) ( ) t k s k .here the ( ) t k must be derived from the

images sample points ( ) s k in such a way that the

resulting curve interpolates the discrete image. From

equation 1 and 2 w e obtain

+

=

=

2

2

4

) ( ) ( ) (

k

k m

m k h m t k s

= ( 1) ( 1) (0) ( ) (1) ( 1) f t k f t k f t k + + + (39)

That results in a set of questions to solve when we ignore

edge effects:

(0) (0) (0) ( 1) 0

(1) (1) (1) (0) ( 1)

(2) (2) (1) (0)

( 2) ( 2)

( 1) ( 1) 0 (1) (0)

s t f f

s t f f f

s t f f

s K t K f

s K t K f f

( ( (

( ( (

( ( (

( ( ( =

( ( (

( ( (

( ( (

(40)

Labeling the three matrices above as S, C and T

respectively, the coefficients in T may be evaluated by

multiplying the known data points S with the inverse of

the tri diagonal matrixC .

1

T C S

= (41)

In all other methods included in this, the coefficients

used for convolution with the interpolation kernel are

taken to be the data samples themselves. Because the

coefficients for E-spline interpolation are determined by

solving a tri diagonal matrix system ( )

h

Espline x is

infinite.

To simplify its analytical derivation, the interpolated

image ( ) s x and the data samples ( ) s k now are called

u and v respectively. From we obtain * v t c = and in

the frequency domain

( ) ( ) *( (1) ( 1) (0) ( ) ( 1) ( 1))

( ) ( ) ( (0) 2 (1) cos(2 ))

v x t x f x f x f x

V f T f f f f

= + + +

= +

(42)

Inversion of above equation yields

( ) ( ) /( (0) 2 (1) cos(2 )) T f V f f f f = +

0

1 1

( ) ( cos 2 sin 2 )

n n

n n

v f a a nf b nf

= =

~ - + +

(43)

Here

n

b =0 and taking the inverse Fourier transform of

the above equation, the following equation will come:

0

1

( ) ( ) ( ) [ ( ) ( )]

2

n

n

a

t x v x a x x n x n

=

(

= + + + +

(

(44)

Here

n

b =0 and taking the inverse Fourier transform of

the above equation, the following equation will come:

0

1

( ) ( ) ( ) [ ( ) ( )]

2

n

n

a

t x v x a x x n x n

=

(

= + + + +

(

(45)

Hence, equation 1 can be written as

4

* *

h

u t h v Espline = = and with (13) we finally

obtain

( )

h

Espline x =

4

* ( ) h t x (46)

The graph is show below within the interval

3 x < .Although the kernel is infinite; the amplitudes of

the half waves are reduced significantly when compared

with that of ideal IIR-interpolation.

Fig 3.4.7 The interpolation Exponential B-spline kernel

with varying .

The Fourier response of the ( )

h

Espline x is given below

for varying the value of . Here solid line shows the

frequency response of =1. Subsequently, the dotted is

for =2. The following figure illustrated the side lobes

behavior of E-spline interpolation.

I nt ernat i onal Journal of E mergi ng Trends & Technol ogy i n Comput er Sci ence (I JE TTCS)

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Volume 1, Issue 4, November December 2012 ISSN 2278-6856

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Fig 3.4.8 4

th

order Exponential B-spline approximation and

normalized Exponential B-spline for ( , ,- ,- ) where

=.2,.5,1,2,3

Here we are considering the case for n=4( , , - ,-

). The following figure shows the impulse response in

spatial domain of 4

th

order , , - , . Cardinal

exponential B-spline decays faster than polynomial spline

and also we see that increase the value of ranging

from .2 to 3. The ringing behavior is reduced. The second

figure shows the logarithmic plot of Fourier magnitude

which shows energy distribution for different frequencies

in the main lobe and side lobes. The energy distribution

in the E-spline is minimal for lower value of alpha and as

the values of alpha increases the energy decreases in both

between from -2 to 2 and -3 to 3 which is shown in table

3.4.3.

Exponential

parameter

Energy between

-3 to 3

Energy in other

part

0.2 99.9800 0.0112

1 99.9941 0.0059

2 99.9993 0.00085739

3 100 0

4 100 0

Exponential

parameter

Energy between

-2 to 2

Energy in other

part

0.2 99.8431 0.1578

1 99.8970 0.1036

2 99.9973 0.0289

3 99.9965 0.0038

4 99.9997 0.00030095

Table 3.4.3

The given image is the expansion by a factor 8 by using

the above E-spline technique in 2-D. Here, we are

performing E-spline interpolation on Lena image

(64x64). Lena image is expanded by factor 8. Here are the

given results of varying the value of .

Fig 3.4.9 (a) Original Image Fig 3.4.9 (b) =0.2

Fig 3.4.9 (c) =0.5 Fig 3.4.9 (d) =1

Fig 3.4.9 (e) =1.5 Fig 3.4.9 (f) =2

Fig 3.4.5 Expansion of Lena image by Exponential spline

with varying

4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

Here we perform on lena image (64x64). The given image

is the expansion by factor of 8 from a section of the image

of Lena. After performing, E-spline interpolation with

varying . We get the smooth area corresponding to the

face of Lena and higher frequency parts which are the

back ground. In above figure it can be observed that the

resulting interpolated images are almost the same at a

glance, but more jaggedness appears in the high

frequency areas in the exponential B-spline case due to its

fewer bandslimited characteristics. The Fourier analysis

of pass band, stop band, and cutoff frequency the nearest

neighbor and linear interpolation should be avoided while

the preferred method is the Gaussian kernel with large

sizes. To judges the interpolation quality, it solely

depends on the application. Interpolation versus

Approximation: in this E-spline methods are well suited

for the images containing high frequency components.

Gaussian kernels are not suited for this method. These

kernels have been compared on various images of Lena.

In each case, the efficiency and accuracy of a particular

interpolation technique was evaluated by analyzing its

Fourier properties, visual quality and run time

measurement.

4.1 Runtime measurements:

The runtime of the various interpolation schemes were

measured on the standard machine. Sources have been

compiled using MATLAB 6.5. The rotation is quite time

consuming in MATLAB environment. It shows that

simple interpolation methods such as nearest neighbor

,linear and 2x2 cubic interpolation are fairly fast and

requires less time than the rotations of pixel coordinates.

I nt ernat i onal Journal of E mergi ng Trends & Technol ogy i n Comput er Sci ence (I JE TTCS)

Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com

Volume 1, Issue 4, November December 2012 ISSN 2278-6856

Vol ume 1 , I ssue 4 November - December 2 0 1 2 Page 4 3

Gaussian interpolation required more time due to the

evaluation of the exponential function necessary to

determine weights. Here are the results of all interpolated

image and we compare all interpolated image to original

one. The resultant image is show below:

Fig 4.1.10 (a) Original image Fig 4.1.10(b) Nearest

neighbor

Fig 4.1.10(c) Linear image Fig 4.1.10(d) B-spline

image

Fig 4.1.10 Interpolated image of Lena (64x64) using

various types of interpolation methods.

5. CONCLUSIONS

This thesis is focused on interpolation methods using E-

spline. The method is fast for calculation of E-spline

(where the calculation of B-spline is a particular case).

When complex parameters are used in exponential

functions, trigonometric spline are obtained and here we

are dealing with only real parts of the signal. Less band

limited functions can be achieved by using the real par of

this later functions and comparing them with the

polynomial splines counterparts. Although more amount

of computation is required, it is specially used for images

containing high frequency components. As demonstrated

by codes in this thesis, the interpolation methods using E-

spline is easy to implement. The E-spline is general case

of B-spline polynomials and performs better interpolation

for images containing high frequency parts.

6. FUTURE WORK

Since I have a good result for the interpolation using E-

spline techniques, the further study on interpolation

should be carry on in the future. Interpolation of images

is popular problem until yet but now we have to find

kernel that enhances high frequency parts. If we get the

required result then we go for L-spline that is general

case of E-spline. Future work will address techniques to

get better result in interpolation methods by finding the

adaptive method for the appropriate image.

REFERENCES

[1] M.Unser, Splines: A perfect fit for signal and

image processing, IEEE Signal Processing

Magazine, Vol.16, No.6, pp.22-38,November 1999.

[2] Raghubansh B. gupta, Byung Gook Lee, Joon Jae

Lee: A new Image Interpolation Technique using

Exponenial B-Spline.

[3] Thomas M.Lehmann, Claudia Gonner, and Klaus

Spitzer, Survey: Interpolation Methods in Medical

Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on Medical

Imaging, Vol. 18, No. 11, November 1999.

[4] Takeshi Asahi, Koichi Ichige,and Rokuya Ishlii,

Fast Computation of Exponential Splines

Proceedings of the IEEE.

[5] M.Unser,A.Aldroubi and M.Eden, Fast B-spline

transforms for continuous image representation and

interpolation, IEEE Trans. On Pattern Anal. &

Machine Intell. Vol.13, No.3, pp.277-285, March

1991.

[6] Erik Meijering,A Chronology of Interpolation:

From Ancient Astronomy to Modern Signal and

Image Processing, Proceedings of the IEEE, vol.90,

No.3, March 2002.

[7] Michael Unser and Thierry Blu, Cardinal

Exponential Splines: Part I- Theory and Filtering

Algorithms, IEEE Transactions on Signal

Processing, Vol. 53, No.4, April 2005.

[8] Michael Unser, Cardinal Exponential Splines: Part

II- Think Analog, Act Digital, IEEE Transactions

on Signal Processing, Vol. 53, No.4, April 2005.

[9] Brian J.Mcartin,Compuatation of Exponential

Splines SIAM J. Sci STAT. Comput. Vol. 11, No. 2,

pp.242-262, March 1990.

[10] Poth Miklos,Image Interpolation techniques.

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